National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ratio estimate ampd

  1. Numerical Estimation of the Spent Fuel Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Durbin, Samuel; Wilke, Jason; Margraf, J.; Dunn, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. However, the validity of these large- scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible spent fuel ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR in the 1980's have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Because of the large uncertainty surrounding the SFR, estimates of releases from security-related events may be unnecessarily conservative. Credible arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask systems. In the present work, the shock physics codes CTH and ALE3D were used to simulate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and DUO 2 targets impacted by a high-velocity jet at an ambient temperature condition. These preliminary results are used to illustrate an approach to estimate the respirable release fraction for each type of material and ultimately, an estimate of the SFR. This page intentionally blank

  2. Autocorrelation Function Statistics and Implication to Decay Ratio Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    March-Leuba, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of a series of computer simulations to attempt to identify the statistics of the autocorrelation function, and implications for decay ratio estimation.

  3. U-234/U-238 ratio: Qualitative estimate of groundwater flow in Rocky Flats monitoring wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.

    1994-02-01

    Groundwater movement through various pathways is the primary mechanism for the transport of radionuclides and trace elements in a water/rock interaction. About three dozen wells, installed in the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Solar Evaporation Ponds (SEP) area, are monitored quarterly to evaluate the extent of any lateral and downgradient migration of contaminants from the Solar Evaporation Ponds: 207-A; 207-B North, 207-B Center, and 207-B South; and 207-C. The Solar Ponds are the main source for the various contaminants: radionuclides (U-238, U-234, Pu-239, 240 and Am-241); anions; and trace metals to groundwaters. The U-238 concentrations in Rocky Flats groundwaters vary from <0.2 to 69 pCi/I (IpCi = 3 ug). However, the activity U-234/U-238 ratios are low and range mostly 1.2 to 2.7. The low activity ratios can be interpreted to suggest that the groundwaters are moving slow (estimate of about a few ft/year based on hydrologic parameters [1]. Uranium is probably present in the +6 state, predominantly as a uranyl carbonate complexes UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 2{minus}}, because of the predominant bicarbonate medium.

  4. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  5. ESTIMATION OF THE NEON/OXYGEN ABUNDANCE RATIO AT THE HELIOSPHERIC TERMINATION SHOCK AND IN THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FROM IBEX OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bochsler, P.; Petersen, L.; Moebius, E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wurz, P.; Scheer, J. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Bzowski, M.; Frisch, P. C.

    2012-02-01

    We report the first direct measurement of the Ne/O abundance ratio of the interstellar neutral gas flowing into the inner heliosphere. From the first year of Interstellar Boundary Explorer IBEX data collected in spring 2009, we derive the fluxes of interstellar neutral oxygen and neon. Using the flux ratio at the location of IBEX at 1 AU at the time of the observations, and using the ionization rates of neon and oxygen prevailing in the heliosphere during the period of solar minimum, we estimate the neon/oxygen ratios at the heliospheric termination shock and in the gas phase of the inflowing local interstellar medium. Our estimate is (Ne/O){sub gas,ISM} = 0.27 {+-} 0.10, which is-within the large given uncertainties-consistent with earlier measurements from pickup ions. Our value is larger than the solar abundance ratio, possibly indicating that a significant fraction of oxygen in the local interstellar medium is hidden in grains and/or ices.

  6. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  7. THE AKARI 2.5-5.0 ?m SPECTRAL ATLAS OF TYPE-1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATOR, LINE RATIO, AND HOT DUST TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Ji Hoon; Jun, Hyunsung David; Lee, Seong-Kook; Woo, Jong-Hak; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Takagi, Toshinobu; Oyabu, Shinki; Ohyama, Youichi E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2015-01-01

    We present 2.5-5.0?m spectra of 83 nearby (0.002 < z < 0.48) and bright (K < 14 mag) type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taken with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. The 2.5-5.0?m spectral region contains emission lines such as Br? (2.63?m), Br? (4.05?m), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3.3?m), which can be used for studying the black hole (BH) masses and star formation activity in the host galaxies of AGNs. The spectral region also suffers less dust extinction than in the ultra violet (UV) or optical wavelengths, which may provide an unobscured view of dusty AGNs. Our sample is selected from bright quasar surveys of Palomar-Green and SNUQSO, and AGNs with reverberation-mapped BH masses from Peterson etal. Using 11 AGNs with reliable detection of Brackett lines, we derive the Brackett-line-based BH mass estimators. We also find that the observed Brackett line ratios can be explained with the commonly adopted physical conditions of the broad line region. Moreover, we fit the hot and warm dust components of the dust torus by adding photometric data of SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and ISO to the AKARI spectra, finding hot and warm dust temperatures of ?1100 K and ?220 K, respectively, rather than the commonly cited hot dust temperature of 1500 K.

  8. Burnup estimation of fuel sourcing radioactive material based on monitored Cs and Pu isotopic activity ratios in Fukushima N. P. S. accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ando, Y.

    2012-07-01

    After the severe core damage of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive material leaked from the reactor buildings. As part of monitoring of radioactivity in the site, measurements of radioactivity in soils at three fixed points have been performed for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs with gamma-ray spectrometry and for Pu, Pu, and {sup 240}Pu with {alpha}-ray spectrometry. Correlations of radioactivity ratios of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238}Pu to the sum of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu with fuel burnup were studied by using theoretical burnup calculations and measurements on isotopic inventories, and compared with the Cs and Pu radioactivity rations in the soils. The comparison indicated that the burnup of the fuel sourcing the radioactivity was from 18 to 38 GWd/t, which corresponded to that of the fuel in the highest power and, therefore, the highest decay heat in operating high-burnup fueled BWR cores. (authors)

  9. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System Estimates of surface energy fluxes are a primary product of the data collection systems at the ARM SGP CART site. Surface fluxes tell ...

  10. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio ...

  11. DOE/OR/07-2247&amp;D1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy "Coal-Fired Power Plants, CCS, and a Use for the CO 2 " Charles E. Taylor, Director, Chemistry and Surface Science Division Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory * Only DOE national lab dedicated to fossil energy - Fossil fuels provide 85% of U.S. energy supply * One lab, one management structure, five locations - Full-service DOE Federal laboratory - 3 R&D locations * >1,200 Federal and support- contractor employees * Research spans fundamental

  12. DOE/OR/07-2247&amp;D1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    f 8}.~11 Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Southeast District Office 2195 Front Street Logan, Ohio 43138 Dear Ms. Galanti: PPPO-03-1335655-12 REMOVAL ACTION COMPLETION REPORT FOR THE X-I03 AUXILIARY OFFICE BUILDING AT THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PIKETON, OHIO Enclosed for your review and concurrence, please find the Removal Action Completion Report for the X-J 03 Auxiliary Office Building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio (DOE/PPPOI03-0223&Dl). This

  13. ARM - Measurement - Isotope ratio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsIsotope ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Isotope ratio Ratio of stable isotope concentrations. Categories Atmospheric State, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  14. Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the model, are estimated by a jackknife method. We use perturbations of r V p V s ratio and Psi V p .V s product to derive distributions of Poisson's ratio, sigma , and...

  15. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  16. Estimating Methods

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Based on the project's scope, the purpose of the estimate, and the availability of estimating resources, the estimator can choose one or a combination of techniques when estimating an activity or project. Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.

  17. GUM Analysis for TIMS and SIMS Isotopic Ratios in Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Gerlach, David C.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Steven L.

    2007-04-01

    This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

  18. Sex ratios in fetuses and liveborn infants with autosomal aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuther, C.A.; Martin, R.L.M.; Stoppelman, S.M. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-14

    Ten data sources were used substantially to increase the available data for estimating fetal and livebirth sex ratios for Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), and Down (trisomy 21) syndromes and controls. The fetal sex ratio estimate was 0.88 (N = 584) for trisomy 13, 0.90 (N = 1702) for trisomy 18, and 1.16 (N = 3154) for trisomy 21. All were significantly different from prenatal controls (1.07). The estimated ratios in prenatal controls were 1.28 (N = 1409) for CVSs and 1.06 (N = 49427) for amniocenteses, indicating a clear differential selection against males, mostly during the first half of fetal development. By contrast, there were no sex ratio differences for any of the trisomies when comparing gestational ages <16 and >16 weeks. The livebirth sex ratio estimate was 0.90 (N = 293) for trisomy 13, 0.63 (N = 497) for trisomy 18, and 1.15 (N = 6424) for trisomy 21, the latter two being statistically different than controls (1.05) (N = 3660707). These ratios for trisomies 13 and 18 were also statistically different than the ratio for trisomy 21. Only in trisomy 18 did the sex ratios in fetuses and livebirths differ, indicating a prenatal selection against males >16 weeks. No effects of maternal age or race were found on these estimates for any of the fetal or livebirth trisomies. Sex ratios for translocations and mosaics were also estimated for these aneuploids. Compared to previous estimates, these results are less extreme, most likely because of larger sample sizes and less sample bias. They support the hypothesis that these trisomy sex ratios are skewed at conception, or become so during embryonic development through differential intrauterine selection. The estimate for Down syndrome livebirths is also consistent with the hypothesis that its higher sex ratio is associated with paternal nondisjunction. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  20. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  1. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-02-23

    The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  2. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

  3. On virial analysis at low aspect ratio

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Reusch, Joshua A.; Thome, Kathreen E.

    2016-07-28

    The validity of virial analysis to infer global MHD equilibrium poloidal beta βp and internal inductance ℓi from external magnetics measurements is examined for low aspect ratio configurations with A < 2. Numerical equilibrium studies at varied aspect ratio are utilized to validate the technique at finite aspect ratio. The effect of applying high-A approximations to low-A experimental data is quantified and demonstrates significant over-estimation of stored energy (factors of 2–10) in spherical tokamak geometry. Experimental approximations to equilibrium-dependent volume integral terms in the analysis are evaluated at low-A. Highly paramagnetic configurations are found to be inadequately represented through themore » virial mean radius parameter RT. Alternate formulations for inferring βp and ℓi that are independent of RT to avoid this difficulty are presented for the static isotropic limit. Lastly, these formulations are suitable for fast estimation of tokamak stored energy components at low aspect ratio using virial analysis.« less

  4. Robust and intelligent bearing estimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claassen, John P.

    2000-01-01

    A method of bearing estimation comprising quadrature digital filtering of event observations, constructing a plurality of observation matrices each centered on a time-frequency interval, determining for each observation matrix a parameter such as degree of polarization, linearity of particle motion, degree of dyadicy, or signal-to-noise ratio, choosing observation matrices most likely to produce a set of best available bearing estimates, and estimating a bearing for each observation matrix of the chosen set.

  5. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  6. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  7. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  8. GUM Analysis for SIMS Isotopic Ratios in BEP0 Graphite Qualification Samples, Round 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, David C.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

  9. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If the customer has a ratio of estimated monthly kilowatt-hour (kWh) usage to line extension mileage that is less than or equal to 1,000, the utility must provide the comparison at no cost. If the...

  10. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  11. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Kira C. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, 1518 Clifton Road, NE Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Jackson, Leila W. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, WG37, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-4945 (United States); Lynch, Courtney D. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Kostyniak, Paul J. [Toxicology Research Center, 134 Cary Hall, University at Buffalo, State of New York, 3434 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14214-3000 (United States); Buck Louis, Germaine M. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)]. E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  12. First observation of the decay {Xi}{sup +}{sub {ital c}}{r_arrow}{Xi}{sup 0}{ital e}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ital e}} and an estimate of the {Xi}{sup +}{sub {ital c}}/{Xi}{sup 0}{sub {ital c}} lifetime ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, J.P.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Bloom, K.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cho, H.A.; Coffman, D.M.; Crowcroft, D.S.; Drell, P.S.; Dumas, D.; Ehrlich, R.; Gaidarev, P.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Henderson, S.; Jones, C.D.; Jones, S.L.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Salman, S.; Sapper, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, S.; Yelton, J.; Cinabro, D.; Liu, T.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Gollin, G.; Ong, B.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thaler, J.J.; Edwards, K.W.; Ogg, M.; Bellerive, A.; Britton, D.I.; Hyatt, E.R.F.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Patel, P.M.; Spaan, B.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Besson, D.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Momayezi, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; O`Neill, J.J.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Wappler, F.; Crawford, G.; Daubenmier, C.M.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Skovpen, Y.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Zoeller, M.M.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Nemati, B.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M.; Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miao, T.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Payne, D.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Wang, P.N.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Gibbons, L.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.H.; Dominick, J.; Lambrecht, M.; Sanghera, S.; Shelkov, V.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Wei, G.; Zadorozhny, P.; Artuso, M.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Horwitz, N.; Moneti, G.C.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mukhin, Y.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Stone, S.; Xing, X.; (CLEO Collab..

    1995-04-17

    Using the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring we have observed the decay modes {Xi}{sup +}{sub {ital c}}{r_arrow}{Xi}{sup 0}{ital e}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ital e}} and {Xi}{sup 0}{sub {ital c}}{r_arrow}{Xi}{sup {minus}}{ital e}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ital e}} by the detection of a {Xi}-positron pair of appropriate invariant mass. We find {ital B} ({Xi}{sup +}{sub {ital c}}{r_arrow}{Xi}{sup 0}{ital e}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ital e}}){sigma}({ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}{r_arrow} {Xi}{sup +}{sub {ital cX}})=1.55{plus_minus}0.33{plus_minus}0.25 pb, {ital B} ({Xi}{sup 0}{sub {ital c}}{r_arrow}{Xi}{sup {minus}}{ital e}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ital e}}){sigma}({ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}}{r_arrow} {Xi}{sup 0}{sub {ital cX}})=0.63{plus_minus}0.12{plus_minus}0.10 pb, {ital B} ({Xi}{sup +}{sub {ital c}}{r_arrow}{Xi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +})/ {ital B} ({Xi}{sup +}{sub {ital c}}{r_arrow}{Xi}{sup 0}{ital e}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ital e}})= 0.44{plus_minus}0.11{sub {minus}0.06}{sup +0.11}, and {ital B} ({Xi}{sup 0}{sub {ital c}}{r_arrow}{Xi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup +})/{ital B} ({Xi}{sup 0}{sub {ital c}}{r_arrow}{Xi}{sup {minus}}{ital e}{sup +}{nu}{sub {ital e}})= 0.32{plus_minus}0.10{sub {minus}0.03}{sup +0.05}. Assuming the {Xi}{sup +}{sub {ital c}} and {Xi}{sup 0}{sub {ital c}} are equally produced in {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} annihilation events at 10 GeV, the lifetime ratio of {Xi}{sup +}{sub {ital c}}/{Xi}{sup 0}{sub {ital c}} is measured to be 2.46{plus_minus}0.70{sub {minus}0.23}{sup +0.33}.

  13. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith Edward; Moser, William Elliott; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald; Knox, Kevin Jay

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  14. Nuclear Target Ratios data release page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Target Ratios data release page "Measurement of ratios of muon neutrino charged-current cross sections on C, Fe, and Pb to CH at neutrino energies 2-20 GeV" Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 (2014) 231801, hep-ex/1403.2103. Data Anciliary files for this result can be found at http://arxiv.org/src/1403.2103v4/anc Anciliary Files include: Cross section ratios as a function of Bjorken x Cross Section ratio as a function of neutrino energy Target Masses used in the experiment Neutrino Flux used

  15. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  16. Color-mass-to-light-ratio relations for disk galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M. E-mail: jschombe@uoregon.edu

    2014-11-01

    We combine Spitzer 3.6 μm observations of a sample of disk galaxies spanning over 10 mag in luminosity with optical luminosities and colors to test population synthesis prescriptions for computing stellar mass. Many commonly employed models fail to provide self-consistent results: the stellar mass estimated from the luminosity in one band can differ grossly from that of another band for the same galaxy. Independent models agree closely in the optical (V band), but diverge at longer wavelengths. This effect is particularly pronounced in recent models with substantial contributions from TP-AGB stars. We provide revised color-mass-to-light ratio relations that yield self-consistent stellar masses when applied to real galaxies. The B – V color is a good indicator of the mass-to-light ratio. Some additional information is provided by V – I, but neither it nor J – K{sub s} are particularly useful for constraining the mass-to-light ratio on their own. In the near-infrared, the mass-to-light ratio depends weakly on color, with typical values of 0.6 M {sub ☉}/L {sub ☉} in the K{sub s} band and 0.47 M {sub ☉}/L {sub ☉} at 3.6 μm.

  17. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  18. Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Explores the effect of compression ratio and piston ...

  19. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  20. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  1. The Ne-to-O abundance ratio of the interstellar medium from IBEX-Lo observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.; Kucharek, H.; Möbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we report on a two-year study to estimate the Ne/O abundance ratio in the gas phase of the local interstellar cloud (LIC). Based on the first two years of observations with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer, we determined the fluxes of interstellar neutral (ISN) O and Ne atoms at the Earth's orbit in spring 2009 and 2010. A temporal variation of the Ne/O abundance ratio at the Earth's orbit could be expected due to solar cycle-related effects such as changes of ionization. However, this study shows that there is no significant change in the Ne/O ratio at the Earths orbit from 2009 to 2010. We used time-dependent survival probabilities of the ISNs to calculate the Ne/O abundance ratio at the termination shock. Then we estimated the Ne/O abundance ratio in the gas phase of the LIC with the use of filtration factors and the ionization fractions. From our analysis, the Ne/O abundance ratio in the LIC is 0.33 ± 0.07, which is in agreement with the abundance ratio inferred from pickup-ion measurements.

  2. State Energy Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2012 2012 Summary Tables Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2012 Alabama 19,455 215,710 9,525 0 Alaska 2,052 351,259...

  3. Types of Cost Estimates

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter describes the estimates required on government-managed projects for both general construction and environmental management.

  4. Method for nanomachining high aspect ratio structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yun, Wenbing; Spence, John; Padmore, Howard A.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Howells, Malcolm R.

    2004-11-09

    A nanomachining method for producing high-aspect ratio precise nanostructures. The method begins by irradiating a wafer with an energetic charged-particle beam. Next, a layer of patterning material is deposited on one side of the wafer and a layer of etch stop or metal plating base is coated on the other side of the wafer. A desired pattern is generated in the patterning material on the top surface of the irradiated wafer using conventional electron-beam lithography techniques. Lastly, the wafer is placed in an appropriate chemical solution that produces a directional etch of the wafer only in the area from which the resist has been removed by the patterning process. The high mechanical strength of the wafer materials compared to the organic resists used in conventional lithography techniques with allows the transfer of the precise patterns into structures with aspect ratios much larger than those previously achievable.

  5. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-12-31

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989`s feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun.

  6. A simple method to estimate interwell autocorrelation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pizarro, J.O.S.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    The estimation of autocorrelation in the lateral or interwell direction is important when performing reservoir characterization studies using stochastic modeling. This paper presents a new method to estimate the interwell autocorrelation based on parameters, such as the vertical range and the variance, that can be estimated with commonly available data. We used synthetic fields that were generated from stochastic simulations to provide data to construct the estimation charts. These charts relate the ratio of areal to vertical variance and the autocorrelation range (expressed variously) in two directions. Three different semivariogram models were considered: spherical, exponential and truncated fractal. The overall procedure is demonstrated using field data. We find that the approach gives the most self-consistent results when it is applied to previously identified facies. Moreover, the autocorrelation trends follow the depositional pattern of the reservoir, which gives confidence in the validity of the approach.

  7. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1995-11-14

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

  8. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  9. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  10. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  11. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  12. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalns, Ilmars

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  13. Table E7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ...

  14. Table 6.2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ...

  15. HCCI in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine Variables HCCI in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine Variables 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ...

  16. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook The main function of ...

  17. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  18. Electronic branching ratio of the. tau. lepton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.

    1992-06-01

    Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio {ital R}={Gamma}({tau}{r arrow}{ital e}{bar {nu}}{sub {ital e}}{nu}{sub {tau}})/{Gamma}{sub 1}, where {Gamma}{sub 1} is the {tau} decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find {ital R}=0.2231{plus minus}0.0044{plus minus}0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the {tau} lepton to electrons, {ital B}{sub {ital e}}=0.192{plus minus}0.004{plus minus}0.006.

  19. FBP-ER-RIFS-BG-PLN-0036 Rev. 6 1 DOE/PPPO/03-0383&amp;D4

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FBP Update Impacts Of DOE Uranium Barter Program On U.S. Domestic Industry Fluor-B&W Portsmouth LLC April 1, 2014 Frank Hahne FBP advocates full appropriation funding for Portsmouth D&D; but continued DOE UF6 uranium barter sales if appropriations are not forthcoming - In FBP's analysis based on objective measures to date conclude that the U.S. uranium mining, conversion and enrichment industries have not experienced an adverse material impact from DOE's Uranium Barter Program...... *

  20. Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yio, M.H.N. Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2014-02-15

    A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: •A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. •The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. •Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. •The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

  1. ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN TITAN's METHANE: MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Temelso, B.; Vinatier, S.; Bezard, B.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Mandt, K. E.; Sherrill, C. D.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-04-20

    The existence of methane in Titan's atmosphere ({approx}6% level at the surface) presents a unique enigma, as photochemical models predict that the current inventory will be entirely depleted by photochemistry in a timescale of {approx}20 Myr. In this paper, we examine the clues available from isotopic ratios ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H) in Titan's methane as to the past atmosphere history of this species. We first analyze recent infrared spectra of CH{sub 4} collected by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer, measuring simultaneously for the first time the abundances of all three detected minor isotopologues: {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D, and {sup 13}CH{sub 3}D. From these we compute estimates of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C = 86.5 {+-} 8.2 and D/H = (1.59 {+-} 0.33) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, in agreement with recent results from the Huygens GCMS and Cassini INMS instruments. We also use the transition state theory to estimate the fractionation that occurs in carbon and hydrogen during a critical reaction that plays a key role in the chemical depletion of Titan's methane: CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. Using these new measurements and predictions we proceed to model the time evolution of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H in Titan's methane under several prototypical replenishment scenarios. In our Model 1 (no resupply of CH{sub 4}), we find that the present-day {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C implies that the CH{sub 4} entered the atmosphere 60-1600 Myr ago if methane is depleted by chemistry and photolysis alone, but much more recently-most likely less than 10 Myr ago-if hydrodynamic escape is also occurring. On the other hand, if methane has been continuously supplied at the replenishment rate then the isotopic ratios provide no constraints, and likewise for the case where atmospheric methane is increasing. We conclude by discussing how these findings may be combined with other evidence to constrain the overall history of the atmospheric

  2. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates.

  3. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The objective of this Guide is to improve the quality of cost estimates and further strengthen the DOE program/project management system. The original 25 separate chapters and three appendices have been combined to create a single document.

  4. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  5. Derived Annual Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    74-1988 For Methodology Concerning the Derived Estimates Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat and Power by Industry Group, 1974-1988 Total Energy *** Electricity...

  6. Independent Cost Estimate (ICE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independent Cost Estimate (ICE). On August 8-12, the Office of Project Management Oversight and Assessments (PM) will conduct an ICE on the NNSA Albuquerque Complex Project (NACP) at Albuquerque, NM. This estimate will support the Critical Decision (CD) for establishing the performance baseline and approval to start construction (CD-2/3). This project is at CD-1, with a total project cost range of $183M to $251M.

  7. EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF EINSTEIN A-COEFFICIENT RATIOS OF BRIGHT [Fe II] LINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Lorenzetti, D.; Alcal, J. M.; Bacciotti, F.; Podio, L.; Bonito, R.; Stelzer, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Einstein spontaneous rates (A-coefficients) of Fe{sup +} lines have been computed by several authors with results that differ from each other by up to 40%. Consequently, models for line emissivities suffer from uncertainties that in turn affect the determination of the physical conditions at the base of line excitation. We provide an empirical determination of the A-coefficient ratios of bright [Fe II] lines that would represent both a valid benchmark for theoretical computations and a reference for the physical interpretation of the observed lines. With the ESO-Very Large Telescope X-shooter instrument between 3000 and 24700 , we obtained a spectrum of the bright Herbig-Haro object HH1. We detect around 100 [Fe II] lines, some of which with a signal-to-noise ratios ?100. Among these latter lines, we selected those emitted by the same level, whose dereddened intensity ratios are direct functions of the Einstein A-coefficient ratios. From the same X-shooter spectrum, we got an accurate estimate of the extinction toward HH1 through intensity ratios of atomic species, H I recombination lines and H{sub 2} ro-vibrational transitions. We provide seven reliable A-coefficient ratios between bright [Fe II] lines, which are compared with the literature determinations. In particular, the A-coefficient ratios involving the brightest near-infrared lines (?12570/?16440 and ?13209/?16440) are in better agreement with the predictions by the Quinet et al. relativistic Hartree-Fock model. However, none of the theoretical models predict A-coefficient ratios in agreement with all of our determinations. We also show that literature data of near-infrared intensity ratios better agree with our determinations than with theoretical expectations.

  8. Application of the Isotope Ratio Method to a Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, Douglas P.; Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Meriwether, George H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2010-08-11

    The isotope ratio method is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods. All reactor materials contain trace elemental impurities at parts per million levels, and the isotopes of these elements are transmuted by neutron irradiation in a predictable manner. While measuring the change in a particular isotopes concentration is possible, it is difficult to correlate to energy production because the initial concentration of that element may not be accurately known. However, if the ratio of two isotopes of the same element can be measured, the energy production can then be determined without knowing the absolute concentration of that impurity since the initial natural ratio is known. This is the fundamental principle underlying the isotope ratio method. Extremely sensitive mass-spectrometric methods are currently available that allow accurate measurements of the impurity isotope ratios in samples. Additionally, indicator elements with stable activation products have been identified so that their post-irradiation isotope ratios remain constant. This method has been successfully demonstrated on graphite-moderated reactors. Graphite reactors are particularly well-suited to such analyses since the graphite moderator is resident in the fueled region of the core for the entire period of operation. Applying this method to other reactor types is more difficult since the resident portions of the reactor available for sampling are either outside the fueled region of the core or structural components of individual fuel assemblies. The goal of this research is to show that the isotope ratio method can produce meaningful results for light water-moderated power reactors. In this work, we use the isotope ratio method to estimate the energy

  9. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF INTERFEROMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF AXIS RATIOS FOR CLASSICAL Be STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cyr, R. P.; Jones, C. E.; Tycner, C.

    2015-01-20

    This work presents a novel method to estimate the effective opening angle of CBe star disks from projected axis ratio measurements, obtained by interferometry using a statistical approach. A Monte Carlo scheme was used to generate a large set of theoretical axis ratios from disk models using different distributions of disk densities and opening angles. These theoretical samples were then compared to observational samples, using a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, to determine which theoretical distribution best reproduces the observations. The results suggest that the observed ratio distributions in the K, H, and N band can best be explained by the presence of thin disks, with opening half-angles of the order of 0.°15-4.°0. Results for measurements over the Hα line point toward slightly thicker disks, 3.°7-14°, which is consistent with a flaring disk predicted by the viscous disk model.

  10. Parametric Hazard Function Estimation.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-09-13

    Version 00 Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking ofmore » the model assumptions.« less

  11. Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Burner Air to Fuel Ratios Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios This tip sheet discusses when to check and reset burner air to fuel ratios as well as why it's a simply way to maximize the efficiency of process heating equipment. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #2 Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios (November 2007) (260.29 KB) More Documents & Publications Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical

  12. REQUESTS FOR RETIREMENT ESTIMATE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    REQUEST FOR RETIREMENT ANNUITY ESTIMATE Instructions: Please read and answer the following questions thoroughly to include checking all applicable boxes. Unanswered questions may delay processing. Print and Fax back your request form to 202.586.6395 or drop request to GM-169. The request will be assigned to your servicing retirement specialist. They will confirm receipt of your request. SECTION A Request Submitted _____________________ ______________________ ________________________

  13. In-patient to isocenter KERMA ratios in CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huda, Walter; Ogden, Kent M.; Lavallee, Robert L.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Scalzetti, Ernest M.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To estimate in-patient KERMA for specific organs in computed tomography (CT) scanning using ratios to isocenter free-in-air KERMA obtained using a Rando phantom.Method: A CT scan of an anthropomorphic phantom results in an air KERMA K at a selected phantom location and air kerma K{sub CT} at the CT scanner isocenter when the scan is repeated in the absence of the phantom. The authors define the KERMA ratio (R{sub K}) as K/ K{sub CT}, which were experimentally determined in a Male Rando Phantom using lithium fluoride chips (TLD-100). R{sub K} values were obtained for a total of 400 individual point locations, as well as for 25 individual organs of interest in CT dosimetry. CT examinations of Rando were performed on a GE LightSpeed Ultra scanner operated at 80 kV, 120 kV, and 140 kV, as well as a Siemens Sensation 16 operated at 120 kV. Results: At 120 kV, median R{sub K} values for the GE and Siemens scanners were 0.60 and 0.64, respectively. The 10th percentile R{sub K} values ranged from 0.34 at 80 kV to 0.54 at 140 kV, and the 90th percentile R{sub K} values ranged from 0.64 at 80 kV to 0.78 at 140 kV. The average R{sub K} for the 25 Rando organs at 120 kV was 0.61 {+-} 0.08. Average R{sub K} values in the head, chest, and abdomen showed little variation. Relative to R{sub K} values in the head, chest, and abdomen obtained at 120 kV, R{sub K} values were about 12% lower in the pelvis and about 58% higher in the cervical spine region. Average R{sub K} values were about 6% higher on the Siemens Sensation 16 scanner than the GE LightSpeed Ultra. Reducing the x-ray tube voltage from 120 kV to 80 kV resulted in an average reduction in R{sub K} value of 34%, whereas increasing the x-ray tube voltage to 140 kV increased the average R{sub K} value by 9%. Conclusions: In-patient to isocenter relative KERMA values in Rando phantom can be used to estimate organ doses in similar sized adults undergoing CT examinations from easily measured air KERMA values at the

  14. State Energy Production Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production Estimates 1960 Through 2014 2014 Summary Tables U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Production 1 Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2014 Alabama 16,377 181,054 9,828 0 Alaska 1,502 345,331 181,175 0 Arizona 8,051 106 56 1,044 Arkansas 94 1,123,678 6,845 0 California 0 252,718 204,269 4,462 Colorado 24,007 1,631,391 95,192 3,133 Connecticut 0 0 0 0 Delaware 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 Florida 0 369 2,227 0 Georgia 0 0 0 2,517

  15. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  16. 13-Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner 13-Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: General Electric - Fairfield, CT DOE Funding: $1,540,000 Cost Share: Provided by CRADA partners Project Term: October 1, 2011 - September 30, 2015 Project Objective This project is designing and developing a high-efficiency 13 energy-efficiecy-ratio (EER) window air

  17. The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal Efficiency in an HCCI Engine Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research ...

  18. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  19. Characterization of Tritium Breeding Ratio and Energy Multiplication...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Factor of Lithium-based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of Tritium Breeding Ratio and Energy Multiplication Factor of ...

  20. Automated Estimating System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-15

    AES6.1 is a PC software package developed to aid in the preparation and reporting of cost estimates. AES6.1 provides an easy means for entering and updating the detailed cost, schedule information, project work breakdown structure, and escalation information contained in a typical project cost estimate through the use of menus and formatted input screens. AES6.1 combines this information to calculate both unescalated and escalated cost for a project which can be reported at varying levelsmore » of detail. Following are the major modifications to AES6.0f: Contingency update was modified to provide greater flexibility for user updates, Schedule Update was modified to provide user ability to schedule Bills of Material at the WBS/Participant/Cost Code level, Schedule Plot was modified to graphically show schedule by WBS/Participant/Cost Code, All Fiscal Year reporting has been modified to use the new schedule format, The Schedule 1-B-7, Cost Schedule, and the WBS/Participant reprorts were modified to determine Phase of Work from the B/M Cost Code, Utility program was modified to allow selection by cost code and update cost code in the Global Schedule update, Generic summary and line item download were added to the utility program, and an option was added to all reports which allows the user to indicate where overhead is to be reported (bottom line or in body of report)« less

  1. An approach to determine a defensible spent fuel ratio.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2014-03-01

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. In all the previous studies, the postulated attack of greatest interest was by a conical shape charge (CSC) that focuses the explosive energy much more efficiently than bulk explosives. However, the validity of these large-scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical DUO2 surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Different researchers have suggested using SFR values of 3 to 5.6. Sound technical arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Currently, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is in possession of several samples of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that were used in the original SFR studies in the 1980's and were intended for use in a modern effort at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 2000's. A portion of these samples are being used for a variety of research efforts. However, the entirety of SNF samples at ORNL is scheduled for disposition at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by approximately the end of 2015. If a defensible SFR is to be determined for use in storage and transportation security analyses, the need to begin this effort is urgent in

  2. Shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio from giant dipole resonances in hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Dinh Dang

    2011-09-15

    The Green-Kubo relation and fluctuation-dissipation theorem are employed to calculate the shear viscosity {eta} of a finite hot nucleus directly from the width and energy of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) of this nucleus. The ratio {eta}/s of shear viscosity {eta} to entropy density s is extracted from the experimental systematics of the GDR in copper, tin, and lead isotopes at finite temperature T. These empirical results are then compared with the predictions by several independent models as well as with almost model-independent estimations. Based on these results, it is concluded that the ratio {eta}/s in medium and heavy nuclei decreases with increasing temperature T to reach (1.3--4)x({h_bar}/2{pi})/(4{pi}k{sub B}) at T=5 MeV.

  3. Radiation detection method and system using the sequential probability ratio test

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Karl E.; Valentine, John D.; Beauchamp, Brock R.

    2007-07-17

    A method and system using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test to enhance the detection of an elevated level of radiation, by determining whether a set of observations are consistent with a specified model within a given bounds of statistical significance. In particular, the SPRT is used in the present invention to maximize the range of detection, by providing processing mechanisms for estimating the dynamic background radiation, adjusting the models to reflect the amount of background knowledge at the current point in time, analyzing the current sample using the models to determine statistical significance, and determining when the sample has returned to the expected background conditions.

  4. Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.

    2008-11-21

    Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.

  5. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  6. Public Data Set: On Virial Analysis at Low Aspect Ratio

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bongard, Michael W [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Barr, Jayson L [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000177685931); Fonck, Raymond J [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Reusch, Joshua A [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000284249422); Thome, Kathreen E [Oak Ridge Associated Universities] (ORCID:0000000248013922)

    2016-07-28

    This public data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data published in M.W. Bongard, et al., 'On Virial Analysis at Low Aspect Ratio,' Phys. Plasmas 23, 072508 (2016).

  7. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  8. High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters December 1, 2009 Tweet EmailPrint Collaborative users from Creatv MicroTech, Inc. and Los Alamos National Laboratory, working with CNM's Nanofabrication & Devices Group, have demonstrated a novel fabrication process that produces high-porosity polymer nanofilters with smooth, uniform. and straight pores and high aspect ratios. Nanofilters have a wide range of applications for various size-exclusion-based

  9. Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-04

    The Cloud Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool (SEET) is a user driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) that estimates cloud supercooled liquid water (SLW) content in terms of vertical column and total mass from Moderate resolution Imaging Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spatially derived cloud products and realistic vertical cloud parameterizations that are user defined. It also contains functions for post-processing of the resulting data in tabular and graphical form.

  10. Utilizing Isotopic Uranium Ratios in Groundwater Evaluations at FUSRAP Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.T.; Keil, K.G.; Rhodes, M.C.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District is evaluating environmental radioactive contamination at several Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites throughout New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. The investigations follow the process defined in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Groundwater data from the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York were evaluated for isotopic uranium ratios, specifically uranium-234 versus uranium-238 (U- 234 and U-238, respectively), and the results were presented at Waste Management 2006. Since uranium naturally occurs in all groundwater, it can be difficult to distinguish where low-concentration impacts from past releases differ from the high end of a site-specific natural background range. In natural groundwater, the ratio of U-234 to U-238 exceeds 1 (unity) due to the alpha particle recoil effect, in which U-234 is preferentially mobilized to groundwater from adjacent rock or soil. This process is very slow and may take hundreds to thousands of years before a measurable increase is seen in the natural isotopic ratio. If site releases are the source of uranium being measured in groundwater, the U-234 to U-238 ratio is commonly closer to 1, which normally reflects FUSRAP-related, uranium-contaminated wastes and soils. This lower ratio occurs because not enough residence time has elapsed since the 1940's and 1950's for the alpha particle recoil effect to have significantly altered the contamination-derived ratio. An evaluation of NFSS-specific and regional groundwater data indicate that an isotopic ratio of 1.2 has been identified as a signature value to help distinguish natural groundwater, which may have a broad background range, from zones impacted by past releases. (authors)

  11. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M {sub ?} BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D. E-mail: heb11@psu.edu

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheidscool, evolved stars of ?5 M {sub ?}are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M {sub ?}. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of ? Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M {sub ?} binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M {sub ?} stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple.

  12. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Müller, Mark Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-15

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed.

  13. Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bethe, H. A.

    1950-01-31

    The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)

  14. Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    > Derived Annual Estimates - Executive Summary Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption, 1974-1988 Figure showing Derived Estimates Executive Summary This...

  15. Utilizing Isotopic Uranium Ratios in Groundwater Evaluations at NFSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, M.C.; Keil, K.G.; Frederick, W.T.; Papura, T.R.; Leithner, J.S.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Buffalo District is currently evaluating environmental contamination at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) as part of its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The NFSS is located in the Town of Lewiston in western New York and has been used to store uranium-contaminated materials since 1944. Most of the radioactive materials are currently contained in an on-site structure, but past contamination remains in soil and groundwater. As a naturally occurring radionuclide, uranium is present in all groundwater. Because contamination levels at the site are quite low, it can be difficult to distinguish zones that have been impacted by the past releases from those at the high end of the natural background range. The differences in the isotopic ratio of uranium-234 (U-234) to uranium-238 (U-238) between natural groundwater systems and affected areas are being used in an innovative way to better define the nature and extent of groundwater contamination at NFSS. In natural groundwater, the ratio of U-234 to U-238 exceeds 1 due to the alpha particle recoil effect, in which U-234 is preferentially mobilized to groundwater from adjacent rock or soil. This process is very slow, and it can be hundreds to thousands of years before a measurable impact is seen in the isotopic ratio. Thus, as a result of the recoil effect, the ratio of U-234 to U-238 will be higher in natural groundwater than in contaminated groundwater. This means that if site releases were the source of the uranium being measured in groundwater at NFSS, the ratio of U-234 to U-238 would be expected to be very close to 1 (the same ratio that exists in wastes and soil at the site), because not enough time has elapsed for the alpha particle recoil effect to have significantly altered that ratio. From an evaluation of site and regional groundwater data, an isotopic ratio

  16. Starting low compression ratio rotary Wankel diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamo, R.; Yamada, T.Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The single stage rotary Wankel engine is difficult to convert into a diesel version having an adequate compression ratio and a compatible combustion chamber configuration. Past efforts in designing a rotary-type Wankel diesel engine resorted to a two-stage design. Complexity, size, weight, cost and performance penalties were some of the drawbacks of the two-stage Wankel-type diesel designs. This paper presents an approach to a single stage low compression ratio Wankel-type rotary engine. Cold starting of a low compression ratio single stage diesel Wankel becomes the key problem. It was demonstrated that the low compression single stage diesel Wankel type rotary engine can satisfactorily be cold started with a properly designed combustion chamber in the rotor and a variable heat input combustion aid.

  17. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  18. Dose ratio proton radiography using the proximal side of the Bragg peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P. J. Royle, G.; Gibson, A.; Lu, H.-M.; Prieels, D.; Bentefour, E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In recent years, there has been a movement toward single-detector proton radiography, due to its potential ease of implementation within the clinical environment. One such single-detector technique is the dose ratio method in which the dose maps from two pristine Bragg peaks are recorded beyond the patient. To date, this has only been investigated on the distal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, due to the sharp falloff. The authors investigate the limits and applicability of the dose ratio method on the proximal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, which has the potential to allow a much wider range of water-equivalent thicknesses (WET) to be imaged. Comparisons are made with the use of the distal side of the Bragg peak. Methods: Using the analytical approximation for the Bragg peak, the authors generated theoretical dose ratio curves for a range of energy pairs, and then determined how an uncertainty in the dose ratio would translate to a spread in the WET estimate. By defining this spread as the accuracy one could achieve in the WET estimate, the authors were able to generate lookup graphs of the range on the proximal side of the Bragg peak that one could reliably use. These were dependent on the energy pair, noise level in the dose ratio image and the required accuracy in the WET. Using these lookup graphs, the authors investigated the applicability of the technique for a range of patient treatment sites. The authors validated the theoretical approach with experimental measurements using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor (CMOS APS), by imaging a small sapphire sphere in a high energy proton beam. Results: Provided the noise level in the dose ratio image was 1% or less, a larger spread of WETs could be imaged using the proximal side of the Bragg peak (max 5.31 cm) compared to the distal side (max 2.42 cm). In simulation, it was found that, for a pediatric brain, it is possible to use the technique to image a region with a

  19. " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS",,"per

  20. " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic

  1. " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic

  2. Method of fabricating a high aspect ratio microstructure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, John B.

    2003-05-06

    The present invention is for a method of fabricating a high aspect ratio, freestanding microstructure. The fabrication method modifies the exposure process for SU-8, an negative-acting, ultraviolet-sensitive photoresist used for microfabrication whereby a UV-absorbent glass substrate, chosen for complete absorption of UV radiation at 380 nanometers or less, is coated with a negative photoresist, exposed and developed according to standard practice. This UV absorbent glass enables the fabrication of cylindrical cavities in a negative photoresist microstructures that have aspect ratios of 8:1.

  3. The Four-loop Six-gluon NMHV Ratio Function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Lance J.; von Hippel, Matt; McLeod, Andrew J.

    2015-09-29

    We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q- differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result against multi- Regge predictions at NNLL and N3LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We also study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. Furthermore, we provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.

  4. The four-loop six-gluon NMHV ratio function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dixon, Lance J.; von Hippel, Matt; McLeod, Andrew J.

    2016-01-11

    We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q¯ differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result againstmore » multi-Regge predictions at NNLL and N3LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. As a result, we also provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.« less

  5. Non-tracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hinterberger, Henry

    1977-01-01

    A nontracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio is provided. The concentrator includes a plurality of energy absorbers which communicate with a main header by which absorbed heat is removed. Undesired heat flow of those absorbers not being heated by radiant energy at a particular instant is impeded, improving the efficiency of the concentrator.

  6. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE RATIOS IN {omega} CENTAURI RED GIANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E.; Yong, David

    2013-05-20

    We have used the high-resolution observations obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope with Ultra-High Resolution Facility (R {approx} 100,000) and at Gemini-S with b-HROS (R {approx} 150,000) to determine magnesium isotope ratios for seven {omega} Cen red giants that cover a range in iron abundance from [Fe/H] = -1.78 to -0.78 dex, and for two red giants in M4 (NGC 6121). The {omega} Cen stars sample both the ''primordial'' (i.e., O-rich, Na- and Al-poor) and the ''extreme'' (O-depleted, Na- and Al-rich) populations in the cluster. The primordial population stars in both {omega} Cen and M4 show ({sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg)/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratios that are consistent with those found for the primordial population in other globular clusters with similar [Fe/H] values. The isotopic ratios for the {omega} Cen extreme stars are also consistent with those for extreme population stars in other clusters. The results for the extreme population stars studied indicate that the {sup 26}Mg/{sup 24}Mg ratio is highest at intermediate metallicities ([Fe/H] < -1.4 dex), and for the highest [Al/Fe] values. Further, the relative abundance of {sup 26}Mg in the extreme population stars is notably higher than that of {sup 25}Mg, in contrast to model predictions. The {sup 25}Mg/{sup 24}Mg isotopic ratio in fact does not show any obvious dependence on either [Fe/H] or [Al/Fe] nor, intriguingly, any obvious difference between the primordial and extreme population stars.

  7. Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-estimating-historical Cost: Free Language: English Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation Screenshot...

  8. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  9. Estimates of Green potentials. Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danchenko, V I

    2003-02-28

    Optimal Cartan-type covers by hyperbolic discs of carriers of Green {alpha}-potentials are obtained in a simply connected domain in the complex plane and estimates of the potentials outside the carriers are presented. These results are applied to problems on the separation of singularities of analytic and harmonic functions. For instance, uniform and integral estimates in terms of Green capacities of components of meromorphic functions are obtained.

  10. Precision Measurements of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Higinbotham

    2010-08-01

    New high precision polarization measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio in the Q^2 from 0.3 to 0.7 [GeV/c]^2 have been made. These elastic H(e,e'p) measurementswere done in Jefferson Lab's Hall A using 80% longitudinally polarized electrons and recoil polarimetry. For Q^2 greater than 1 [GeV/c]^2, previous polarization data indicated a strong deviation of the form factor ratio from unity which sparked renewed theoretical and experimental interest in how two-photon diagrams have been taken into account. The new high precision data indicate that the deviation from unity, while small, persists even at Q^2 less than 1 [GeV/c]^2.

  11. The Atmospheric Muon Charge Ratio at the MINOS Near Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Jong, J.K.; /IIT, Chicago /Oxford U.

    2011-11-01

    The magnetized MINOS near detector can accurately determine the charge sign of atmospheric muons, this facilitates a measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio. To reduce the systematic error associated with geometric bias and acceptance we have combined equal periods of data obtained with opposite magnetic field polarities. We report a charge ratio of 1.2666 {+-} 0.0015(stat.){sub -0.0088}{sup +0.0096}(syst.) at a mean E{sub {mu},0{sup cos}}({theta}) = 63 GeV. This measurement is consistent with the world average but significantly lower than the earlier observation at the MINOS far detector. This increase is shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that a greater fraction of the observed muons arise from kaon decay within the cosmic ray shower.

  12. Method for fabricating high aspect ratio structures in perovskite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karapetrov, Goran T.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Crabtree, George W.; Iavarone, Maria

    2003-10-28

    A method of fabricating high aspect ratio ceramic structures in which a selected portion of perovskite or perovskite-like crystalline material is exposed to a high energy ion beam for a time sufficient to cause the crystalline material contacted by the ion beam to have substantially parallel columnar defects. Then selected portions of the material having substantially parallel columnar defects are etched leaving material with and without substantially parallel columnar defects in a predetermined shape having high aspect ratios of not less than 2 to 1. Etching is accomplished by optical or PMMA lithography. There is also disclosed a structure of a ceramic which is superconducting at a temperature in the range of from about 10.degree. K. to about 90.degree. K. with substantially parallel columnar defects in which the smallest lateral dimension of the structure is less than about 5 microns, and the thickness of the structure is greater than 2 times the smallest lateral dimension of the structure.

  13. Combustion engine variable compression ratio apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence; Keith E.; Strawbridge, Bryan E.; Dutart, Charles H.

    2006-06-06

    An apparatus and method for varying a compression ratio of an engine having a block and a head mounted thereto. The apparatus and method includes a cylinder having a block portion and a head portion, a piston linearly movable in the block portion of the cylinder, a cylinder plug linearly movable in the head portion of the cylinder, and a valve located in the cylinder plug and operable to provide controlled fluid communication with the block portion of the cylinder.

  14. Radar antenna pointing for optimized signal to noise ratio.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Marquette, Brandeis

    2013-01-01

    The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of a radar echo signal will vary across a range swath, due to spherical wavefront spreading, atmospheric attenuation, and antenna beam illumination. The antenna beam illumination will depend on antenna pointing. Calculations of geometry are complicated by the curved earth, and atmospheric refraction. This report investigates optimizing antenna pointing to maximize the minimum SNR across the range swath.

  15. Adjustable ratio roller rocker for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheehan, K.A.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes an adjustable ratio roller rocker for internal combustion engines, comprising: a body; a sliding pushrod seat received in the body; a bolt received in the sliding pushrod seat; a pushrod received in the sliding pushrod seat and the sliding pushrod seat includes a threaded opening that receives the bolt; and the rotation of the bolt causes the sliding pushrod seat to traverse a recessed opening in the body.

  16. Selected financial and operating ratios of public power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choate, S.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a review of the title publication, which is produced by the American Public Power Association. The report is considered to be a valuable management tool to public power systems in evaluating their competitive positions in the dynamic electric utility industry. It examines 22 categories of ratio indicators that can be used by public power systems to assess their performance relative to other utilities of comparable size in the same geographic region. More than 400 utilities are summarized in the report.

  17. High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryMetallic structures that can be used as transparent electrodes or to enhance the performance of solar cells or LEDs.DescriptionEfforts to develop new energy sources and more energy efficient devices has lead to

  18. High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Polymer-based photovoltaic devices have received intense interest in recent years because of their potential to provide low-cost solar energy conversion, flexibility, manufacturability, and light weight. However, the efficiency of organic solar

  19. The charge ratio of the atmospheric muons at low energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmanabadi, M.; Samimi, J.; Sheidaei, F.; Ghomi, M. Khakian

    2006-10-15

    From the nature of the muon production processes, it can be seen that the ratio of positive to negative cosmic muons has important information in both 'the atmospheric neutrino problem', and 'the hadronic interactions'. We have carried out an experiment for the measurement of the muon charge ratio in the cosmic ray flux in momentum range 0.112-0.178 GeV/c. The muon charge ratio is found to be 1.21{+-}0.01 with a mean zenith angle of 32 deg. {+-}5 deg. . From the measurements it has been obtained a zenithal angle distribution of muons as I({theta})=I(0)cos{sup n}{theta} with n=1.95{+-}0.13. An asymmetry has been observed in East-West directions because of the geomagnetic field. Meanwhile, in about the same momentum range, positive and negative muons have been studied on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations of the extensive air shower developement (Cosmic Ray Simulations for Kascade), using the Quark Gluon String model with JETs model as generator.

  20. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdas, D. A. Cristea, G. Bot, A. Mirel, V.

    2013-11-13

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in δ{sup 13}C between batches from −29.7 to −31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between −31.3 to −34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  1. Aspect Ratio Effects in the Driven, Flux-Core Spheromak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, E B; Romero-Talam?s, C A; LoDestro, L L; Wood, R D; McLean, H S

    2009-03-02

    Resistive magneto-hydrodynamic simulations are used to evaluate the effects of the aspect ratio, A (length to radius ratio) in a spheromak driven by coaxial helicity injection. The simulations are benchmarked against the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [R. D. Wood, et al., Nucl. Nucl. Fusion 45, 1582 (2005)]. Amplification of the bias ('gun') poloidal flux is fit well by a linear dependence (insensitive to A) on the ratio of gun current and bias flux above a threshold dependent on A. For low flux amplifications in the simulations the n = 1 mode is coherent and the mean-field geometry looks like a tilted spheromak. Because the mode has relatively large amplitude the field lines are open everywhere, allowing helicity penetration. Strongly-driven helicity injection at A {le} 1.4 in simulations generates reconnection events which open the magnetic field lines; this state is characteristic of SSPX. Near the spheromak tilt-mode limit, A {approx} 1.67 for a cylindrical flux conserver, the tilt approaches 90{sup o}; reconnection events are not generated up to the strongest drives simulated. The time-sequence of these events suggests that they are representative of a chaotic process. Implications for spheromak experiments are discussed.

  2. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heywood, John; Jo, Young Suk; Lewis, Raymond; Bromberg, Leslie; Heywood, John

    2015-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  3. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for

  4. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  5. Quick estimating for thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastri, S.R.S.; Rao, K.K. )

    1993-08-01

    Accurate values for thermal conductivity--an important engineering property used in heat transfer calculations of liquids--are not as readily available as those for other physical properties. Therefore, it often becomes necessary to use estimated data. A new estimating method combines ease of use with an accuracy that is generally better than existing procedures. The paper discusses how to select terms and testing correlations, then gives two examples of the use of the method for calculation of the thermal conductivity of propionic acid and chlorobenzene.

  6. Negative Resists for Ultra-Tall, High Aspect Ratio Microstructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resists for Ultra-Tall, High Aspect Ratio Microstructures S. Lemke a , P. Goettert a , I. Rudolph a , J. Goettert b,* , B. Löchel a a Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin, Germany b Center for Advanced Microstructures & Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Highway, Baton Rouge, LA 70806, USA *E-Mail: jost@lsu.edu Abstract In this joint research project,

  7. Method for producing thin graphite flakes with large aspect ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunnell, L. Roy (Kennewick, WA)

    1993-01-01

    A method for making graphite flakes of high aspect ratio by the steps of providing a strong concentrated acid and heating the graphite in the presence of the acid for a time and at a temperature effective to intercalate the acid in the graphite; heating the intercalated graphite at a rate and to a temperature effective to exfoliate the graphite in discrete layers; subjecting the graphite layers to ultrasonic energy, mechanical shear forces, or freezing in an amount effective to separate the layes into discrete flakes.

  8. BLE: Battery Life Estimator | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BLE: Battery Life Estimator BLE: Battery Life Estimator Argonne's Battery Life Estimator (BLE) software is a state-of-the-art tool kit for fitting battery aging data and for ...

  9. Fact #780: May 20, 2013 Crude Oil Reserve to Production Ratio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: May 20, 2013 Crude Oil Reserve to Production Ratio Fact 780: May 20, 2013 Crude Oil Reserve to Production Ratio The ratio of reserves to production gives a relative measure of ...

  10. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added ...

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of cascade microcryocoolers with low pressure ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radebaugh, Ray

    2014-01-29

    The vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration near ambient temperature achieves high efficiency because the isenthalpic expansion of the condensed liquid is a rather efficient process. However, temperatures are limited to about 200 K with a single-stage system. Temperatures down to 77 K are possible with many stages. In the case of microcryocoolers using microcompressors, pressure ratios are usually limited to about 6 or less. As a result, even more stages are required to reach 77 K. If the microcompressors can be fabricated with low-cost wafer-level techniques, then the use of many stages with separate compressors may become a viable option for achieving temperatures of 77 K with high efficiency. We analyze the ideal thermodynamic efficiency of a cascade Joule-Thomson system for various temperatures down to 77 K and with low pressure ratios. About nine stages are required for 77 K, but fewer stages are also analyzed for operation at higher temperatures. For 77 K, an ideal second-law efficiency of 83 % of Carnot is possible with perfect recuperative heat exchangers and 65 % of Carnot is possible with no recuperative heat exchangers. The results are compared with calculated efficiencies in mixed-refrigerant cryocoolers over the range of 77 K to 200 K. Refrigeration at intermediate temperatures is also available. The use of single-component fluids in each of the stages is expected to eliminate the problem of pulsating flow and temperature oscillations experienced in microcryocoolers using mixed refrigerants.

  12. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies - such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction - likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass ratio events into typical L {approx}> fL{sub *} galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt {approx_equal} 0.03(1+f)Gyr{sup -1} (1+z){sup 2.1}. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of > 0.4L{sub *} high-redshift galaxies ({approx} 3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t < 100 Myr). This suggests that short-lived, merger-induced bursts of star formation should not contribute significantly to the global star formation rate at early times, in agreement with observational indications. In contrast, a fairly high fraction ({approx} 20%) of those z = 2 galaxies should have experienced a morphologically transformative merger within a virial dynamical time. We compare our results to observational merger rate estimates from both morphological indicators and pair-fraction based determinations between z = 0-2 and show that they are consistent with our predictions. However, we emphasize that great care must be made in these comparisons because the predicted observables depend very sensitively on galaxy luminosity, redshift, overall mass ratio, and uncertain relaxation timescales for merger remnants. We show that the majority of bright galaxies at z = 3 should have undergone a major

  13. Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry You are accessing a...

  14. Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization |...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization Summary Notes from 28 May 2008 Generic Technical Issue ...

  15. SECULAR EVOLUTION AND A NON-EVOLVING BLACK-HOLE-TO-GALAXY MASS RATIO IN THE LAST 7 Gyr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisternas, Mauricio; Jahnke, Knud; Inskip, Katherine J.; Bongiorno, Angela; Merloni, Andrea; Impey, Chris D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Salvato, Mara; Trump, Jonathan R.

    2011-11-01

    We present new constraints on the ratio of black hole (BH) mass to total galaxy stellar mass at 0.3 < z < 0.9 for a sample of 32 type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the XMM-COSMOS survey covering the range M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 7.2-8.7} M{sub sun}. Virial M{sub BH} estimates based on H{beta} are available from the COSMOS Magellan/IMACS survey. We use high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging to decompose the light of each type-1 AGN and host galaxy, and employ a specially built mass-to-light ratio to estimate the stellar masses (M{sub *}). The M{sub BH}-M{sub *} ratio shows a zero offset with respect to the local relation for galactic bulge masses, and we also find no evolution in the mass ratio M{sub BH}/M{sub *}{proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 0.02{+-}0.34} up to z {approx} 0.9. Interestingly, at the high-M{sub BH} end there is a positive offset from the z = 0 relation, which can be fully explained by a mass function bias with a cosmic scatter of {sigma}{sub {mu}} = 0.3, reaffirming that the intrinsic distribution is consistent with zero evolution. From our results we conclude that since z {approx} 0.9 no substantial addition of stellar mass is required: the decline in star formation rates and merger activity at z < 1 support this scenario. Nevertheless, given that a significant fraction of these galaxies show a disk component, their bulges are indeed undermassive. This is a direct indication that for the last 7 Gyr the only essential mechanism required for these galaxies to obey the z = 0 relation is a redistribution of stellar mass to the bulge, likely driven by secular processes, i.e., internal instabilities and minor merging.

  16. THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS COMMISSION AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO DETERMINATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-07

    Following Thomson's discovery of stable isotopes in non-radioactive chemical elements, the derivation of atomic weight values from mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic abundance ratios moved very slowly. Forty years later, only 3 1/2 % of the recommended values were based on mass spectrometric measurements and only 38% in the first half century. It might be noted that two chemical elements (tellurium and mercury) are still based on chemical measurements, where the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement either agrees with the value from the chemical measurement or the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement falls within the uncertainty of the chemical measurement of the atomic weight. Of the 19 chemical elements, whose atomic weight is based on non-corrected relative isotopic abundance measurements, five of these are two isotope systems (indium, iridium, lanthanum, lutetium and tantalum) and one is a three-isotope system (oxygen).

  17. Modular low-aspect-ratio high-beta torsatron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheffield, G.V.

    1982-04-01

    A fusion-reactor device is described which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low-aspect-ratio toroid in planed having the cylindrical coordinate relationship phi = phi/sub i/ + kz, where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and phi/sub i/ is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z = o plane. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a race track minor cross section. When vertical field coils and, preferably, a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic-field-surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack-shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

  18. Modular low aspect ratio-high beta torsatron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheffield, George V.; Furth, Harold P.

    1984-02-07

    A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect ratio toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When vertical field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

  19. Tuning giant anomalous Hall resistance ratio in perpendicular Hall balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Yang, G.; Wang, S. G. E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Liu, J. L.; Wang, R. M.; Amsellem, E.; Kohn, A.; Yu, G. H. E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn

    2015-04-13

    Anomalous Hall effect at room temperature in perpendicular Hall balance with a core structure of [Pt/Co]{sub 4}/NiO/[Co/Pt]{sub 4} has been tuned by functional CoO layers, where [Pt/Co]{sub 4} multilayers exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. A giant Hall resistance ratio up to 69 900% and saturation Hall resistance (R{sub S}{sup P}) up to 2590 mΩ were obtained in CoO/[Pt/Co]{sub 4}/NiO/[Co/Pt]{sub 4}/CoO system, which is 302% and 146% larger than that in the structure without CoO layers, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy shows highly textured [Co/Pt]{sub 4} multilayers and oxide layers with local epitaxial relations, indicating that the crystallographic structure has significant influence on spin dependent transport properties.

  20. Background estimation in experimental spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, R.; Hanson, K. M.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS P940, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 ; Dose, V.; Linden, W. von der

    2000-02-01

    A general probabilistic technique for estimating background contributions to measured spectra is presented. A Bayesian model is used to capture the defining characteristics of the problem, namely, that the background is smoother than the signal. The signal is allowed to have positive and/or negative components. The background is represented in terms of a cubic spline basis. A variable degree of smoothness of the background is attained by allowing the number of knots and the knot positions to be adaptively chosen on the basis of the data. The fully Bayesian approach taken provides a natural way to handle knot adaptivity and allows uncertainties in the background to be estimated. Our technique is demonstrated on a particle induced x-ray emission spectrum from a geological sample and an Auger spectrum from iron, which contains signals with both positive and negative components. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  1. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscapting Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-30

    Guidance to help Federal agencies estimate unmetered landscaping water use as required by Executive Order 13514

  2. Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: characterization, improved calibration, and implications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Canagaratna, M. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kroll, J. H.; Chen, Q.; Kessler, S. H.; Massoli, P.; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Fortner, E.; Williams, L. R.; Wilson, K. R.; et al

    2015-01-12

    Elemental compositions of organic aerosol (OA) particles provide useful constraints on OA sources, chemical evolution, and effects. The Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is widely used to measure OA elemental composition. This study evaluates AMS measurements of atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O : C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C), and organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM : OC) ratios, and of carbon oxidation state (OS C) for a vastly expanded laboratory data set of multifunctional oxidized OA standards. For the expanded standard data set, the method introduced by Aiken et al. (2008), which uses experimentally measured ion intensities at all ions to determinemore » elemental ratios (referred to here as "Aiken-Explicit"), reproduces known O : C and H : C ratio values within 20% (average absolute value of relative errors) and 12%, respectively. The more commonly used method, which uses empirically estimated H2O+ and CO+ ion intensities to avoid gas phase air interferences at these ions (referred to here as "Aiken-Ambient"), reproduces O : C and H : C of multifunctional oxidized species within 28 and 14% of known values. The values from the latter method are systematically biased low, however, with larger biases observed for alcohols and simple diacids. A detailed examination of the H2O+, CO+, and CO2+ fragments in the high-resolution mass spectra of the standard compounds indicates that the Aiken-Ambient method underestimates the CO+ and especially H2O+ produced from many oxidized species. Combined AMS–vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization measurements indicate that these ions are produced by dehydration and decarboxylation on the AMS vaporizer (usually operated at 600 °C). Thermal decomposition is observed to be efficient at vaporizer temperatures down to 200 °C. These results are used together to develop an "Improved-Ambient" elemental analysis method for AMS spectra measured in air. The Improved-Ambient method uses specific ion

  3. Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: Characterization, improved calibration, and implications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Canagaratna, M. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kroll, J. H.; Chen, Q.; Kessler, S. H.; Massoli, P.; Ruiz, L. Hildebrandt; Fortner, E.; Williams, L. R.; Wilson, K. R.; et al

    2015-01-12

    Elemental compositions of organic aerosol (OA) particles provide useful constraints on OA sources, chemical evolution, and effects. The Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is widely used to measure OA elemental composition. This study evaluates AMS measurements of atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O : C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C), and organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM : OC) ratios, and of carbon oxidation state (OS C) for a vastly expanded laboratory data set of multifunctional oxidized OA standards. For the expanded standard data set, the method introduced by Aiken et al. (2008), which uses experimentally measured ionmoreintensities at all ions to determine elemental ratios (referred to here as "Aiken-Explicit"), reproduces known O : C and H : C ratio values within 20% (average absolute value of relative errors) and 12%, respectively. The more commonly used method, which uses empirically estimated H2O+ and CO+ ion intensities to avoid gas phase air interferences at these ions (referred to here as "Aiken-Ambient"), reproduces O : C and H : C of multifunctional oxidized species within 28 and 14% of known values. The values from the latter method are systematically biased low, however, with larger biases observed for alcohols and simple diacids. A detailed examination of the H2O+, CO+, and CO2+ fragments in the high-resolution mass spectra of the standard compounds indicates that the Aiken-Ambient method underestimates the CO+ and especially H2O+ produced from many oxidized species. Combined AMSvacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization measurements indicate that these ions are produced by dehydration and decarboxylation on the AMS vaporizer (usually operated at 600 C). Thermal decomposition is observed to be efficient at vaporizer temperatures down to 200 C. These results are used together to develop an "Improved-Ambient" elemental analysis method for AMS spectra measured in air. The Improved-Ambient method uses specific ion

  4. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  5. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  6. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  7. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  8. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  9. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  10. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  11. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2004-10-01

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  12. Utilizing the sequential probability ratio test for building joint monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, D. W.; Sohn, H.; Worden, K.; Farrar, C. R.

    2002-01-01

    In this application of the statistical pattern recognition paradigm, a prediction model of a chosen feature is developed from the time domain response of a baseline structure. After the model is developed, subsequent feature sets are tested against the model to determine if a change in the feature has occurred. In the proposed statistical inference for damage identification there are two basic hypotheses; (1) the model can predict the feature, in which case the structure is undamaged or (2) the model can not accurately predict the feature, suggesting that the structure is damaged. The Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) develops a statistical method that quickly arrives at a decision between these two hypotheses and is applicable to continuous monitoring. In the original formulation of the SPRT algorithm, the feature is assumed to be Gaussian and thresholds are set accordingly. It is likely, however, that the feature used for damage identification is sensitive to the tails of the distribution and that the tails may not necessarily be governed by Gaussian characteristics. By modeling the tails using the technique of Extreme Value Statistics, the hypothesis decision thresholds for the SPRT algorithm may be set avoiding the normality assumption. The SPRT algorithm is utilized to decide if the test structure is undamaged or damaged and which joint is exhibiting the change.

  13. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  14. Bayesian estimation methods in metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, M.G.; Forbes, A.B.; Harris, P.M.

    2004-11-16

    In metrology -- the science of measurement -- a measurement result must be accompanied by a statement of its associated uncertainty. The degree of validity of a measurement result is determined by the validity of the uncertainty statement. In recognition of the importance of uncertainty evaluation, the International Standardization Organization in 1995 published the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement and the Guide has been widely adopted. The validity of uncertainty statements is tested in interlaboratory comparisons in which an artefact is measured by a number of laboratories and their measurement results compared. Since the introduction of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement, key comparisons are being undertaken to determine the degree of equivalence of laboratories for particular measurement tasks. In this paper, we discuss the possible development of the Guide to reflect Bayesian approaches and the evaluation of key comparison data using Bayesian estimation methods.

  15. Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: characterization, improved calibration, and implications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Canagaratna, M. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kroll, J. H.; Chen, Q.; Kessler, S. H.; Massoli, P.; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Fortner, E.; Williams, L. R.; Wilson, K. R.; et al

    2014-07-31

    Elemental compositions of organic aerosol (OA) particles provide useful constraints on OA sources, chemical evolution, and effects. The Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is widely used to measure OA elemental composition. This study evaluates AMS measurements of atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O : C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C), organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM : OC), and carbon oxidation state (OSC) for a vastly expanded laboratory dataset of multifunctional oxidized OA standards. For the expanded standard dataset, the "Aiken-Explicit" method (Aiken et al., 2008), which uses experimentally measured ion intensities at all ions to determine elemental ratios, reproduces known molecular O :more » C and H : C ratio values within 20% (average absolute value of relative errors) and 12% respectively. The more commonly used "Aiken-Ambient" method, which uses empirically estimated H2O+ and CO+ ion intensities to avoid gas phase air interferences at these ions, reproduces O : C and H : C of multifunctional oxidized species within 28% and 14% of known values. These values are systematically biased low, however, with larger biases observed for alcohols and simple diacids. A detailed examination of the H2O+, CO+, and CO2+ fragments in the high-resolution mass spectra of the standard compounds indicates that the Aiken-Ambient method underestimates the CO+ and H2O+ produced from many oxidized species. Combined AMS-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization measurements indicate that these ions are produced by dehydration and decarboxylation on the AMS vaporizer (usually operated at 600 °C). Thermal decomposition is observed to be efficient at vaporizer temperatures down to 200 °C. These results are used together to develop an "Improved-Ambient" elemental analysis method for AMS spectra measured in air. The Improved-Ambient method reduces the systematic biases and reproduces O : C (H : C) ratios of individual oxidized standards within 28% (13

  16. Dimensions and aspect ratios of natural ice crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Um, J.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Hong, Y. P.; Lee, S. -S.; Jung, C. H.; Lawson, R. P.; Mo, Q.

    2014-12-10

    During the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the Tropics, the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in the Arctic, and the 2010 Small PARTicles In CirrUS (SPARTICUS) campaign in mid-latitudes, high-resolution images of ice crystals were recorded by a Cloud Particle Imager at temperatures (T) between -87 and 0 °C. The projected maximum dimension (D'), length (L'), and width (W') of pristine columns, plates, and component bullets of bullet rosettes were measured using newly developed software, the Ice Crystal Ruler. The number of bullets in each bullet rosette was also measured. Column crystals were furthermore » distinguished as either horizontally oriented columns or columns with other orientations to eliminate any orientation effect on the measured dimensions. Dimensions and aspect ratios (AR, dimension of major axis divided by dimension of minor axis) of crystals were determined as functions of temperature, geophysical location, and type of cirrus. Dimensions of crystals generally increased as temperature increased. Columns and bullets had larger dimensions (i.e., W') of the minor axis (i.e., a axis) for a given dimension (i.e., D' or L') of the major axis (i.e., c axis), and thus smaller AR, as T increased, whereas this trend did not occur for plate crystals. The average number of branches in bullet rosettes was 5.50±1.35 during three campaigns and 6.32±1.34 (5.46±1.34; 4.95±1.01) during TWP-ICE (SPARTICUS; ISDAC). The AR of bullets increased with the number of branches in bullet rosettes. Most dimensions of crystals and ARs of columnar crystals measured during SPARTICUS were larger than those measured during TWP-ICE and ISDAC at −67 < T < −35 °C and at −40 < T < −15 °C, respectively. The relative occurrence of varying pristine habits depended strongly on cirrus type (i.e., anvil or non-anvil clouds), with plates especially occurring more frequently in anvils. The L–W relationships of columns

  17. Dimensions and aspect ratios of natural ice crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Um, J.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Hong, Y. P.; Lee, S. -S.; Jung, C. H.; Lawson, R. P.; Mo, Q.

    2015-04-15

    During the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the tropics, the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in the Arctic, and the 2010 Small PARTicles In CirrUS (SPARTICUS) campaign at mid-latitudes, high-resolution images of ice crystals were recorded by a Cloud Particle Imager at temperatures (T) between -87 and 0 °C. The projected maximum dimension (D'), length (L'), and width (W') of pristine columns, plates, and component bullets of bullet rosettes were measured using newly developed software, the Ice Crystal Ruler. The number of bullets in each bullet rosette was also measured. Column crystals were furthermore » distinguished as either horizontally oriented columns or columns with other orientations to eliminate any orientation effect on the measured dimensions. The dimensions and aspect ratios (AR, the dimension of the major axis divided by the dimension of the minor axis) of crystals were determined as functions of temperature, geophysical location, and type of cirrus. Dimensions of crystals generally increased with temperature. Columns and bullets had larger dimensions (i.e., W') of the minor axis (i.e., a axis) for a given dimension (i.e., D' orL') of the major axis (i.e., c axis), and thus smaller AR, as T increased, whereas this trend did not occur for plate crystals. The average number of branches in bullet rosettes was 5.50 ± 1.35 during three campaigns and 6.32 ± 1.34 (5.46 ± 1.34; 4.95 ± 1.01) during TWP-ICE (SPARTICUS; ISDAC). The AR of bullets increased with the number of branches in bullet rosettes. Most dimensions of crystals and ARs of columnar crystals measured during SPARTICUS were larger than those measured during TWP-ICE and ISDAC at −67 < T < -35 °C and at −40 < T < −15 °C, respectively. The relative occurrence of varying pristine habits depended strongly on cirrus type (i.e., anvil or non-anvil clouds), with plates especially occurring more frequently in anvils. The L

  18. State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Energy price and expenditure estimates in dollars per million Btu and in million dollars, by state, 1970-2014.

  19. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  20. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  1. High Poisson;s ratio of Earth;s inner core explained by carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Poisson;s ratio of Earth;s inner core explained by carbon alloying Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Poisson;s ratio of Earth;s inner core explained by carbon ...

  2. Measurement of the branching ratio ?(?b0??(2S)?0)/?(?b0?J...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement of the branching ratio (b0(2S)0)(b0J0) with the ATLAS detector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of the branching ratio...

  3. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  4. Robust Bearing Estimation for 3-Component Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claassen, John P.

    1999-06-03

    A robust bearing estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEEC for Search, Estimate, Evaluate and Correct, intelligently exploits the in- herent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve near-optimal results. In particular, the approach uses a consistent framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, to construct metrics helpful in choosing the better estimates or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable, andjinally to apply bias corrections when calibration information is available to yield a single final estimate. The method was applied to a small but challenging set of events in a seismically active region. The method demonstrated remarkable utility by providing better estimates and insights than previously available. Various monitoring implications are noted fiom these findings.

  5. Robust bearing estimation for 3-component stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CLAASSEN,JOHN P.

    2000-02-01

    A robust bearing estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEEC for Search, Estimate, Evaluate and Correct, intelligently exploits the inherent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve near-optimal results. In particular the approach uses a consistent framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, to construct metrics helpful in choosing the better estimates or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable, and finally to apply bias corrections when calibration information is available to yield a single final estimate. The algorithm was applied to a small but challenging set of events in a seismically active region. It demonstrated remarkable utility by providing better estimates and insights than previously available. Various monitoring implications are noted from these findings.

  6. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  7. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  8. Time and Resource Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-08

    RESTORE is a computer software tool that allows one to model a complex set of steps required to accomplish a goal (e.g., repair a ruptured natural gas pipeline and restore service to customers). However, the time necessary to complete step may be uncertain and may be affected by conditions, such as the weather, the time of day, the day of the week. Therefore, "nature" can influence which steps are taken and the time needed tomore » complete each step. In addition, the tool allows one to model the costs for each step, which also may be uncertain. RESTORE allows the user to estimate the time and cost, both of which may be uncertain, to achieve an intermediate stage of completion, as well as overall completion. The software also makes it possible to model parallel, competing groups of activities (i.e., parallel paths) so that progreSs at a ‘merge point’ can proceed before other competing activities are completed. For example, RESTORE permits one to model a workaround and a simultaneous complete repair to determine a probability distribution for the earliest time service can be restored to a critical customer. The tool identifies the ‘most active path’ through the network of tasks, which is extremely important information for assessing the most effective way to speed-up or slow-down progress. Unlike other project planning and risk analysis tools, RESTORE provides an intuitive, graphical, and object-oriented environment for structuring a model and setting its parameters.« less

  9. The impact of equivalence ratio oscillations on combustion dynamics in a backward-facing step combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat Altay, H.; Speth, Raymond L.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2009-11-15

    The combustion dynamics of propane-air flames are investigated in an atmospheric pressure, atmospheric inlet temperature, lean, premixed backward-facing step combustor. We modify the location of the fuel injector to examine the impact of equivalence ratio oscillations arriving at the flame on the combustion dynamics. Simultaneous pressure, velocity, heat-release rate and equivalence ratio measurements and high-speed video from the experiments are used to identify and characterize several distinct operating modes. When the fuel is injected far upstream from the step, the equivalence ratio arriving at the flame is steady and the combustion dynamics are controlled only by flame-vortex interactions. In this case, different dynamic regimes are observed depending on the operating parameters. When the fuel is injected close to the step, the equivalence ratio arriving at the flame exhibits oscillations. In the presence of equivalence ratio oscillations, the measured sound pressure level is significant across the entire range of lean mean equivalence ratios even if the equivalence ratio oscillations arriving at the flame are out-of-phase with the pressure oscillations. The combustion dynamics are governed primarily by the flame-vortex interactions, while the equivalence ratio oscillations have secondary effects. The equivalence ratio oscillations could generate variations in the combustion dynamics in each cycle under some operating conditions, destabilize the flame at the entire range of the lean equivalence ratios, and increase the value of the mean equivalence ratio at the lean blowout limit. (author)

  10. Notes on a New Coherence Estimator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickel, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    This document discusses some interesting features of the new coherence estimator in [1] . The estimator is d erived from a slightly different viewpoint. We discuss a few properties of the estimator, including presenting the probability density function of the denominator of the new estimator , which is a new feature of this estimator . Finally, we present an appr oximate equation for analysis of the sensitivity of the estimator to the knowledge of the noise value. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The preparation of this report is the result of an unfunded research and development activity. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  11. Effect of the water/oil ratio on the SSCC susceptibility of high strength OCTG carbon steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rincon, H.; Hernandez, S.; Salazar, J.; Case, R.; Vera, J.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper a correlation is established between the values of SSC threshold stress (K{sub ISSC}) and hydrogen permeation fluxes obtained using an electrochemical technique. The susceptibility of a high-strength steel to sulfide stress cracking (SSC) in the presence of crude oil was studied utilizing different crude oil/NACE solution ratios, and saturating the test solutions with H{sub 2}S according to the standard NACE TM-0177 method D. Results showed that oil confer protective properties against uniform corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen permeation. The hydrogen permeation technique was found useful to estimate the susceptibility of a given OCTG steel to SSC in sour environments, but the correlation between hydrogen flux and K{sub ISSC} is highly dependant on testing conditions.

  12. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  13. U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Methodology The U.S. uranium ore reserves reported by EIA for specific MFC categories represent the sums of quantities estimated to occur in known deposits on properties where data about the ore grade, configuration, and depth indicate that the quantities estimated could be recovered at or less than the stated costs given current mining and milling technology and regulations. The reserves estimates for year-end (delete: December 31, 2008), are based on historical data for uranium properties

  14. Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates 1 Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates Executive summary The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) relies on data from state and other federal agencies and does not currently collect survey data directly from crude oil producers. Summarizing the estimation process in terms of percent of U.S. production: * 20% is based on state agency data, including North Dakota and

  15. ORISE: Radiation Dose Estimates and Other Compendia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rapidly estimate internal and external radiation dose magnitudes that can be used to help ... (PDF) Health Concerns Related to Radiation Exposure of the Female Nuclear Medicine ...

  16. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation ... Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the ...

  17. Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is adjusting its estimates of natural gas production in Texas for 2004 and 2005 to correctly account for carbon dioxide (CO2) production.

  18. Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator This calculator is a tool designed for electric reliability planners at utilities, government organizations or other entities that are...

  19. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  20. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use Prepared for U.S. Department of ... PNNL would like to thank the Federal Water Working Group of the Interagency Energy ...

  1. An Estimator of Propagation of Cascading Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian; Wierzbicki, Kevin; Carreras, Benjamin A; Lynch, Vickie E; Newman, David E

    2006-01-01

    The authors suggest a statistical estimator to measure the extent to which failures propagate in cascading failures such as large blackouts.

  2. A New Maximum-Likelihood Change Estimator for Two-Pass SAR Coherent Change Detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we derive a new optimal change metric to be used in synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD). Previous CCD methods tend to produce false alarm states (showing change when there is none) in areas of the image that have a low clutter-to-noise power ratio (CNR). The new estimator does not suffer from this shortcoming. It is a surprisingly simple expression, easy to implement, and is optimal in the maximum-likelihood (ML) sense. The estimator produces very impressive results on the CCD collects that we have tested.

  3. Advanced digital PWR plant protection system based on optimal estimation theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    An advanced plant protection system for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant is described and evaluated. The system, based on a Kalman filter estimator, is capable of providing on-line estimates of such critical variables as fuel and cladding temperature, departure from nucleate boiling ratio, and maximum linear heat generation rate. The Kalman filter equations are presented, as is a description of the LOFT plant dynamic model inherent in the filter. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the advanced system.

  4. Method and global relationship for estimation of transmitted solar energy distribution in passive solar rooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athienitis, A.K.; Stylianou, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Estimation of the distribution of transmitted solar radiation within a room with large windows is required for correct prediction of building thermal performance and for optimal positioning of the thermal storage mass. This article presents a detailed computer method that determines the instantaneous solar radiation transmitted through a window and absorbed by each room interior surface, and a correlation for estimating the fraction of daily total transmitted solar radiation absorbed by the floor for several latitudes, for different shapes of enclosures, and for varying surface solar absorptances. The correlation was developed by fitting an exponential relationship to results obtained from a numerical study of the variation of the following parameters influencing the distribution of solar radiation: latitude, day of year, geometry of enclosure (width-to-depth ratio and window azimuth angle), window-to-floor area ratio, and surface absorptances.

  5. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-09-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  6. Property:Estimated End Date | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimated End Date Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Estimated End Date Property Type String Pages using the property "Estimated End Date" Showing 4 pages using this...

  7. Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Document explains how to use estimated ...

  8. Cost and Schedule Estimate and Analysis (FPM 207), Amarillo ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Course topics include: identifying cost and schedule estimates; Basic estimating methods; Group analysis techniques; Applying life-cycle costing technique; Validating estimates; ...

  9. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  10. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  11. Request for Retirement Annuity Estimates | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Request for Retirement Annuity Estimates Request for Retirement Annuity Estimates Upon request, Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer provides retirement estimates for ...

  12. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  13. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  14. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  15. Power, Optimization, Waste Estimating, Resourcing Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-13

    Planning, Optimization, Waste Estimating, Resourcing tool (POWERtool) is a comprehensive relational database software tool that can be used to develop and organize a detailed project scope, plan work tasks, develop bottoms-up field cost and waste estimates for facility Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D), equipment, and environmental restoration (ER) projects and produces resource-loaded schedules.

  16. Systematic Approach for Decommissioning Planning and Estimating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dam, A. S.

    2002-02-26

    Nuclear facility decommissioning, satisfactorily completed at the lowest cost, relies on a systematic approach to the planning, estimating, and documenting the work. High quality information is needed to properly perform the planning and estimating. A systematic approach to collecting and maintaining the needed information is recommended using a knowledgebase system for information management. A systematic approach is also recommended to develop the decommissioning plan, cost estimate and schedule. A probabilistic project cost and schedule risk analysis is included as part of the planning process. The entire effort is performed by a experienced team of decommissioning planners, cost estimators, schedulers, and facility knowledgeable owner representatives. The plant data, work plans, cost and schedule are entered into a knowledgebase. This systematic approach has been used successfully for decommissioning planning and cost estimating for a commercial nuclear power plant. Elements of this approach have been used for numerous cost estimates and estimate reviews. The plan and estimate in the knowledgebase should be a living document, updated periodically, to support decommissioning fund provisioning, with the plan ready for use when the need arises.

  17. Altering the volumetric expansion ratio of a Lysholm helical screw expander

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunbar, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    This is an analysis of the effects of the volumetric expansion ratio on the operation of a Lysholm helical screw expander. Extensive testing of the University of California Lysholm engine with a 5.3 volumetric expansion ratio was performed. In this experiment, the expansion ratio has been reduced from 5.3 to 4.0. Tests were performed at a variety of speeds and qualities for a 5.0 pressure ratio and at a variety of speeds and pressure ratios for 99 percent quality. It was predicted that decreasing the volumetric expansion ratio would decrease the leakage fraction and thereby increase efficiency. This occurred as predicted. Isentropic efficiency increased 20 percent for 50 percent quality steam and 16 percent for 33 percent quality steam, all for an inlet pressure of 120 psia and a speed of 9000 rpm. A maximum efficiency of 47.2 percent was reached at 33 percent quality, 9000 rpm and a pressure ratio of 5.0. It was noted that the leakage rate did not appear to be a function of expansion ratio, as had been expected. Using this fact the previous empirical models of the engine were extended to include volumetric expansion ratio as a variable parameter.

  18. Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Explores the effect of compression ratio and piston design on the practical load range of bio-fueled Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion.

  19. Sensitivity of transitions in internal rotor molecules to a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, Paul; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Xu, Li-Hong

    2011-12-15

    Recently, methanol was identified as a sensitive target system to probe variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio {mu}[Jansen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 100801 (2011)]. The high sensitivity of methanol originates from the interplay between overall rotation and hindered internal rotation of the molecule; that is, transitions that convert internal rotation energy into overall rotation energy, or vice versa, have an enhanced sensitivity coefficient, K{sub {mu}}. As internal rotation is a common phenomenon in polyatomic molecules, it is likely that other molecules display similar or even larger effects. In this paper we generalize the concepts that form the foundation of the high sensitivity in methanol and use this to construct an approximate model which makes it possible to estimate the sensitivities of transitions in internal rotor molecules with C{sub 3v} symmetry, without performing a full calculation of energy levels. We find that a reliable estimate of transition sensitivities can be obtained from the three rotational constants (A, B, and C) and three torsional constants (F, V{sub 3}, and {rho}). This model is verified by comparing obtained sensitivities for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetamide, methyl formate, and acetic acid with a full analysis of the molecular Hamiltonian. Of the molecules considered, methanol is by far the most suitable candidate for laboratory and cosmological tests searching for a possible variation of {mu}.

  20. Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M.

    1997-08-01

    In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

  1. RATIO COMPUTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1958-11-11

    An electronic computer circuit is described for producing an output voltage proportional to the product or quotient of tbe voltages of a pair of input signals. ln essence, the disclosed invention provides a computer having two channels adapted to receive separate input signals and each having amplifiers with like fixed amplification factors and like negatlve feedback amplifiers. One of the channels receives a constant signal for comparison purposes, whereby a difference signal is produced to control the amplification factors of the variable feedback amplifiers. The output of the other channel is thereby proportional to the product or quotient of input signals depending upon the relation of input to fixed signals in the first mentioned channel.

  2. Ratios of W and Z cross sections at large boson $p_T$ as a constraint on PDFs and background to new physics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malik, Sarah Alam; Watt, Graeme

    2014-02-05

    We motivate a measurement of various ratios of W and Z cross sections at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at large values of the boson transverse momentum (p T ≳ M W,Z ). We study the dependence of predictions for these cross-section ratios on the multiplicity of associated jets, the boson p T and the LHC centre-of-mass energy. We present the flavour decomposition of the initial-state partons and an evaluation of the theoretical uncertainties. We also show that the W + /W - ratio is sensitive to the up-quark to down-quark ratio of parton distribution functions (PDFs), while other theoreticalmore » uncertainties are negligible, meaning that a precise measurement of the W + /W - ratio at large boson p T values could constrain the PDFs at larger momentum fractions x than the usual inclusive W charge asymmetry. The W ± /Z ratio is insensitive to PDFs and most other theoretical uncertainties, other than possibly electroweak corrections, and a precise measurement will therefore be useful in validating theoretical predictions needed in data-driven methods, such as using W (→ ℓν) + jets events to estimate the Z(→ νν¯) + jets background in searches for new physics at the LHC. Furthermore, the differential W and Z cross sections themselves, dσ/dp T , have the potential to constrain the gluon distribution, provided that theoretical uncertainties from higher-order QCD and electroweak corrections are brought under control, such as by inclusion of anticipated next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections.« less

  3. Ratios of W and Z cross sections at large boson $p_T$ as a constraint on PDFs and background to new physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, Sarah Alam; Watt, Graeme

    2014-02-05

    We motivate a measurement of various ratios of W and Z cross sections at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at large values of the boson transverse momentum (p T ? M W,Z ). We study the dependence of predictions for these cross-section ratios on the multiplicity of associated jets, the boson p T and the LHC centre-of-mass energy. We present the flavour decomposition of the initial-state partons and an evaluation of the theoretical uncertainties. We also show that the W + /W - ratio is sensitive to the up-quark to down-quark ratio of parton distribution functions (PDFs), while other theoretical uncertainties are negligible, meaning that a precise measurement of the W + /W - ratio at large boson p T values could constrain the PDFs at larger momentum fractions x than the usual inclusive W charge asymmetry. The W /Z ratio is insensitive to PDFs and most other theoretical uncertainties, other than possibly electroweak corrections, and a precise measurement will therefore be useful in validating theoretical predictions needed in data-driven methods, such as using W (? ??) + jets events to estimate the Z(? ??) + jets background in searches for new physics at the LHC. Furthermore, the differential W and Z cross sections themselves, d?/dp T , have the potential to constrain the gluon distribution, provided that theoretical uncertainties from higher-order QCD and electroweak corrections are brought under control, such as by inclusion of anticipated next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections.

  4. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  5. Parallel State Estimation Assessment with Practical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-10-31

    This paper presents a full-cycle parallel state estimation (PSE) implementation using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. The developed code is able to solve large-size power system state estimation within 5 seconds using real-world data, comparable to the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) rate. This achievement allows the operators to know the system status much faster to help improve grid reliability. Case study results of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system with real measurements are presented. The benefits of fast state estimation are also discussed.

  6. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  7. State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  8. State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  9. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harney, Robert C.; Bloom, Stewart D.

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances.

  10. AGR-2 AND AGR-3/4 RELEASE-TO-BIRTH RATIO DATA ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, Binh T; Einerson, Jeffrey J; Scates, Dawn M; Maki, John T; Petti, David A

    2014-09-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation tests is being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory in support of development and qualification of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) low enriched fuel used in the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Each AGR test consists of multiple independently controlled and monitored capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel shell. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples embedded in the graphite enabling temperature control. AGR configuration and irradiation conditions are based on prismatic HTGR technology distinguished primarily by the use of helium coolant, a low-power-density ceramic core capable of withstanding very high temperatures, and TRISO coated particle fuel. Thus, these tests provide valuable irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes. The release-rate-to-birth-rate ratio (R/B) for each of fission product isotopes (i.e., krypton and xenon) is calculated from release rates in the sweep gas flow measured by the germanium detectors used in the AGR Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) System installed downstream from each irradiated capsule. Birth rates are calculated based on the fission power in the experiment and fission product generation models. Thus, this R/B is a measure of the ability of fuel kernel, particle coating layers, and compact matrix to retain fission gas atoms preventing their release into the sweep gas flow, especially in the event of particle coating failures that occurred during AGR-2 and AGR-3/4 irradiations. The major factors that govern gaseous radioactive decay, diffusion, and release processes are found to be material diffusion coefficient, temperature, and isotopic decay constant. For each of all AGR capsules, ABAQUS-based three

  11. The effect of catalyst ratio on catalytic performance in liquid phase dimethyl ether process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Junwang; Niu Yuqin; Zhang Bijiang

    1997-12-31

    In the liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) process, two functionally different catalysts are slurried together in an inert liquid medium. Syngas reacts on the surface of the methanol catalyst and methanol is dehydrated on the surface of the dehydration catalyst dispersed in the liquid. The process is adaptable to carbon monoxide-rich syngas derived from second generation coal gasifiers. The effect of catalyst ratio on catalytic performances of the dual catalyst was studied in liquid phase dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas at 280 C, 4.0 MPa. CO conversion, H{sub 2} conversion and DME productivity increased with an increase of catalyst ratio initially, reached their maximum at a catalyst ratio of 4.0--5.0, and then decreased. Methanol productivity and methanol equivalent productivity had a similar trend to that of DME productivity. DME selectivity and hydrocarbon selectivity increased with an increase in catalyst ratio whereas methanol selectivity decreased with catalyst ratio.

  12. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  13. Effect of cold drawing ratio on γ′ precipitation in Inconel X-750

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ha, Jeong Won; Seong, Baek Seok; Jeong, Hi Won; Yoo, Young Soo; Choi, Yoon Suk; Kang, Namhyun

    2014-10-15

    Inconel X-750 is a Ni-based precipitation-hardened superalloy having large tensile and fracture strengths. In the study, X-750 wires were cold drawn to different extents. Small angle neutron scattering was employed to quantitatively measure the size and volume fraction of the γ′ phase as a function of the cold drawing ratio (DR) and aging temperature. The presence and size of γ′ precipitates were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The drawing ratio had an important effect on the volume fraction of the γ′ precipitates. However, the size of the precipitates was independent on the drawing ratio. The specimen with the minimum drawing ratio (DR0) produced the largest volume fraction of γ′ as compared with large drawing ratio (DR) specimens such as DR17 and DR42. The small volume fraction of the γ′ phase for a sizeable drawing ratio was associated with the large amount of nucleation sites for secondary carbides, M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, and the fast diffusion path, i.e., dislocation, needed to form M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. A Cr depletion zone around the secondary carbides raised the solubility of γ′. Therefore, the significant drawing ratio contributing to the large volume fraction of the secondary carbides decreased the volume fraction of the γ′ precipitates in Inconel X-750. - Highlights: • The volume fraction of secondary carbides increased with the drawing ratio. • The volume fraction of γ′ decreased as the drawing ratio increased. • The drawing ratio affected the γ′ volume fraction with no variation of the γ' size. • The volume fraction of γ′ was affected by the secondary carbide volume fraction.

  14. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1997. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    This report contains the fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1997.

  15. Forward estimation for game-tree search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Weixiong

    1996-12-31

    It is known that bounds on the minimax values of nodes in a game tree can be used to reduce the computational complexity of minimax search for two-player games. We describe a very simple method to estimate bounds on the minimax values of interior nodes of a game tree, and use the bounds to improve minimax search. The new algorithm, called forward estimation, does not require additional domain knowledge other than a static node evaluation function, and has small constant overhead per node expansion. We also propose a variation of forward estimation, which provides a tradeoff between computational complexity and decision quality. Our experimental results show that forward estimation outperforms alpha-beta pruning on random game trees and the game of Othello.

  16. Lensed CMB simulation and parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Antony

    2005-04-15

    Modelling of the weak lensing of the CMB will be crucial to obtain correct cosmological parameter constraints from forthcoming precision CMB anisotropy observations. The lensing affects the power spectrum as well as inducing non-Gaussianities. We discuss the simulation of full-sky CMB maps in the weak lensing approximation and describe a fast numerical code. The series expansion in the deflection angle cannot be used to simulate accurate CMB maps, so a pixel remapping must be used. For parameter estimation accounting for the change in the power spectrum but assuming Gaussianity is sufficient to obtain accurate results up to Planck sensitivity using current tools. A fuller analysis may be required to obtain accurate error estimates and for more sensitive observations. We demonstrate a simple full-sky simulation and subsequent parameter estimation at Planck-like sensitivity. The lensed CMB simulation and parameter estimation codes are publicly available.

  17. Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator Worksheet, Version 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Xcel document describes Version 1 of the the Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator tool. This tool assists federal agencies in estimating the greenhouse gas mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings, for example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office buildings, users can define their own efficiency measures, costs, and savings estimates for inclusion in the portfolio assessment. More information on user-defined measures can be found in Step 2 of the buildings emission reduction guidance. The output of this tool is a prioritized set of activities that can help the agency to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets most cost-effectively.

  18. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via ...

  19. Preliminary CBECS End-Use Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    For the past three CBECS (1989, 1992, and 1995), we used a statistically-adjusted engineering (SAE) methodology to estimate end-use consumption. The core of the SAE methodology...

  20. Estimating Temperature Distributions In Geothermal Areas Using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "education level" (which depends on the amount and structure of information used for teaching) and (b) the distance of the point at which the estimate is made from the area for...

  1. WEATHER PREDICTIONS AND SURFACE RADIATION ESTIMATES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    RADIATION ESTIMATES for the RULISON EVENT Final Report Albert H . S t o u t , Ray E . ... f i c e U . ' S . Atomic Energy Commission January 1970 LEGAL NOTSCCE ; L *U . . . . . - . ...

  2. Estimating electron drift velocities in magnetron discharges...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating ... OSTI Identifier: 1172974 Report Number(s): LBNL-5865E DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-05CH11231 Resource Type: Journal ...

  3. gtp_flow_power_estimator.xlsx

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This simple spreadsheet model estimates either the flow rate required to produce a specified level of power output, or the power output that can be produced from a specified flow rate.

  4. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  5. Chapter 3: FY 2005 benefits estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) estimates expected benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its 11 programs. Benefits for the FY 2005 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2010-2025) and long term (2030-2050). Two separate models suited to these periods are employed—NEMS-GPRA05 for the midterm and MARKAL-GPRA05 for the long term.

  6. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Brian K.

    2010-08-01

    The document provides a methodology to estimate unmetered industrial water use for evaporative cooling systems, steam generating boiler systems, batch process applications, and wash systems. For each category standard mathematical relationships are summarized and provided in a single resource to assist Federal agencies in developing an initial estimate of their industrial water use. The approach incorporates industry norms, general rules of thumb, and industry survey information to provide methodologies for each section.

  7. Chapter 3: FY 2006 benefits estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) estimates expected benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its 11 programs. Benefits for the FY 2006 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2010-2025) and long term (2030-2050). Two separate models suited to these periods are employed–NEMS-GPRA06 for the midterm and MARKAL-GPRA06 for the long term.

  8. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  9. Estimated recharge rates at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, M.J.; Walters, T.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitors the distribution of contaminants in ground water at the Hanford Site for the U.S. Department of Energy. A subtask called {open_quotes}Water Budget at Hanford{close_quotes} was initiated in FY 1994. The objective of this subtask was to produce a defensible map of estimated recharge rates across the Hanford Site. Methods that have been used to estimate recharge rates at the Hanford Site include measurements (of drainage, water contents, and tracers) and computer modeling. For the simulations of 12 soil-vegetation combinations, the annual rates varied from 0.05 mm/yr for the Ephrata sandy loam with bunchgrass to 85.2 mm/yr for the same soil without vegetation. Water content data from the Grass Site in the 300 Area indicated that annual rates varied from 3.0 to 143.5 mm/yr during an 8-year period. The annual volume of estimated recharge was calculated to be 8.47 {times} 10{sup 9} L for the potential future Hanford Site (i.e., the portion of the current Site bounded by Highway 240 and the Columbia River). This total volume is similar to earlier estimates of natural recharge and is 2 to 10x higher than estimates of runoff and ground-water flow from higher elevations. Not only is the volume of natural recharge significant in comparison to other ground-water inputs, the distribution of estimated recharge is highly skewed to the disturbed sandy soils (i.e., the 200 Areas, where most contaminants originate). The lack of good estimates of the means and variances of the supporting data (i.e., the soil map, the vegetation/land use map, the model parameters) translates into large uncertainties in the recharge estimates. When combined, the significant quantity of estimated recharge, its high sensitivity to disturbance, and the unquantified uncertainty of the data and model parameters suggest that the defensibility of the recharge estimates should be improved.

  10. The viscosity to entropy ratio: From string theory motivated bounds to warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G.; Libby, S. B.; Silvestrelli, P. L.

    2014-07-04

    Here, we study the ratio of viscosity to entropy density in Yukawa one-component plasmas as a function of coupling parameter at fixed screening, and in realistic warm dense matter models as a function of temperature at fixed density. In these two situations, the ratio is minimized for values of the coupling parameters that depend on screening, and for temperatures that in turn depend on density and material. In this context, we also examine Rosenfeld arguments relating transport coefficients to excess reduced entropy for Yukawa one-component plasmas. For these cases we show that this ratio is always above the lower-bound conjecture derived from string theory ideas.

  11. Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rykoff, E.S.; Koester, B.P.; Rozo, E.; Annis, J.; Evrard, A.E.; Hansen, S.M.; Hao, J.; Johnston, D.E.; McKay, T.A.; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-07

    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. (2009b), and evaluate their impact on the scatter in X-ray luminosity at fixed richness. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that {sigma}{sub ln L{sub X}|{lambda}} = 0.63 {+-} 0.02 for clusters with M{sub 500c} {approx}> 1.6 x 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is {sigma}{sub ln M|{lambda}} {approx} 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a-priori calibrations of the red-sequence. We also demonstrate that the recovered richness is robust to up to 50% uncertainties in the galaxy background, as well as to the choice of photometric filter employed, so long as the filters span the 4000 {angstrom} break of red-sequence galaxies. Consequently, our richness estimator can be used to compare richness estimates of different clusters, even if they do not share the same photometric data. Appendix A includes 'easy-bake' instructions for implementing our optimal richness estimator, and we are releasing an implementation of the code that works with SDSS data, as well as an augmented maxBCG catalog with the {lambda} richness measured for each cluster.

  12. GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide: Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process, from the first step of defining the estimate's purpose to the last step of updating the estimate to reflect actual costs and changes. Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process (75.75 KB) Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD Resource Center PM Newsletter Forms and Templates More Documents & Publications

  13. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  14. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2010-12-15

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  15. Sub-Second Parallel State Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yousu; Rice, Mark J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Wang, Shaobu; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-10-31

    This report describes the performance of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) sub-second parallel state estimation (PSE) tool using the utility data from the Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) and discusses the benefits of the fast computational speed for power system applications. The test data were provided by BPA. They are two-days’ worth of hourly snapshots that include power system data and measurement sets in a commercial tool format. These data are extracted out from the commercial tool box and fed into the PSE tool. With the help of advanced solvers, the PSE tool is able to solve each BPA hourly state estimation problem within one second, which is more than 10 times faster than today’s commercial tool. This improved computational performance can help increase the reliability value of state estimation in many aspects: (1) the shorter the time required for execution of state estimation, the more time remains for operators to take appropriate actions, and/or to apply automatic or manual corrective control actions. This increases the chances of arresting or mitigating the impact of cascading failures; (2) the SE can be executed multiple times within time allowance. Therefore, the robustness of SE can be enhanced by repeating the execution of the SE with adaptive adjustments, including removing bad data and/or adjusting different initial conditions to compute a better estimate within the same time as a traditional state estimator’s single estimate. There are other benefits with the sub-second SE, such as that the PSE results can potentially be used in local and/or wide-area automatic corrective control actions that are currently dependent on raw measurements to minimize the impact of bad measurements, and provides opportunities to enhance the power grid reliability and efficiency. PSE also can enable other advanced tools that rely on SE outputs and could be used to further improve operators’ actions and automated controls to mitigate effects

  16. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents two-stage variable compression ratio mechanism realized by varying the connecting rod length, description of the system layout, working principle and expected fuel savings benefits when used in current and future gasoline engine concepts

  17. Heterogeneity of functional groups in a metal-organic framework displays magic number ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sue, Andrew C.-H.; Mannige, Ranjan V.; Deng, Hexiang; Cao, Dennis; Wang, Cheng; Gándara, Felipe; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Whitelam, Stephen; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2015-05-20

    Multiple organic functionalities can now be apportioned into nanoscale domains within a metal-coordinated framework, posing the following question: how do we control the resulting combination of “heterogeneity and order”? Here, we report the creation of a metal–organic framework, MOF-2000, whose two component types are incorporated in a 2:1 ratio, even when the ratio of component types in the starting solution is varied by an order of magnitude. Statistical mechanical modeling suggests that this robust 2:1 ratio has a nonequilibrium origin, resulting from kinetic trapping of component types during framework growth. Our simulations show how other “magic number” ratios of components can be obtained by modulating the topology of a framework and the noncovalent interactions between component types, a finding that may aid the rational design of functional multicomponent materials.

  18. Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David; Carrete, Jesus; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The lattice thermal conductivities ( ) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure, P, using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of . This anomalous P dependence of arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small mass ratios. This work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.

  19. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, A.; Luo, J.; Wang, A.; Broadbent, C.; Zhong, J.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z.

    2015-03-14

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. In addition, an efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent inmore » the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.« less

  20. Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David; Carrete, Jesus; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The lattice thermal conductivities ( ) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure, P, using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of . This anomalous P dependence of arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small massmore » ratios. This work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.« less

  1. Explaining the Cosmic-Ray E+/(E- + E+) and Anti-P/P Ratios Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Explaining the Cosmic-Ray E+(E- + E+) and Anti-PP Ratios Using a Steady-State Injection Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Explaining the Cosmic-Ray E+(E- + E+) ...

  2. Evaluation of Black Carbon Estimations in Global Aerosol Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D.; Schulz, M.; Kinne, Stefan; McNaughton, C. S.; Spackman, J. R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Bond, Tami C.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Clarke, A. D.; De Luca, N.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Dubovik, O.; Easter, Richard C.; Fahey, D. W.; Feichter, J.; Fillmore, D.; Freitag, S.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Horowitz, L.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Klimont, Z.; Kondo, Yutaka; Krol, M.; Liu, Xiaohong; Miller, R.; Montanaro, V.; Moteki, N.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Perlwitz, Ja; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Sahu, L.; Sakamoto, H.; Schuster, G.; Schwarz, J. P.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Takemura, T.; Textor, C.; van Aardenne, John; Zhao, Y.

    2009-11-27

    We evaluate black carbon (BC) model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) from AERONET and OMI retrievals and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column) AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.6 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 10 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC is 0.6 and underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model generated a smaller change in model predictions than the

  3. Building unbiased estimators from non-gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; McDonald, Patrick; Sehgal, Neelima; Slosar, Anze

    2015-01-15

    We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the work of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrongs estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors ?g/g for shears up to |g| = 0.2.

  4. Building unbiased estimators from non-gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; McDonald, Patrick; Sehgal, Neelima; Slosar, Anze

    2015-01-15

    We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the workmore » of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrong’s estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors Δg/g for shears up to |g| = 0.2.« less

  5. Building unbiased estimators from non-Gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Sehgal, Neelima; McDonald, Patrick; Slosar, Ane E-mail: pvmcdonald@lbl.gov E-mail: anze@bnl.gov

    2015-01-01

    We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the work of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrong's estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors ?g/g for shears up to |g|=0.2.

  6. Building unbiased estimators from non-gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Slosar, Anze; McDonald, Patrick; Sehgal, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the work of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrongs estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors ?g/g for shears up to |g| = 0.2.

  7. HCCI in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine Variables |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine Variables HCCI in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine Variables 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Southwest Research Institute 2004_deer_ryan.pdf (410.71 KB) More Documents & Publications HCCI - A Technical Review and Progress Report 2006 HCCI - Update of Progress 2005 Fuel Requirements for HCCI Engine Operation

  8. Robust estimation procedure in panel data model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shariff, Nurul Sima Mohamad; Hamzah, Nor Aishah

    2014-06-19

    The panel data modeling has received a great attention in econometric research recently. This is due to the availability of data sources and the interest to study cross sections of individuals observed over time. However, the problems may arise in modeling the panel in the presence of cross sectional dependence and outliers. Even though there are few methods that take into consideration the presence of cross sectional dependence in the panel, the methods may provide inconsistent parameter estimates and inferences when outliers occur in the panel. As such, an alternative method that is robust to outliers and cross sectional dependence is introduced in this paper. The properties and construction of the confidence interval for the parameter estimates are also considered in this paper. The robustness of the procedure is investigated and comparisons are made to the existing method via simulation studies. Our results have shown that robust approach is able to produce an accurate and reliable parameter estimates under the condition considered.

  9. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  10. Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Kinney, William H.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. E-mail: gnedin@fnal.edu

    2013-05-01

    We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.

  11. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  12. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III

    2002-01-01

    This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

  13. CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2003-02-27

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume

  14. Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter

    2013-07-16

    Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.

  15. Estimating the uncertainty in underresolved nonlinear dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chorin, Alelxandre; Hald, Ole

    2013-06-12

    The Mori-Zwanzig formalism of statistical mechanics is used to estimate the uncertainty caused by underresolution in the solution of a nonlinear dynamical system. A general approach is outlined and applied to a simple example. The noise term that describes the uncertainty turns out to be neither Markovian nor Gaussian. It is argued that this is the general situation.

  16. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2010-07-28

    The document lays-out step by step instructions to estimate landscaping water using two alternative approaches: evapotranspiration method and irrigation audit method. The evapotranspiration method option calculates the amount of water needed to maintain a healthy turf or landscaped area for a given location based on the amount of water transpired and evaporated from the plants. The evapotranspiration method offers a relatively easy one-stop-shop for Federal agencies to develop an initial estimate of annual landscape water use. The document presents annual irrigation factors for 36 cities across the U.S. that represents the gallons of irrigation required per square foot for distinct landscape types. By following the steps outlined in the document, the reader can choose a location that is a close match their location and landscape type to provide a rough estimate of annual irrigation needs without the need to research specific data on their site. The second option presented in the document is the irrigation audit method, which is the physical measurement of water applied to landscaped areas through irrigation equipment. Steps to perform an irrigation audit are outlined in the document, which follow the Recommended Audit Guidelines produced by the Irrigation Association.[5] An irrigation audit requires some knowledge on the specific procedures to accurately estimate how much water is being consumed by the irrigation equipment.

  17. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Savings and Cost Estimate Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings and Cost Estimate Summary DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Savings and Cost Estimate Summary The U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home Savings and Cost Estimate ...

  18. First Measurement of the Ratio sigma_(t-tbar) / sigma_(Z/\\gamma*->ll) and Precise Extraction of the t-tbar Cross Section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2010-04-01

    We report a measurement of the ratio of the t{bar t} to Z/{gamma}* production cross sections in {radical}s = 1.96 TeV p{bar p} collisions using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 4.6 fb{sup -1}, collected by the CDF II detector. The t{bar t} cross section ratio is measured using two complementary methods, a b-jet tagging measurement and a topological approach. By multiplying the ratios by the well-known theoretical Z/{gamma}* {yields} ll cross section predicted by the standard model, the extracted t{bar t} cross sections are effectively insensitive to the uncertainty on luminosity. A best linear unbiased estimate is used to combine both measurements with the result {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.70 {+-} 0.52 pb, for a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  19. A Combination of CDF and D0 limits on the branching ratio of B0(s)(d) ---> mu+ mu- decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernhard, R.; Glenzinski, D.; Herndon, M.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Landsberg, G.; Lehner, F.; Lin, C.J.; Mrenna, S.; /Zurich U. /Fermilab /Wisconsin U., Madison /Texas A-M /Brown U.

    2005-08-01

    The authors combine the results of CDF and D0 searches for the rare decays B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. The experiments use 364 pb{sup -1} and 300 pb{sup -1} of data respectively. The limits on the branching ratios are obtained by normalizing the estimated sensitivity to the decay B{sup +} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup +} taking into account the fragmentation ratios f{sub u}/f{sub s(d)}. The combined results exclude branching ratios of BR(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) > 1.5 x 10{sup -7} and BR(B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) > 4.0 x 10{sup -8} at 95% confidence level. These are the most stringent limits on these decays at the present time.

  20. Performance Bounds on Micro-Doppler Estimation and Adaptive Waveform Design Using OFDM Signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, Satyabrata; Barhen, Jacob; Glover, Charles Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the performance of a wideband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in estimating the micro-Doppler frequency of a target having multiple rotating scatterers (e.g., rotor blades of a helicopter, propellers of a submarine). The presence of rotating scatterers introduces Doppler frequency modulation in the received signal by generating sidebands about the transmitted frequencies. This is called the micro-Doppler effects. The use of a frequency-diverse OFDM signal in this context enables us to independently analyze the micro-Doppler characteristics with respect to a set of orthogonal subcarrier frequencies. Therefore, to characterize the accuracy of micro-Doppler frequency estimation, we compute the Cram er-Rao Bound (CRB) on the angular-velocity estimate of the target while considering the scatterer responses as deterministic but unknown nuisance parameters. Additionally, to improve the accuracy of the estimation procedure, we formulate and solve an optimization problem by minimizing the CRB on the angular-velocity estimate with respect to the transmitting OFDM spectral coefficients. We present several numerical examples to demonstrate the CRB variations at different values of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of OFDM subcarriers. The CRB values not only decrease with the increase in the SNR values, but also reduce as we increase the number of subcarriers implying the significance of frequency-diverse OFDM waveforms. The improvement in estimation accuracy due to the adaptive waveform design is also numerically analyzed. Interestingly, we find that the relative decrease in the CRBs on the angular-velocity estimate is more pronounced for larger number of OFDM subcarriers.

  1. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.

  2. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore » Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less

  3. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio at TeV energies with MINOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D.J.; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, D.S.; Baller, B.; Barish, B.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; Barr, G.; /Fermilab /University Coll. London /Rutherford /Minnesota U. /Indiana U. /Sussex U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Argonne /Caltech /LLNL, Livermore /Oxford U.

    2007-05-01

    The 5.4 kton MINOS far detector has been taking charge-separated cosmic ray muon data since the beginning of August, 2003 at a depth of 2070 m.w.e. in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, Minnesota, USA. The data with both forward and reversed magnetic field running configurations were combined to minimize systematic errors in the determination of the underground muon charge ratio. When averaged, two independent analyses find the charge ratio underground to be N{sub {mu}}+/N{sub {mu}}-=1.374{+-}0.004(stat)-0.010{sup +0.012}(sys). Using the map of the Soudan rock overburden, the muon momenta as measured underground were projected to the corresponding values at the surface in the energy range 1-7 TeV. Within this range of energies at the surface, the MINOS data are consistent with the charge ratio being energy independent at the 2 standard deviation level. When the MINOS results are compared with measurements at lower energies, a clear rise in the charge ratio in the energy range 0.3-1.0 TeV is apparent. A qualitative model shows that the rise is consistent with an increasing contribution of kaon decays to the muon charge ratio.

  4. Time Adaptive Conditional Kernel Density Estimation for Wind...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Time Adaptive Conditional Kernel Density Estimation for Wind Power Forecasting Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time Adaptive Conditional Kernel Density Estimation for ...

  5. Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests...

  6. A Review of Cost Estimation in New Technologies - Implications...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A Review of Cost Estimation in New Technologies - Implications for Energy Process Plants A Review of Cost Estimation in New Technologies - Implications for Energy Process Plants ...

  7. Error Estimation for Fault Tolerance in Numerical Integration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Error Estimation for Fault Tolerance in Numerical Integration Solvers Event Sponsor: ... In numerical integration solvers, approximation error can be estimated at a low cost. We ...

  8. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report (Technical Report...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report You are accessing a document from the ...

  9. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating the Impact (Energy, ...

  10. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop -...

  11. Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Best Estimate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) products: ... Title: Contribution to the development of DOE ARM Climate Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) ...

  12. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Citation Details ... Title: Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Authors: Ha, ...

  13. Property:Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plants included in Capacity Estimate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate Property Type Number Retrieved from "http:...

  14. Property:Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate Property Type String Description Number of...

  15. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's ...

  16. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Lamont, OK Statistical Summary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Climate Modeling Best Estimate Lamont, OK Statistical Summary (ARMBE-CLDRAD SGPC1) Title: ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Lamont, OK Statistical Summary (ARMBE-CLDRAD SGPC1) ...

  17. Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and ...

  18. The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2-dimensional Gridded Surface Title: The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set merges together ...

  19. Report Now Available: DC Microgrids Scoping Study--Estimate of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Report Now Available: DC Microgrids Scoping Study--Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits (March 2015) Report Now Available: DC Microgrids Scoping Study--Estimate of Technical ...

  20. A Review of Geothermal Resource Estimation Methodology | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Resource Estimation Methodology Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: A Review of Geothermal Resource Estimation...

  1. Error estimates for fission neutron outputs (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Error estimates for fission neutron outputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Error estimates for fission neutron outputs You are accessing a document from the...

  2. Log-ratio signal-processing technique for beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Two basic signal-processing techniques are presently in wide use for the processing of signals from beam position monitors (BPMs); difference-over-sum, and amplitude-modulation-to-phase-modulation (AM-PM) conversion. Difference-over-sum offers simplicity and low cost, but poor real-time normalized response and amplitude dynamic range. AM-PM offers fast real-time response and large dynamic range, but is costly and difficult to implement. Logarithmic-ratio processing, a technique using newly available inexpensive hybrid circuits, appears to offer the advantages of both, and the disadvantages of neither. This paper reviews the features techniques, and highlights the features of the log-ratio technique. Among the advantages of log-ratio is a beam-displacement response linearity that is superior to either difference-over-sum or AM-PM for circular-aperture BPMs.

  3. Log-ratio signal-processing technique for beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    Two basic signal-processing techniques are presently in wide use for the processing of signals from beam position monitors (BPMs); difference-over-sum, and amplitude-modulation-to-phase-modulation (AM-PM) conversion. Difference-over-sum offers simplicity and low cost, but poor real-time normalized response and amplitude dynamic range. AM-PM offers fast real-time response and large dynamic range, but is costly and difficult to implement. Logarithmic-ratio processing, a technique using newly available inexpensive hybrid circuits, appears to offer the advantages of both, and the disadvantages of neither. This paper reviews the features techniques, and highlights the features of the log-ratio technique. Among the advantages of log-ratio is a beam-displacement response linearity that is superior to either difference-over-sum or AM-PM for circular-aperture BPMs.

  4. Measurement of the charge ratio of atmospheric muons with the CMS detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2010-08-01

    We present a measurement of the ratio of positive to negative muon fluxes from cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere, using data collected by the CMS detector both at ground level and in the underground experimental cavern at the CERN LHC. Muons were detected in the momentum range from 5 GeV/c to 1 TeV/c. The surface flux ratio is measured to be 1.2766 \\pm 0.0032(stat.) \\pm 0.0032 (syst.), independent of the muon momentum, below 100 GeV/c. This is the most precise measurement to date. At higher momenta the data are consistent with an increase of the charge ratio, in agreement with cosmic ray shower models and compatible with previous measurements by deep-underground experiments.

  5. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  6. The viscosity to entropy ratio: From string theory motivated bounds to warm dense matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faussurier, G.; Libby, S. B.; Silvestrelli, P. L.

    2014-07-04

    Here, we study the ratio of viscosity to entropy density in Yukawa one-component plasmas as a function of coupling parameter at fixed screening, and in realistic warm dense matter models as a function of temperature at fixed density. In these two situations, the ratio is minimized for values of the coupling parameters that depend on screening, and for temperatures that in turn depend on density and material. In this context, we also examine Rosenfeld arguments relating transport coefficients to excess reduced entropy for Yukawa one-component plasmas. For these cases we show that this ratio is always above the lower-bound conjecturemore » derived from string theory ideas.« less

  7. Measurement of the multiple-muon charge ratio in the MINOS Far Detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adamson, P.

    2016-03-30

    The charge ratio, Rμ = Nμ+/Nμ-, for cosmogenic multiple-muon events observed at an underground depth of 2070 mwe has been measured using the magnetized MINOS Far Detector. The multiple-muon events, recorded nearly continuously from August 2003 until April 2012, comprise two independent data sets imaged with opposite magnetic field polarities, the comparison of which allows the systematic uncertainties of the measurement to be minimized. The multiple-muon charge ratio is determined to be Rμ = 1.104±0.006(stat)-0.010+0.009(syst). As a result, this measurement complements previous determinations of single-muon and multiple-muon charge ratios at underground sites and serves to constrain models of cosmic-ray interactions atmore » TeV energies.« less

  8. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS"," ","per

  9. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(million

  10. Practical method and device for enhancing pulse contrast ratio for lasers and electron accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shukui; Wilson, Guy

    2014-09-23

    An apparatus and method for enhancing pulse contrast ratios for drive lasers and electron accelerators. The invention comprises a mechanical dual-shutter system wherein the shutters are placed sequentially in series in a laser beam path. Each shutter of the dual shutter system has an individually operated trigger for opening and closing the shutter. As the triggers are operated individually, the delay between opening and closing first shutter and opening and closing the second shutter is variable providing for variable differential time windows and enhancement of pulse contrast ratio.

  11. Spectroscopic study using line ratios of lithiumlike ions in a laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, J.C.; Goldsmith, S.; Griem, H.R.

    1989-02-15

    Spectra of highly ionized titanium and calcium in the extreme ultraviolet region were observed in laser-produced plasmas using the OMEGA 24 beam (351 nm) laser system at the University of Rochester. The plasmas were produced using glass microballoon targets coated with a layer of a medium Z element and a layer of parylene (CH). Time-integrated electron temperatures and densities were obtained by comparing measured line intensity ratios of lithiumlike charge states of Ti and Ca to numerical calculations from a collisional-radiative model. The variation of line intensity ratios with electron density and temperature using the collisional-radiative model is discussed.

  12. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.A.

    1984-07-10

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

  13. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  14. Concentration Ratios for Cesium and Strontium in Produce Near Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Salazar, M.McNaughton, P.R. Fresquez

    2006-03-01

    The ratios of the concentrations of radionuclides in produce (fruits, vegetables, and grains) to the concentrations in the soil have been measured for cesium and strontium at locations near Los Alamos. The Soil, Foodstuffs, and Biota Team of the Meteorology and Air Quality Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) obtained the data at locations within a radius of 50 miles of LANL. The concentration ratios are in good agreement with previous measurements: 0.01 to 0.06 for cesium-137 and 0.1 to 0.5 for strontium-90 (wet-weight basis).

  15. CosmoSIS: Modular cosmological parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuntz, J.; Paterno, M.; Jennings, E.; Rudd, D.; Manzotti, A.; Dodelson, S.; Bridle, S.; Sehrish, S.; Kowalkowski, J.

    2015-06-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. Here we present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in CosmoSIS, including CAMB, Planck, cosmic shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. Lastly, we illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis

  16. CosmoSIS: Modular cosmological parameter estimation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zuntz, J.; Paterno, M.; Jennings, E.; Rudd, D.; Manzotti, A.; Dodelson, S.; Bridle, S.; Sehrish, S.; Kowalkowski, J.

    2015-06-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. Here we present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in CosmoSIS, including CAMB, Planck, cosmicmore » shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. Lastly, we illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis« less

  17. ON THE CARBON-TO-OXYGEN RATIO MEASUREMENT IN NEARBY SUN-LIKE STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANET FORMATION AND THE DETERMINATION OF STELLAR ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2012-03-10

    Recent high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of nearby FGK stars suggests that a high C/O ratio of greater than 0.8, or even 1.0, is relatively common. Two published catalogs find C/O > 0.8 in 25%-30% of systems, and C/O > 1.0 in {approx}6%-10%. It has been suggested that in protoplanetary disks with C/O > 0.8 that the condensation pathways to refractory solids will differ from what occurred in our solar system, where C/O = 0.55. The carbon-rich disks are calculated to make carbon-dominated rocky planets, rather than oxygen-dominated ones. Here we suggest that the derived stellar C/O ratios are overestimated. One constraint on the frequency of high C/O is the relative paucity of carbon dwarf stars (10{sup -3}-10{sup -5}) found in large samples of low-mass stars. We suggest reasons for this overestimation, including a high C/O ratio for the solar atmosphere model used for differential abundance analysis, the treatment of a Ni blend that affects the O abundance, and limitations of one-dimensional LTE stellar atmosphere models. Furthermore, from the estimated errors on the measured stellar C/O ratios, we find that the significance of the high C/O tail is weakened, with a true measured fraction of C/O > 0.8 in 10%-15% of stars, and C/O > 1.0 in 1%-5%, although these are still likely overestimates. We suggest that infrared T-dwarf spectra could show how common high C/O is in the stellar neighborhood, as the chemistry and spectra of such objects would differ compared to those with solar-like abundances. While possible at C/O > 0.8, we expect that carbon-dominated rocky planets are rarer than others have suggested.

  18. Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Resource Potential Estimate

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katherine Young

    2016-06-30

    Compilation of data (spreadsheet and shapefiles) for several low-temperature resource types, including isolated springs and wells, delineated area convection systems, sedimentary basins and coastal plains sedimentary systems. For each system, we include estimates of the accessible resource base, mean extractable resource and beneficial heat. Data compiled from USGS and other sources. The paper (submitted to GRC 2016) describing the methodology and analysis is also included.

  19. Knowledge Based Estimation of Material Release Transients

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-07-29

    KBERT is an easy to use desktop decision support tool for estimating public and in-facility worker doses and consequences of radioactive material releases in non-reactort nuclear facilities. It automatically calculates release and respirable fractions based on published handbook data, and calculates material transport concurrently with personnel evacuation simulations. Any facility layout can be modeled easily using the intuitive graphical user interface.

  20. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  1. Generalized REGression Package for Nonlinear Parameter Estimation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-05-15

    GREG computes modal (maximum-posterior-density) and interval estimates of the parameters in a user-provided Fortran subroutine MODEL, using a user-provided vector OBS of single-response observations or matrix OBS of multiresponse observations. GREG can also select the optimal next experiment from a menu of simulated candidates, so as to minimize the volume of the parametric inference region based on the resulting augmented data set.

  2. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  3. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  4. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  5. Cost estimate of initial SSC experimental equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1986-06-01

    The cost of the initial detector complement at recently constructed colliding beam facilities (or at those under construction) has been a significant fraction of the cost of the accelerator complex. Because of the complexity of large modern-day detectors, the time-scale for their design and construction is comparable to the time-scale needed for accelerator design and construction. For these reasons it is appropriate to estimate the cost of the anticipated detector complement in parallel with the cost estimates of the collider itself. The fundamental difficulty with this procedure is that, whereas a firm conceptual design of the collider does exist, comparable information is unavailable for the detectors. Traditionally, these have been built by the high energy physics user community according to their perception of the key scientific problems that need to be addressed. The role of the accelerator laboratory in that process has involved technical and managerial coordination and the allocation of running time and local facilities among the proposed experiments. It seems proper that the basic spirit of experimentation reflecting the scientific judgment of the community should be preserved at the SSC. Furthermore, the formal process of initiation of detector proposals can only start once the SSC has been approved as a construction project and a formal laboratory administration put in place. Thus an ad hoc mechanism had to be created to estimate the range of potential detector needs, potential detector costs, and associated computing equipment.

  6. A creep damage estimation method for in-service fossil fuel boiler superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogata, F. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Takahashi, H. . Research Inst. of Fracture Technology)

    1995-02-01

    Because mechanical properties of structural materials for high-temperature use, such as boiler tubing, degrade during long-term service, it is essential to detect toughness degradation by means of a nondestructive and simple field test technique. A grain boundary etching technique is developed to detect material degradation, and assess creep strength and notch toughness. An etching test using a picric acid solution with a wetting agent or using 20 percent HNO[sub 3] with alcoholic solution was found to have great potential for the nondestructive estimation of grain boundary embrittlement caused by carbide and sigma precipitation in SUS stainless steel. The feasibility of this estimation procedure was determined showing the relationships between Charpy impact energy (CVN) and grooving width (W[sub GS]), and creep damage ratio ([Phi]) and W[sub GS]. Superheater tubes of fossil fuel boiler were tested on site to demonstrate the validity of this technique.

  7. Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Rayner, Perter; Butler, T.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-06-04

    Model-simulated transport of atmospheric trace components can be combined with observed concentrations to obtain estimates of ground-based sources using various inversion techniques. These approaches have been applied in the past primarily to obtain source estimates for long-lived trace gases such as CO2. We consider the application of similar techniques to source estimation for atmospheric aerosols, by using as a case study the estimation of bacteria emissions from different ecosystem regions in the global atmospheric chemistry and climate model ECHAM5/MESSy-Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). Simulated particle concentrations in the tropopause region and at high latitudes, as well as transport of particles to tundra and land ice regions are shown to be highly sensitive to scavenging in mixed-phase clouds, which is poorly characterized in most global climate models. This may be a critical uncertainty in correctly simulating the transport of aerosol particles to the Arctic. Source estimation via Monte Carlo Markov Chain is applied to a suite of sensitivity simulations and the global mean emissions are estimated. We present an analysis of the partitioning of uncertainties in the global mean emissions that are attributable to particle size, CCN activity, the ice nucleation scavenging ratios for mixed-phase and cold clouds, and measurement error. Uncertainty due to CCN activity or to a 1 um error in particle size is typically between 10% and 40% of the uncertainty due to data uncertainty, as measured by the 5%-ile to 95%-ile range of the Monte Carlo ensemble. Uncertainty attributable to the ice nucleation scavenging ratio in mized-phase clouds is as high as 10% to 20% of the data uncertainty. Taken together, the four model 20 parameters examined contribute about half as much to the uncertainty in the estimated emissions as do the measurements. This was a surprisingly large contribution from model uncertainty in light of the substantial data uncertainty, which ranges from 81

  8. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates M. Melaina and M. Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-56412 September 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  9. Preliminary core design studies for the advanced burner reactor over a wide range of conversion ratios.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E. A.; Yang, W. S.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-05-05

    A consistent set of designs for 1000 MWt commercial-scale sodium-cooled Advance Burner Reactors (ABR) have been developed for both metal and oxide-fueled cores with conversion ratios from breakeven (CR=1.0) to fertile-free (CR=0.0). These designs are expected to satisfy thermal and irradiation damage limits based on the currently available data. The very low conversion ratio designs require fuel that is beyond the current fuel database, which is anticipated to be qualified by and for the Advanced Burned Test Reactor. Safety and kinetic parameters were calculated, but a safety analysis was not performed. Development of these designs was required to achieve the primary goal of this study, which was to generate representative fuel cycle mass flows for system studies of ABRs as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). There are slight variations with conversion ratio but the basic ABR configuration consists of 144 fuel assemblies and between 9 and 22 primary control assemblies for both the metal and oxide-fueled cores. Preliminary design studies indicated that it is feasible to design the ABR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio by employing different assembly designs and including sufficient control assemblies to accommodate the large reactivity swing at low conversion ratios. The assemblies are designed to fit within the same geometry, but the size and number of fuel pins within each assembly are significantly different in order to achieve the target conversion ratio while still satisfying thermal limits. Current irradiation experience would allow for a conversion ratio of somewhat below 0.75. The fuel qualification for the first ABR should expand this experience to allow for much lower conversion ratios and higher bunrups. The current designs were based on assumptions about the performance of high and very high enrichment fuel, which results in significant uncertainty about the details of the designs. However, the basic fuel cycle performance

  10. Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

  11. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  12. Global gyrokinetic stability of collisionless microtearing modes in large aspect ratio tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swamy, Aditya K.; Ganesh, R., E-mail: ganesh@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Chowdhury, J. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L. [CRPP, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Linear full radius gyrokinetic calculations show the existence of unstable microtearing modes (MTMs) in purely collisionless, high temperature, large aspect ratio tokamak plasmas. The present study takes into account fully gyrokinetic highly passing ions and electrons. The global 2-D structures of the collisionless mode with full radius coupling of the poloidal modes is obtained and compared with another electromagnetic mode, namely, the Alfvn Ion Temperature Gradient (AITG) mode (or Kinetic Ballooning Mode, KBM) for the same equilibrium profile. Several important characteristics of the modes are brought out and compared, such as a clear signature in the symmetry properties of the two modes, the plasma? dependence, and radial and poloidal length scales of the electrostatic and magnetic vector potential fluctuations. Extensive parameter scans for this collisionless microtearing mode reveal the scaling of the growth rate with ? and the electron temperature gradient ?{sub e}. Scans at different ? values show an inverse relationship between the ?{sub e} threshold and ?, leading to a stability diagram, and implying that the mode might exist at moderate to strong temperature gradients for finite ? plasmas in large aspect ratio tokamaks. In contrast to small aspect ratio tokamaks where the trapped electron magnetic drift resonance is found to be important, in large aspect ratio tokamaks, a strong destabilization due to the magnetic drift resonance of passing electrons is observed and is identified as a possible collisionless drive mechanism for the collisionless MTM.

  13. Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films with varying gallium ratios

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Claypoole, Jesse; Peace, Bernadette; Sun, Neville; Dwyer, Dan; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Haldar, Pradeep; Efstathiadis, Harry

    2015-09-05

    Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layers were deposited on molybdenum (Mo) coated soda-lime glass substrates with varying Ga content (described as Ga/(In+Ga) ratios) with respect to depth. As the responsible mechanisms for the limitation of the performance of the CIGS solar cells with high Ga contents are not well understood, the goal of this work was to investigate different properties of CIGS absorber films with Ga/(In+Ga) ratios varied between 0.29 and 0.41 (as determined by X-ray florescence spectroscopy (XRF)) in order to better understand the role that the Ga content has on film quality. The Ga grading in the CIGS layer hasmore » the effect causing a higher bandgap toward the surface and Mo contact while the band gap in the middle of the CIGS layer is lower. Also, a wider and larger Ga/(In+Ga) grading dip located deeper in the CIGS absorber layers tend to produce larger grains in the regions of the films that have lower Ga/(In+Ga) ratios. It was found that surface roughness decreases from 51.2 nm to 41.0 nm with increasing Ga/(In+Ga) ratios. However, the surface roughness generally decreases if the Ga grading occurs deeper in the absorber layer.« less

  14. Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films with varying gallium ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claypoole, Jesse; Peace, Bernadette; Sun, Neville; Dwyer, Dan; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Haldar, Pradeep; Efstathiadis, Harry

    2015-09-05

    Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layers were deposited on molybdenum (Mo) coated soda-lime glass substrates with varying Ga content (described as Ga/(In+Ga) ratios) with respect to depth. As the responsible mechanisms for the limitation of the performance of the CIGS solar cells with high Ga contents are not well understood, the goal of this work was to investigate different properties of CIGS absorber films with Ga/(In+Ga) ratios varied between 0.29 and 0.41 (as determined by X-ray florescence spectroscopy (XRF)) in order to better understand the role that the Ga content has on film quality. The Ga grading in the CIGS layer has the effect causing a higher bandgap toward the surface and Mo contact while the band gap in the middle of the CIGS layer is lower. Also, a wider and larger Ga/(In+Ga) grading dip located deeper in the CIGS absorber layers tend to produce larger grains in the regions of the films that have lower Ga/(In+Ga) ratios. It was found that surface roughness decreases from 51.2 nm to 41.0 nm with increasing Ga/(In+Ga) ratios. However, the surface roughness generally decreases if the Ga grading occurs deeper in the absorber layer.

  15. Significant enhancement of the strength-to-resistivity ratio by using nanotwins in epitaxial Cu films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Amit; Ronningh, Filip; Anderoglu, Osman; Zhang, X

    2008-01-01

    Epitaxial nanotwinned Cu films, with an average twin spacing ranging from 7 to 16 nm, exhibit a high ratio of strength-to-electrical resisitivity, -400 MPa({mu}{Omega}cm){sup -1}. The hardness of these Cu films approaches 2.8 GPa, and their electrical resistivities are comparable to that of oxygen-free high-conductivity Cu. Compared to high-angle grain boundaries, coherent twin interfaces possess inherently high resistance to the transmission of single dislocations, and yet an order of magnitude lower electron scattering coefficient, determined to be 1.5-5 x 10{sup -7} {mu}{Omega}cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Analytical studies as well as experimental results show that, in polycrystalline Cu, grain refinement leads to a maximum of the strength-to-resistivity ratio, -250 MPa({mu}{Omega}cm){sup -1}, when grain size is comparable to the mean-free path of electrons. However, in twinned Cu, such a ratio increases continuously with decreasing twin spacing down to a few nanometers. Hence nanoscale growth twins are more effective to achieve a higher strength-to-resistivity ratio than high-angle grain boundaries.

  16. Magnesite Step Growth Rates as a Function of the Aqueous Magnesium:Carbonate Ratio

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N.; Stack, Andrew G.; Higgins, Steven R.

    2014-10-01

    Step velocities of monolayer-height steps on the (101⁻4) magnesite surface have been measured as functions of the aqueous magnesium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index (SI) using a hydrothermal atomic force microscope (HAFM). At SI ≤ 1.9 and 80-90 °C, step velocities were found to be invariant with changes in the magnesium-to-carbonate ratio, an observation in contrast with standard models for growth and dissolution of ionically-bonded, multi-component crystals. However, at high saturation indices (SI = 2.15), step velocities displayed a ratio dependence, maximized at magnesium-to-carbonate ratios slightly greater than 1:1. Traditional affinity-based models were unable to describe growth rates at the highermore » saturation index. Step velocities also could not be modeled solely through nucleation of kink sites, in contrast to other minerals whose bonding between constituent ions is also dominantly ionic in nature, such as calcite and barite. Instead, they could be described only by a model that incorporates both kink nucleation and propagation. Based on observed step morphological changes at these higher saturation indices, the step velocity maximum at SI = 2.15 is likely due to the rate of attachment to propagating kink sites overcoming the rate of detachment from kink sites as the latter becomes less significant under far from equilibrium conditions.« less

  17. Using Tensor Momentum Dependent Deuteron Potential to Extract the Asymptotic D/S Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emad El-Deen, A. Sultan; Mustafa, Mustafa M.; Zahran, Elbadry S.

    2010-09-30

    A new value for the deuteron asymptotic D/S ratio {eta} = 0.02640{+-}0.00024 is extracted from an empirical linear {eta}-Q relation found for a class of deuteron momentum dependent potentials with tensor momentum dependent part. These potentials fit a recently published phase shift analysis and the binding energy of the deuteron.

  18. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  19. Effects of fuel type and equivalence ratios on the flickering of triple flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, K.B.; Kundu, A.; Ganguly, R.; Datta, A.

    2009-02-15

    An experimental study has been conducted in axisymmetric, co-flowing triple flames with different equivalence ratios of the inner and outer reactant streams (2<{phi}{sub in}<3 and 0{<=}{phi}{sub out}<0.7). Different fuel combinations, like propane/propane, propane/methane or methane/methane in the inner and outer streams respectively, have been used in the experiments. The structures of the triple flames have been compared for the different fuel combinations and equivalence ratios. The conditions under which triple flames exhibit oscillation have been identified. During the oscillation, the non-premixed flame and the outer lean premixed flame flicker strongly, while the inner rich premixed flame remains more or less stable. The flickering frequency has been evaluated through image processing and fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the average pixel intensity of the image frames. It is observed that, for all the fuel combinations, the frequency decreases with the increase in the outer equivalence ratio, while it is relatively invariant with the change in the inner equivalence ratio. However, an increase in the inner equivalence ratio affects the structure of the flame by increasing the heights of the inner premixed flame and non-premixed flame and also enlarges the yellow soot-laden zone at the tip of the inner flame. A scaling analysis of the oscillating flames has been performed based on the measured parameters, which show a variation of Strouhal number (St) with Richardson number (Ri) as St {proportional_to} Ri{sup 0.5}. The fuel type is found to have no influence on this correlation. (author)

  20. Sex ratios, bill deformities, and PCBs in nestling double-crested cormorants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Sileo, L. [National Biological Service, Madison, WI (United States); Tuinen, P. van [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Deformed double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) nestlings examined from 1988--1992 had a sex ratio highly skewed toward females (66 of 81) compared to normal nestlings (43 of 80) (P < 0.005). The collection site, Green Bay, WI, is heavily contaminated with PCBs and the possibility of gender alteration was investigated in a designed study by comparing the sex of nestling birds determined using three techniques. These nestlings were collected at five sites, both contaminated and uncontaminated. Genetic sex was determined by cytogenetic techniques and phenotypic sex was determined by macroscopic and histologic examination of gonads. Differences between techniques resulted in a few instances of classifying genetic males as females by one or the other gonadal examinations. Sex ratios of the nestlings from the five sites were compared to binomial distributions assuming equal probabilities of males and females. Sex ratios of normal nestlings were not different from expected regardless of sex determination technique (P > 0.10). Deformed nestlings sexed cytogenetically or histologically did not differ from expected (P > 0.40), but deformed nestlings tended to be classified , macroscopically as females at a higher rate than expected (P = 0.092). The observed sex ratios obtained by macroscopic techniques did not differ between the 1968--1992 observational study and the designed study (P > 0.50). Histologic examination suggested two explanations for the skewed sex ratio: nestlings with undeterminable macroscopic sex usually had testes and, some gonads which grossly resembled ovaries were, in fact, testes. If phenotypic gender alteration is present in these birds, it is more evident at the gross structural level than at the histologic level.

  1. SU-E-I-18: CT Scanner QA Using Normalized CTDI Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randazzo, M; Tambasco, M; Russell, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To create a ratio of weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) data normalized to in-air measurements (CTDIair) as a function of beam quality to create a look-up table for frequent, rapid quality assurance (QA) checks of CTDI. Methods: The CTDIw values were measured according to TG-63 protocol using a pencil ionization chamber (Unfors Xi CT detector) and head and body Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms (16 and 32 cm diameter, respectively). Single scan dose profiles were measured at each clinically available energy (80,100,120,140 kVp) on three different CT scanners (two Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash and one GE Optima), using a tube current of 400 mA, a one second rotation time, and the widest available beam width (32 × 0.6 mm and 16 × 1.25 mm, respectively). These values were normalized to CTDIair measurements using the same conditions as CTDIw. The ratios (expressed in cGy/R) were assessed for each scanner as a function of each energy's half value layer (HVL) paired with the phantom's appropriate bow tie filter measured in mmAl. Results: Normalized CTDI values vary linearly with HVL for both the head and body phantoms. The ratios for the two Siemens machines are very similar at each energy. Compared to the GE scanner, these values vary between 10–20% for each kVp setting. Differences in CTDIair contribute most to the deviation of the ratios across machines. Ratios are independent of both mAs and collimation. Conclusion: Look-up tables constructed of normalized CTDI values as a function of HVL can be used to derive CTDIw data from only three in-air measurements (one for CTDIair and two with added filtration for HVL) to allow for simple, frequent QA checks without CT phantom setup. Future investigations will involve comparing results with Monte Carlo simulations for validation.

  2. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  3. Position estimation of transceivers in communication networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kent, Claudia A.; Dowla, Farid

    2008-06-03

    This invention provides a system and method using wireless communication interfaces coupled with statistical processing of time-of-flight data to locate by position estimation unknown wireless receivers. Such an invention can be applied in sensor network applications, such as environmental monitoring of water in the soil or chemicals in the air where the position of the network nodes is deemed critical. Moreover, the present invention can be arranged to operate in areas where a Global Positioning System (GPS) is not available, such as inside buildings, caves, and tunnels.

  4. Cell Total Activity Final Estimate.xls

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    WSSRAP Cell Total Activity Final Estimate (calculated September 2002, Fleming) (Waste streams & occupied cell volumes from spreadsheet titled "cell waste volumes-8.23.02 with macros.xls") Waste Stream a Volume (cy) Mass (g) 2 Radiological Profile 3 Nuclide Activity (Ci) 4 Total % of Total U-238 U-234 U-235 Th-228 Th-230 Th-232 Ra-226 Ra-228 Rn-222 5 Activity if > 1% Raffinate Pits Work Zone (Ci) Raffinate processed through CSS Plant 1 159990 1.49E+11 Raffinate 6.12E+01 6.12E+01

  5. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary

  6. Parameter estimation for models of ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzyme kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Gangsheng; Post, Wilfred M; Mayes, Melanie; Frerichs, Joshua T; Jagadamma, Sindhu

    2012-01-01

    While soil enzymes have been explicitly included in the soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition models, there is a serious lack of suitable data for model parameterization. This study provides well-documented enzymatic parameters for application in enzyme-driven SOC decomposition models from a compilation and analysis of published measurements. In particular, we developed appropriate kinetic parameters for five typical ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzymes ( -glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, endo-glucanase, peroxidase, and phenol oxidase). The kinetic parameters included the maximum specific enzyme activity (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Km) in the Michaelis-Menten equation. The activation energy (Ea) and the pH optimum and sensitivity (pHopt and pHsen) were also analyzed. pHsen was estimated by fitting an exponential-quadratic function. The Vmax values, often presented in different units under various measurement conditions, were converted into the same units at a reference temperature (20 C) and pHopt. Major conclusions are: (i) Both Vmax and Km were log-normal distributed, with no significant difference in Vmax exhibited between enzymes originating from bacteria or fungi. (ii) No significant difference in Vmax was found between cellulases and ligninases; however, there was significant difference in Km between them. (iii) Ligninases had higher Ea values and lower pHopt than cellulases; average ratio of pHsen to pHopt ranged 0.3 0.4 for the five enzymes, which means that an increase or decrease of 1.1 1.7 pH units from pHopt would reduce Vmax by 50%. (iv) Our analysis indicated that the Vmax values from lab measurements with purified enzymes were 1 2 orders of magnitude higher than those for use in SOC decomposition models under field conditions.

  7. Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L. Louisianna State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport Universitaire Vaudois )

    1988-02-01

    The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 {times} 10{sup 6} microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period.

  8. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  9. Risk Estimation Methodology for Launch Accidents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, Daniel James; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Bechtel, Ryan D.

    2014-02-01

    As compact and light weight power sources with reliable, long lives, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) have made space missions to explore the solar system possible. Due to the hazardous material that can be released during a launch accident, the potential health risk of an accident must be quantified, so that appropriate launch approval decisions can be made. One part of the risk estimation involves modeling the response of the RPS to potential accident environments. Due to the complexity of modeling the full RPS response deterministically on dynamic variables, the evaluation is performed in a stochastic manner with a Monte Carlo simulation. The potential consequences can be determined by modeling the transport of the hazardous material in the environment and in human biological pathways. The consequence analysis results are summed and weighted by appropriate likelihood values to give a collection of probabilistic results for the estimation of the potential health risk. This information is used to guide RPS designs, spacecraft designs, mission architecture, or launch procedures to potentially reduce the risk, as well as to inform decision makers of the potential health risks resulting from the use of RPSs for space missions.

  10. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  11. Improved precision and accuracy in quantifying plutonium isotope ratios by RIMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isselhardt, B. H.; Savina, M. R.; Kucher, A.; Gates, S. D.; Knight, K. B.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2015-09-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) holds the promise of rapid, isobar-free quantification of actinide isotope ratios in as-received materials (i.e. not chemically purified). Recent progress in achieving this potential using two Pu test materials is presented. RIMS measurements were conducted multiple times over a period of two months on two different Pu solutions deposited on metal surfaces. Measurements were bracketed with a Pu isotopic standard, and yielded absolute accuracies of the measured 240Pu/239Pu ratios of 0.7% and 0.58%, with precisions (95% confidence intervals) of 1.49% and 0.91%. In conclusion, the minor isotope 238Pu was also quantified despite the presence of a significant quantity of 238U in the samples.

  12. Improved precision and accuracy in quantifying plutonium isotope ratios by RIMS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Isselhardt, B. H.; Savina, M. R.; Kucher, A.; Gates, S. D.; Knight, K. B.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2015-09-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) holds the promise of rapid, isobar-free quantification of actinide isotope ratios in as-received materials (i.e. not chemically purified). Recent progress in achieving this potential using two Pu test materials is presented. RIMS measurements were conducted multiple times over a period of two months on two different Pu solutions deposited on metal surfaces. Measurements were bracketed with a Pu isotopic standard, and yielded absolute accuracies of the measured 240Pu/239Pu ratios of 0.7% and 0.58%, with precisions (95% confidence intervals) of 1.49% and 0.91%. In conclusion, the minor isotope 238Pu was also quantified despite the presence ofmore » a significant quantity of 238U in the samples.« less

  13. Structure and electrical characterization of gallium arsenide nanowires with different V/III ratio growth parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhammad, R.; Ahamad, R.; Ibrahim, Z.; Othaman, Z.

    2014-03-05

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires were grown vertically on GaAs(111)B substrate by gold-assisted using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and conductivity atomic force microscopy (CAFM) analysis were carried out to investigate the effects of V/III ratio on structural properties and current-voltage changes in the wires. Results show that GaAs NWs grow preferably in the wurtzite crystal structure than zinc blende crystal structure with increasing V/III ratio. Additionally, CAFM studies have revealed that zincblende nanowires indicate ohmic characteristic compared to oscillation current occurred for wurtzite structures. The GaAs NWs with high quality structures are needed in solar cells technology for trapping energy that directly converts of sunlight into electricity with maximum capacity.

  14. Simultaneous π/2 rotation of two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chu, Ping -Han; Peng, Jen -Chieh

    2015-06-05

    Here, we examine the characteristics of the π/2 pulse for simultaneously rotating two spin species of different gyromagnetic ratios with the same sign. For a π/2 pulse using a rotating magnetic field, we derive an equation relating the frequency and strength of the pulse to the gyromagnetic ratios of the two particles and the strength of the constant holding field. For a π/2 pulse using a linear oscillatory magnetic field, we obtain the solutions numerically, and compare them with the solutions for the rotating π/2 pulse. Application of this analysis to the specific case of rotating neutrons and 3He atomsmore » simultaneously with a π/2 pulse, proposed for a neutron electric dipole moment experiment, is also presented.« less

  15. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2013-08-13

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  16. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2011-04-26

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  17. Effect on the tritium breeding ratio for a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, A.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Fischer, U.; Dies, J.

    2015-12-10

    The paper reports results of MCNP-5 calculations to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) when integrating a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna in the blanket of DEMO fusion power reactor. The calculations consider different parameters such as the ICRF covering ratio and the type of breeding blanket including the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) and the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) concepts. For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidally at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m, the reduction of the TBR is −0.349% for the HCPB blanket and −0.532% for the HCLL blanket. The distributed ICRF antenna is thus shown to have only a marginal effect on the TBR of the DEMO reactor.

  18. Measurement of the nuclear multiplicity ratio or image hadronization K0s at CLAS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daniel, A.; Hicks, K.; Brooks, W. K.; Hakobyan, H.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amarian, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Avakian, H.; et al

    2011-11-01

    The influence of cold nuclear matter on lepto-production of hadrons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is measured using the CLAS detector in Hall B at Jefferson Lab and a 5.014 GeV electron beam. We report the K0s multiplicity ratios for targets of C, Fe, and Pb relative to deuterium as a function of the fractional virtual photon energy z transferred to the K0sand the transverse momentum squared p2T of the K0s. We find that the multiplicity ratios for K0s are reduced in the nuclear medium at high z and low p2T, with a trend for the K0s transverse momentum tomore » be broadened in the nucleus for large p2T.« less

  19. Numerical studies of the flux-to-current ratio method in the KIPT neutron source facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The reactivity of a subcritical assembly has to be monitored continuously in order to assure its safe operation. In this paper, the flux-to-current ratio method has been studied as an approach to provide the on-line reactivity measurement of the subcritical system. Monte Carlo numerical simulations have been performed using the KIPT neutron source facility model. It is found that the reactivity obtained from the flux-to-current ratio method is sensitive to the detector position in the subcritical assembly. However, if multiple detectors are located about 12 cm above the graphite reflector and 54 cm radially, the technique is shown to be very accurate in determining the k{sub eff} this facility in the range of 0.75 to 0.975. (authors)

  20. Measurement of the nuclear multiplicity ratio or image hadronization at CLAS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daniel, A; Brooks, W K; Hakobyan, H; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Aghasyan, M; Amarian, M; Anghinolfi, M; Avakian, H; Baghdasryan, H; et al

    2011-11-30

    The influence of cold nuclear matter on lepto-production of hadrons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is measured using the CLAS detector in Hall B at Jefferson Lab and a 5.014 GeV electron beam. We report the View the MathML source multiplicity ratios for targets of C, Fe, and Pb relative to deuterium as a function of the fractional virtual photon energy z transferred to the View the MathML source and the transverse momentum squared View the MathML source of the View the MathML source. We find that the multiplicity ratios for View the MathML source are reduced in the nuclearmoremedium at high z and low View the MathML source, with a trend for the View the MathML source transverse momentum to be broadened in the nucleus for large View the MathML source.less

  1. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  2. High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Q2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaohui Zhan

    2009-12-01

    A high precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio µpGEp/GMp in the range Q2 = 0.3–0.7 GeV2/c2 was performed using recoil polarimetry in Jefferson Lab Hall A. In this low Q2 range, previous data from LEDEX [5] along with many fits and calculations [2, 3, 4] indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. In this new measurement, with 80% polarized electron beam for 24 days, we are able to achieve <1% statistical uncertainty. Preliminary results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, indicating a smaller GEp at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the improved form factor measurements also have implications for DVCS, determinations of the proton Zemach radius and strangeness form factors through parity violation experiments.

  3. Effect of carbonate and phosphate ratios on the transformation of calcium orthophosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliassi, Mohammad Daoud; Zhao, Wei; Tan, Wen Feng

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Complexes among phosphate, carbonate and calcium have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal route. The synthesized product at the low (0.15) and the high (1.8) molar ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} is calcium phosphate hydrate and hydroxylapatite (HAp), respectively. Molar ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} are effective on the reduction of carbonate activity during the crystallization of HAp. - Highlights: • Formation of different complexes from CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and Ca{sup 2+} solutions at 60 °C. • Molar ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2} cause changes in phase and size of synthesized products. • Addition of PO{sub 4}{sup 3} inhibited the activity of CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} during bound with Ca{sup 2+}. • The phase transformation was completed, when CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} peaks disappeared in FTIR. • PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and Ca{sup 2+} distributed heterogeneously on the surface of precipitation. - Abstract: Complexes among phosphate, carbonate and calcium have been synthesized by a designed hydrothermal method. Effects of carbonate and phosphate ratios on the transformation of calcium-orthophosphates were investigated. With X-ray diffraction measurement the synthesized product at the low (0.15) and the high (1.8) molar ratio of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} is calcium phosphate hydrate at pH 9.0, and hydroxylapatite (HAp) at pH 8.0, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of product at the high ratio (1.8) of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} shows that the CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} peaks disappear, and the strong peaks at 1412 and 1460 cm{sup −1} are assigned to the vibrations of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in HAp. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of products at the low (0.15–0.6) to the high (1.2–1.8) ratios of PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}/CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} are obtained at 2.9 and 2.7 ppm, respectively. Molar ratios of PO

  4. "Table A15. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region and Economic" " Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" ,,,"Consumption","Major" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","Byproducts(b)","Fuel Oil(c)"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","as a

  5. "Table A48. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, and Economic" " Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" ,,,"Consumption","Major" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","Byproducts(b)","Fuel Oil(c)"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of

  6. "Table A50. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Industry Group," " Selected Industries, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991 (Continued)" ,,,,,"Major" ,,,"Consumption","Consumption per","Byproducts(c)","Fuel Oil(d)" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","Dollar of Value","as a Percent

  7. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  8. Fact #940: August 29, 2016 Diverging Trends of Engine Compression Ratio and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gasoline Octane Rating | Department of Energy From the 1920s to the 1970s, the evolution of engines (measured by compression ratio) and the evolution of fuels (measured by octane rating) occurred in tandem. Gasoline octane improvement during that period (red markers in the graph below) was likely due to refinery technology improvement and the addition of lead, which guards against engine knocking. In 1973, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandated a reduction in the lead content of

  9. Improved Measurement of the π→eν Branching Ratio

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; vom Bruch, D.; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; et al

    2015-08-01

    A new measurement of the branching ratio Re/μ=Γ(π+ → e+ν + π+ → e+νγ)/Γ(π+ → μ+ν + π+→μ+νγ) resulted in Rexpe/μ=[1.2344±0.0023(stat)±0.0019(syst)] x 10-4. This is in agreement with the standard model prediction and improves the test of electron-muon universality to the level of 0.1%.

  10. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallaher, B.M.; Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Benjamin, T.M.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-10-01

    For more than three decades, Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. By measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate that the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1,000-fold along a 3,000-ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory-derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicate off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  11. Gas breakdown mechanism in pulse-modulated asymmetric ratio frequency dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Jizhong, E-mail: jsun@dlut.edu.cn; Ding, Zhenfeng; Ding, Hongbin; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Nozaki, Tomohiro [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Wang, Zhanhui [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-08-15

    The gas breakdown mechanisms, especially the roles of metastable species in atmospheric pressure pulse-modulated ratio frequency barrier discharges with co-axial cylindrical electrodes, were studied numerically using a one dimensional self-consistent fluid model. Simulation results showed that in low duty cycle cases, the electrons generated from the channels associated with metastable species played a more important role in initializing next breakdown than the direct ionization of helium atoms of electronic grounded states by electron-impact. In order to quantitatively evaluate the contribution to the discharge by the metastables, we defined a characteristic time and examined how the value varied with the gap distance and the electrode asymmetry. The results indicated that the lifetime of the metastable species (including He*and He{sub 2}{sup *}) was much longer than that of the pulse-on period and as effective sources of producing electrons they lasted over a period up to millisecond. When the ratio of the outer radius to the inner radius of the cylindrical electrodes was far bigger than one, it was found that the metastables distributed mainly in a cylindrical region around the inner electrode. When the ratio decreased as the inner electrode moved outward, the density of metastables in the discharge region near the outer electrode became gradually noticeable. As the discharging gap continued to decrease, the two hill-shaped distributions gradually merged to one big hill. When the discharge spacing was fixed, asymmetric electrodes facilitated the discharge.

  12. Flame Inhibition by Phosphorus-Containing Compounds over a Range of Equivalence Ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayaweera, T M; Melius, C F; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Korobeinichev, O P; Shvartsberg, V M; Shmakov, A G; Rybitskaya, I V; Curran, H

    2004-03-17

    There is much interest in the combustion mechanism of organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) due to their role as potential halon replacements in fire suppression. A continuing investigation of the inhibition activity of organophosphorus compounds under a range of equivalence ratios was performed experimentally and computationally, as measured by the burning velocity. Updates to a previous mechanism were made by the addition and modification of reactions in the mechanism for a more complete description of the recombination reactions. In this work, the laminar flame speed is measured experimentally and calculated numerically for a premixed propane/air flame, under a range of equivalence ratios, undoped and doped with dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). A detailed investigation of the catalytic cycles involved in the recombination of key flame radicals is made for two equivalence ratios, lean and rich. From this, the importance of different catalytic cycles involved in the lean versus rich case is discussed. Although the importance of certain cycles is different under different stoichiometries, the OPCs are similarly effective across the range, demonstrating the robustness of OPCs as flame suppressants. In addition, it is shown that the phosphorus compounds are most active in the high temperature region of the flame. This may, in part, explain their high level of inhibition effectiveness.

  13. Bayesian Integration of Isotope Ratio for Geographic Sourcing of Castor Beans

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Kreuzer, Helen; Hart, Garret; Ehleringer, James; West, Jason; Gill, Gary; Duckworth, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Recenmore » t years have seen an increase in the forensic interest associated with the poison ricin, which is extracted from the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant. Both light element (C, N, O, and H) and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios have previously been used to associate organic material with geographic regions of origin. We present a Bayesian integration methodology that can more accurately predict the region of origin for a castor bean than individual models developed independently for light element stable isotopes or Sr isotope ratios. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in the ability to correctly classify regions based on the integrated model with a class accuracy of 60.9 ± 2.1 % versus 55.9 ± 2.1 % and 40.2 ± 1.8 % for the light element and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios, respectively. In addition, we show graphically the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in respect to class prediction and how the integration of these datasets strengthens the overall model.« less

  14. STOCHASTIC HEATING, DIFFERENTIAL FLOW, AND THE ALPHA-TO-PROTON TEMPERATURE RATIO IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandran, B. D. G.; Verscharen, D.; Isenberg, P. A.; Bourouaine, S.; Quataert, E.; Kasper, J. C. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu E-mail: jkasper@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-10-10

    We extend previous theories of stochastic ion heating to account for the motion of ions along the magnetic field B . We derive an analytic expression for the temperature ratio T{sub i}/T{sub p} in the solar wind assuming that stochastic heating is the dominant ion heating mechanism, where T{sub i} is the perpendicular temperature of species i and T{sub p} is the perpendicular proton temperature. This expression describes how T{sub i}/T{sub p} depends upon U{sub i} and ?{sub ?p}, where U{sub i} is the average velocity along B of species i in the proton frame and ?{sub ?p} is the ratio of the parallel proton pressure to the magnetic pressure, which we take to be ?< 1. We compare our model with previously published measurements of alpha particles and protons from the Wind spacecraft. We find that stochastic heating offers a promising explanation for the dependence of T{sub ?}/T{sub p} on U{sub ?} and ?{sub ?p} when the fractional cross helicity and Alfvn ratio at the proton-gyroradius scale have values that are broadly consistent with solar-wind measurements. We also predict how the temperatures of other ion species depend on their drift speeds.

  15. Effect of Co/Ni ratios in cobalt nickel mixed oxide catalysts on methane combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Cho, Sung June; Yang, Hee Sung; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kim, Do Heui

    2015-07-31

    A series of cobalt nickel mixed oxide catalysts with the varying ratios of Co to Ni, prepared by co-precipitation method, were applied to methane combustion. Among the various ratios, cobalt nickel mixed oxides having the ratios of Co to Ni of (50:50) and (67:33) demonstrate the highest activity for methane combustion. Structural analysis obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) evidently demonstrates that CoNi (50:50) and (67:33) samples consist of NiCo2O4and NiO phase and, more importantly, NiCo2O4spinel structure is largely distorted, which is attributed to the insertion of Ni2+ions into octahedral sites in Co3O4spinel structure. Such structural dis-order results in the enhanced portion of surface oxygen species, thus leading to the improved reducibility of the catalysts in the low temperature region as evidenced by temperature programmed reduction by hydrogen (H2TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) O 1s results. They prove that structural disorder in cobalt nickel mixed oxides enhances the catalytic performance for methane combustion. Thus, it is concluded that a strong relationship between structural property and activity in cobalt nickel mixed oxide for methane combustion exists and, more importantly, distorted NiCo2O4spinel structure is found to be an active site for methane combustion.

  16. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-09-22

    For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  17. THE HCN-WATER RATIO IN THE PLANET FORMATION REGION OF DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najita, Joan R.; Salyk, Colette [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)] [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carr, John S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7211, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7211, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Pontoppidan, Klaus M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)] [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Mail Stop 150-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Mail Stop 150-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    We find a trend between the mid-infrared HCN/H{sub 2}O flux ratio and submillimeter disk mass among T Tauri stars in Taurus. While it may seem puzzling that the molecular emission properties of the inner disk (ratio in the inner disk and altering the molecular abundances there. We discuss the assumptions that underlie this interpretation, a possible alternative explanation, and related open questions that motivate future work. Whatever its origin, understanding the meaning of the relation between the HCN/H{sub 2}O ratio and disk mass is of interest as trends like this among T Tauri disk properties are relatively rare.

  18. Analysis on burnup step effect for evaluating reactor criticality and fuel breeding ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saputra, Geby; Purnama, Aditya Rizki; Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

    2014-09-30

    Criticality condition of the reactors is one of the important factors for evaluating reactor operation and nuclear fuel breeding ratio is another factor to show nuclear fuel sustainability. This study analyzes the effect of burnup steps and cycle operation step for evaluating the criticality condition of the reactor as well as the performance of nuclear fuel breeding or breeding ratio (BR). Burnup step is performed based on a day step analysis which is varied from 10 days up to 800 days and for cycle operation from 1 cycle up to 8 cycles reactor operations. In addition, calculation efficiency based on the variation of computer processors to run the analysis in term of time (time efficiency in the calculation) have been also investigated. Optimization method for reactor design analysis which is used a large fast breeder reactor type as a reference case was performed by adopting an established reactor design code of JOINT-FR. The results show a criticality condition becomes higher for smaller burnup step (day) and for breeding ratio becomes less for smaller burnup step (day). Some nuclides contribute to make better criticality when smaller burnup step due to individul nuclide half-live. Calculation time for different burnup step shows a correlation with the time consuming requirement for more details step calculation, although the consuming time is not directly equivalent with the how many time the burnup time step is divided.

  19. Study for radionuclide transfer ratio of aerosols generated during heat cutting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iguchi, Yukihiro; Baba, Tsutomu; Kawakami, Hiroto; Kitahara, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kodama, Mitsuhiro

    2007-07-01

    The metallic elements with a low melting point and high vapor pressure seemed to transfer in aerosols selectively at dismantling reactor internals using heat cutting. Therefore, the arc melting tests of neutron irradiated zirconium alloy were conducted to investigate the radionuclide transfer behavior of aerosols generated during the heat cutting of activated metals. The arc melting test was conducted using a tungsten inert gas welding machine in an inert gas or air atmosphere. The radioactive aerosols were collected by filter and charcoal filter. The test sample was obtained from Zry-2 fuel cladding irradiated in a Japanese boiling water reactor for five fuel cycles. The activity analysis, chemical composition measurement and scanning electron microscope observation of aerosols were carried out. Some radionuclides were enriched in the aerosols generated in an inert gas atmosphere and the radionuclide transfer ratio did not change remarkably by the presence of air. The transfer ratio of Sb-125 was almost the same as that of Co-60. It was expected that Sb-125 was enriched from other elements since Sb is an element with a low melting point and high vapor pressure compared with the base metal (Zr). In the viewpoint of the environmental impact assessment, it became clear that the influence if Sb-125 is comparable to Co-60. The transfer ratio of Mn-54 was one order higher compared with other radionuclides. The results were discussed on the basis of thermal properties and oxide formation energy of the metallic elements. (authors)

  20. Uranium Isotopic Ratio Measurements of U3O8 Reference Materials by Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahey, Albert J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Bartrand, Jonah AG; Arey, Bruce W.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2016-01-01

    We report results of measurements of isotopic ratios obtained with atom probe tomography on U3O8 reference materials certified for their isotopic abundances of uranium. The results show good agreement with the certified values. High backgrounds due to tails from adjacent peaks complicate the measurement of the integrated peak areas as well as the fact that only oxides of uranium appear in the spectrum, the most intense of which is doubly charged. In addition, lack of knowledge of other instrumental parameters, such as the dead time, may bias the results. Isotopic ratio measurements can be performed at the nanometer-scale with the expectation of sensible results. The abundance sensitivity and mass resolving power of the mass spectrometer are not sufficient to compete with magnetic-sector instruments but are not far from measurements made by ToF-SIMS of other isotopic systems. The agreement of the major isotope ratios is more than sufficient to distinguish most anthropogenic compositions from natural.

  1. Estimating Terrorist Risk with Possibility Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Darby

    2004-11-30

    This report summarizes techniques that use possibility theory to estimate the risk of terrorist acts. These techniques were developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as part of the National Infrastructure Simulation Analysis Center (NISAC) project. The techniques have been used to estimate the risk of various terrorist scenarios to support NISAC analyses during 2004. The techniques are based on the Logic Evolved Decision (LED) methodology developed over the past few years by Terry Bott and Steve Eisenhawer at LANL. [LED] The LED methodology involves the use of fuzzy sets, possibility theory, and approximate reasoning. LED captures the uncertainty due to vagueness and imprecision that is inherent in the fidelity of the information available for terrorist acts; probability theory cannot capture these uncertainties. This report does not address the philosophy supporting the development of nonprobabilistic approaches, and it does not discuss possibility theory in detail. The references provide a detailed discussion of these subjects. [Shafer] [Klir and Yuan] [Dubois and Prade] Suffice to say that these approaches were developed to address types of uncertainty that cannot be addressed by a probability measure. An earlier report discussed in detail the problems with using a probability measure to evaluate terrorist risk. [Darby Methodology]. Two related techniques are discussed in this report: (1) a numerical technique, and (2) a linguistic technique. The numerical technique uses traditional possibility theory applied to crisp sets, while the linguistic technique applies possibility theory to fuzzy sets. Both of these techniques as applied to terrorist risk for NISAC applications are implemented in software called PossibleRisk. The techniques implemented in PossibleRisk were developed specifically for use in estimating terrorist risk for the NISAC program. The LEDTools code can be used to perform the same linguistic evaluation as

  2. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  3. New developments in capital cost estimating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Zocher, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The new developments in cost engineering revolve around the ability to capture information that in the past could not be automated. The purpose of automation is not to eliminate the expert cost engineer. The goal is to use available technology to have more information available to the professionals in the cost engineering field. In that sense, the demand for expertise increases in order to produce the highest quality estimate and project possible from all levels of cost engineers. We cannot overemphasize the importance of using a good source of expert information in building these types of programs. ''Garbage in, garbage out'' still applies in this form of programming. Expert systems technology will become commonplace in many vertical markets; it is important to undersand what can and cannot be accomplished in our field, and where this technology will lead us in the future.

  4. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  5. FUZZY SUPERNOVA TEMPLATES. II. PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Tonry, John L. E-mail: jt@ifa.hawaii.ed

    2010-05-20

    Wide-field surveys will soon be discovering Type Ia supernovae (SNe) at rates of several thousand per year. Spectroscopic follow-up can only scratch the surface for such enormous samples, so these extensive data sets will only be useful to the extent that they can be characterized by the survey photometry alone. In a companion paper we introduced the Supernova Ontology with Fuzzy Templates (SOFT) method for analyzing SNe using direct comparison to template light curves, and demonstrated its application for photometric SN classification. In this work we extend the SOFT method to derive estimates of redshift and luminosity distance for Type Ia SNe, using light curves from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) as a validation set. Redshifts determined by SOFT using light curves alone are consistent with spectroscopic redshifts, showing an rms scatter in the residuals of rms{sub z} = 0.051. SOFT can also derive simultaneous redshift and distance estimates, yielding results that are consistent with the currently favored {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. When SOFT is given spectroscopic information for SN classification and redshift priors, the rms scatter in Hubble diagram residuals is 0.18 mag for the SDSS data and 0.28 mag for the SNLS objects. Without access to any spectroscopic information, and even without any redshift priors from host galaxy photometry, SOFT can still measure reliable redshifts and distances, with an increase in the Hubble residuals to 0.37 mag for the combined SDSS and SNLS data set. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we predict that SOFT will be able to improve constraints on time-variable dark energy models by a factor of 2-3 with each new generation of large-scale SN surveys.

  6. Property:EstimatedCostLowUSD | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name EstimatedCostLowUSD Property Type Quantity Description the low estimate of cost in USD Use this type to express a monetary value in US Dollars. The default unit is one...

  7. Property:EstimatedCostHighUSD | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name EstimatedCostHighUSD Property Type Quantity Description the high estimate of cost in USD Use this type to express a monetary value in US Dollars. The default unit is one...

  8. Property:EstimatedCostMedianUSD | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name EstimatedCostMedianUSD Property Type Quantity Description the median estimate of cost in USD Use this type to express a monetary value in US Dollars. The default unit is one...

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1615_Cost Estimating Panel

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cost Estimate (ICE) - Same Basis as Project Cost Estimate (PCE) Sa e as s as ojec Cos s a e ( C ) - Reconcilable with PCE to Facilitate Validation * Independent Cost Review...

  10. The ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) Data set Title: The ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) Data set The ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set ...

  11. ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data - A new data product...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data - A new data product for climate modelers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM Climate Modeling Best Estimate Data - A new data ...

  12. ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER ION IN COMET C/2001 Q4 (NEAT): IMPLICATION FOR ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Boice, Daniel C.; Martinez, Susan E.

    2012-04-20

    The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices, and contains information concerning their formation. Water is the most abundant species in cometary ices, and OPRs of water in comets have been determined from infrared spectroscopic observations of H{sub 2}O rovibrational transitions so far. In this paper, we present a new method to derive OPR of water in comets from the high-dispersion spectrum of the rovibronic emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} in the optical wavelength region. The rovibronic emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} are sometimes contaminated by other molecular emission lines but they are not affected seriously by telluric absorption compared with near-infrared observations. Since H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions are mainly produced from H{sub 2}O by photoionization in the coma, the OPR of H{sub 2}O{sup +} is considered to be equal to that of water based on the nuclear spin conservation through the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence excitation model of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and applied it to the spectrum of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). The derived OPR of water is 2.54{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25}, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature (T{sub spin}) of 30{sup +10}{sub -4} K. This is consistent with the previous value determined in the near-infrared for the same comet (OPR = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, T{sub spin} = 31{sup +11}{sub -5} K).

  13. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Industrial Water Use Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use Document describes a systematic approach to estimate industrial water use in evaporative cooling systems, steam boiler systems, and facility wash applications. It assists Federal agencies in the baseline development by providing a methodology to calculate unmetered sources of industrial water use utilizing engineering estimates. Download the Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use. (2.11 MB)

  14. Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field Some utility companies and public agencies offer rebates to encourage customers to upgrade their existing standard efficiency motors to premium efficiency motors. It is important to know the efficiency of the existing motor and how it is being used to accurately estimate potential annual energy and dollar savings. This tip sheet provides suggested actions and estimates of savings from improved efficiency. Motor

  15. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity & Fuel » Appliances & Electronics » Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use Our appliance and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual wattage of products varies depending on product age and features. Enter a wattage value for your own product for the most accurate estimate. Wattage

  16. Buildings Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Estimator Worksheet | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Buildings Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Estimator Worksheet Buildings Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Estimator Worksheet Excel tool helps agencies estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings. For example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office

  17. Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Study of the effect of compression ratio on performance of light duty diesel operating with PCCI calibration, near EURO6/Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx limits.

  18. Cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering and the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters: marginalizing over the physics of galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddick, Rachel M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu; Tinker, Jeremy L. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu

    2014-03-10

    Many approaches to obtaining cosmological constraints rely on the connection between galaxies and dark matter. However, the distribution of galaxies is dependent on their formation and evolution as well as on the cosmological model, and galaxy formation is still not a well-constrained process. Thus, methods that probe cosmology using galaxies as tracers for dark matter must be able to accurately estimate the cosmological parameters. This can be done without knowing details of galaxy formation a priori as long as the galaxies are well represented by a halo occupation distribution (HOD). We apply this reasoning to the method of obtaining ? {sub m} and ?{sub 8} from galaxy clustering combined with the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters. To test the sensitivity of this method to variations due to galaxy formation, we consider several different models applied to the same cosmological dark matter simulation. The cosmological parameters are then estimated using the observables in each model, marginalizing over the parameters of the HOD. We find that for models where the galaxies can be well represented by a parameterized HOD, this method can successfully extract the desired cosmological parameters for a wide range of galaxy formation prescriptions.

  19. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  20. ORBITAL AND MASS RATIO EVOLUTION OF PROTOBINARIES DRIVEN BY MAGNETIC BRAKING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2013-01-20

    The majority of stars reside in multiple systems, especially binaries. The formation and early evolution of binaries is a longstanding problem in star formation that is not yet fully understood. In particular, how the magnetic field observed in star-forming cores shapes the binary characteristics remains relatively unexplored. We demonstrate numerically, using an MHD version of the ENZO AMR hydro code, that a magnetic field of the observed strength can drastically change two of the basic quantities that characterize a binary system: the orbital separation and mass ratio of the two components. Our calculations focus on the protostellar mass accretion phase, after a pair of stellar 'seeds' have already formed. We find that in dense cores magnetized to a realistic level, the angular momentum of the material accreted by the protobinary is greatly reduced by magnetic braking. Accretion of strongly braked material shrinks the protobinary separation by a large factor compared to the non-magnetic case. The magnetic braking also changes the evolution of the mass ratio of unequal-mass protobinaries by producing material of low specific angular momentum that accretes preferentially onto the more massive primary star rather than the secondary. This is in contrast with the preferential mass accretion onto the secondary previously found numerically for protobinaries accreting from an unmagnetized envelope, which tends to drive the mass ratio toward unity. In addition, the magnetic field greatly modifies the morphology and dynamics of the protobinary accretion flow. It suppresses the traditional circumstellar and circumbinary disks that feed the protobinary in the non-magnetic case; the binary is fed instead by a fast collapsing pseudodisk whose rotation is strongly braked. The magnetic braking-driven inward migration of binaries from their birth locations may be constrained by high-resolution observations of the orbital distribution of deeply embedded protobinaries, especially

  1. Characteristics of Cu stabilized Nb3Al strands with low Cu ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikuchi, A.; Yamada, R.; Barzi, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Lamm, M.; Nakagawa, K.; Sasaki, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /NIMC, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Hitachi, Tsuchiura Works /KEK, Tsukuba

    2008-12-01

    Characteristics of recently developed F4-Nb{sub 3}Al strand with low Cu ratio are described. The overall J{sub c} of the Nb{sub 3}Al strand could be easily increased by decreasing of the Cu ratio. Although the quench of a pulse-like voltage generation is usually observed in superconducting unstable conductor, the F4 strand with a low Cu ratio of 0.61 exhibited an ordinary critical transition of gradual voltage generation. The F4 strand does not have magnetic instabilities at 4.2 K because of the tantalum interfilament matrix. The overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand achieved was 80-85% of the RRP strand. In the large mechanical stress above 100 MPa, the overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand might be comparable to that of high J{sub c} RRP-Nb{sub 3}Sn strands. The Rutherford cable with a high packing factor of 86.5% has been fabricated using F4 strands. The small racetrack magnet, SR07, was also fabricated by a 14 m F4 cable. The quench current, I{sub q}, of SR07 were obtained 22.4 kA at 4.5 K and 25.2 kA at 2.2 K. The tantalum matrix Nb{sub 3}Al strands are promising for the application of super-cooled high-field magnets as well as 4.2 K operation magnets.

  2. Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

    2010-02-05

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg

  3. Separated Response Function Ratios in Exclusive, Forward {pi}{sup {+/-}} Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, Garth; Blok, Hendrik; Butuceanu, Cornel; Gaskell, David; Horn, Tanja; Mack, David; Abbott, David; Aniol, Konrad; Anklin, Heinz; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Assamagan, Ketevi; Avery, Steven; Baker, Oliver; Barrett, Brynle; Beise, Elizabeth; Bochna, C.; Boeglin, Werner; Brash, Edward; Breuer, Herbert; Chang, C. C.; Chant, Nicholas; Christy, Michael; Dunne, James; Eden, T.; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Gibson, Edward; Gilman, Ronald; Gustafsson, Kenneth; Hinton, Wendy; Holt, Roy; Jackson, Harold; Jin, Seong uk; Jones, Mark; Keppel, Cynthia; Kim, pyunghun; Kim, Wooyoung; King, Paul; Klein, Andreas; Koltenuk, Douglas; Kovaltchouk, Vitali; Liang, M.; Liu, J.; Lolos, George; Lung, Allison; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Matsumura, Akihiko; McKee, David; Meekins, David; Mitchell, Joseph; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Mueller, Berndt; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Okayasu, Yuichi; Pentchev, Lubomir; Perdrisat, Charles; Pitz, David; Potterveld, David; Punjabi, Vina; Qin, Liming; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Roos, Philip; Sarty, Adam; Shin, Ilkyoung; Smith, Gregory; Stepanyan, Stepan; Tang, Liguang; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tvaskis, Vladas; van der Meer, Rob; Vansyoc, Kelley; Van Westrum, Derek; Vidakovic, Sandra; Volmer, Jochen; Vulcan, William; Warren, Glen; Wood, Stephen; Xu, C.; Yan, C.; Zhao, Wenxia; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zihlmann, Benedikt

    2014-05-01

    The study of exclusive ?{sup } electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio R{sub L}=?{sup ?{sup ?}}{sub L}/?{sup ?{sup +}}{sub L} is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of R{sub T}=?{sup ?{sup ?}}{sub T}/?{sup ?{sup +}}{sub T} from unity at small ?t, to 1/4 at large ?t, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Furthermore, the mentioned ratios may show an earlier approach to pQCD than the individual cross sections. We have performed the first complete separation of the four unpolarized electromagnetic structure functions above the dominant resonances in forward, exclusive ? electroproduction on the deuteron at central Q{sup 2} values of 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 GeV{sup 2} at W=1.95 GeV, and Q{sup 2}=2.45 GeV{sup 2} at W=2.22 GeV. Here, we present the L and T cross sections, with emphasis on R{sub L} and R{sub T}, and compare them with theoretical calculations. Results for the separated ratio RL indicate dominance of the pion-pole diagram at low ?t, while results for R{sub T} are consistent with a transition between pion knockout and quark knockout mechanisms.

  4. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  5. Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

    2002-08-31

    Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations

  6. Numerical estimation of adsorption energy distributions from adsorption isotherm data with the expectation-maximization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanley, B.J.; Guiochon, G. |

    1993-08-01

    The expectation-maximization (EM) method of parameter estimation is used to calculate adsorption energy distributions of molecular probes from their adsorption isotherms. EM does not require prior knowledge of the distribution function or the isotherm, requires no smoothing of the isotherm data, and converges with high stability towards the maximum-likelihood estimate. The method is therefore robust and accurate at high iteration numbers. The EM algorithm is tested with simulated energy distributions corresponding to unimodal Gaussian, bimodal Gaussian, Poisson distributions, and the distributions resulting from Misra isotherms. Theoretical isotherms are generated from these distributions using the Langmuir model, and then chromatographic band profiles are computed using the ideal model of chromatography. Noise is then introduced in the theoretical band profiles comparable to those observed experimentally. The isotherm is then calculated using the elution-by-characteristic points method. The energy distribution given by the EM method is compared to the original one. Results are contrasted to those obtained with the House and Jaycock algorithm HILDA, and shown to be superior in terms of robustness, accuracy, and information theory. The effect of undersampling of the high-pressure/low-energy region of the adsorption is reported and discussed for the EM algorithm, as well as the effect of signal-to-noise ratio on the degree of heterogeneity that may be estimated experimentally.

  7. "Table A45. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption" " for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Industry Group," " Selected Industries, and Value of Shipment Categories, 1994" ,,,,,"Major" ,,,"Consumption","Consumption per","Byproducts(c)","Fuel Oil(d)" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","Dollar of Value","as a Percent","as a Percent","RSE"

  8. "Table A46. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption" " for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Industry Group," " Selected Industries, and Employment Size Categories, 1994" ,,,,,"Major" ,,,"Consumption","Consumption per","Byproducts(c)","Fuel Oil(d)" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","Dollar of Value","as a Percent","as a Percent","RSE"

  9. "Table A47. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and" " Selected Industries, 1994" ,,,,,"Major" ,,,,"Consumption","Byproducts(b)" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar","as a","Fuel Oil(c) as" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","Percent of","a

  10. "Table A51. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region and Economic" " Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991 " ,,,,,"Major" ,,,"Consumption","Consumption per","Byproducts(c)","Fuel Oil(d)" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","Dollar of Value","as a Percent","as a Percent","RSE"

  11. "Table A8. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A8. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Industry Group, and" " Selected Industries, 1991" ,,,,,"Major" ,,,,"Consumption","Byproducts(b)" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar","as a","Fuel Oil(c) as" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","Percent of","a Percent

  12. High confinement mode and edge localized mode characteristics in a near-unity aspect ratio tokamak

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thome, Kathreen E.; Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Bodner, Grant M.; Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Kriete, David M.; Perry, Justin M.; Schlossberg, David J.

    2016-04-27

    Tokamak experiments at near-unity aspect ratio A ≲ 1.2 offer new insights into the self-organized H-mode plasma confinement regime. In contrast to conventional A ~ 3 plasmas, the L–H power threshold PLH is ~15× higher than scaling predictions, and it is insensitive to magnetic topology, consistent with modeling. Edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities shift to lower toroidal mode numbers as A decreases. Furthermore, these ultralow-A operations enable heretofore inaccessible Jedge(R,t) measurements through an ELM that show a complex multimodal collapse and the ejection of a current-carrying filament.

  13. Air-fuel ratio controller for a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serve, J.V.; Eckard, D.W.

    1988-09-13

    This patent describes an air-fuel ratio controller for a gaseous-fueled, turbo-charged engine having an air manifold, a gas manifold, and a turbine inlet. The controller consists of: means for controlling air manifold pressure, comprising means for providing an air manifold pressure set point signal based on gas manifold pressure and engine RPM's and at least one constant input; and means for controlling turbine inlet temperature, the means comprising means for modulating the slope of the set point signal for the air manifold pressure controller.

  14. D-T gamma-to-neutron branching ratio determined from inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.; Mack, J. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Hale, G. M.; Caldwell, S.; Hoffman, N. M.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; McEvoy, A.; Langenbrunner, J.; Hsu, H. H.; Huff, M. A.; Batha, S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Garbett, W. J.; Stoeffl, W.; Grafil, E.; Bernstein, L.; and others

    2012-05-15

    A new deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion gamma-to-neutron branching ratio [{sup 3}H(d,{gamma}){sup 5}He/{sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He] value of (4.2 {+-} 2.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} was recently reported by this group [Y. Kim et al. Phys. Rev. C (submitted)]. This measurement, conducted at the OMEGA laser facility located at the University of Rochester, was made for the first time using inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasmas. Neutron-induced backgrounds are significantly reduced in these experiments as compared to traditional beam-target accelerator-based experiments due to the short pulse nature of ICF implosions and the use of gas Cherenkov {gamma}-ray detectors with fast temporal responses and inherent energy thresholds. It is expected that this ICF-based measurement will help resolve the large and long-standing inconsistencies in previously reported accelerator-based values, which vary by a factor of approximately 30. The reported value at ICF conditions was determined by averaging the results of two methods: (1) a direct measurement of ICF D-T {gamma}-ray and neutron emissions using absolutely calibrated detectors and (2) a separate cross-calibration against the better known D-{sup 3}He gamma-to-proton branching ratio [{sup 3}He(d, {gamma}){sup 5}Li/{sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He]. Here we include a detailed explanation of these results, and introduce as a corroborative method an in-situ{gamma}-ray detector calibration using neutron-induced {gamma}-rays. Also, by extending the established techniques to two additional series of implosions with significantly different ion temperatures, we test the branching ratio dependence on ion temperature. The data show a D-T branching ratio is nearly constant over the temperature range 2-9 keV. These studies motivate further investigation into the {sup 5}He and {sup 5}Li systems resulting from D-T and D-{sup 3}He fusion, respectively, and result in improved ICF {gamma}-ray reaction history diagnosis at the National Ignition

  15. SUEX Dry Film Resist - A new Material for High Aspect Ratio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SUEX Dry Film Resist - A new Material for High Aspect Ratio Lithography Donald W Johnson a , Jost Goettert b , Varshni Singh b and Dawit Yemane b a DJ DevCorp, 490 Boston Post Rd, Sudbury, MA 01776 b Louisiana State University, Center for Advanced Microstructures & Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 don@djdevcorp.com Abstract SUEX epoxy Thick Dry Film Sheets (TDFS) are a promising material for a wide range of MEMS applications. They contain a cationically cured

  16. THE FUELING DIAGRAM: LINKING GALAXY MOLECULAR-TO-ATOMIC GAS RATIOS TO INTERACTIONS AND ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, David V.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Wei, Lisa H.; Baker, Andrew J.; Leroy, Adam K.; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2013-05-20

    To assess how external factors such as local interactions and fresh gas accretion influence the global interstellar medium of galaxies, we analyze the relationship between recent enhancements of central star formation and total molecular-to-atomic (H{sub 2}/H I) gas ratios, using a broad sample of field galaxies spanning early-to-late type morphologies, stellar masses of 10{sup 7.2}-10{sup 11.2} M{sub Sun }, and diverse stages of evolution. We find that galaxies occupy several loci in a ''fueling diagram'' that plots H{sub 2}/H I ratio versus mass-corrected blue-centeredness, a metric tracing the degree to which galaxies have bluer centers than the average galaxy at their stellar mass. Spiral galaxies of all stellar masses show a positive correlation between H{sub 2}/H I ratio and mass-corrected blue-centeredness. When combined with previous results linking mass-corrected blue-centeredness to external perturbations, this correlation suggests a systematic link between local galaxy interactions and molecular gas inflow/replenishment. Intriguingly, E/S0 galaxies show a more complex picture: some follow the same correlation, some are quenched, and a distinct population of blue-sequence E/S0 galaxies (with masses below key scales associated with transitions in gas richness) defines a separate loop in the fueling diagram. This population appears to be composed of low-mass merger remnants currently in late- or post-starburst states, in which the burst first consumes the H{sub 2} while the galaxy center keeps getting bluer, then exhausts the H{sub 2}, at which point the burst population reddens as it ages. Multiple lines of evidence suggest connected evolutionary sequences in the fueling diagram. In particular, tracking total gas-to-stellar mass ratios within the fueling diagram provides evidence of fresh gas accretion onto low-mass E/S0s emerging from their central starburst episodes. Drawing on a comprehensive literature search, we suggest that virtually all galaxies

  17. Morphology and aspect ratio of bismuth nanoparticles embedded in a zinc matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Tae Eun; Wilde, Gerhard; Peterlechner, Martin

    2014-12-15

    Nanoscale Bi particles embedded in a Zn matrix were obtained by casting and melt-spinning, resulting in quenching rate-dependent sizes and shapes. With decreasing Bi particle size, an increasing aspect ratio was observed. Due to high resolution transmission electron microscopy performed for different orientations of the nanoparticles and the matrix, the three-dimensional shape and the respective crystallographic orientations of the Bi nanoparticles as well as the orientation relationship with the matrix have been evaluated. It is suggested that the size-dependence of the nanoparticle morphologies has a strong impact on their thermal stabilities thus affecting the size dependence of the melting temperature.

  18. Evaluation of partial widths and branching ratios from resonance wave functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldzak, Tamar; Gilary, Ido; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2010-11-15

    A quantum system in a given resonance state has different open channels for decay. Partial widths are the decay rates of the resonance (metastable) state into the different open channels. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the partial widths from the solution of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation with outgoing boundary conditions. We show that the sum of the partial widths obtained from the resonance wave function is equal to the total width. The difference with respect to previous studies on partial widths and branching ratios is discussed.

  19. Best-Estimate Analysis PWR LOCA.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-11

    Version: 00 TRAC‑PF1 performs best estimate analyses of loss of coolant accidents and other transients in pressurized light water reactors. The program can also be used to model a wide range of thermal hydraulic experiments in reduced scale facilities. Models employed include reflood, multi‑dimensional two‑phase flow, nonequilibrium thermodynamics, generalized heat transfer, and reactor kinetics. Automatic steady‑state and dump/restart capabilities are provided. The changes reported in TRACNEWS issues through Number 7 are incorporated in this release.more » TRAC-PF1 was developed on a CDC computer at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PC version of TRAC‑PF1 was converted at CNEN in 1989 and has not been updated since that time. The NRC no longer supports the TRAC codes. They currently develop and maintain the TRACE code system, which is the TRAC/RELAP Advanced Computational Engine. TRACE is a modernized thermal-hydraulics code designed to consolidate the capabilities of NRC's 3 legacy safety codes - TRAC-P, TRAC-B and RELAP. This is NRC's flagship thermal-hydraulics analysis tool. See the website for more information http://www.nrccodes.com/.« less

  20. A minimal sub-Planckian axion inflation model with large tensor-to-scalar ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a minimal axion inflation model which can generate a large tensor-to-scalar ratio while remaining sub-Planckian. The modulus of a complex scalar field ? with a ?|?|{sup 4} potential couples directly to the gauge field of a strongly-coupled sector via a term of the form (|?|/M{sub Pl}){sup m}F F-tilde . This generates a minimum of the potential which is aperiodic in the phase. The resulting inflation model is equivalent to a ?{sup 4/(m+1)} chaotic inflation model. For the natural case of a leading-order portal-like interaction of the form ?{sup }?F F-tilde , the model is equivalent to a ?{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation model and predicts a tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 16/3N = 0.097 and a scalar spectral index n{sub s} = 1 - 5/3N = 0.970. The value of |?| remains sub-Planckian throughout the observable era of inflation, with |?| ?< 0.01M{sub Pl} for N ?< 60 when ? ? 1.

  1. Microscopic silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio structures for thin film conformality analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Arpiainen, Sanna; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2015-01-15

    Film conformality is one of the major drivers for the interest in atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. This work presents new silicon-based microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures for the analysis of the conformality of thin films deposited by ALD and by other chemical vapor deposition means. The microscopic LHAR structures consist of a lateral cavity inside silicon with a roof supported by pillars. The cavity length (e.g., 20–5000 μm) and cavity height (e.g., 200–1000 nm) can be varied, giving aspect ratios of, e.g., 20:1 to 25 000:1. Film conformality can be analyzed with the microscopic LHAR by several means, as demonstrated for the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} processes from Me{sub 3}Al/H{sub 2}O and TiCl{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O. The microscopic LHAR test structures introduced in this work expose a new parameter space for thin film conformality investigations expected to prove useful in the development, tuning and modeling of ALD and other chemical vapor deposition processes.

  2. The ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-22

    The discovery of H{sub 3}{sup +} in the diffuse interstellar medium has dramatically changed our view of the cosmic-ray ionization rate in diffuse molecular clouds. However, another surprise has been that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in these clouds is inconsistent with the temperature derived from the excitation of H{sub 2}, the dominant species in these clouds. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we have embarked on an experimental program to measure the nuclear spin dependence of the dissociative electron recombination rate of H{sub 3}{sup +} using the CRYRING and TSR ion storage rings. We have also performed the first measurements of the reaction H{sub 3}{sup +}+H{sub 2}→H{sub 2}+H{sub 3}{sup +} below room temperature. This reaction is likely the most common bimolecular reaction in the universe, and plays an important role in interconverting ortho- and para-H{sub 3}{sup +}. Finally, we have constructed a steady-state chemical model for diffuse clouds, which takes into account the spin-dependence of the formation of H{sub 3}{sup +}, its electron recombination, and its reaction with H{sub 2}. We find that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in diffuse clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination and thermalization by reactive collisions.

  3. Mechanically stable, high aspect ratio, multifilar, wound, ribbon-type conductor and method for manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G.

    1987-01-01

    A mechanically stable, wound, multifilar, ribbon-type conductor having a cross-sectional aspect ratio which may be greater than 12:1, comprising a plurality of conductive strands wound to form a flattened helix containing a plastic strip into which the strands have been pressed so as to form a bond between the strip and the strands. The bond mechanically stabilizes the conductor under tension, preventing it from collapsing into a tubular configuration. In preferred embodiments the plastic strip may be polytetrafluoroethylene, and the conductive strands may be formed from a superconductive material. Conductors in accordance with the present invention may be manufactured by winding a plurality of conductive strands around a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of the mandrel continuously varying from substantially circular to a high aspect ratio elipse while maintaining a constant circumference. The wound conductive strands are drawn from the mandrel as a multifilar helix while simultaneously a plastic strip is fed through the hollow mandrel so that it is contained within the helix as it is withdrawn from the mandrel. The helical conductor is then compressed into a ribbon-like form and the strands are bonded to the plastic strip by a combination of heat and pressure.

  4. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. DETAILED ABUNDANCE RATIOS AT LARGE RADIUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Gunn, James E.; Raskutti, Sudhir; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl

    2013-10-20

    We study the radial dependence in stellar populations of 33 nearby early-type galaxies with central stellar velocity dispersions ?{sub *} ?> 150 km s{sup 1}. We measure stellar population properties in composite spectra, and use ratios of these composites to highlight the largest spectral changes as a function of radius. Based on stellar population modeling, the typical star at 2R{sub e} is old (?10 Gyr), relatively metal-poor ([Fe/H] ? 0.5), and ?-enhanced ([Mg/Fe] ? 0.3). The stars were made rapidly at z ? 1.5-2 in shallow potential wells. Declining radial gradients in [C/Fe], which follow [Fe/H], also arise from rapid star formation timescales due to declining carbon yields from low-metallicity massive stars. In contrast, [N/Fe] remains high at large radius. Stars at large radius have different abundance ratio patterns from stars in the center of any present-day galaxy, but are similar to average Milky Way thick disk stars. Our observations are thus consistent with a picture in which the stellar outskirts are built up through minor mergers with disky galaxies whose star formation is truncated early (z ? 1.5-2)

  5. FULLY CONVECTIVE MAGNETO-ROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN LARGE ASPECT-RATIO SHEARING BOXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Mignone, A.

    2015-01-20

    We present a numerical study of turbulence and dynamo action in stratified shearing boxes with both finite and zero net magnetic flux. We assume that the fluid obeys the perfect gas law and has finite thermal diffusivity. The latter is chosen to be small enough so that vigorous convective states develop. The properties of these convective solutions are analyzed as the aspect ratio of the computational domain is varied and as the value of the mean field is increased. For the cases with zero net flux, we find that a well-defined converged state is obtained for large enough aspect ratios. In the converged state, the dynamo can be extremely efficient and can generate substantial toroidal flux. We identify solutions in which the toroidal field is mostly symmetric about the mid-plane and solutions in which it is mostly anti-symmetric. The symmetric solutions are found to be more efficient at transporting angular momentum and can give rise to a luminosity that is up to an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding value for the anti-symmetric states. In the cases with a finite net flux, the system appears to spend most of the time in the symmetric states.

  6. High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Q2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaohui Zhan

    2010-01-31

    Experiment E08-007 measured the proton elastic form factor ratio ?pGE/GM in the range of Q2 = 0.3?0.7(GeV/c)2 by recoil polarimetry. Data were taken in 2008 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Virginia, USA. A 1.2 GeV polarized electron beam was scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target. The recoil proton was detected in the left HRS in coincidence with the elasticly scattered electrons tagged by the BigBite spectrometer. The proton polarization was measured by the focal plane polarimeter (FPP). In this low Q2 region, previous measurement from Jefferson Lab Hall A (LEDEX) along with various fits and calculations indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. For this new measurement, the proposed statistical uncertainty (< 1%) was achieved. These new results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, which indicate a smaller GEp at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the new results also have implications in determining the proton Zemach radius and the strangeness form factors from parity violation experiments.

  7. Analysis of depolarization ratios of ClNO{sub 2} dissolved in methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimithioti, Marilena; Hayes, Sophia C.; Akimov, Alexey V.; Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 ; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2014-01-07

    A detailed analysis of the resonance Raman depolarization ratio dispersion curve for the NO symmetric stretch of nitryl chloride in methanol at excitation wavelengths spanning the D absorption band is presented. The depolarization ratios are modeled using the time-dependent formalism for Raman scattering with contributions from two excited states (2{sup 1}A{sub 1} and 3{sup 1}B{sub 1}), which are taken as linearly dissociative along the ClN coordinate. The analysis focuses on the interplay between different types of broadening revealing the importance of inhomogenous broadening in determining the relative contributions of the two electronic transitions. We find that the transition dipole moment (M) for 2{sup 1}A{sub 1} is greater than for 3{sup 1}B{sub 1}, in agreement with gas phase calculations in the literature [A. Lesar, M. Hdoscek, M. Muhlhauser, and S. D. Peyerimhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 84 (2004)]. However, we find that the polarity of the solvent influences the excited state energetics, leading to a reversal in the ordering of these two states with 3{sup 1}B{sub 1} shifting to lower energies. Molecular dynamics simulations along with linear response and ab initio calculations support the evidence extracted from resonance Raman intensity analysis, providing insights on ClNO{sub 2} electronic structure, solvation effects in methanol, and the source of broadening, emphasizing the importance of a contribution from inhomogeneous linewidth.

  8. Experimental research on heat transfer of natural convection in vertical rectangular channels with large aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Qing; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Tian, Wenxi; Ye, Zhonghao

    2010-01-15

    This work presents the experimental research on the steady laminar natural convection heat transfer of air in three vertical thin rectangular channels with different gap clearance. The much higher ratio of width to gap clearance (60-24) and the ratio of length to gap clearance (800-320) make the rectangular channels similar with the coolant flow passage in plate type fuel reactors. The vertical rectangular channels were composed of two stainless steal plates and were heated by electrical heating rods. The wall temperatures were detected with the K-type thermocouples which were inserted into the blind holes drilled in the steal plates. Also the air temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the channel were detected. The wall heat fluxes added to the air flow were calculated by the Fourier heat conduction law. The heat transfer characteristics were analyzed, and the average Nusselt numbers in all the three channels could be well correlated with the Rayleigh number or the modified Rayleigh number in a uniform correlation. Furthermore, the maximum wall temperatures were investigated, which is a key parameter for the fuel's integrity during some accidents. It was found that even the wall heat flux was up to 1500 W/m{sup 2}, the maximum wall temperature was lower than 350 C. All this work is valuable for the plate type reactor's design and safety analysis. (author)

  9. Constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio for non-power-law models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vázquez, J. Alberto; Bridges, M.; Ma, Yin-Zhe; Hobson, M.P. E-mail: mb435@mrao.cam.ac.uk E-mail: mph@mrao.cam.ac.uk

    2013-08-01

    Recent cosmological observations hint at a deviation from the simple power-law form of the primordial spectrum of curvature perturbations. In this paper we show that in the presence of a tensor component, a turn-over in the initial spectrum is preferred by current observations, and hence non-power-law models ought to be considered. For instance, for a power-law parameterisation with both a tensor component and running parameter, current data show a preference for a negative running at more than 2.5σ C.L. As a consequence of this deviation from a power-law, constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r are slightly broader. We also present constraints on the inflationary parameters for a model-independent reconstruction and the Lasenby and Doran (LD) model. In particular, the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio from the LD model are: r{sub LD} = 0.11±0.024. In addition to current data, we show expected constraints from Planck-like and CMB-Pol sensitivity experiments by using Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo sampling chains. For all the models, we have included the Bayesian Evidence to perform a model selection analysis. The Bayes factor, using current observations, shows a strong preference for the LD model over the standard power-law parameterisation, and provides an insight into the accuracy of differentiating models through future surveys.

  10. Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study: Estimation Framework and Initial Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, Will R.; Goldberg, Miriam L.; Tanimoto, Paulo M.; Celnicker, Dane R.; Poplawski, Michael E.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. DOE Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Solid-State Lighting Program that aims to improve the understanding of lighting energy usage in residential dwellings. The study has developed a regional estimation framework within a national sample design that allows for the estimation of lamp usage and energy consumption 1) nationally and by region of the United States, 2) by certain household characteristics, 3) by location within the home, 4) by certain lamp characteristics, and 5) by certain categorical cross-classifications (e.g., by dwelling type AND lamp type or fixture type AND control type).

  11. Auger electron spectroscopy for the determination of sex and age related Ca/P ratio at different bone sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2010-10-15

    The Ca/P ratio of normal cortical and trabecular rat bone was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Semiquantitative analysis was carried out using ratio techniques to draw conclusions on how age, sex and bone site affect the relative composition of calcium and phosphorus. Results show that Ca/P ratio is not sex dependent; quite the opposite, bone sites exhibit variations in elemental stoichiometry where femoral sections demonstrate higher Ca/P ratio than rear and front tibias. Age-related changes are more distinct for cortical bone in comparison with the trabecular bone. The latter's Ca/P ratio remains unaffected from all the parameters under study. This study confirms that AES is able to successfully quantify bone mineral main elements when certain critical points, related to the experimental conditions, are addressed effectively.

  12. Biogenic opal germanium/silicon ratios used to monitor upwelling intensity in Newport Lagoon section, Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murnane, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    Empirical evidence and modeling of geochemical cycles of silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) suggest that opal Ge/Si ratios record water Ge/Si ratios although some fractionation of germanium from silicon occurs during biogenic opal formation. Modeling results also suggest that opal Ge/Si ratios could record changes in upwelling intensity. In today's oceans, areas of high productivity associated with upwelling show relatively elevated surface-water nutrient concentrations, whereas areas of low productivity with restricted upwelling exhibit low surface-water nutrient concentrations. Fractionation of germanium from silicon during biogenic opal formation would cause the surface ocean's Ge/Si ratio to increase as surface-water nutrient concentrations are lowered. Diatomites from the Newport Lagoon section of the Monterey Formation were analyzed to test the hypothesis that biogenic opal Ge/Si ratios could be used to trace upwelling intensity. Diatom assemblages of the Monterey Formation vary with upwelling intensity over a time scale of millions of years. Samples collected from the middle and late Miocene have high ratios (up to 8 x 10/sup -7/) when diatom assemblages indicate relatively weak upwelling, and low ratios (less than 6 x 10/sup -7/) when diatom assemblages indicate relatively strong upwelling. These ratios agree with modeling predictions. Opal Ge/Si ratios may also record upwelling fluctuations on much shorter times scales. Adjacent, centimeter-scale, lighter and darker layers record past variations in biogenic and terrigenous inputs to ocean-bottom sediments. Opal Ge/Si ratios may indicate whether the darker layers result from a relative decrease in surface-water productivity in response to a reduction in upwelling intensity, or only from a relative increase in terrigenous detrital inputs.

  13. Investigation of critical equivalence ratio and chemical speciation in flames of ethylbenzene-ethanol blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therrien, Richard J.; Ergut, Ali; Levendis, Yiannis A.; Richter, Henning; Howard, Jack B.; Carlson, Joel B.

    2010-02-15

    This work investigates five different one-dimensional, laminar, atmospheric pressure, premixed ethanol/ethylbenzene flames (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 90% ethanol by weight) at their soot onset threshold ({phi}{sub critical}). Liquid ethanol/ethylbenzene mixtures were pre-vaporized in nitrogen, blended with an oxygen-nitrogen mixture and, upon ignition, burned in premixed one-dimensional flames at atmospheric pressure. The flames were controlled so that each was at its visual soot onset threshold, and all had similar temperature profiles (determined by thermocouples). Fixed gases, light volatile hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons were directly sampled at three locations in each flame. The experimental results were compared with a detailed kinetic model, and the modeling results were used to perform a reaction flux analysis of key species. The critical equivalence ratio was observed to increase in a parabolic fashion as ethanol concentration increased in the fuel mixture. The experimental results showed increasing trends of methane, ethane, and ethylene with increasing concentrations of ethanol in the flames. Carbon monoxide was also seen to increase significantly with the increase of ethanol in the flame, which removes carbon from the PAH and soot formation pathways. The PAH and oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbon values were very similar in the 0%, 25% and 50% ethanol flames, but significantly lower in the 75% and 90% ethanol flames. These results were in general agreement with the model and were reflected by the model soot predictions. The model predicted similar soot profiles for the 0%, 25% and 50% ethanol flames, however it predicted significantly lower values in the 75% and 90% ethanol flames. The reaction flux analysis revealed benzyl to be a major contributor to single and double ring aromatics (i.e., benzene and naphthalene), which was identified in a similar role in nearly sooting or highly sooting

  14. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    employing a quadrupole MS system for compound identification and an isotope ratio MS for measuring the stable isotope ratios of deuterium and hydrogen (D/H) in fatty acids. Finally, the method for analyzing the compound abundance data is included. This study indicates that removal of ricinoleic acid is a conserved consequence of each processing step we tested. Furthermore, the stable isotope D/H ratio of ricinoleic acid distinguished between two of the three castor seed sources. Concentrations of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucosamine and myo-inositol differentiated between crude or acetone extracted samples and samples produced by protein precipitation. Taken together these data illustrate the ability to distinguish between processes used to purify a ricin sample as well as potentially the source seeds.

  15. IDC RP2 & 3 US Industry Standard Cost Estimate Summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, James M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  16. Mineralization and optical characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles using a high aspect ratio bio-template

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaman, Mohammed Shahriar [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Haberer, Elaine D., E-mail: haberer@ucr.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    Organized chains of copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized, without palladium (Pd) activation, using the M13 filamentous virus as a biological template. The interaction of Cu precursor ions with the negatively charged viral coat proteins were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Discrete nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.5 nm and narrow size distribution were closely spaced along the length of the high aspect ratio templates. The synthesized material was identified as a mixture of cubic Cu?O and monoclinic CuO. UV/Vis absorption measurements were completed and a direct optical band gap of 2.87 eV was determined using Tauc's method. This value was slightly larger than bulk, signaling quantum confinement effects within the templated materials.

  17. Portable computer to reduce gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopic ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Camp, D.C.

    1981-05-15

    In response to Task A.63 of the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO), to upgrade measurement technology used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a portable data-reduction microprocessor was designed and programmed which allows in-field reduction of gamma-ray spectra and interfaces with the IAEA's multichannel analyzers - the 1000 or 2000-channel memory Silena BS27/N. This report describes the components used in assembling the microprocessor unit: hardware, software used to control the unit, and the mathematical formulation used to obtain isotopic ratios from the gamma-ray data. A simple overview is presented of the unit's operation and the results of tests on gamma-ray spectra that sought to verify the unit's operating characteristics and to determine the precision and effectiveness of the software developed for data reduction.

  18. Measurement of the Branching Ratio Lambda_c+ -> p pi+ pi-

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Hinojosa, Guillermo; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2008-03-01

    The confirmation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charm baryon decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is reported. All data analyzed are from SELEX, a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that took data during 1996 and 1997, mainly with a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratio of the Cabibbo-suppressed decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} relative to the Cabibbo-favored mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be: {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.103 {+-} 0.022.

  19. Contact resistance improvement by the modulation of peripheral length to area ratio of graphene contact pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Kyung; Noh, Jin Woo; Park, Woojin; Lee, Young Gon; Hwang, Hyeon Jun; Ham, Moon-Ho; Kang, Chang Goo; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2015-05-25

    High contact resistance between graphene and metal is a major huddle for high performance electronic device applications of graphene. In this work, a method to improve the contact resistance of graphene is investigated by varying the ratio of peripheral length and area of graphene pattern under a metal contact. The contact resistance decreased to 0.8 kΩ·μm from 2.1 kΩ·μm as the peripheral length increased from 312 to 792 μm. This improvement is attributed to the low resistivity of edge-contacted graphene, which is 8.1 × 10{sup 5} times lower than that of top-contacted graphene.

  20. Intrinsic low pass filtering improves signal-to-noise ratio in critical-point flexure biosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Ankit; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2014-08-25

    A flexure biosensor consists of a suspended beam and a fixed bottom electrode. The adsorption of the target biomolecules on the beam changes its stiffness and results in change of beam's deflection. It is now well established that the sensitivity of sensor is maximized close to the pull-in instability point, where effective stiffness of the beam vanishes. The question: Do the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit-of-detection (LOD) also improve close to the instability point?, however remains unanswered. In this article, we systematically analyze the noise response to evaluate SNR and establish LOD of critical-point flexure sensors. We find that a flexure sensor acts like an effective low pass filter close to the instability point due to its relatively small resonance frequency, and rejects high frequency noise, leading to improved SNR and LOD. We believe that our conclusions should establish the uniqueness and the technological relevance of critical-point biosensors.

  1. Highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires via hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowland, Christopher C.; Zhou, Zhi; Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the development of a hydrothermal synthesis procedure that results in the growth of highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires. Using a multiple step, scalable hydrothermal reaction, a textured titanium dioxide film is deposited on titanium foil upon which highly aligned nanowires are grown via homoepitaxy and converted to barium titanate. Scanning electron microscope images clearly illustrate the effect the textured film has on the degree of orientation of the nanowires. The alignment of nanowires is quantified by calculating the Herman's Orientation Factor, which reveals a 58% improvement in orientation as compared to growth in the absence of the textured film. The ferroelectric properties of barium titanate combined with the development of this scalable growth procedure provide a powerful route towards increasing the efficiency and performance of nanowire-based devices in future real-world applications such as sensing and power harvesting.

  2. Performance of Cladding on MOX Fuel with Low 240Pu/239Pu Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, Kevin; Blanpain, Patrick; Morris, Robert Noel

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of its surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. As part of fuel qualification, four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod average burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the world s first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This paper discusses the results of those examinations with emphasis on cladding performance. Exams relevant to the cladding included visual and eddy current exams, profilometry, microscopy, hydrogen analysis, gallium analysis, and mechanical testing. There was no discernible effect of the type of MOX fuel on the performance of the cladding.

  3. Nonlinear oscillations and waves in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Prabal Singh

    2011-12-15

    It is well known that nonlinear standing oscillations in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma always phase mix away. However, there exist nonlinear electron-ion traveling wave solutions, which do not exhibit phase mixing because they have zero ponderomotive force. The existence of these waves has been demonstrated using a perturbation method. Moreover, it is shown that cold plasma BGK waves [Albritton et al., Nucl. Fusion 15, 1199 (1975)] phase mix away if ions are allowed to move and the scaling of phase mixing is found to be different from earlier work [Sengupta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1867 (1999)]. Phase mixing of these waves has been further verified in 1-D particle in cell simulation.

  4. Flavor ratios of extragalactic neutrinos and neutrino shortcuts in extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aeikens, Elke; Päs, Heinrich; Pakvasa, Sandip; Sicking, Philipp

    2015-10-02

    The recent measurement of high energy extragalactic neutrinos by the IceCube Collaboration has opened a new window to probe non-standard neutrino properties. Among other effects, sterile neutrino altered dispersion relations (ADRs) due to shortcuts in an extra dimension can significantly affect astrophysical flavor ratios. We discuss two limiting cases of this effect, first active-sterile neutrino oscillations with a constant ADR potential and second an MSW-like resonant conversion arising from geodesics oscillating around the brane in an asymmetrically warped extra dimension. We demonstrate that the second case has the potential to suppress significantly the flux of specific flavors such as ν{sub μ} or ν{sub τ} at high energies.

  5. Nanopowder molding method for creating implantable high-aspect-ratio electrodes on thin flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Zhiyu; Thundat, Thomas George

    2006-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles and a nanopowder molding process were used to fabricate 2D and 3D patternable structures having a height-to-width ratio of up to 10:1. By means of this process, an entire neural stimulation circuit, including stimulating electrode, connection trace, and contact pad, can be fused into one continuous, integrated structure where different sections can have different heights, widths, and shapes. The technique is suitable for mass production, and the fabricated electrode is robust and very flexible. More importantly for biomedical applications, the entire fabricated structure can be packed at room temperature onto a biocompatible flexible substrate, such as polydimethylsiloxane, parylene, and polyimide as well as other temperature-sensitive or vacuum-sensitive materials. The electrodes and wires have about the same electrical resistivities as bulk materials and desirable electrochemical properties, including low impedance.

  6. Investigation of L X-ray intensity ratios in Pt induced by proton collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Manpuneet; Kaur, Mandeep; Mohan, Harsh Jain, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Parjit S.; Vohra, Neelam; Sharma, Sunita

    2015-08-28

    A survey of literature on L X-ray parameters inspires us for taking up the present investigation. These parameters are useful to study atomic properties. In view of this, we report L X-ray intensity ratios for Pt, namely, L{sub ℓ} / L{sub α}, L{sub β} / L{sub α} and L{sub γ} / L{sub α} with proton collisions over the energy range 260 - 400 keV with an interval of 20 keV. The intention of research presented in this paper is to explore their energy dependence and comparison with theoretical calculations. These analyses will yield a data in the low energy region which assist in better clarity of proton induced X-ray emission phenomenon.

  7. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio pertubation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiter, Paul A; Cooley, James; Kyrala, George; Wilson, Doug; Blue, Brent; Edwards, John; Robey, Harry; Spears, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials over predict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (< 1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.

  8. Multi-images deconvolution improves signal-to-noise ratio on gated stimulated emission depletion microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Vicidomini, Giuseppe

    2014-12-08

    Time-gated detection, namely, only collecting the fluorescence photons after a time-delay from the excitation events, reduces complexity, cost, and illumination intensity of a stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope. In the gated continuous-wave- (CW-) STED implementation, the spatial resolution improves with increased time-delay, but the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduces. Thus, in sub-optimal conditions, such as a low photon-budget regime, the SNR reduction can cancel-out the expected gain in resolution. Here, we propose a method which does not discard photons, but instead collects all the photons in different time-gates and recombines them through a multi-image deconvolution. Our results, obtained on simulated and experimental data, show that the SNR of the restored image improves relative to the gated image, thereby improving the effective resolution.

  9. CHRONIC ZINC SCREENING WATER EFFECT RATIO FOR THE H-12 OUTFALL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, D.; Looney, B.; Millings, M.

    2009-01-13

    In response to proposed Zn limits for the NPDES outfall H-12, a Zn screening Water Effects Ratio (WER) study was conducted to determine if a full site-specific WER is warranted. Using standard assumptions for relating the lab results to the stream, the screening WER data were consistent with the proposed Zn limit and suggest that a full WER would result in a similar limit. Addition of a humate amendment to the outfall water reduced Zn toxicity, but the toxicity reduction was relatively small and unlikely to impact proposed Zn limits. The screening WER data indicated that the time and expense required to perform a full WER for Zn is not warranted.

  10. Direct CP Violation, Branching Ratios and Form Factors B --> pi, B --> K in B decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O. Leitner; X.-H. Guo; A.W. Thomas

    2004-11-01

    The B {yields} {pi} and B {yields} K transitions involved in hadronic B decays are investigated in a phenomenological way through the framework of QCD factorization. By comparing our results with experimental branching ratios from the BELLE, BABAR and CLEO collaborations for all the B decays including either a pion or a kaon, we propose boundaries for the transition form factors B {yields} {pi} and B {yields} K depending on the CKM matrix element parameters {rho} and {eta}. From this analysis, the form factors required to reproduce the experimental data for branching ratios are F{sup B {yields} {pi}} = 0.31 {+-} 0.12 and F{sup B {yields} K} = 0.37 {+-} 0.13. We calculate the direct CP violating asymmetry parameter, a{sub CP}, for B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi} and B {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} K decays, in the case where {rho} - {omega} mixing effects are taken into account. Based on these results, we find that the direct CP asymmetry for B{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}, {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, B{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}K{sup -}, and {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {bar K}{sup 0}, reaches its maximum when the invariant mass {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is in the vicinity of the {omega} meson mass. The inclusion of {rho} - {omega} mixing provides an opportunity to erase, without ambiguity, the phase uncertainty mod{pi} in the determination of th CKM angles {alpha} in case of b {yields} u and {gamma} in case of b {yields} s.

  11. Fukushima Daiichi reactor source term attribution using cesium isotope ratios from contaminated environmental samples

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.; Delmore, James E.

    2016-01-18

    Source term attribution of environmental contamination following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) disaster is complicated by a large number of possible similar emission source terms (e.g. FDNPP reactor cores 1–3 and spent fuel ponds 1–4). Cesium isotopic analyses can be utilized to discriminate between environmental contamination from different FDNPP source terms and, if samples are sufficiently temporally resolved, potentially provide insights into the extent of reactor core damage at a given time. Rice, soil, mushroom, and soybean samples taken 100–250 km from the FDNPP site were dissolved using microwave digestion. Radiocesium was extracted and purified using two sequentialmore » ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile columns, following which 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios were measured using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Results were compared with data reported previously from locations to the northwest of FDNPP and 30 km to the south of FDNPP. 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios from samples 100–250 km to the southwest of the FDNPP site show a consistent value of 0.376 ± 0.008. 135Cs/137Cs versus 134Cs/137Cs correlation plots suggest that radiocesium to the southwest is derived from a mixture of FDNPP reactor cores 1, 2, and 3. Conclusions from the cesium isotopic data are in agreement with those derived independently based upon the event chronology combined with meteorological conditions at the time of the disaster. In conclusion, cesium isotopic analyses provide a powerful tool for source term discrimination of environmental radiocesium contamination at the FDNPP site. For higher precision source term attribution and forensic determination of the FDNPP core conditions based upon cesium, analyses of a larger number of samples from locations to the north and south of the FDNPP site (particularly time-resolved air filter samples) are needed. Published in 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain

  12. Parameter estimation with Sandage-Loeb test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin E-mail: jfzhang@mail.neu.edu.cn

    2014-12-01

    The Sandage-Loeb (SL) test directly measures the expansion rate of the universe in the redshift range of 2 ∼< z ∼< 5 by detecting redshift drift in the spectra of Lyman-α forest of distant quasars. We discuss the impact of the future SL test data on parameter estimation for the ΛCDM, the wCDM, and the w{sub 0}w{sub a}CDM models. To avoid the potential inconsistency with other observational data, we take the best-fitting dark energy model constrained by the current observations as the fiducial model to produce 30 mock SL test data. The SL test data provide an important supplement to the other dark energy probes, since they are extremely helpful in breaking the existing parameter degeneracies. We show that the strong degeneracy between Ω{sub m} and H{sub 0} in all the three dark energy models is well broken by the SL test. Compared to the current combined data of type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillation, cosmic microwave background, and Hubble constant, the 30-yr observation of SL test could improve the constraints on Ω{sub m} and H{sub 0} by more than 60% for all the three models. But the SL test can only moderately improve the constraint on the equation of state of dark energy. We show that a 30-yr observation of SL test could help improve the constraint on constant w by about 25%, and improve the constraints on w{sub 0} and w{sub a} by about 20% and 15%, respectively. We also quantify the constraining power of the SL test in the future high-precision joint geometric constraints on dark energy. The mock future supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation data are simulated based on the space-based project JDEM. We find that the 30-yr observation of SL test would help improve the measurement precision of Ω{sub m}, H{sub 0}, and w{sub a} by more than 70%, 20%, and 60%, respectively, for the w{sub 0}w{sub a}CDM model.

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  14. Matrix Methods for Estimating the Coherence Functions from Estimates of the Cross-Spectral Density Matrix

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smallwood, D. O.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the usual method for estimating the coherence functions (ordinary, partial, and multiple) for a general multiple-input! multiple-output problem can be expressed as a modified form of Cholesky decomposition of the cross-spectral density matrix of the input and output records. The results can be equivalently obtained using singular value decomposition (SVD) of the cross-spectral density matrix. Using SVD suggests a new form of fractional coherence. The formulation as a SVD problem also suggests a way to order the inputs when a natural physical order of the inputs is absent.

  15. Distributed Dynamic State Estimator, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability Monitoring Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, Sakis; Cokkinides, George; Fardanesh, Bruce; Hedrington, Clinton

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based

  16. Estimation of Heavy Ion Densities From Linearly Polarized EMIC Waves At Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-02-24

    Linearly polarized EMIC waves are expected to concentrate at the location where their wave frequency satisfies the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance condition as the result of a mode conversion process. In this letter, we evaluate absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance in the Earth geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of helium and azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers in dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentration, it only occurs for a limited range of azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Our results suggest that, at L = 6.6, linearly polarized EMIC waves can be generated via mode conversion from the compressional waves near the crossover frequency. Consequently, the heavy ion concentration ratio can be estimated from observations of externally generated EMIC waves that have polarization.

  17. A new maximum-likelihood change estimator for two-pass SAR coherent change detection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.; Jakowatz, Jr., Charles V.; Simonson, Katherine Mary

    2016-01-11

    In past research, two-pass repeat-geometry synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD) predominantly utilized the sample degree of coherence as a measure of the temporal change occurring between two complex-valued image collects. Previous coherence-based CCD approaches tend to show temporal change when there is none in areas of the image that have a low clutter-to-noise power ratio. Instead of employing the sample coherence magnitude as a change metric, in this paper, we derive a new maximum-likelihood (ML) temporal change estimate—the complex reflectance change detection (CRCD) metric to be used for SAR coherent temporal change detection. The new CRCD estimatormore » is a surprisingly simple expression, easy to implement, and optimal in the ML sense. As a result, this new estimate produces improved results in the coherent pair collects that we have tested.« less

  18. CAN DUST EMISSION BE USED TO ESTIMATE THE MASS OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN GALAXIES-A PILOT PROJECT WITH THE HERSCHEL REFERENCE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eales, Stephen; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Auld, Robbie; Davies, Jon; Gear, Walter; Gomez, Haley; Baes, Maarten; De Looze, Ilse; Gentile, Gianfranco; Fritz, Jacopo; Bendo, George J.; Bianchi, Simone; Boselli, Alessandro; Ciesla, Laure; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Cortese, Luca; Galametz, Maud; Hughes, Tom; Madden, Suzanne [Laboratoire AIM, CEA and others

    2012-12-20

    The standard method for estimating the mass of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a galaxy is to use the 21 cm line to trace the atomic gas and the CO 1-0 line to trace the molecular gas. In this paper, we investigate the alternative technique of using the continuum dust emission to estimate the mass of gas in all phases of the ISM. Using Herschel observations of 10 galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey and the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, we show that the emission detected by Herschel is mostly from dust that has a temperature and emissivity index similar to that of dust in the local ISM in our galaxy, with the temperature generally increasing toward the center of each galaxy. We calibrate the dust method using the CO and 21 cm observations to provide an independent estimate of the mass of hydrogen in each galaxy, solving the problem of the uncertain ''X-factor'' for the CO observations by minimizing the dispersion in the ratio of the masses estimated using the two methods. With the calibration for the dust method and the estimate of the X-factor produced in this way, the dispersion in the ratio of the two gas masses is 25%. The calibration we obtain for the dust method is similar to those obtained from Herschel observations of M31 and from Planck observations of the Milky Way. We discuss the practical problems in using this method.

  19. NREL Raises Rooftop Photovoltaic Technical Potential Estimate - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL Raises Rooftop Photovoltaic Technical Potential Estimate New analysis nearly doubles previous estimates and shows U.S. building rooftops could generate close to 40 percent of national electricity sales March 24, 2016 Analysts at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have used detailed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data for 128 cities nationwide, along with improved data analysis methods and simulation tools, to update its estimate of

  20. Using Photogrammetry to Estimate Tank Waste Volumes from Video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Jim G.

    2013-03-27

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted with HiLine Engineering & Fabrication, Inc. to assess the accuracy of photogrammetry tools as compared to video Camera/CAD Modeling System (CCMS) estimates. This test report documents the results of using photogrammetry to estimate the volume of waste in tank 241-C-I04 from post-retrieval videos and results using photogrammetry to estimate the volume of waste piles in the CCMS test video.

  1. ARM - Evaluation Product - Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (RIPBE) ProductsRadiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) The Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP combines multiple input datastreams, each with their own temporal

  2. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop - Agenda and Summary | Department of Energy DOE Grid Tech Team » Activities/Outreach » GTT Activities » Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary On September 30 and October 1, 2014, the Department of Energy hosted a 2-day workshop on "Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies." The purpose

  3. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Landscaping Water Use Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use Document describes the step-by-step instructions to estimate landscaping water using two alternative approaches: the evapotranspiration method and the irrigation audit method. This report presents annual irrigation factors for 36 cities across the United States that represent the gallons of irrigation required per square foot for distinct landscape types. Download the Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered

  4. Methodology for EIA Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Estimates

    Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (EIA)

    Methodology for EIA Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Estimates Latest Update: November 16, 2015 This report consists of the following sections: Survey and Survey Processing - a description of the survey and an overview of the program Sampling - a description of the selection process used to identify companies in the survey Estimation - how the regional estimates are prepared from the collected data Computing the Five-year Averages, Maxima, Minima, and Year-Ago Values for the Weekly Natural

  5. Battery Calendar Life Estimator Manual Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2012-10-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  6. Battery Life Estimator Manual Linear Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2009-08-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  7. Maintaining low exhaust emissions with turbocharged gas engines using a feedback air-fuel ratio control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckard, D.W.; Serve, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    Maintaining low exhaust emissions on a turbocharged, natural gas engine through the speed and load range requires precise control of the air-fuel ratio. Changes in ambient conditions or fuel heating value will cause the air-fuel ratio to change substantially. By combining air-gas pressure with preturbine temperature control, the air-fuel ratio can be maintained regardless of changes in the ambient conditions or the fuel's heating value. Design conditions and operating results are presented for an air-fuel controller for a turbocharged engine.

  8. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutherland, Liese -Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; Renneke, Richard M.

    2015-12-17

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. As a result, the successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  9. Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of carbon stocks and flux, and the uncertainties inherent in each approach. The alternative approaches to estimating continental scale carbon fluxes that we explored here can...

  10. Retrofit Energy Savings Estimation Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desktop Application Website: btech.lbl.govtoolsresemresem.htm Cost: Free Language: English References: Retrofit Energy Savings Estimation Model1 Logo: Retrofit...

  11. On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer properties using tracer data Authors: Kowalsky, M. B. ; Finsterle, S. ; Commer, M. ; Williams, K. H. ; ...

  12. NREL Report Estimates Market Potential of Shared Solar and Discusses...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report Estimates Market Potential of Shared Solar and Discusses Relevant Securities Regulations April 27, 2015 Analysis from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy ...

  13. Wind Resource Estimation and Mapping at the National Renewable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resource Estimation and Mapping at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory April 1999 * NRELCP-500-26245 M. Schwartz Presented at the ASES Solar '99 Conference Portland, Maine...

  14. Natural Ventilation in California Offices: Estimated Health Effects...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects and Economic Consequences Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Natural Ventilation in California Offices: Estimated Health Effects and Economic Consequences ...

  15. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual...

  16. Issues and Methods for Estimating the Percentage Share of Ethanol...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration 1 Issues and Methods for Estimating the Share of Ethanol in the Motor Gasoline Supply U.S. Energy Information Administration October 6, 2011...

  17. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  18. Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Cost Estimates for Advanced Fuel Cycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Cost Estimates for Advanced Fuel Cycle Studies Authors: Harrison, Thomas J 1 + Show Author Affiliations ORNL ORNL Publication Date: 2013-01-01 ...

  19. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy savings ...

  20. SMART BRIDGE: A Tool for Estimating the Military Load

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    D. SMART BRIDGE: A Tool for Estimating the Military Load Classification of Bridges Charles ... consideration in planning and executing military deployments is determining the routes ...

  1. A Simple, Fast Method of Estimating Fractured Reservoir Geometry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fractured Reservoir Geometry from Tracer Tests Abstract A simple method of estimating flow geometry and pore geometry from conservative tracer tests in single phase geothermal...

  2. Estimating global and North American methane emissions with high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    methane emissions with high spatial resolution using GOSAT satellite data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating global and North American methane emissions ...

  3. Quality Guidline for Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Benefits 2 Power Plant Cost Estimation Methodology Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies April 2011 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work...

  4. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage Citation Details ... Subject: energy storage; flow battery; grid storage; lithium-ion battery; manufacturing ...

  5. Estimation and modeling of coal pore accessibility using small...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Estimation and modeling of coal pore accessibility using small angle neutron scattering Authors: Zhang, Rui ; Liu, Shimin ; Bahadur, Jitendra ; Elsworth, Derek ; ...

  6. Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating Bacteria ...

  7. Battery Life Estimation (BLE) and Data Analysis - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Battery Life Estimation (BLE) and Data Analysis Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Results of Simulation, with Projected Battery ...

  8. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PDF icon Presentation - Robert Jeffers, Sandia PDF icon Presentation - Carl Imhoff, PNNL More Documents & Publications Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy ...

  9. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and ...

  10. Adaptive Wavenumber Estimation for Mode Tracking in a Shallow...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tracking in a Shallow Ocean Environment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Adaptive Wavenumber Estimation for Mode Tracking in a Shallow Ocean Environment You are ...

  11. Estimating the Opportunity Cost of REDD+: A Training Manual ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Opportunity Cost of REDD+: A Training Manual Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Estimating the Opportunity Cost of REDD+: A Training Manual Agency...

  12. Cost Estimating Guide - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, Cost Estimating Guide by Ruben Sanchez Functional areas: Budget and Financial Management, Financial Management This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that...

  13. A Protocol for Estimating and Mapping Global EGS Potential |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with public Reporting Codes * Present results using common visualization and data architecture The goal of the Protocol is the production of regional estimates and maps of EGS...

  14. Estimating the System Price of Redox Flow Batteries for Grid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimating the System Price of Redox Flow Batteries for Grid Storage VRFB system price ... Significance and Impact Redox flow batteries have potential advantages to meet the ...

  15. Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable Intake Valve Actuation Air handling system model for multi-cylinder variable geometry turbocharged diesel ...

  16. New DOE Modeling Tool Estimates Economic Benefits of Offshore...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling Tool Estimates Economic Benefits of Offshore Wind Plants New DOE Modeling Tool ... of Energy (DOE) recently released a new version of the Jobs and Economic ...

  17. Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis of Impacts of Future Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    However, the estimation of excess mortality attributable to future heat waves is subject to large uncertainties, which have not been examined under the latest greenhouse gas ...

  18. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation ...

  19. Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Fuel Cells Program Record 14014: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2014 Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2013 Update

  20. Energy Savings Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes in Niche Lighting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes in Niche Lighting Applications Prepared for: Building Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of ...

  1. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy ...

  2. A simplified procedure for estimation of mixture permeances from...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simplified procedure for estimation of mixture permeances from unary permeation data Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Jasper M. van Baten, J. Membr. Sci., 367, 204-210 (2011)...

  3. Estimated Maintenance Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contract at Fort Polk, LA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimated Maintenance Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump Energy Savings Performance Contract at ...

  4. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    response to severe nuclear power plant accidents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant ...

  5. Radiological Source Term Estimates for the February 14, 2014...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This document corresponds to Appendix D: Modeling Integrated Summary Report of the Technical Assessment Team Report. Radiological Source Term Estimates for the February 14, 2014 ...

  6. Derivative-free optimization for parameter estimation in computational...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nuclear physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Derivative-free optimization for parameter estimation in computational nuclear physics Authors: Wild, S ; ...

  7. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  8. Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    applied to thermal systems of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, Long Valley, California, and Raft River, Idaho to estimate deep reservoir temperatures of 360, 240, and 142C,...

  9. Output-Based Error Estimation and Adaptation for Uncertainty...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Output-Based Error Estimation and Adaptation for Uncertainty Quantification Isaac M. Asher and Krzysztof J. Fidkowski University of Michigan US National Congress on Computational...

  10. Estimation of the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Anthropogenic heat discharge was estimated based on a remote sensing-based surface energy balance model, which was parameterized using land ...

  11. Derivative-free optimization for parameter estimation in computational...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Derivative-free optimization for parameter estimation in computational nuclear physics Citation Details ... RADIATION PHYSICS; 97 MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND ...

  12. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  13. Uncertainty Estimates for SIRS, SKYRAD, & GNDRAD Data and Reprocessing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Uncertainty Estimates for SIRS, SKYRAD, & GNDRAD Data and Reprocessing the Pyrgeometer Data (Presentation) The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the ...

  14. Tensor to scalar ratio and large scale power suppression from pre-slow roll initial conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel, E-mail: lal81@pitt.edu, E-mail: boyan@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We study the corrections to the power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in single field slow roll inflation with standard kinetic term due to initial conditions imprinted by a ''fast-roll'' stage prior to slow roll. For a wide range of initial inflaton kinetic energy, this stage lasts only a few e-folds and merges smoothly with slow-roll thereby leading to non-Bunch-Davies initial conditions for modes that exit the Hubble radius during slow roll. We describe a program that yields the dynamics in the fast-roll stage while matching to the slow roll stage in a manner that is independent of the inflationary potentials. Corrections to the power spectra are encoded in a ''transfer function'' for initial conditions T{sub ?}(k), P{sub ?}(k) = P{sup BD}{sub ?}(k)T{sub ?}(k), implying a modification of the ''consistency condition'' for the tensor to scalar ratio at a pivot scale k{sub 0}: r(k{sub 0}) = ?8n{sub T}(k{sub 0})[T{sub T}(k{sub 0})/T{sub R}(k{sub 0})]. We obtain T{sub ?}(k) to leading order in a Born approximation valid for modes of observational relevance today. A fit yields T{sub ?}(k) = 1+A{sub ?}k{sup ?p}cos [2??k/H{sub sr}+?{sub ?}], with 1.5?ratio of kinetic to potential energy ? and the slow roll parameters ?{sub V}, ?{sub V} to leading order in slow roll. For a wide range of ? and the values of ?{sub V};?{sub V} corresponding to the upper bounds from Planck, we find that the low quadrupole is consistent with the results from Planck, and

  15. Estimating transport properties of mortars using image analysis on backscattered electron images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, H.S. . E-mail: hong.wong@imperial.ac.uk; Buenfeld, N.R.; Head, M.K.

    2006-08-15

    The pore structure of two ordinary Portland cement mortars at water-cement ratio of 0.35 and 0.70 was characterised using quantitative backscattered electron imaging. The mortars were cured and conditioned to produce a range of pore structure characteristics. Image analysis was used to characterise the pore structure in terms of simple morphological parameters such as resolvable porosity and the specific surface area. These were found to be correlated to measured transport coefficients (diffusivity, permeability and sorptivity), suggesting the feasibility of image analysis to derive valuable quantitative information describing the pore structure that can be used as input values for a transport prediction model. A simple analytical model incorporating tortuosity and constrictivity was used to predict oxygen diffusivity and a variant of the Kozeny-Carman model was used to predict oxygen permeability. The diffusion model tended to over-predict for the lower w/c ratio mortar, but the general agreement was reasonable, with 90% of the estimated values within a factor of two from the measured values. The modified Kozeny-Carman model, however, over-predicted all permeability values with an error of between half to one order of magnitude.

  16. Impact of mergers on LISA parameter estimation for nonspinning black hole binaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Thorpe, James Ira; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the precision with which the parameters describing the characteristics and location of nonspinning black hole binaries can be measured with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). By using complete waveforms including the inspiral, merger, and ringdown portions of the signals, we find that LISA will have far greater precision than previous estimates for nonspinning mergers that ignored the merger and ringdown. Our analysis covers nonspinning waveforms with moderate mass ratios, q{>=}1/10, and total masses 10{sup 5} < or approx. M/M{sub {center_dot}}< or approx. 10{sup 7}. We compare the parameter uncertainties using the Fisher-matrix formalism, and establish the significance of mass asymmetry and higher-order content to the predicted parameter uncertainties resulting from inclusion of the merger. In real-time observations, the later parts of the signal lead to significant improvements in sky-position precision in the last hours and even the final minutes of observation. For comparable-mass systems with total mass M/M{sub {center_dot}{approx}1}0{sup 6}, we find that the increased precision resulting from including the merger is comparable to the increase in signal-to-noise ratio. For the most precise systems under investigation, half can be localized to within O(10 arcmin), and 10% can be localized to within O(1 arcmin).

  17. Application of the Ferris test methods for estimating hydraulic properties near a river boundary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    Standard hydraulic test methods, such as constant-rate pumping tests, may be impractical for characterizing hazardous waste sites located near fluctuating hydrologic boundaries such as rivers or oceans. An alternate approach for hydrologic characterization at these locations is to analyze the groundwater responses associated with river-stage or tidal fluctuations to aquifer properties (i.e., hydraulic diffusivity). Based on this approach, aquifer properties were determined for an area adjoining the Columbia River on the Hanford Site using two sinusoidal analysis techniques described in Ferris (1952, 1963). The first method uses the observed groundwater time-lag response, the second uses the amplitude ratio of well water level to river stage. Both techniques assume the river fluctuations can be approximated by a sinusoidal pattern. A range for hydraulic conductivity was calculated based on the hydraulic diffusivity estimates obtained from the methods together with the known aquifer thickness (50 ft) and assumed specific yield (0.1). The analysis methods produced two overlapping hydraulic conductivity ranges, with the Ferris time-lag analysis method forming the upper bound of the range, and the Ferris well water-level/river-stage amplitude ratio method forming the lower bound. Results from a nearby standard constant-rate discharge aquifer test were also examined for comparison. These results were within the upper bound of the hydraulic conductivity range.

  18. Improved estimates of rare K decay matrix elements from K{sub l3} decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mescia, Federico; Smith, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    The estimation of rare K decay matrix elements from K{sub l3} experimental data is extended beyond LO in chiral perturbation theory. Isospin-breaking effects at next-to-leading order (and partially next-to-next-to-leading order) in the chiral perturbation theory expansion, as well as QED radiative corrections, are now accounted for. The analysis relies mainly on the cleanness of two specific ratios of form factors, for which the theoretical control is excellent. As a result, the uncertainties on the K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu} and K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{nu} matrix elements are reduced by a factor of about 7 and 4, respectively, and similarly for the direct CP-violating contributions to K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}e{sup -} and K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. They could be reduced even further with better experimental data for the K{sub l3} slopes and the K{sub l3}{sup +} branching ratios. As a result, the nonparametric errors for B(K{yields}{pi}{nu}{nu}) and for the direct CP-violating contributions to B(K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}l{sup +}l{sup -}) are now completely dominated by those on the short-distance physics.

  19. Optimization of Drive-Bunch Current Profile for Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Beam-Driven Acceleration Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Prokop, C.R.; Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2012-07-08

    In recent years, wakefield acceleration has gained attention due to its high acceleration gradients and cost effectiveness. In beam-driven wakefield acceleration, a critical parameter to optimize is the transformer ratio. It has been shown that current shaping of electron beams allows for enhanced (> 2) transformer ratios. In this paper we present the optimization of the pulse shape of the drive bunch for dielectric-wakefield acceleration.

  20. Parallel Operation of Multiple Closely Spaced Small Aspect Ratio Rod Pinches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor J.; Leckbee, Joshua; Bennett, Nichelle; Madrid, Elizabeth A.; Rose, David V.; Thoma, Carsten; Welch, Dale R.; Lake, Patrick W.; McCourt, Andrew L.

    2014-12-10

    A series of simulations and experiments to resolve questions about the operation of arrays of closely spaced small aspect ratio rod pinches has been performed. Design and post-shot analysis of the experimental results are supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Both simulations and experiments support these conclusions. Penetration of current to the interior of the array appears to be efficient, as the current on the center rods is essentially equal to the current on the outer rods. Current loss in the feed due to the formation of magnetic nulls was avoided in these experiments by design of the feed surface ofmore » the cathode and control of the gap to keep the electric fields on the cathode below the emission threshold. Some asymmetry in the electron flow to the rod was observed, but the flow appeared to symmetrize as it reached the end of the rod. Interaction between the rod pinches can be controlled to allow the stable and consistent operation of arrays of rod pinches.« less