National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ratio estimate ampd

  1. Numerical Estimation of the Spent Fuel Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Durbin, Samuel; Wilke, Jason; Margraf, J.; Dunn, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. However, the validity of these large- scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible spent fuel ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR in the 1980's have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Because of the large uncertainty surrounding the SFR, estimates of releases from security-related events may be unnecessarily conservative. Credible arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask systems. In the present work, the shock physics codes CTH and ALE3D were used to simulate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and DUO 2 targets impacted by a high-velocity jet at an ambient temperature condition. These preliminary results are used to illustrate an approach to estimate the respirable release fraction for each type of material and ultimately, an estimate of the SFR. This page intentionally blank

  2. Autocorrelation Function Statistics and Implication to Decay Ratio Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    March-Leuba, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of a series of computer simulations to attempt to identify the statistics of the autocorrelation function, and implications for decay ratio estimation.

  3. FBP-ER-RIFS-BG-PLN-0036 Rev. 6 1 DOE/PPPO/03-0383&D4

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    BG-PLN-0036 Rev. 6 1 DOE/PPPO/03-0383&D4 Aerial photo of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, showing the approximate 1,000-acre industrialized area within Perimeter Road PUBLIC COMMENT PERIOD NOVEMBER 12, 2014 TO JANUARY 10, 2015 HOW YOU CAN PARTICIPATE Read this Proposed Plan and review related documents in the Administrative Record. Comment on this Proposed Plan by mail, email, phone, or fax to: Ms. Kristi Wiehle Department of Energy P.O. Box 370 Piketon, Ohio 45661 Email:

  4. U-234/U-238 ratio: Qualitative estimate of groundwater flow in Rocky Flats monitoring wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.

    1994-02-01

    Groundwater movement through various pathways is the primary mechanism for the transport of radionuclides and trace elements in a water/rock interaction. About three dozen wells, installed in the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Solar Evaporation Ponds (SEP) area, are monitored quarterly to evaluate the extent of any lateral and downgradient migration of contaminants from the Solar Evaporation Ponds: 207-A; 207-B North, 207-B Center, and 207-B South; and 207-C. The Solar Ponds are the main source for the various contaminants: radionuclides (U-238, U-234, Pu-239, 240 and Am-241); anions; and trace metals to groundwaters. The U-238 concentrations in Rocky Flats groundwaters vary from <0.2 to 69 pCi/I (IpCi = 3 ug). However, the activity U-234/U-238 ratios are low and range mostly 1.2 to 2.7. The low activity ratios can be interpreted to suggest that the groundwaters are moving slow (estimate of about a few ft/year based on hydrologic parameters [1]. Uranium is probably present in the +6 state, predominantly as a uranyl carbonate complexes UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 2{minus}}, because of the predominant bicarbonate medium.

  5. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  6. ESTIMATION OF THE NEON/OXYGEN ABUNDANCE RATIO AT THE HELIOSPHERIC TERMINATION SHOCK AND IN THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FROM IBEX OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bochsler, P.; Petersen, L.; Moebius, E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wurz, P.; Scheer, J. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Bzowski, M.; Frisch, P. C.

    2012-02-01

    We report the first direct measurement of the Ne/O abundance ratio of the interstellar neutral gas flowing into the inner heliosphere. From the first year of Interstellar Boundary Explorer IBEX data collected in spring 2009, we derive the fluxes of interstellar neutral oxygen and neon. Using the flux ratio at the location of IBEX at 1 AU at the time of the observations, and using the ionization rates of neon and oxygen prevailing in the heliosphere during the period of solar minimum, we estimate the neon/oxygen ratios at the heliospheric termination shock and in the gas phase of the inflowing local interstellar medium. Our estimate is (Ne/O){sub gas,ISM} = 0.27 {+-} 0.10, which is-within the large given uncertainties-consistent with earlier measurements from pickup ions. Our value is larger than the solar abundance ratio, possibly indicating that a significant fraction of oxygen in the local interstellar medium is hidden in grains and/or ices.

  7. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  8. THE AKARI 2.5-5.0 ?m SPECTRAL ATLAS OF TYPE-1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATOR, LINE RATIO, AND HOT DUST TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Ji Hoon; Jun, Hyunsung David; Lee, Seong-Kook; Woo, Jong-Hak; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Takagi, Toshinobu; Oyabu, Shinki; Ohyama, Youichi E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2015-01-01

    We present 2.5-5.0?m spectra of 83 nearby (0.002 < z < 0.48) and bright (K < 14 mag) type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taken with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. The 2.5-5.0?m spectral region contains emission lines such as Br? (2.63?m), Br? (4.05?m), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3.3?m), which can be used for studying the black hole (BH) masses and star formation activity in the host galaxies of AGNs. The spectral region also suffers less dust extinction than in the ultra violet (UV) or optical wavelengths, which may provide an unobscured view of dusty AGNs. Our sample is selected from bright quasar surveys of Palomar-Green and SNUQSO, and AGNs with reverberation-mapped BH masses from Peterson etal. Using 11 AGNs with reliable detection of Brackett lines, we derive the Brackett-line-based BH mass estimators. We also find that the observed Brackett line ratios can be explained with the commonly adopted physical conditions of the broad line region. Moreover, we fit the hot and warm dust components of the dust torus by adding photometric data of SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and ISO to the AKARI spectra, finding hot and warm dust temperatures of ?1100 K and ?220 K, respectively, rather than the commonly cited hot dust temperature of 1500 K.

  9. Burnup estimation of fuel sourcing radioactive material based on monitored Cs and Pu isotopic activity ratios in Fukushima N. P. S. accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ando, Y.

    2012-07-01

    After the severe core damage of Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station, radioactive material leaked from the reactor buildings. As part of monitoring of radioactivity in the site, measurements of radioactivity in soils at three fixed points have been performed for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs with gamma-ray spectrometry and for Pu, Pu, and {sup 240}Pu with {alpha}-ray spectrometry. Correlations of radioactivity ratios of {sup 134}Cs to {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 238}Pu to the sum of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu with fuel burnup were studied by using theoretical burnup calculations and measurements on isotopic inventories, and compared with the Cs and Pu radioactivity rations in the soils. The comparison indicated that the burnup of the fuel sourcing the radioactivity was from 18 to 38 GWd/t, which corresponded to that of the fuel in the highest power and, therefore, the highest decay heat in operating high-burnup fueled BWR cores. (authors)

  10. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System Estimates of surface energy fluxes are a primary product of the data collection systems at the ARM SGP CART site. Surface fluxes tell researchers a great deal about the effects of interactions between the sun's energy and Earth. Surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat can be estimated by measuring temperature and relative humidity gradients across a vertical distance. Sensible heat is what we feel coming from a warm sidewalk or a metal car door; it can be

  11. ARM - Measurement - Isotope ratio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsIsotope ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Isotope ratio Ratio of stable isotope concentrations. Categories Atmospheric State, Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  12. Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the model, are estimated by a jackknife method. We use perturbations of r V p V s ratio and Psi V p .V s product to derive distributions of Poisson's ratio, sigma , and...

  13. DOE/OR/07-2247&amp;D1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 8 2011 Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Southeast District Office 2195 Front Street Logan, Ohio 43138 Dear Ms. Galanti: PPPO-03-1334678-12 REMOVAL ACTION COMPLETION REPORT FOR PHASES I AND II OF THE X-334 TRANSFORMER CLEANING/STORAGE BUILDING AT THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PIKETON, OIDO Enclosed for your review and concurrence, please find the Removal Action Completion Report for Phases I and II of the X-334 Transformer Cleaning/Storage Building at the Portsmouth Gaseous

  14. DOE/OR/07-2247&amp;D1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    f 8}.~11 Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Southeast District Office 2195 Front Street Logan, Ohio 43138 Dear Ms. Galanti: PPPO-03-1335655-12 REMOVAL ACTION COMPLETION REPORT FOR THE X-I03 AUXILIARY OFFICE BUILDING AT THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PIKETON, OHIO Enclosed for your review and concurrence, please find the Removal Action Completion Report for the X-J 03 Auxiliary Office Building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio (DOE/PPPOI03-0223&Dl). This

  15. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  16. GUM Analysis for TIMS and SIMS Isotopic Ratios in Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Gerlach, David C.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Steven L.

    2007-04-01

    This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

  17. Estimating Methods

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Based on the project's scope, the purpose of the estimate, and the availability of estimating resources, the estimator can choose one or a combination of techniques when estimating an activity or project. Estimating methods, estimating indirect and direct costs, and other estimating considerations are discussed in this chapter.

  18. Sex ratios in fetuses and liveborn infants with autosomal aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuther, C.A.; Martin, R.L.M.; Stoppelman, S.M. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-14

    Ten data sources were used substantially to increase the available data for estimating fetal and livebirth sex ratios for Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), and Down (trisomy 21) syndromes and controls. The fetal sex ratio estimate was 0.88 (N = 584) for trisomy 13, 0.90 (N = 1702) for trisomy 18, and 1.16 (N = 3154) for trisomy 21. All were significantly different from prenatal controls (1.07). The estimated ratios in prenatal controls were 1.28 (N = 1409) for CVSs and 1.06 (N = 49427) for amniocenteses, indicating a clear differential selection against males, mostly during the first half of fetal development. By contrast, there were no sex ratio differences for any of the trisomies when comparing gestational ages <16 and >16 weeks. The livebirth sex ratio estimate was 0.90 (N = 293) for trisomy 13, 0.63 (N = 497) for trisomy 18, and 1.15 (N = 6424) for trisomy 21, the latter two being statistically different than controls (1.05) (N = 3660707). These ratios for trisomies 13 and 18 were also statistically different than the ratio for trisomy 21. Only in trisomy 18 did the sex ratios in fetuses and livebirths differ, indicating a prenatal selection against males >16 weeks. No effects of maternal age or race were found on these estimates for any of the fetal or livebirth trisomies. Sex ratios for translocations and mosaics were also estimated for these aneuploids. Compared to previous estimates, these results are less extreme, most likely because of larger sample sizes and less sample bias. They support the hypothesis that these trisomy sex ratios are skewed at conception, or become so during embryonic development through differential intrauterine selection. The estimate for Down syndrome livebirths is also consistent with the hypothesis that its higher sex ratio is associated with paternal nondisjunction. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Robert D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  20. ARM - Measurement - Backscatter depolarization ratio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsBackscatter depolarization ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscatter depolarization ratio The ratio of cross polarized to co-polarized elastic backscatter. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all

  1. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  2. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  3. Robust and intelligent bearing estimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claassen, John P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A method of bearing estimation comprising quadrature digital filtering of event observations, constructing a plurality of observation matrices each centered on a time-frequency interval, determining for each observation matrix a parameter such as degree of polarization, linearity of particle motion, degree of dyadicy, or signal-to-noise ratio, choosing observation matrices most likely to produce a set of best available bearing estimates, and estimating a bearing for each observation matrix of the chosen set.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  5. GUM Analysis for SIMS Isotopic Ratios in BEP0 Graphite Qualification Samples, Round 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, David C.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes GUM calculations for TIMS and SIMS isotopic ratio measurements of reactor graphite samples. These isotopic ratios are used to estimate reactor burn-up, and currently consist of various ratios of U, Pu, and Boron impurities in the graphite samples. The GUM calculation is a propagation of error methodology that assigns uncertainties (in the form of standard error and confidence bound) to the final estimates.

  6. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  7. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If the customer has a ratio of estimated monthly kilowatt-hour (kWh) usage to line extension mileage that is less than or equal to 1,000, the utility must provide the comparison at no cost. If the...

  8. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio estimation from the given equation below; ̂ () = () × × { + ( - )} (1) ℎ ̂ () =

  9. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Kira C. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, 1518 Clifton Road, NE Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Jackson, Leila W. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, WG37, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-4945 (United States); Lynch, Courtney D. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Kostyniak, Paul J. [Toxicology Research Center, 134 Cary Hall, University at Buffalo, State of New York, 3434 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14214-3000 (United States); Buck Louis, Germaine M. [Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institutes of Child Health and Development (NICHD), NIH, DHHS, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B03, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)]. E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  10. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith Edward (Kobe, JP); Moser, William Elliott (Peoria, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Knox, Kevin Jay (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  11. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  12. DOE/PPPO/03-0098&amp;D1/A1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    NOV 1 0 20TO Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Southeast District Office 2195 Front Street Logan, Ohio 43138 Dear Ms. Galanti: PPPO-03-1060615-11 ENGINEERING EV ALUATION/COST ANALYSIS FOR THE X-626 AND X-630 RECIRCULATING COOLING WATER COMPLEXES AT THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PIKETON, OHIO Enclosed, please find the revised Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the X-626 and X-63 0 Recirculating Cooling Water Complexes at the Portsmouth Gaseous DiffuSion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

  13. Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses when to check and reset burner air to fuel ratios as well as why it's a simply way to maximize the efficiency of process heating equipment.

  14. Variable Compression Ratio Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression Ratio Engine Variable Compression Ratio Engine 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_43_mendler.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Efficiency VCR Engine with Variable Valve Actuation and new Supercharging Technology Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Efficiency VCR Engine with Variable Valve

  15. Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Explores the effect of compression ratio and piston ...

  16. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  17. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  18. Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yio, M.H.N. Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2014-02-15

    A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

  19. The Ne-to-O abundance ratio of the interstellar medium from IBEX-Lo observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.; Kucharek, H.; Mbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Bzowski, M.; Sok?, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we report on a two-year study to estimate the Ne/O abundance ratio in the gas phase of the local interstellar cloud (LIC). Based on the first two years of observations with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer, we determined the fluxes of interstellar neutral (ISN) O and Ne atoms at the Earth's orbit in spring 2009 and 2010. A temporal variation of the Ne/O abundance ratio at the Earth's orbit could be expected due to solar cycle-related effects such as changes of ionization. However, this study shows that there is no significant change in the Ne/O ratio at the Earths orbit from 2009 to 2010. We used time-dependent survival probabilities of the ISNs to calculate the Ne/O abundance ratio at the termination shock. Then we estimated the Ne/O abundance ratio in the gas phase of the LIC with the use of filtration factors and the ionization fractions. From our analysis, the Ne/O abundance ratio in the LIC is 0.33 0.07, which is in agreement with the abundance ratio inferred from pickup-ion measurements.

  20. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  1. Method for nanomachining high aspect ratio structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yun, Wenbing; Spence, John; Padmore, Howard A.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Howells, Malcolm R.

    2004-11-09

    A nanomachining method for producing high-aspect ratio precise nanostructures. The method begins by irradiating a wafer with an energetic charged-particle beam. Next, a layer of patterning material is deposited on one side of the wafer and a layer of etch stop or metal plating base is coated on the other side of the wafer. A desired pattern is generated in the patterning material on the top surface of the irradiated wafer using conventional electron-beam lithography techniques. Lastly, the wafer is placed in an appropriate chemical solution that produces a directional etch of the wafer only in the area from which the resist has been removed by the patterning process. The high mechanical strength of the wafer materials compared to the organic resists used in conventional lithography techniques with allows the transfer of the precise patterns into structures with aspect ratios much larger than those previously achievable.

  2. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-12-31

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989`s feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun.

  3. State Energy Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2012 2012 Summary Tables Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2012 Alabama 19,455 215,710 9,525 0 Alaska 2,052 351,259...

  4. Types of Cost Estimates

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter describes the estimates required on government-managed projects for both general construction and environmental management.

  5. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biraud, S

    2011-02-23

    The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

  6. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1995-11-14

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

  7. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steve B. (Livermore, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  8. A simple method to estimate interwell autocorrelation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pizarro, J.O.S.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    The estimation of autocorrelation in the lateral or interwell direction is important when performing reservoir characterization studies using stochastic modeling. This paper presents a new method to estimate the interwell autocorrelation based on parameters, such as the vertical range and the variance, that can be estimated with commonly available data. We used synthetic fields that were generated from stochastic simulations to provide data to construct the estimation charts. These charts relate the ratio of areal to vertical variance and the autocorrelation range (expressed variously) in two directions. Three different semivariogram models were considered: spherical, exponential and truncated fractal. The overall procedure is demonstrated using field data. We find that the approach gives the most self-consistent results when it is applied to previously identified facies. Moreover, the autocorrelation trends follow the depositional pattern of the reservoir, which gives confidence in the validity of the approach.

  9. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  10. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  11. The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal Efficiency in an HCCI Engine The Effects of Fuel Composition and Compression Ratio on Thermal Efficiency in an HCCI Engine Poster ...

  12. Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion ...

  13. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline ...

  14. HCCI in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine Variables HCCI in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine Variables 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ...

  15. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  16. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  17. ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN TITAN's METHANE: MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Temelso, B.; Vinatier, S.; Bezard, B.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Mandt, K. E.; Sherrill, C. D.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-04-20

    The existence of methane in Titan's atmosphere ({approx}6% level at the surface) presents a unique enigma, as photochemical models predict that the current inventory will be entirely depleted by photochemistry in a timescale of {approx}20 Myr. In this paper, we examine the clues available from isotopic ratios ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H) in Titan's methane as to the past atmosphere history of this species. We first analyze recent infrared spectra of CH{sub 4} collected by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer, measuring simultaneously for the first time the abundances of all three detected minor isotopologues: {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D, and {sup 13}CH{sub 3}D. From these we compute estimates of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C = 86.5 {+-} 8.2 and D/H = (1.59 {+-} 0.33) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, in agreement with recent results from the Huygens GCMS and Cassini INMS instruments. We also use the transition state theory to estimate the fractionation that occurs in carbon and hydrogen during a critical reaction that plays a key role in the chemical depletion of Titan's methane: CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. Using these new measurements and predictions we proceed to model the time evolution of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H in Titan's methane under several prototypical replenishment scenarios. In our Model 1 (no resupply of CH{sub 4}), we find that the present-day {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C implies that the CH{sub 4} entered the atmosphere 60-1600 Myr ago if methane is depleted by chemistry and photolysis alone, but much more recently-most likely less than 10 Myr ago-if hydrodynamic escape is also occurring. On the other hand, if methane has been continuously supplied at the replenishment rate then the isotopic ratios provide no constraints, and likewise for the case where atmospheric methane is increasing. We conclude by discussing how these findings may be combined with other evidence to constrain the overall history of the atmospheric methane.

  18. EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF EINSTEIN A-COEFFICIENT RATIOS OF BRIGHT [Fe II] LINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Lorenzetti, D.; Alcal, J. M.; Bacciotti, F.; Podio, L.; Bonito, R.; Stelzer, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Einstein spontaneous rates (A-coefficients) of Fe{sup +} lines have been computed by several authors with results that differ from each other by up to 40%. Consequently, models for line emissivities suffer from uncertainties that in turn affect the determination of the physical conditions at the base of line excitation. We provide an empirical determination of the A-coefficient ratios of bright [Fe II] lines that would represent both a valid benchmark for theoretical computations and a reference for the physical interpretation of the observed lines. With the ESO-Very Large Telescope X-shooter instrument between 3000 and 24700 , we obtained a spectrum of the bright Herbig-Haro object HH1. We detect around 100 [Fe II] lines, some of which with a signal-to-noise ratios ?100. Among these latter lines, we selected those emitted by the same level, whose dereddened intensity ratios are direct functions of the Einstein A-coefficient ratios. From the same X-shooter spectrum, we got an accurate estimate of the extinction toward HH1 through intensity ratios of atomic species, H I recombination lines and H{sub 2} ro-vibrational transitions. We provide seven reliable A-coefficient ratios between bright [Fe II] lines, which are compared with the literature determinations. In particular, the A-coefficient ratios involving the brightest near-infrared lines (?12570/?16440 and ?13209/?16440) are in better agreement with the predictions by the Quinet et al. relativistic Hartree-Fock model. However, none of the theoretical models predict A-coefficient ratios in agreement with all of our determinations. We also show that literature data of near-infrared intensity ratios better agree with our determinations than with theoretical expectations.

  19. Derived Annual Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    74-1988 For Methodology Concerning the Derived Estimates Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat and Power by Industry Group, 1974-1988 Total Energy *** Electricity...

  20. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  1. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates.

  2. Application of the Isotope Ratio Method to a Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, Douglas P.; Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Meriwether, George H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.

    2010-08-11

    The isotope ratio method is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods. All reactor materials contain trace elemental impurities at parts per million levels, and the isotopes of these elements are transmuted by neutron irradiation in a predictable manner. While measuring the change in a particular isotopes concentration is possible, it is difficult to correlate to energy production because the initial concentration of that element may not be accurately known. However, if the ratio of two isotopes of the same element can be measured, the energy production can then be determined without knowing the absolute concentration of that impurity since the initial natural ratio is known. This is the fundamental principle underlying the isotope ratio method. Extremely sensitive mass-spectrometric methods are currently available that allow accurate measurements of the impurity isotope ratios in samples. Additionally, indicator elements with stable activation products have been identified so that their post-irradiation isotope ratios remain constant. This method has been successfully demonstrated on graphite-moderated reactors. Graphite reactors are particularly well-suited to such analyses since the graphite moderator is resident in the fueled region of the core for the entire period of operation. Applying this method to other reactor types is more difficult since the resident portions of the reactor available for sampling are either outside the fueled region of the core or structural components of individual fuel assemblies. The goal of this research is to show that the isotope ratio method can produce meaningful results for light water-moderated power reactors. In this work, we use the isotope ratio method to estimate the energy production in a boiling water reactor fuel bundle based on measurements taken from the corresponding fuel assembly channel. Our preliminary results are in good agreement with the actual operating history of the reactor during the cycle that the fuel bundle was resident in the core.

  3. Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine | Department of Energy and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Study of the effect of compression ratio on performance of light duty diesel operating with PCCI calibration, near EURO6/Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx limits. PDF icon deer08_beatrice.pdf More Documents &

  4. 13-Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner 13-Energy Efficiency Ratio Window Air Conditioner Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: General Electric - Fairfield, CT DOE Funding: $1,540,000 Cost Share: Provided by CRADA partners Project Term: 10/1/2011 - 9/30/2015 Project Objective This project is designing and developing a high-efficiency 13 energy-efficiecy-ratio (EER) window air conditioner. The

  5. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  6. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  7. Automated Estimating System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-15

    AES6.1 is a PC software package developed to aid in the preparation and reporting of cost estimates. AES6.1 provides an easy means for entering and updating the detailed cost, schedule information, project work breakdown structure, and escalation information contained in a typical project cost estimate through the use of menus and formatted input screens. AES6.1 combines this information to calculate both unescalated and escalated cost for a project which can be reported at varying levelsmore » of detail. Following are the major modifications to AES6.0f: Contingency update was modified to provide greater flexibility for user updates, Schedule Update was modified to provide user ability to schedule Bills of Material at the WBS/Participant/Cost Code level, Schedule Plot was modified to graphically show schedule by WBS/Participant/Cost Code, All Fiscal Year reporting has been modified to use the new schedule format, The Schedule 1-B-7, Cost Schedule, and the WBS/Participant reprorts were modified to determine Phase of Work from the B/M Cost Code, Utility program was modified to allow selection by cost code and update cost code in the Global Schedule update, Generic summary and line item download were added to the utility program, and an option was added to all reports which allows the user to indicate where overhead is to be reported (bottom line or in body of report)« less

  8. An approach to determine a defensible spent fuel ratio.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2014-03-01

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. In all the previous studies, the postulated attack of greatest interest was by a conical shape charge (CSC) that focuses the explosive energy much more efficiently than bulk explosives. However, the validity of these large-scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical DUO2 surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Different researchers have suggested using SFR values of 3 to 5.6. Sound technical arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. Currently, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is in possession of several samples of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that were used in the original SFR studies in the 1980's and were intended for use in a modern effort at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 2000's. A portion of these samples are being used for a variety of research efforts. However, the entirety of SNF samples at ORNL is scheduled for disposition at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by approximately the end of 2015. If a defensible SFR is to be determined for use in storage and transportation security analyses, the need to begin this effort is urgent in order to secure the only known available SNF samples with a clearly defined path to disposal.

  9. Shear-viscosity to entropy-density ratio from giant dipole resonances in hot nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Dinh Dang

    2011-09-15

    The Green-Kubo relation and fluctuation-dissipation theorem are employed to calculate the shear viscosity {eta} of a finite hot nucleus directly from the width and energy of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) of this nucleus. The ratio {eta}/s of shear viscosity {eta} to entropy density s is extracted from the experimental systematics of the GDR in copper, tin, and lead isotopes at finite temperature T. These empirical results are then compared with the predictions by several independent models as well as with almost model-independent estimations. Based on these results, it is concluded that the ratio {eta}/s in medium and heavy nuclei decreases with increasing temperature T to reach (1.3--4)x({h_bar}/2{pi})/(4{pi}k{sub B}) at T=5 MeV.

  10. Radiation detection method and system using the sequential probability ratio test

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Karl E.; Valentine, John D.; Beauchamp, Brock R.

    2007-07-17

    A method and system using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test to enhance the detection of an elevated level of radiation, by determining whether a set of observations are consistent with a specified model within a given bounds of statistical significance. In particular, the SPRT is used in the present invention to maximize the range of detection, by providing processing mechanisms for estimating the dynamic background radiation, adjusting the models to reflect the amount of background knowledge at the current point in time, analyzing the current sample using the models to determine statistical significance, and determining when the sample has returned to the expected background conditions.

  11. Higgs boson hadronic branching ratios at the ILC (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Higgs boson hadronic branching ratios at the ILC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Higgs boson hadronic branching ratios at the ILC We present a study of the Higgs boson decay branching ratios to bb, cc, and gluons, one of the cornerstones of the physics program at the International Linear Collider. A standard model Higgs boson of 120 GeV mass, produced in the Higgs-strahlung process at {radical}(s)=250 GeV, was investigated using the full detector simulation and

  12. Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.

    2008-11-21

    Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.

  13. Free boundary, high beta equilibrium in a large aspect ratio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC02-76CH03073 Resource Type: Technical Report Resource Relation: ... Subject: 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION; HIGH-BETA PLASMA; TOKAMAK DEVICES; ASPECT RATIO; ...

  14. High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters December 1, 2009 Tweet EmailPrint Collaborative users from Creatv MicroTech, Inc. and Los Alamos National Laboratory, working with CNM's Nanofabrication & Devices Group, have demonstrated a novel fabrication process that produces high-porosity polymer nanofilters with smooth, uniform. and straight pores and high aspect ratios. Nanofilters have a wide range of applications for various size-exclusion-based

  15. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and high spin-polarization ratio in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    epitaxial Fe-N thin films (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES DOE PAGES Search Results Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and high spin-polarization ratio in epitaxial Fe-N thin films « Prev Next » Title: Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and high spin-polarization ratio in epitaxial Fe-N thin films Authors: Ji, Nian ; Osofsky, M. S. ; Lauter, Valeria ; Allard, Lawrence F. ; Li, Xuan ; Jensen, Kevin L. ; Ambaye, Hailemariam ; Lara-Curzio, Edgar ; Wang, Jian-Ping

  16. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the

  17. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  18. Evaluation of Variable Compression Ratio on Energy Efficiency | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Variable Compression Ratio on Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Variable Compression Ratio on Energy Efficiency Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-16_szybist.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Efficiency VCR Engine with Variable Valve Actuation and New Supercharging Technology The Effects of Fuel Composition and

  19. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  20. Utilizing Isotopic Uranium Ratios in Groundwater Evaluations at FUSRAP Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.T.; Keil, K.G.; Rhodes, M.C.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District is evaluating environmental radioactive contamination at several Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites throughout New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. The investigations follow the process defined in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Groundwater data from the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York were evaluated for isotopic uranium ratios, specifically uranium-234 versus uranium-238 (U- 234 and U-238, respectively), and the results were presented at Waste Management 2006. Since uranium naturally occurs in all groundwater, it can be difficult to distinguish where low-concentration impacts from past releases differ from the high end of a site-specific natural background range. In natural groundwater, the ratio of U-234 to U-238 exceeds 1 (unity) due to the alpha particle recoil effect, in which U-234 is preferentially mobilized to groundwater from adjacent rock or soil. This process is very slow and may take hundreds to thousands of years before a measurable increase is seen in the natural isotopic ratio. If site releases are the source of uranium being measured in groundwater, the U-234 to U-238 ratio is commonly closer to 1, which normally reflects FUSRAP-related, uranium-contaminated wastes and soils. This lower ratio occurs because not enough residence time has elapsed since the 1940's and 1950's for the alpha particle recoil effect to have significantly altered the contamination-derived ratio. An evaluation of NFSS-specific and regional groundwater data indicate that an isotopic ratio of 1.2 has been identified as a signature value to help distinguish natural groundwater, which may have a broad background range, from zones impacted by past releases. (authors)

  1. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M {sub ?} BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D. E-mail: heb11@psu.edu

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheidscool, evolved stars of ?5 M {sub ?}are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M {sub ?}. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of ? Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M {sub ?} binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M {sub ?} stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple.

  2. Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-04

    The Cloud Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool (SEET) is a user driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) that estimates cloud supercooled liquid water (SLW) content in terms of vertical column and total mass from Moderate resolution Imaging Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spatially derived cloud products and realistic vertical cloud parameterizations that are user defined. It also contains functions for post-processing of the resulting data in tabular and graphical form.

  3. Utilizing Isotopic Uranium Ratios in Groundwater Evaluations at NFSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, M.C.; Keil, K.G.; Frederick, W.T.; Papura, T.R.; Leithner, J.S.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Buffalo District is currently evaluating environmental contamination at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) as part of its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The NFSS is located in the Town of Lewiston in western New York and has been used to store uranium-contaminated materials since 1944. Most of the radioactive materials are currently contained in an on-site structure, but past contamination remains in soil and groundwater. As a naturally occurring radionuclide, uranium is present in all groundwater. Because contamination levels at the site are quite low, it can be difficult to distinguish zones that have been impacted by the past releases from those at the high end of the natural background range. The differences in the isotopic ratio of uranium-234 (U-234) to uranium-238 (U-238) between natural groundwater systems and affected areas are being used in an innovative way to better define the nature and extent of groundwater contamination at NFSS. In natural groundwater, the ratio of U-234 to U-238 exceeds 1 due to the alpha particle recoil effect, in which U-234 is preferentially mobilized to groundwater from adjacent rock or soil. This process is very slow, and it can be hundreds to thousands of years before a measurable impact is seen in the isotopic ratio. Thus, as a result of the recoil effect, the ratio of U-234 to U-238 will be higher in natural groundwater than in contaminated groundwater. This means that if site releases were the source of the uranium being measured in groundwater at NFSS, the ratio of U-234 to U-238 would be expected to be very close to 1 (the same ratio that exists in wastes and soil at the site), because not enough time has elapsed for the alpha particle recoil effect to have significantly altered that ratio. From an evaluation of site and regional groundwater data, an isotopic ratio of 1.2 has been identified as a site-specific signature to help distinguish natural groundwater (e.g., at the high end of the background range) from zones impacted by past releases. This information is crucial for focusing the ongoing CERCLA evaluation and decision making process. This signature value is not applied as a bright line, e.g., to define samples with ratios of U-234 to U-238 above 1.2 as representing background and those with ratios below 1.2 as being affected by site releases. Rather, this ratio serves as a weight of evidence for use in conjunction with other site information, including historical activities, to form science-based decisions regarding contaminated groundwater. This novel approach for developing a groundwater signature from the isotopic uranium ratio has proven to be a very useful tool for NFSS, and it is now being considered for broader application. (authors)

  4. Starting low compression ratio rotary Wankel diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamo, R.; Yamada, T.Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The single stage rotary Wankel engine is difficult to convert into a diesel version having an adequate compression ratio and a compatible combustion chamber configuration. Past efforts in designing a rotary-type Wankel diesel engine resorted to a two-stage design. Complexity, size, weight, cost and performance penalties were some of the drawbacks of the two-stage Wankel-type diesel designs. This paper presents an approach to a single stage low compression ratio Wankel-type rotary engine. Cold starting of a low compression ratio single stage diesel Wankel becomes the key problem. It was demonstrated that the low compression single stage diesel Wankel type rotary engine can satisfactorily be cold started with a properly designed combustion chamber in the rotor and a variable heat input combustion aid.

  5. Dose ratio proton radiography using the proximal side of the Bragg peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doolan, P. J. Royle, G.; Gibson, A.; Lu, H.-M.; Prieels, D.; Bentefour, E. H.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In recent years, there has been a movement toward single-detector proton radiography, due to its potential ease of implementation within the clinical environment. One such single-detector technique is the dose ratio method in which the dose maps from two pristine Bragg peaks are recorded beyond the patient. To date, this has only been investigated on the distal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, due to the sharp falloff. The authors investigate the limits and applicability of the dose ratio method on the proximal side of the lower energy Bragg peak, which has the potential to allow a much wider range of water-equivalent thicknesses (WET) to be imaged. Comparisons are made with the use of the distal side of the Bragg peak. Methods: Using the analytical approximation for the Bragg peak, the authors generated theoretical dose ratio curves for a range of energy pairs, and then determined how an uncertainty in the dose ratio would translate to a spread in the WET estimate. By defining this spread as the accuracy one could achieve in the WET estimate, the authors were able to generate lookup graphs of the range on the proximal side of the Bragg peak that one could reliably use. These were dependent on the energy pair, noise level in the dose ratio image and the required accuracy in the WET. Using these lookup graphs, the authors investigated the applicability of the technique for a range of patient treatment sites. The authors validated the theoretical approach with experimental measurements using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor active pixel sensor (CMOS APS), by imaging a small sapphire sphere in a high energy proton beam. Results: Provided the noise level in the dose ratio image was 1% or less, a larger spread of WETs could be imaged using the proximal side of the Bragg peak (max 5.31 cm) compared to the distal side (max 2.42 cm). In simulation, it was found that, for a pediatric brain, it is possible to use the technique to image a region with a square field equivalent size of 7.6 cm{sup 2}, for a required accuracy in the WET of 3 mm and a 1% noise level in the dose ratio image. The technique showed limited applicability for other patient sites. The CMOS APS demonstrated a good accuracy, with a root-mean-square-error of 1.6 mm WET. The noise in the measured images was found to be ? = 1.2% (standard deviation) and theoretical predictions with a 1.96? noise level showed good agreement with the measured errors. Conclusions: After validating the theoretical approach with measurements, the authors have shown that the use of the proximal side of the Bragg peak when performing dose ratio imaging is feasible, and allows for a wider dynamic range than when using the distal side. The dynamic range available increases as the demand on the accuracy of the WET decreases. The technique can only be applied to clinical sites with small maximum WETs such as for pediatric brains.

  6. " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS",,"per

  7. " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic

  8. " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic

  9. Method of fabricating a high aspect ratio microstructure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, John B.

    2003-05-06

    The present invention is for a method of fabricating a high aspect ratio, freestanding microstructure. The fabrication method modifies the exposure process for SU-8, an negative-acting, ultraviolet-sensitive photoresist used for microfabrication whereby a UV-absorbent glass substrate, chosen for complete absorption of UV radiation at 380 nanometers or less, is coated with a negative photoresist, exposed and developed according to standard practice. This UV absorbent glass enables the fabrication of cylindrical cavities in a negative photoresist microstructures that have aspect ratios of 8:1.

  10. Table 6.2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,"Consumption" " ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "Economic","per Employee","of Value

  11. Table E7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,"Consumption" " ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "Economic","per Employee","of Value

  12. Theoretical Estimate of Maximum Possible Nuclear Explosion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bethe, H. A.

    1950-01-31

    The maximum nuclear accident which could occur in a Na-cooled, Be moderated, Pu and power producing reactor is estimated theoretically. (T.R.H.) 2O82 Results of nuclear calculations for a variety of compositions of fast, heterogeneous, sodium-cooled, U-235-fueled, plutonium- and power-producing reactors are reported. Core compositions typical of plate-, pin-, or wire-type fuel elements and with uranium as metal, alloy, and oxide were considered. These compositions included atom ratios in the following range: U-23B to U-235 from 2 to 8; sodium to U-235 from 1.5 to 12; iron to U-235 from 5 to 18; and vanadium to U-235 from 11 to 33. Calculations were performed to determine the effect of lead and iron reflectors between the core and blanket. Both natural and depleted uranium were evaluated as the blanket fertile material. Reactors were compared on a basis of conversion ratio, specific power, and the product of both. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental results from fast reactor assemblies. An analysis of the effect of new cross-section values as they became available is included. (auth)

  13. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  14. Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    > Derived Annual Estimates - Executive Summary Derived Annual Estimates of Manufacturing Energy Consumption, 1974-1988 Figure showing Derived Estimates Executive Summary This...

  15. The four-loop six-gluon NMHV ratio function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dixon, Lance J.; von Hippel, Matt; McLeod, Andrew J.

    2016-01-11

    We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q¯ differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result againstmore » multi-Regge predictions at NNLL and N3LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. As a result, we also provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.« less

  16. The Four-loop Six-gluon NMHV Ratio Function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Lance J.; von Hippel, Matt; McLeod, Andrew J.

    2015-09-29

    We use the hexagon function bootstrap to compute the ratio function which characterizes the next-to-maximally-helicity-violating (NMHV) six-point amplitude in planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at four loops. A powerful constraint comes from dual superconformal invariance, in the form of a Q- differential equation, which heavily constrains the first derivatives of the transcendental functions entering the ratio function. At four loops, it leaves only a 34-parameter space of functions. Constraints from the collinear limits, and from the multi-Regge limit at the leading-logarithmic (LL) and next-to-leading-logarithmic (NLL) order, suffice to fix these parameters and obtain a unique result. We test the result against multi- Regge predictions at NNLL and N3LL, and against predictions from the operator product expansion involving one and two flux-tube excitations; all cross-checks are satisfied. We also study the analytical and numerical behavior of the parity-even and parity-odd parts on various lines and surfaces traversing the three-dimensional space of cross ratios. As part of this program, we characterize all irreducible hexagon functions through weight eight in terms of their coproduct. Furthermore, we provide representations of the ratio function in particular kinematic regions in terms of multiple polylogarithms.

  17. GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide: Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process, from the first step of defining the estimate's purpose to the last step of updating the estimate to reflect actual costs and changes.

  18. Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-estimating-historical Cost: Free Language: English Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation Screenshot...

  19. The Atmospheric Muon Charge Ratio at the MINOS Near Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Jong, J.K.; /IIT, Chicago /Oxford U.

    2011-11-01

    The magnetized MINOS near detector can accurately determine the charge sign of atmospheric muons, this facilitates a measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio. To reduce the systematic error associated with geometric bias and acceptance we have combined equal periods of data obtained with opposite magnetic field polarities. We report a charge ratio of 1.2666 {+-} 0.0015(stat.){sub -0.0088}{sup +0.0096}(syst.) at a mean E{sub {mu},0{sup cos}}({theta}) = 63 GeV. This measurement is consistent with the world average but significantly lower than the earlier observation at the MINOS far detector. This increase is shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that a greater fraction of the observed muons arise from kaon decay within the cosmic ray shower.

  20. Method for fabricating high aspect ratio structures in perovskite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karapetrov, Goran T.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Crabtree, George W.; Iavarone, Maria

    2003-10-28

    A method of fabricating high aspect ratio ceramic structures in which a selected portion of perovskite or perovskite-like crystalline material is exposed to a high energy ion beam for a time sufficient to cause the crystalline material contacted by the ion beam to have substantially parallel columnar defects. Then selected portions of the material having substantially parallel columnar defects are etched leaving material with and without substantially parallel columnar defects in a predetermined shape having high aspect ratios of not less than 2 to 1. Etching is accomplished by optical or PMMA lithography. There is also disclosed a structure of a ceramic which is superconducting at a temperature in the range of from about 10.degree. K. to about 90.degree. K. with substantially parallel columnar defects in which the smallest lateral dimension of the structure is less than about 5 microns, and the thickness of the structure is greater than 2 times the smallest lateral dimension of the structure.

  1. Radar antenna pointing for optimized signal to noise ratio.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter; Marquette, Brandeis

    2013-01-01

    The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of a radar echo signal will vary across a range swath, due to spherical wavefront spreading, atmospheric attenuation, and antenna beam illumination. The antenna beam illumination will depend on antenna pointing. Calculations of geometry are complicated by the curved earth, and atmospheric refraction. This report investigates optimizing antenna pointing to maximize the minimum SNR across the range swath.

  2. High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryMetallic structures that can be used as transparent electrodes or to enhance the performance of solar cells or LEDs.DescriptionEfforts to develop new energy sources and more energy efficient devices has lead to

  3. High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Polymer-based photovoltaic devices have received intense interest in recent years because of their potential to provide low-cost solar energy conversion, flexibility, manufacturability, and light weight. However, the efficiency of organic solar

  4. Combustion engine variable compression ratio apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence; Keith E. (Peoria, IL); Strawbridge, Bryan E. (Dunlap, IL); Dutart, Charles H. (Washington, IL)

    2006-06-06

    An apparatus and method for varying a compression ratio of an engine having a block and a head mounted thereto. The apparatus and method includes a cylinder having a block portion and a head portion, a piston linearly movable in the block portion of the cylinder, a cylinder plug linearly movable in the head portion of the cylinder, and a valve located in the cylinder plug and operable to provide controlled fluid communication with the block portion of the cylinder.

  5. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  6. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdas, D. A. Cristea, G. Bot, A. Mirel, V.

    2013-11-13

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in ?{sup 13}C between batches from ?29.7 to ?31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between ?31.3 to ?34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  7. The charge ratio of the atmospheric muons at low energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmanabadi, M.; Samimi, J.; Sheidaei, F.; Ghomi, M. Khakian

    2006-10-15

    From the nature of the muon production processes, it can be seen that the ratio of positive to negative cosmic muons has important information in both 'the atmospheric neutrino problem', and 'the hadronic interactions'. We have carried out an experiment for the measurement of the muon charge ratio in the cosmic ray flux in momentum range 0.112-0.178 GeV/c. The muon charge ratio is found to be 1.21{+-}0.01 with a mean zenith angle of 32 deg. {+-}5 deg. . From the measurements it has been obtained a zenithal angle distribution of muons as I({theta})=I(0)cos{sup n}{theta} with n=1.95{+-}0.13. An asymmetry has been observed in East-West directions because of the geomagnetic field. Meanwhile, in about the same momentum range, positive and negative muons have been studied on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations of the extensive air shower developement (Cosmic Ray Simulations for Kascade), using the Quark Gluon String model with JETs model as generator.

  8. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heywood, John; Jo, Young Suk; Lewis, Raymond; Bromberg, Leslie; Heywood, John

    2015-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  9. Aspect Ratio Effects in the Driven, Flux-Core Spheromak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, E B; Romero-Talam?s, C A; LoDestro, L L; Wood, R D; McLean, H S

    2009-03-02

    Resistive magneto-hydrodynamic simulations are used to evaluate the effects of the aspect ratio, A (length to radius ratio) in a spheromak driven by coaxial helicity injection. The simulations are benchmarked against the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [R. D. Wood, et al., Nucl. Nucl. Fusion 45, 1582 (2005)]. Amplification of the bias ('gun') poloidal flux is fit well by a linear dependence (insensitive to A) on the ratio of gun current and bias flux above a threshold dependent on A. For low flux amplifications in the simulations the n = 1 mode is coherent and the mean-field geometry looks like a tilted spheromak. Because the mode has relatively large amplitude the field lines are open everywhere, allowing helicity penetration. Strongly-driven helicity injection at A {le} 1.4 in simulations generates reconnection events which open the magnetic field lines; this state is characteristic of SSPX. Near the spheromak tilt-mode limit, A {approx} 1.67 for a cylindrical flux conserver, the tilt approaches 90{sup o}; reconnection events are not generated up to the strongest drives simulated. The time-sequence of these events suggests that they are representative of a chaotic process. Implications for spheromak experiments are discussed.

  10. Estimates of Green potentials. Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danchenko, V I

    2003-02-28

    Optimal Cartan-type covers by hyperbolic discs of carriers of Green {alpha}-potentials are obtained in a simply connected domain in the complex plane and estimates of the potentials outside the carriers are presented. These results are applied to problems on the separation of singularities of analytic and harmonic functions. For instance, uniform and integral estimates in terms of Green capacities of components of meromorphic functions are obtained.

  11. Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Revised and posted 2/10/2011 *Title, Location Estimated Cost Description Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain $50,000 FONSI: uncertain Determination Date: uncertain Transmittal to State: uncertain EA Approval: uncertain FONSI: uncertain Total Estimated Cost $70,000 Attachment: Memo, Moody to Marcinowski, III, SUBJECT: NEPA 2011 APS for DOE-SRS, Dated: Annual NEPA Planning Summary Environmental Assessments (EAs) Expected to be Initiated in the Next

  12. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

  13. GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Step Description Associated task 1 Define estimate's purpose Determine estimate's purpose, required level of detail, and overall scope; Determine who will receive the estimate 2 Develop estimating plan Determine the cost estimating team and develop its master schedule; Determine who will do the independent cost estimate; Outline the cost estimating approach; Develop the estimate timeline 3 Define

  14. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  15. Method for producing thin graphite flakes with large aspect ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunnell, L. Roy (Kennewick, WA)

    1993-01-01

    A method for making graphite flakes of high aspect ratio by the steps of providing a strong concentrated acid and heating the graphite in the presence of the acid for a time and at a temperature effective to intercalate the acid in the graphite; heating the intercalated graphite at a rate and to a temperature effective to exfoliate the graphite in discrete layers; subjecting the graphite layers to ultrasonic energy, mechanical shear forces, or freezing in an amount effective to separate the layes into discrete flakes.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of cascade microcryocoolers with low pressure ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radebaugh, Ray

    2014-01-29

    The vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration near ambient temperature achieves high efficiency because the isenthalpic expansion of the condensed liquid is a rather efficient process. However, temperatures are limited to about 200 K with a single-stage system. Temperatures down to 77 K are possible with many stages. In the case of microcryocoolers using microcompressors, pressure ratios are usually limited to about 6 or less. As a result, even more stages are required to reach 77 K. If the microcompressors can be fabricated with low-cost wafer-level techniques, then the use of many stages with separate compressors may become a viable option for achieving temperatures of 77 K with high efficiency. We analyze the ideal thermodynamic efficiency of a cascade Joule-Thomson system for various temperatures down to 77 K and with low pressure ratios. About nine stages are required for 77 K, but fewer stages are also analyzed for operation at higher temperatures. For 77 K, an ideal second-law efficiency of 83 % of Carnot is possible with perfect recuperative heat exchangers and 65 % of Carnot is possible with no recuperative heat exchangers. The results are compared with calculated efficiencies in mixed-refrigerant cryocoolers over the range of 77 K to 200 K. Refrigeration at intermediate temperatures is also available. The use of single-component fluids in each of the stages is expected to eliminate the problem of pulsating flow and temperature oscillations experienced in microcryocoolers using mixed refrigerants.

  17. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies - such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction - likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass ratio events into typical L {approx}> fL{sub *} galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt {approx_equal} 0.03(1+f)Gyr{sup -1} (1+z){sup 2.1}. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of > 0.4L{sub *} high-redshift galaxies ({approx} 3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t < 100 Myr). This suggests that short-lived, merger-induced bursts of star formation should not contribute significantly to the global star formation rate at early times, in agreement with observational indications. In contrast, a fairly high fraction ({approx} 20%) of those z = 2 galaxies should have experienced a morphologically transformative merger within a virial dynamical time. We compare our results to observational merger rate estimates from both morphological indicators and pair-fraction based determinations between z = 0-2 and show that they are consistent with our predictions. However, we emphasize that great care must be made in these comparisons because the predicted observables depend very sensitively on galaxy luminosity, redshift, overall mass ratio, and uncertain relaxation timescales for merger remnants. We show that the majority of bright galaxies at z = 3 should have undergone a major merger (> 0.3) in the last 700 Myr and conclude that mergers almost certainly play an important role in delivering baryons and influencing the kinematic properties of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs).

  18. Modular low aspect ratio-high beta torsatron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheffield, George V. (Hopewell, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ)

    1984-02-07

    A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect ratio toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When vertical field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

  19. Modular low-aspect-ratio high-beta torsatron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheffield, G.V.

    1982-04-01

    A fusion-reactor device is described which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low-aspect-ratio toroid in planed having the cylindrical coordinate relationship phi = phi/sub i/ + kz, where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and phi/sub i/ is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z = o plane. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a race track minor cross section. When vertical field coils and, preferably, a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic-field-surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack-shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

  20. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the ...

  1. Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimates and Recommendations for Coincidence Geometry You are accessing a...

  2. Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: characterization, improved calibration, and implications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Canagaratna, M. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kroll, J. H.; Chen, Q.; Kessler, S. H.; Massoli, P.; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Fortner, E.; Williams, L. R.; Wilson, K. R.; et al

    2015-01-12

    Elemental compositions of organic aerosol (OA) particles provide useful constraints on OA sources, chemical evolution, and effects. The Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is widely used to measure OA elemental composition. This study evaluates AMS measurements of atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O : C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C), and organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM : OC) ratios, and of carbon oxidation state (OS C) for a vastly expanded laboratory data set of multifunctional oxidized OA standards. For the expanded standard data set, the method introduced by Aiken et al. (2008), which uses experimentally measured ion intensities at all ions to determinemore » elemental ratios (referred to here as "Aiken-Explicit"), reproduces known O : C and H : C ratio values within 20% (average absolute value of relative errors) and 12%, respectively. The more commonly used method, which uses empirically estimated H2O+ and CO+ ion intensities to avoid gas phase air interferences at these ions (referred to here as "Aiken-Ambient"), reproduces O : C and H : C of multifunctional oxidized species within 28 and 14% of known values. The values from the latter method are systematically biased low, however, with larger biases observed for alcohols and simple diacids. A detailed examination of the H2O+, CO+, and CO2+ fragments in the high-resolution mass spectra of the standard compounds indicates that the Aiken-Ambient method underestimates the CO+ and especially H2O+ produced from many oxidized species. Combined AMS–vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization measurements indicate that these ions are produced by dehydration and decarboxylation on the AMS vaporizer (usually operated at 600 °C). Thermal decomposition is observed to be efficient at vaporizer temperatures down to 200 °C. These results are used together to develop an "Improved-Ambient" elemental analysis method for AMS spectra measured in air. The Improved-Ambient method uses specific ion fragments as markers to correct for molecular functionality-dependent systematic biases and reproduces known O : C (H : C) ratios of individual oxidized standards within 28% (13%) of the known molecular values. The error in Improved-Ambient O : C (H : C) values is smaller for theoretical standard mixtures of the oxidized organic standards, which are more representative of the complex mix of species present in ambient OA. For ambient OA, the Improved-Ambient method produces O : C (H : C) values that are 27% (11%) larger than previously published Aiken-Ambient values; a corresponding increase of 9% is observed for OM : OC values. These results imply that ambient OA has a higher relative oxygen content than previously estimated. The OS C values calculated for ambient OA by the two methods agree well, however (average relative difference of 0.06 OS C units). This indicates that OS C is a more robust metric of oxidation than O : C, likely since OS C is not affected by hydration or dehydration, either in the atmosphere or during analysis.« less

  3. Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: Characterization, improved calibration, and implications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Canagaratna, M. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kroll, J. H.; Chen, Q.; Kessler, S. H.; Massoli, P.; Ruiz, L. Hildebrandt; Fortner, E.; Williams, L. R.; Wilson, K. R.; et al

    2015-01-12

    Elemental compositions of organic aerosol (OA) particles provide useful constraints on OA sources, chemical evolution, and effects. The Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is widely used to measure OA elemental composition. This study evaluates AMS measurements of atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O : C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C), and organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM : OC) ratios, and of carbon oxidation state (OS C) for a vastly expanded laboratory data set of multifunctional oxidized OA standards. For the expanded standard data set, the method introduced by Aiken et al. (2008), which uses experimentally measured ionmoreintensities at all ions to determine elemental ratios (referred to here as "Aiken-Explicit"), reproduces known O : C and H : C ratio values within 20% (average absolute value of relative errors) and 12%, respectively. The more commonly used method, which uses empirically estimated H2O+ and CO+ ion intensities to avoid gas phase air interferences at these ions (referred to here as "Aiken-Ambient"), reproduces O : C and H : C of multifunctional oxidized species within 28 and 14% of known values. The values from the latter method are systematically biased low, however, with larger biases observed for alcohols and simple diacids. A detailed examination of the H2O+, CO+, and CO2+ fragments in the high-resolution mass spectra of the standard compounds indicates that the Aiken-Ambient method underestimates the CO+ and especially H2O+ produced from many oxidized species. Combined AMSvacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization measurements indicate that these ions are produced by dehydration and decarboxylation on the AMS vaporizer (usually operated at 600 C). Thermal decomposition is observed to be efficient at vaporizer temperatures down to 200 C. These results are used together to develop an "Improved-Ambient" elemental analysis method for AMS spectra measured in air. The Improved-Ambient method uses specific ion fragments as markers to correct for molecular functionality-dependent systematic biases and reproduces known O : C (H : C) ratios of individual oxidized standards within 28% (13%) of the known molecular values. The error in Improved-Ambient O : C (H : C) values is smaller for theoretical standard mixtures of the oxidized organic standards, which are more representative of the complex mix of species present in ambient OA. For ambient OA, the Improved-Ambient method produces O : C (H : C) values that are 27% (11%) larger than previously published Aiken-Ambient values; a corresponding increase of 9% is observed for OM : OC values. These results imply that ambient OA has a higher relative oxygen content than previously estimated. The OS C values calculated for ambient OA by the two methods agree well, however (average relative difference of 0.06 OS C units). This indicates that OS C is a more robust metric of oxidation than O : C, likely since OS C is not affected by hydration or dehydration, either in the atmosphere or during analysis.less

  4. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  5. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  6. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  7. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  8. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  9. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  10. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  11. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  12. Utilizing the sequential probability ratio test for building joint monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, D. W.; Sohn, H.; Worden, K.; Farrar, C. R.

    2002-01-01

    In this application of the statistical pattern recognition paradigm, a prediction model of a chosen feature is developed from the time domain response of a baseline structure. After the model is developed, subsequent feature sets are tested against the model to determine if a change in the feature has occurred. In the proposed statistical inference for damage identification there are two basic hypotheses; (1) the model can predict the feature, in which case the structure is undamaged or (2) the model can not accurately predict the feature, suggesting that the structure is damaged. The Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) develops a statistical method that quickly arrives at a decision between these two hypotheses and is applicable to continuous monitoring. In the original formulation of the SPRT algorithm, the feature is assumed to be Gaussian and thresholds are set accordingly. It is likely, however, that the feature used for damage identification is sensitive to the tails of the distribution and that the tails may not necessarily be governed by Gaussian characteristics. By modeling the tails using the technique of Extreme Value Statistics, the hypothesis decision thresholds for the SPRT algorithm may be set avoiding the normality assumption. The SPRT algorithm is utilized to decide if the test structure is undamaged or damaged and which joint is exhibiting the change.

  13. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscapting Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-30

    Guidance to help Federal agencies estimate unmetered landscaping water use as required by Executive Order 13514

  14. Estimated Cost Description Determination Date:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Title, Location Estimated Cost Description Determination Date: 2010 LCLS Undulator 2 is envisioned to be a 0.2 - 2keV FEL x-ray source, capable of delivering x-rays to End Station A (ESA), located in the existing Research Yard at SLAC. It will also be configurable as a non- FEL hard x-ray source capable of delivering a chirped x-ray pulse for single-shot broad-spectrum measurements. The project would entail reconstruction of the electron beam transport to End Station A, construction and

  15. Elemental ratio measurements of organic compounds using aerosol mass spectrometry: characterization, improved calibration, and implications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Canagaratna, M. R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kroll, J. H.; Chen, Q.; Kessler, S. H.; Massoli, P.; Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Fortner, E.; Williams, L. R.; Wilson, K. R.; et al

    2014-07-31

    Elemental compositions of organic aerosol (OA) particles provide useful constraints on OA sources, chemical evolution, and effects. The Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is widely used to measure OA elemental composition. This study evaluates AMS measurements of atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O : C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H : C), organic mass-to-organic carbon (OM : OC), and carbon oxidation state (OSC) for a vastly expanded laboratory dataset of multifunctional oxidized OA standards. For the expanded standard dataset, the "Aiken-Explicit" method (Aiken et al., 2008), which uses experimentally measured ion intensities at all ions to determine elemental ratios, reproduces known molecular O :more » C and H : C ratio values within 20% (average absolute value of relative errors) and 12% respectively. The more commonly used "Aiken-Ambient" method, which uses empirically estimated H2O+ and CO+ ion intensities to avoid gas phase air interferences at these ions, reproduces O : C and H : C of multifunctional oxidized species within 28% and 14% of known values. These values are systematically biased low, however, with larger biases observed for alcohols and simple diacids. A detailed examination of the H2O+, CO+, and CO2+ fragments in the high-resolution mass spectra of the standard compounds indicates that the Aiken-Ambient method underestimates the CO+ and H2O+ produced from many oxidized species. Combined AMS-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization measurements indicate that these ions are produced by dehydration and decarboxylation on the AMS vaporizer (usually operated at 600 °C). Thermal decomposition is observed to be efficient at vaporizer temperatures down to 200 °C. These results are used together to develop an "Improved-Ambient" elemental analysis method for AMS spectra measured in air. The Improved-Ambient method reduces the systematic biases and reproduces O : C (H : C) ratios of individual oxidized standards within 28% (13%) of the known molecular values. The error in Improved-Ambient O : C and H : C values is smaller (12% and 4% respectively) for synthetic mixtures of the oxidized organic standards, which are more representative of the complex mix of species present in ambient OA. For ambient OA, the Improved-Ambient method produces O : C (H : C) values that are 27% (11%) larger than previously published Aiken-Ambient values; a corresponding increase of 9% is observed for OM : OC values. These results imply that ambient OA has a higher relative oxygen content than previously estimated. The OSC values calculated for ambient OA by the two methods agree well, however (average relative difference of 0.06 OSC units). This indicates that OSC is a more robust metric of oxidation than O : C, likely since OSC is not affected by hydration or dehydration, either in the atmosphere or during analysis.« less

  16. Dimensions and aspect ratios of natural ice crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Um, J.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Hong, Y. P.; Lee, S. -S.; Jung, C. H.; Lawson, R. P.; Mo, Q.

    2015-04-15

    During the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the tropics, the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in the Arctic, and the 2010 Small PARTicles In CirrUS (SPARTICUS) campaign at mid-latitudes, high-resolution images of ice crystals were recorded by a Cloud Particle Imager at temperatures (T) between -87 and 0 °C. The projected maximum dimension (D'), length (L'), and width (W') of pristine columns, plates, and component bullets of bullet rosettes were measured using newly developed software, the Ice Crystal Ruler. The number of bullets in each bullet rosette was also measured. Column crystals were furthermore » distinguished as either horizontally oriented columns or columns with other orientations to eliminate any orientation effect on the measured dimensions. The dimensions and aspect ratios (AR, the dimension of the major axis divided by the dimension of the minor axis) of crystals were determined as functions of temperature, geophysical location, and type of cirrus. Dimensions of crystals generally increased with temperature. Columns and bullets had larger dimensions (i.e., W') of the minor axis (i.e., a axis) for a given dimension (i.e., D' orL') of the major axis (i.e., c axis), and thus smaller AR, as T increased, whereas this trend did not occur for plate crystals. The average number of branches in bullet rosettes was 5.50 ± 1.35 during three campaigns and 6.32 ± 1.34 (5.46 ± 1.34; 4.95 ± 1.01) during TWP-ICE (SPARTICUS; ISDAC). The AR of bullets increased with the number of branches in bullet rosettes. Most dimensions of crystals and ARs of columnar crystals measured during SPARTICUS were larger than those measured during TWP-ICE and ISDAC at −67 < T < -35 °C and at −40 < T < −15 °C, respectively. The relative occurrence of varying pristine habits depended strongly on cirrus type (i.e., anvil or non-anvil clouds), with plates especially occurring more frequently in anvils. The L–W relationships of columns derived using current data exhibited a strong dependence on temperature; similar relationships determined in previous studies were within the range of the current data.« less

  17. Dimensions and aspect ratios of natural ice crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Um, J.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Hong, Y. P.; Lee, S. -S.; Jung, C. H.; Lawson, R. P.; Mo, Q.

    2014-12-10

    During the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the Tropics, the 2008 Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in the Arctic, and the 2010 Small PARTicles In CirrUS (SPARTICUS) campaign in mid-latitudes, high-resolution images of ice crystals were recorded by a Cloud Particle Imager at temperatures (T) between -87 and 0 °C. The projected maximum dimension (D'), length (L'), and width (W') of pristine columns, plates, and component bullets of bullet rosettes were measured using newly developed software, the Ice Crystal Ruler. The number of bullets in each bullet rosette was also measured. Column crystals were furthermore » distinguished as either horizontally oriented columns or columns with other orientations to eliminate any orientation effect on the measured dimensions. Dimensions and aspect ratios (AR, dimension of major axis divided by dimension of minor axis) of crystals were determined as functions of temperature, geophysical location, and type of cirrus. Dimensions of crystals generally increased as temperature increased. Columns and bullets had larger dimensions (i.e., W') of the minor axis (i.e., a axis) for a given dimension (i.e., D' or L') of the major axis (i.e., c axis), and thus smaller AR, as T increased, whereas this trend did not occur for plate crystals. The average number of branches in bullet rosettes was 5.50±1.35 during three campaigns and 6.32±1.34 (5.46±1.34; 4.95±1.01) during TWP-ICE (SPARTICUS; ISDAC). The AR of bullets increased with the number of branches in bullet rosettes. Most dimensions of crystals and ARs of columnar crystals measured during SPARTICUS were larger than those measured during TWP-ICE and ISDAC at −67 < T < −35 °C and at −40 < T < −15 °C, respectively. The relative occurrence of varying pristine habits depended strongly on cirrus type (i.e., anvil or non-anvil clouds), with plates especially occurring more frequently in anvils. The L–W relationships of columns derived using current data exhibited a strong dependence on temperature; similar relationship determined in previous studies were within the range of the current data.« less

  18. 2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-10

    An energy flow chart or 'atlas' for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

  19. Measurement of the branching ratio ?(?b0??(2S)?0)/?(?b0?J...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement of the branching ratio (b0(2S)0)(b0J0) with the ATLAS detector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of the branching ratio...

  20. High Poisson;s ratio of Earth;s inner core explained by carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Poisson;s ratio of Earth;s inner core explained by carbon alloying Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Poisson;s ratio of Earth;s inner core explained by carbon ...

  1. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  2. Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary Notes from 28 May 2008 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Estimating Waste Inventory and Waste Tank Characterization

  3. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  4. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  5. Robust bearing estimation for 3-component stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CLAASSEN,JOHN P.

    2000-02-01

    A robust bearing estimation process for 3-component stations has been developed and explored. The method, called SEEC for Search, Estimate, Evaluate and Correct, intelligently exploits the inherent information in the arrival at every step of the process to achieve near-optimal results. In particular the approach uses a consistent framework to define the optimal time-frequency windows on which to make estimates, to make the bearing estimates themselves, to construct metrics helpful in choosing the better estimates or admitting that the bearing is immeasurable, and finally to apply bias corrections when calibration information is available to yield a single final estimate. The algorithm was applied to a small but challenging set of events in a seismically active region. It demonstrated remarkable utility by providing better estimates and insights than previously available. Various monitoring implications are noted from these findings.

  6. The impact of equivalence ratio oscillations on combustion dynamics in a backward-facing step combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat Altay, H.; Speth, Raymond L.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2009-11-15

    The combustion dynamics of propane-air flames are investigated in an atmospheric pressure, atmospheric inlet temperature, lean, premixed backward-facing step combustor. We modify the location of the fuel injector to examine the impact of equivalence ratio oscillations arriving at the flame on the combustion dynamics. Simultaneous pressure, velocity, heat-release rate and equivalence ratio measurements and high-speed video from the experiments are used to identify and characterize several distinct operating modes. When the fuel is injected far upstream from the step, the equivalence ratio arriving at the flame is steady and the combustion dynamics are controlled only by flame-vortex interactions. In this case, different dynamic regimes are observed depending on the operating parameters. When the fuel is injected close to the step, the equivalence ratio arriving at the flame exhibits oscillations. In the presence of equivalence ratio oscillations, the measured sound pressure level is significant across the entire range of lean mean equivalence ratios even if the equivalence ratio oscillations arriving at the flame are out-of-phase with the pressure oscillations. The combustion dynamics are governed primarily by the flame-vortex interactions, while the equivalence ratio oscillations have secondary effects. The equivalence ratio oscillations could generate variations in the combustion dynamics in each cycle under some operating conditions, destabilize the flame at the entire range of the lean equivalence ratios, and increase the value of the mean equivalence ratio at the lean blowout limit. (author)

  7. Time and Resource Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-08

    RESTORE is a computer software tool that allows one to model a complex set of steps required to accomplish a goal (e.g., repair a ruptured natural gas pipeline and restore service to customers). However, the time necessary to complete step may be uncertain and may be affected by conditions, such as the weather, the time of day, the day of the week. Therefore, "nature" can influence which steps are taken and the time needed tomore » complete each step. In addition, the tool allows one to model the costs for each step, which also may be uncertain. RESTORE allows the user to estimate the time and cost, both of which may be uncertain, to achieve an intermediate stage of completion, as well as overall completion. The software also makes it possible to model parallel, competing groups of activities (i.e., parallel paths) so that progreSs at a ‘merge point’ can proceed before other competing activities are completed. For example, RESTORE permits one to model a workaround and a simultaneous complete repair to determine a probability distribution for the earliest time service can be restored to a critical customer. The tool identifies the ‘most active path’ through the network of tasks, which is extremely important information for assessing the most effective way to speed-up or slow-down progress. Unlike other project planning and risk analysis tools, RESTORE provides an intuitive, graphical, and object-oriented environment for structuring a model and setting its parameters.« less

  8. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  9. Early Internal and External Dose Magnitude Estimation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Internal and External Dose Estimation (initial version: 08/2008, current version: 10/2015) Early Internal and External Dose Magnitude Estimation The Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site REAC/TS PO Box 117, MS-39 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (865)576-3131 http://orise.orau.gov/reacts prepared by: Stephen L. (Steve) Sugarman, MS, CHP, CHCM Health Physics Project Manager Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory Coordinator Early Internal and External Dose Estimation (initial version: 08/2008,

  10. State energy data report 1994: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This document provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), operated by EIA. SEDS provides State energy consumption estimates to members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and provides the historical series needed for EIA`s energy models. Division is made for each energy type and end use sector. Nuclear electric power is included.

  11. Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates 1 Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates Executive summary The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) relies on data from state and other federal agencies and does not currently collect survey data directly from crude oil producers. Summarizing the estimation process in terms of percent of U.S. production: * 20% is based on state agency data, including North Dakota and Alaska.

  12. A New Maximum-Likelihood Change Estimator for Two-Pass SAR Coherent Change Detection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.; Jakowatz, Charles V,

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we derive a new optimal change metric to be used in synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD). Previous CCD methods tend to produce false alarm states (showing change when there is none) in areas of the image that have a low clutter-to-noise power ratio (CNR). The new estimator does not suffer from this shortcoming. It is a surprisingly simple expression, easy to implement, and is optimal in the maximum-likelihood (ML) sense. The estimator produces very impressive results on the CCD collects that we have tested.

  13. Advanced digital PWR plant protection system based on optimal estimation theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    An advanced plant protection system for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant is described and evaluated. The system, based on a Kalman filter estimator, is capable of providing on-line estimates of such critical variables as fuel and cladding temperature, departure from nucleate boiling ratio, and maximum linear heat generation rate. The Kalman filter equations are presented, as is a description of the LOFT plant dynamic model inherent in the filter. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the advanced system.

  14. An Estimator of Propagation of Cascading Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian; Wierzbicki, Kevin; Carreras, Benjamin A; Lynch, Vickie E; Newman, David E

    2006-01-01

    The authors suggest a statistical estimator to measure the extent to which failures propagate in cascading failures such as large blackouts.

  15. Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is adjusting its estimates of natural gas production in Texas for 2004 and 2005 to correctly account for carbon dioxide (CO2) production.

  16. How EIA Estimates Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes estimates monthly and annually of the production of natural gas in the United States. The estimates are based on data EIA collects from gas producing states and data collected by the U. S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) in the Department of Interior. The states and MMS collect this information from producers of natural gas for various reasons, most often for revenue purposes. Because the information is not sufficiently complete or timely for inclusion in EIA's Natural Gas Monthly (NGM), EIA has developed estimation methodologies to generate monthly production estimates that are described in this document.

  17. Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator This calculator is a tool designed for electric reliability planners at utilities, government organizations or other entities that are...

  18. ORISE: Radiation Dose Estimates and Other Compendia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Medicine" (M. Stabin, in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine, S. Treves, ed., Springer-Verlag, 1995). The compendium of dose estimates for pregnant women was published...

  19. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use Prepared for U.S. Department of ... PNNL would like to thank the Federal Water Working Group of the Interagency Energy ...

  20. Free boundary, high beta equilibrium in a large aspect ratio tokamak with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nearly circular plasma boundary (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Free boundary, high beta equilibrium in a large aspect ratio tokamak with nearly circular plasma boundary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Free boundary, high beta equilibrium in a large aspect ratio tokamak with nearly circular plasma boundary An analytic solution is obtained for free-boundary, high-beta equilibria in large aspect ratio tokamaks with a nearly circular plasma boundary. In the absence of surface

  1. Fact #780: May 20, 2013 Crude Oil Reserve to Production Ratio | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 0: May 20, 2013 Crude Oil Reserve to Production Ratio Fact #780: May 20, 2013 Crude Oil Reserve to Production Ratio The ratio of reserves to production gives a relative measure of the resources available in different oil producing countries. Assuming 2011 crude oil production rates and holding reserves constant, the reserves in Venezuela would last another 258 years, while Canada's reserves would last 165 years and the United States reserves would last 11 years. Saudi Arabia, which

  2. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gasoline Powertrains | Department of Energy Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains Presents two-stage variable compression ratio mechanism realized by varying the connecting rod length, description of the system layout, working principle and expected fuel savings benefits when used in current and future gasoline engine concepts PDF icon

  3. Altering the volumetric expansion ratio of a Lysholm helical screw expander

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunbar, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    This is an analysis of the effects of the volumetric expansion ratio on the operation of a Lysholm helical screw expander. Extensive testing of the University of California Lysholm engine with a 5.3 volumetric expansion ratio was performed. In this experiment, the expansion ratio has been reduced from 5.3 to 4.0. Tests were performed at a variety of speeds and qualities for a 5.0 pressure ratio and at a variety of speeds and pressure ratios for 99 percent quality. It was predicted that decreasing the volumetric expansion ratio would decrease the leakage fraction and thereby increase efficiency. This occurred as predicted. Isentropic efficiency increased 20 percent for 50 percent quality steam and 16 percent for 33 percent quality steam, all for an inlet pressure of 120 psia and a speed of 9000 rpm. A maximum efficiency of 47.2 percent was reached at 33 percent quality, 9000 rpm and a pressure ratio of 5.0. It was noted that the leakage rate did not appear to be a function of expansion ratio, as had been expected. Using this fact the previous empirical models of the engine were extended to include volumetric expansion ratio as a variable parameter.

  4. Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    performance of a high compression ratio (32:1 to 74:1) high efficiency (50 to 60% BTE) ICRE operating on natural gas and gasoline

  5. Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Explores the effect of compression ratio and piston design on the practical load range of bio-fueled Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion.

  6. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-09-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  7. Sensitivity of transitions in internal rotor molecules to a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, Paul; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Xu, Li-Hong

    2011-12-15

    Recently, methanol was identified as a sensitive target system to probe variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio {mu}[Jansen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 100801 (2011)]. The high sensitivity of methanol originates from the interplay between overall rotation and hindered internal rotation of the molecule; that is, transitions that convert internal rotation energy into overall rotation energy, or vice versa, have an enhanced sensitivity coefficient, K{sub {mu}}. As internal rotation is a common phenomenon in polyatomic molecules, it is likely that other molecules display similar or even larger effects. In this paper we generalize the concepts that form the foundation of the high sensitivity in methanol and use this to construct an approximate model which makes it possible to estimate the sensitivities of transitions in internal rotor molecules with C{sub 3v} symmetry, without performing a full calculation of energy levels. We find that a reliable estimate of transition sensitivities can be obtained from the three rotational constants (A, B, and C) and three torsional constants (F, V{sub 3}, and {rho}). This model is verified by comparing obtained sensitivities for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetamide, methyl formate, and acetic acid with a full analysis of the molecular Hamiltonian. Of the molecules considered, methanol is by far the most suitable candidate for laboratory and cosmological tests searching for a possible variation of {mu}.

  8. Power, Optimization, Waste Estimating, Resourcing Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-13

    Planning, Optimization, Waste Estimating, Resourcing tool (POWERtool) is a comprehensive relational database software tool that can be used to develop and organize a detailed project scope, plan work tasks, develop bottoms-up field cost and waste estimates for facility Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D), equipment, and environmental restoration (ER) projects and produces resource-loaded schedules.

  9. Systematic Approach for Decommissioning Planning and Estimating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dam, A. S.

    2002-02-26

    Nuclear facility decommissioning, satisfactorily completed at the lowest cost, relies on a systematic approach to the planning, estimating, and documenting the work. High quality information is needed to properly perform the planning and estimating. A systematic approach to collecting and maintaining the needed information is recommended using a knowledgebase system for information management. A systematic approach is also recommended to develop the decommissioning plan, cost estimate and schedule. A probabilistic project cost and schedule risk analysis is included as part of the planning process. The entire effort is performed by a experienced team of decommissioning planners, cost estimators, schedulers, and facility knowledgeable owner representatives. The plant data, work plans, cost and schedule are entered into a knowledgebase. This systematic approach has been used successfully for decommissioning planning and cost estimating for a commercial nuclear power plant. Elements of this approach have been used for numerous cost estimates and estimate reviews. The plan and estimate in the knowledgebase should be a living document, updated periodically, to support decommissioning fund provisioning, with the plan ready for use when the need arises.

  10. Property:Estimated End Date | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimated End Date Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Estimated End Date Property Type String Pages using the property "Estimated End Date" Showing 4 pages using this...

  11. Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Guidance on Utility Rate Estimations and Weather Normalization in an ESPC Document explains how to use estimated...

  12. Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M.

    1997-08-01

    In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

  13. Ratios of W and Z cross sections at large boson $p_T$ as a constraint on PDFs and background to new physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, Sarah Alam; Watt, Graeme

    2014-02-05

    We motivate a measurement of various ratios of W and Z cross sections at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at large values of the boson transverse momentum (p T ? M W,Z ). We study the dependence of predictions for these cross-section ratios on the multiplicity of associated jets, the boson p T and the LHC centre-of-mass energy. We present the flavour decomposition of the initial-state partons and an evaluation of the theoretical uncertainties. We also show that the W + /W - ratio is sensitive to the up-quark to down-quark ratio of parton distribution functions (PDFs), while other theoretical uncertainties are negligible, meaning that a precise measurement of the W + /W - ratio at large boson p T values could constrain the PDFs at larger momentum fractions x than the usual inclusive W charge asymmetry. The W /Z ratio is insensitive to PDFs and most other theoretical uncertainties, other than possibly electroweak corrections, and a precise measurement will therefore be useful in validating theoretical predictions needed in data-driven methods, such as using W (? ??) + jets events to estimate the Z(? ??) + jets background in searches for new physics at the LHC. Furthermore, the differential W and Z cross sections themselves, d?/dp T , have the potential to constrain the gluon distribution, provided that theoretical uncertainties from higher-order QCD and electroweak corrections are brought under control, such as by inclusion of anticipated next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections.

  14. Ratios of W and Z cross sections at large boson $p_T$ as a constraint on PDFs and background to new physics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malik, Sarah Alam; Watt, Graeme

    2014-02-05

    We motivate a measurement of various ratios of W and Z cross sections at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at large values of the boson transverse momentum (p T ≳ M W,Z ). We study the dependence of predictions for these cross-section ratios on the multiplicity of associated jets, the boson p T and the LHC centre-of-mass energy. We present the flavour decomposition of the initial-state partons and an evaluation of the theoretical uncertainties. We also show that the W + /W - ratio is sensitive to the up-quark to down-quark ratio of parton distribution functions (PDFs), while other theoreticalmore » uncertainties are negligible, meaning that a precise measurement of the W + /W - ratio at large boson p T values could constrain the PDFs at larger momentum fractions x than the usual inclusive W charge asymmetry. The W ± /Z ratio is insensitive to PDFs and most other theoretical uncertainties, other than possibly electroweak corrections, and a precise measurement will therefore be useful in validating theoretical predictions needed in data-driven methods, such as using W (→ ℓν) + jets events to estimate the Z(→ νν¯) + jets background in searches for new physics at the LHC. Furthermore, the differential W and Z cross sections themselves, dσ/dp T , have the potential to constrain the gluon distribution, provided that theoretical uncertainties from higher-order QCD and electroweak corrections are brought under control, such as by inclusion of anticipated next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections.« less

  15. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harney, Robert C.; Bloom, Stewart D.

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances.

  16. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  17. AGR-2 AND AGR-3/4 RELEASE-TO-BIRTH RATIO DATA ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, Binh T; Einerson, Jeffrey J; Scates, Dawn M; Maki, John T; Petti, David A

    2014-09-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation tests is being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory in support of development and qualification of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) low enriched fuel used in the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Each AGR test consists of multiple independently controlled and monitored capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel shell. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples embedded in the graphite enabling temperature control. AGR configuration and irradiation conditions are based on prismatic HTGR technology distinguished primarily by the use of helium coolant, a low-power-density ceramic core capable of withstanding very high temperatures, and TRISO coated particle fuel. Thus, these tests provide valuable irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes. The release-rate-to-birth-rate ratio (R/B) for each of fission product isotopes (i.e., krypton and xenon) is calculated from release rates in the sweep gas flow measured by the germanium detectors used in the AGR Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) System installed downstream from each irradiated capsule. Birth rates are calculated based on the fission power in the experiment and fission product generation models. Thus, this R/B is a measure of the ability of fuel kernel, particle coating layers, and compact matrix to retain fission gas atoms preventing their release into the sweep gas flow, especially in the event of particle coating failures that occurred during AGR-2 and AGR-3/4 irradiations. The major factors that govern gaseous radioactive decay, diffusion, and release processes are found to be material diffusion coefficient, temperature, and isotopic decay constant. For each of all AGR capsules, ABAQUS-based three-dimensional finite-element thermal models are created to predict daily averages of fuel compact temperatures for the entire irradiation period, which are used in establishing the R/B correlation with temperature and decay constant. This correlation can be used by reactor designers to estimate fission gas release from postulated failed fuel particles in HTGR cores, which is the key safety factor for fuel performance assessment.

  18. State Energy Data Report, 1991: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to the Government, policy makers, and the public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  19. Parallel State Estimation Assessment with Practical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yousu; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-10-31

    This paper presents a full-cycle parallel state estimation (PSE) implementation using a preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. The developed code is able to solve large-size power system state estimation within 5 seconds using real-world data, comparable to the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) rate. This achievement allows the operators to know the system status much faster to help improve grid reliability. Case study results of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system with real measurements are presented. The benefits of fast state estimation are also discussed.

  20. State energy data report 1995 - consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public, and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  1. State energy data report 1993: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sector. The estimates are developed in the State Energy Data System (SEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining SEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. SEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public; and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models.

  2. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Janus, Michael C. (Baltimore, MD); Griffith, Richard A. (Morgantown, WV)

    2000-01-01

    The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

  3. Preliminary CBECS End-Use Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    For the past three CBECS (1989, 1992, and 1995), we used a statistically-adjusted engineering (SAE) methodology to estimate end-use consumption. The core of the SAE methodology...

  4. Estimating Temperature Distributions In Geothermal Areas Using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "education level" (which depends on the amount and structure of information used for teaching) and (b) the distance of the point at which the estimate is made from the area for...

  5. gtp_flow_power_estimator.xlsx

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This simple spreadsheet model estimates either the flow rate required to produce a specified level of power output, or the power output that can be produced from a specified flow rate.

  6. U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Methodology The U.S. uranium ore reserves reported by EIA for specific MFC categories represent the sums of quantities estimated to occur in known deposits on properties where data...

  7. Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator Worksheet, Version 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Xcel document describes Version 1 of the the Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator tool. This tool assists federal agencies in estimating the greenhouse gas mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings, for example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office buildings, users can define their own efficiency measures, costs, and savings estimates for inclusion in the portfolio assessment. More information on user-defined measures can be found in Step 2 of the buildings emission reduction guidance. The output of this tool is a prioritized set of activities that can help the agency to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets most cost-effectively.

  8. Sub-Second Parallel State Estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yousu; Rice, Mark J.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Wang, Shaobu; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-10-31

    This report describes the performance of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) sub-second parallel state estimation (PSE) tool using the utility data from the Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) and discusses the benefits of the fast computational speed for power system applications. The test data were provided by BPA. They are two-days worth of hourly snapshots that include power system data and measurement sets in a commercial tool format. These data are extracted out from the commercial tool box and fed into the PSE tool. With the help of advanced solvers, the PSE tool is able to solve each BPA hourly state estimation problem within one second, which is more than 10 times faster than todays commercial tool. This improved computational performance can help increase the reliability value of state estimation in many aspects: (1) the shorter the time required for execution of state estimation, the more time remains for operators to take appropriate actions, and/or to apply automatic or manual corrective control actions. This increases the chances of arresting or mitigating the impact of cascading failures; (2) the SE can be executed multiple times within time allowance. Therefore, the robustness of SE can be enhanced by repeating the execution of the SE with adaptive adjustments, including removing bad data and/or adjusting different initial conditions to compute a better estimate within the same time as a traditional state estimators single estimate. There are other benefits with the sub-second SE, such as that the PSE results can potentially be used in local and/or wide-area automatic corrective control actions that are currently dependent on raw measurements to minimize the impact of bad measurements, and provides opportunities to enhance the power grid reliability and efficiency. PSE also can enable other advanced tools that rely on SE outputs and could be used to further improve operators actions and automated controls to mitigate effects of severe events on the grid. The power grid continues to grow and the number of measurements is increasing at an accelerated rate due to the variety of smart grid devices being introduced. A parallel state estimation implementation will have better performance than traditional, sequential state estimation by utilizing the power of high performance computing (HPC). This increased performance positions parallel state estimators as valuable tools for operating the increasingly more complex power grid.

  9. Chapter 3: FY 2006 benefits estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) estimates expected benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its 11 programs. Benefits for the FY 2006 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2010-2025) and long term (2030-2050). Two separate models suited to these periods are employedNEMS-GPRA06 for the midterm and MARKAL-GPRA06 for the long term.

  10. Chapter 3: FY 2005 benefits estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) estimates expected benefits for its overall portfolio and for each of its 11 programs. Benefits for the FY 2005 budget request are estimated for the midterm (2010-2025) and long term (2030-2050). Two separate models suited to these periods are employedNEMS-GPRA05 for the midterm and MARKAL-GPRA05 for the long term.

  11. ARM - Lesson Plans: Estimating Local Sea Level

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimating Local Sea Level Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Estimating Local Sea Level Objective The objective is to train students' skills in observing the local environment based upon the sea level variations. Materials Each student or group of students will

  12. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  13. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2010-12-15

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  14. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  15. Estimated recharge rates at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, M.J.; Walters, T.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitors the distribution of contaminants in ground water at the Hanford Site for the U.S. Department of Energy. A subtask called {open_quotes}Water Budget at Hanford{close_quotes} was initiated in FY 1994. The objective of this subtask was to produce a defensible map of estimated recharge rates across the Hanford Site. Methods that have been used to estimate recharge rates at the Hanford Site include measurements (of drainage, water contents, and tracers) and computer modeling. For the simulations of 12 soil-vegetation combinations, the annual rates varied from 0.05 mm/yr for the Ephrata sandy loam with bunchgrass to 85.2 mm/yr for the same soil without vegetation. Water content data from the Grass Site in the 300 Area indicated that annual rates varied from 3.0 to 143.5 mm/yr during an 8-year period. The annual volume of estimated recharge was calculated to be 8.47 {times} 10{sup 9} L for the potential future Hanford Site (i.e., the portion of the current Site bounded by Highway 240 and the Columbia River). This total volume is similar to earlier estimates of natural recharge and is 2 to 10x higher than estimates of runoff and ground-water flow from higher elevations. Not only is the volume of natural recharge significant in comparison to other ground-water inputs, the distribution of estimated recharge is highly skewed to the disturbed sandy soils (i.e., the 200 Areas, where most contaminants originate). The lack of good estimates of the means and variances of the supporting data (i.e., the soil map, the vegetation/land use map, the model parameters) translates into large uncertainties in the recharge estimates. When combined, the significant quantity of estimated recharge, its high sensitivity to disturbance, and the unquantified uncertainty of the data and model parameters suggest that the defensibility of the recharge estimates should be improved.

  16. Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David; Carrete, Jesus; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The lattice thermal conductivities ( ) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure, P, using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of . This anomalous P dependence of arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small mass ratios. This work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.

  17. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, A.; Luo, J.; Wang, A.; Broadbent, C.; Zhong, J.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z.

    2015-03-14

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. In addition, an efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent inmore » the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.« less

  18. Anomalous pressure dependence of thermal conductivities of large mass ratio compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lindsay, Lucas R; Broido, David; Carrete, Jesus; Mingo, Natalio; Reinecke, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The lattice thermal conductivities ( ) of binary compound materials are examined as a function of hydrostatic pressure, P, using a first-principles approach. Compound materials with relatively small mass ratios, such as MgO, show an increase in with P, consistent with measurements. Conversely, compounds with large mass ratios (e.g., BSb, BAs, BeTe, BeSe) exhibit decreasing with increasing P, a behavior that cannot be understood using simple theories of . This anomalous P dependence of arises from the fundamentally different nature of the intrinsic scattering processes for heat-carrying acoustic phonons in large mass ratio compounds compared to those with small massmore » ratios. This work demonstrates the power of first principles methods for thermal properties and advances the understanding of thermal transport in non-metals.« less

  19. HCCI in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine Variables |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine Variables HCCI in a Variable Compression Ratio Engine: Effects of Engine Variables 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Southwest Research Institute PDF icon 2004_deer_ryan.pdf More Documents & Publications HCCI - A Technical Review and Progress Report 2006 HCCI - Update of Progress 2005 Fuel Requirements for HCCI Engine Operation

  20. Evaluation of Black Carbon Estimations in Global Aerosol Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D.; Schulz, M.; Kinne, Stefan; McNaughton, C. S.; Spackman, J. R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, T.; Bond, Tami C.; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, M.; Clarke, A. D.; De Luca, N.; Dentener, F.; Diehl, T.; Dubovik, O.; Easter, Richard C.; Fahey, D. W.; Feichter, J.; Fillmore, D.; Freitag, S.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ginoux, P.; Gong, S.; Horowitz, L.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Klimont, Z.; Kondo, Yutaka; Krol, M.; Liu, Xiaohong; Miller, R.; Montanaro, V.; Moteki, N.; Myhre, G.; Penner, J.; Perlwitz, Ja; Pitari, G.; Reddy, S.; Sahu, L.; Sakamoto, H.; Schuster, G.; Schwarz, J. P.; Seland, O.; Stier, P.; Takegawa, Nobuyuki; Takemura, T.; Textor, C.; van Aardenne, John; Zhao, Y.

    2009-11-27

    We evaluate black carbon (BC) model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) from AERONET and OMI retrievals and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column) AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.6 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 10 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC is 0.6 and underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model generated a smaller change in model predictions than the range represented by the full set of AeroCom models. Upper tropospheric concentrations of BC mass from the aircraft measurements are suggested to provide a unique new benchmark to test scavenging and vertical dispersion of BC in global models.

  1. Building unbiased estimators from non-Gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Sehgal, Neelima; McDonald, Patrick; Slosar, Ane E-mail: pvmcdonald@lbl.gov E-mail: anze@bnl.gov

    2015-01-01

    We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the work of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrong's estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors ?g/g for shears up to |g|=0.2.

  2. Building unbiased estimators from non-gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Slosar, Anze; McDonald, Patrick; Sehgal, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the work of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrongs estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors ?g/g for shears up to |g| = 0.2.

  3. Building unbiased estimators from non-gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; McDonald, Patrick; Sehgal, Neelima; Slosar, Anze

    2015-01-15

    We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the work of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrongs estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors ?g/g for shears up to |g| = 0.2.

  4. Building unbiased estimators from non-gaussian likelihoods with application to shear estimation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; McDonald, Patrick; Sehgal, Neelima; Slosar, Anze

    2015-01-15

    We develop a general framework for generating estimators of a given quantity which are unbiased to a given order in the difference between the true value of the underlying quantity and the fiducial position in theory space around which we expand the likelihood. We apply this formalism to rederive the optimal quadratic estimator and show how the replacement of the second derivative matrix with the Fisher matrix is a generic way of creating an unbiased estimator (assuming choice of the fiducial model is independent of data). Next we apply the approach to estimation of shear lensing, closely following the workmore » of Bernstein and Armstrong (2014). Our first order estimator reduces to their estimator in the limit of zero shear, but it also naturally allows for the case of non-constant shear and the easy calculation of correlation functions or power spectra using standard methods. Both our first-order estimator and Bernstein and Armstrong’s estimator exhibit a bias which is quadratic in true shear. Our third-order estimator is, at least in the realm of the toy problem of Bernstein and Armstrong, unbiased to 0.1% in relative shear errors Δg/g for shears up to |g| = 0.2.« less

  5. State energy data report 1996: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-02-01

    The State Energy Data Report (SEDR) provides annual time series estimates of State-level energy consumption by major economic sectors. The estimates are developed in the Combined State Energy Data System (CSEDS), which is maintained and operated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The goal in maintaining CSEDS is to create historical time series of energy consumption by State that are defined as consistently as possible over time and across sectors. CSEDS exists for two principal reasons: (1) to provide State energy consumption estimates to Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, and the general public and (2) to provide the historical series necessary for EIA`s energy models. To the degree possible, energy consumption has been assigned to five sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electric utility sectors. Fuels covered are coal, natural gas, petroleum, nuclear electric power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and other, defined as electric power generated from geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy. 322 tabs.

  6. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  7. Estimating vehicle height using homographic projections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Mark F; Fabris, Lorenzo; Gee, Timothy F; Ghebretati, Jr., Frezghi H; Goddard, James S; Karnowski, Thomas P; Ziock, Klaus-peter

    2013-07-16

    Multiple homography transformations corresponding to different heights are generated in the field of view. A group of salient points within a common estimated height range is identified in a time series of video images of a moving object. Inter-salient point distances are measured for the group of salient points under the multiple homography transformations corresponding to the different heights. Variations in the inter-salient point distances under the multiple homography transformations are compared. The height of the group of salient points is estimated to be the height corresponding to the homography transformation that minimizes the variations.

  8. First Measurement of the Ratio sigma_(t-tbar) / sigma_(Z/\\gamma*->ll) and Precise Extraction of the t-tbar Cross Section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2010-04-01

    We report a measurement of the ratio of the t{bar t} to Z/{gamma}* production cross sections in {radical}s = 1.96 TeV p{bar p} collisions using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 4.6 fb{sup -1}, collected by the CDF II detector. The t{bar t} cross section ratio is measured using two complementary methods, a b-jet tagging measurement and a topological approach. By multiplying the ratios by the well-known theoretical Z/{gamma}* {yields} ll cross section predicted by the standard model, the extracted t{bar t} cross sections are effectively insensitive to the uncertainty on luminosity. A best linear unbiased estimate is used to combine both measurements with the result {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} = 7.70 {+-} 0.52 pb, for a top-quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  9. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio at TeV energies with MINOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D.J.; Avvakumov, S.; Ayres, D.S.; Baller, B.; Barish, B.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; Barr, G.; /Fermilab /University Coll. London /Rutherford /Minnesota U. /Indiana U. /Sussex U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Argonne /Caltech /LLNL, Livermore /Oxford U.

    2007-05-01

    The 5.4 kton MINOS far detector has been taking charge-separated cosmic ray muon data since the beginning of August, 2003 at a depth of 2070 m.w.e. in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, Minnesota, USA. The data with both forward and reversed magnetic field running configurations were combined to minimize systematic errors in the determination of the underground muon charge ratio. When averaged, two independent analyses find the charge ratio underground to be N{sub {mu}}+/N{sub {mu}}-=1.374{+-}0.004(stat)-0.010{sup +0.012}(sys). Using the map of the Soudan rock overburden, the muon momenta as measured underground were projected to the corresponding values at the surface in the energy range 1-7 TeV. Within this range of energies at the surface, the MINOS data are consistent with the charge ratio being energy independent at the 2 standard deviation level. When the MINOS results are compared with measurements at lower energies, a clear rise in the charge ratio in the energy range 0.3-1.0 TeV is apparent. A qualitative model shows that the rise is consistent with an increasing contribution of kaon decays to the muon charge ratio.

  10. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2010-07-28

    The document lays-out step by step instructions to estimate landscaping water using two alternative approaches: evapotranspiration method and irrigation audit method. The evapotranspiration method option calculates the amount of water needed to maintain a healthy turf or landscaped area for a given location based on the amount of water transpired and evaporated from the plants. The evapotranspiration method offers a relatively easy one-stop-shop for Federal agencies to develop an initial estimate of annual landscape water use. The document presents annual irrigation factors for 36 cities across the U.S. that represents the gallons of irrigation required per square foot for distinct landscape types. By following the steps outlined in the document, the reader can choose a location that is a close match their location and landscape type to provide a rough estimate of annual irrigation needs without the need to research specific data on their site. The second option presented in the document is the irrigation audit method, which is the physical measurement of water applied to landscaped areas through irrigation equipment. Steps to perform an irrigation audit are outlined in the document, which follow the Recommended Audit Guidelines produced by the Irrigation Association.[5] An irrigation audit requires some knowledge on the specific procedures to accurately estimate how much water is being consumed by the irrigation equipment.

  11. Estimating the uncertainty in underresolved nonlinear dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chorin, Alelxandre; Hald, Ole

    2013-06-12

    The Mori-Zwanzig formalism of statistical mechanics is used to estimate the uncertainty caused by underresolution in the solution of a nonlinear dynamical system. A general approach is outlined and applied to a simple example. The noise term that describes the uncertainty turns out to be neither Markovian nor Gaussian. It is argued that this is the general situation.

  12. Measurement of the charge ratio of atmospheric muons with the CMS detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2010-08-01

    We present a measurement of the ratio of positive to negative muon fluxes from cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere, using data collected by the CMS detector both at ground level and in the underground experimental cavern at the CERN LHC. Muons were detected in the momentum range from 5 GeV/c to 1 TeV/c. The surface flux ratio is measured to be 1.2766 \\pm 0.0032(stat.) \\pm 0.0032 (syst.), independent of the muon momentum, below 100 GeV/c. This is the most precise measurement to date. At higher momenta the data are consistent with an increase of the charge ratio, in agreement with cosmic ray shower models and compatible with previous measurements by deep-underground experiments.

  13. Log-ratio signal-processing technique for beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Two basic signal-processing techniques are presently in wide use for the processing of signals from beam position monitors (BPMs); difference-over-sum, and amplitude-modulation-to-phase-modulation (AM-PM) conversion. Difference-over-sum offers simplicity and low cost, but poor real-time normalized response and amplitude dynamic range. AM-PM offers fast real-time response and large dynamic range, but is costly and difficult to implement. Logarithmic-ratio processing, a technique using newly available inexpensive hybrid circuits, appears to offer the advantages of both, and the disadvantages of neither. This paper reviews the features techniques, and highlights the features of the log-ratio technique. Among the advantages of log-ratio is a beam-displacement response linearity that is superior to either difference-over-sum or AM-PM for circular-aperture BPMs.

  14. Log-ratio signal-processing technique for beam position monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    Two basic signal-processing techniques are presently in wide use for the processing of signals from beam position monitors (BPMs); difference-over-sum, and amplitude-modulation-to-phase-modulation (AM-PM) conversion. Difference-over-sum offers simplicity and low cost, but poor real-time normalized response and amplitude dynamic range. AM-PM offers fast real-time response and large dynamic range, but is costly and difficult to implement. Logarithmic-ratio processing, a technique using newly available inexpensive hybrid circuits, appears to offer the advantages of both, and the disadvantages of neither. This paper reviews the features techniques, and highlights the features of the log-ratio technique. Among the advantages of log-ratio is a beam-displacement response linearity that is superior to either difference-over-sum or AM-PM for circular-aperture BPMs.

  15. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  16. Performance Bounds on Micro-Doppler Estimation and Adaptive Waveform Design Using OFDM Signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, Satyabrata; Barhen, Jacob; Glover, Charles Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the performance of a wideband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in estimating the micro-Doppler frequency of a target having multiple rotating scatterers (e.g., rotor blades of a helicopter, propellers of a submarine). The presence of rotating scatterers introduces Doppler frequency modulation in the received signal by generating sidebands about the transmitted frequencies. This is called the micro-Doppler effects. The use of a frequency-diverse OFDM signal in this context enables us to independently analyze the micro-Doppler characteristics with respect to a set of orthogonal subcarrier frequencies. Therefore, to characterize the accuracy of micro-Doppler frequency estimation, we compute the Cram er-Rao Bound (CRB) on the angular-velocity estimate of the target while considering the scatterer responses as deterministic but unknown nuisance parameters. Additionally, to improve the accuracy of the estimation procedure, we formulate and solve an optimization problem by minimizing the CRB on the angular-velocity estimate with respect to the transmitting OFDM spectral coefficients. We present several numerical examples to demonstrate the CRB variations at different values of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of OFDM subcarriers. The CRB values not only decrease with the increase in the SNR values, but also reduce as we increase the number of subcarriers implying the significance of frequency-diverse OFDM waveforms. The improvement in estimation accuracy due to the adaptive waveform design is also numerically analyzed. Interestingly, we find that the relative decrease in the CRBs on the angular-velocity estimate is more pronounced for larger number of OFDM subcarriers.

  17. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore » Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less

  18. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 60 GgCH4 yr? (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (20092012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.52.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.

  19. Concentration Ratios for Cesium and Strontium in Produce Near Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Salazar, M.McNaughton, P.R. Fresquez

    2006-03-01

    The ratios of the concentrations of radionuclides in produce (fruits, vegetables, and grains) to the concentrations in the soil have been measured for cesium and strontium at locations near Los Alamos. The Soil, Foodstuffs, and Biota Team of the Meteorology and Air Quality Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) obtained the data at locations within a radius of 50 miles of LANL. The concentration ratios are in good agreement with previous measurements: 0.01 to 0.06 for cesium-137 and 0.1 to 0.5 for strontium-90 (wet-weight basis).

  20. Practical method and device for enhancing pulse contrast ratio for lasers and electron accelerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shukui; Wilson, Guy

    2014-09-23

    An apparatus and method for enhancing pulse contrast ratios for drive lasers and electron accelerators. The invention comprises a mechanical dual-shutter system wherein the shutters are placed sequentially in series in a laser beam path. Each shutter of the dual shutter system has an individually operated trigger for opening and closing the shutter. As the triggers are operated individually, the delay between opening and closing first shutter and opening and closing the second shutter is variable providing for variable differential time windows and enhancement of pulse contrast ratio.

  1. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006 Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 Food 879.8 5.0 2.2 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6,416.6 17.5 5.7 311221 Wet Corn Milling 21,552.1 43.6

  2. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Next MECS will be fielded in 2015 Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 Food 871.7 4.3 1.8 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6,239.5 10.5 3.6 311221 Wet Corn Milling 28,965.0 27.1

  3. High Poisson;s ratio of Earth;s inner core explained by carbon alloying

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High Poisson;s ratio of Earth;s inner core explained by carbon alloying Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Poisson;s ratio of Earth;s inner core explained by carbon alloying Authors: Prescher, C. ; Dubrovinsky, L. ; Bykova, E. ; Kupenko, I. ; Glazyrin, K. ; Kantor, A. ; McCammon, C. ; Mookherjee, M. ; Nakajima, Y. ; Miyajima, N. ; Sinmyo, R. ; Cerantola, V. ; Dubrovinskaia, N. ; Prakapenka, V. ; Rüffer, R. ; Chumakov, A. ; Hanfland , M. [1] ;

  4. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    N7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS"," ","per

  5. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS"," ","per

  6. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(million

  7. " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " "Next MECS will be fielded in 2015" "Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments"

  8. Determining the 239Np(n,f) cross section using the surrogate ratio method

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Determining the 239Np(n,f) cross section using the surrogate ratio method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Determining the 239Np(n,f) cross section using the surrogate ratio method Authors: Czeszumska, A. ; Angell, C. T. ; Burke, J. T. ; Scielzo, N. D. ; Norman, E. B. ; Austin, R. A. E. ; Boutoux, G. ; Casperson, R. J. ; Chodash, P. ; Hughes, R. O. ; Mattoon, C. M. ; Méot, V. ; Munson, J. ; Phair, L. ; Ressler, J. J. ; Roig, O.

  9. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.A.

    1984-07-10

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

  10. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Andrew A. (1034 Hillside Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  11. A Review of Cost Estimation in New Technologies - Implications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This report reviews literature on cost estimation in several areas involving major capital ... projects, and cost estimating techniques and problems for chemical process plants. ...

  12. An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with Coupled Engine and Aftertreatment System An Analytical Approach for Tail-Pipe Emissions Estimation with Coupled Engine ...

  13. Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests...

  14. Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive...

  15. DC Microgrids Scoping Study: Estimate of Technical and Economic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microgrids Scoping Study: Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits (March 2015) DC Microgrids Scoping Study: Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits (March 2015) Microgrid ...

  16. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating...

  17. Error estimates for fission neutron outputs (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Error estimates for fission neutron outputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Error estimates for fission neutron outputs You are accessing a document from the...

  18. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's...

  19. Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating Probability of High...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating Probability of High-Consequence Climate Change. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating ...

  20. Analysis Procedures to Estimate Seismic Demands of Structures...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Estimate Seismic Demands of Structures Presentation from the May 2015 Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting. PDF icon Analysis Procedures to Estimate Seismic Demands of...

  1. Property:Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Plants included in Capacity Estimate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Number of Plants included in Capacity Estimate Property Type Number Retrieved from "http:...

  2. Property:Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Number of Plants Included in Planned Estimate Property Type String Description Number of...

  3. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop -...

  4. Radiological Source Term Estimates for the February 14, 2014...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Radiological Source Term Estimates for the February 14, 2014 WIPP Release Event Radiological Source Term Estimates for the February 14, 2014 WIPP Release Event This document was...

  5. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating the Impact (Energy, ...

  6. A Review of Geothermal Resource Estimation Methodology | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Resource Estimation Methodology Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: A Review of Geothermal Resource Estimation...

  7. Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable Intake Valve Actuation Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable Intake Valve ...

  8. Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field Estimating Motor Efficiency in the Field Some utility companies and public agencies offer rebates to encourage customers to upgrade their ...

  9. ON THE CARBON-TO-OXYGEN RATIO MEASUREMENT IN NEARBY SUN-LIKE STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANET FORMATION AND THE DETERMINATION OF STELLAR ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2012-03-10

    Recent high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of nearby FGK stars suggests that a high C/O ratio of greater than 0.8, or even 1.0, is relatively common. Two published catalogs find C/O > 0.8 in 25%-30% of systems, and C/O > 1.0 in {approx}6%-10%. It has been suggested that in protoplanetary disks with C/O > 0.8 that the condensation pathways to refractory solids will differ from what occurred in our solar system, where C/O = 0.55. The carbon-rich disks are calculated to make carbon-dominated rocky planets, rather than oxygen-dominated ones. Here we suggest that the derived stellar C/O ratios are overestimated. One constraint on the frequency of high C/O is the relative paucity of carbon dwarf stars (10{sup -3}-10{sup -5}) found in large samples of low-mass stars. We suggest reasons for this overestimation, including a high C/O ratio for the solar atmosphere model used for differential abundance analysis, the treatment of a Ni blend that affects the O abundance, and limitations of one-dimensional LTE stellar atmosphere models. Furthermore, from the estimated errors on the measured stellar C/O ratios, we find that the significance of the high C/O tail is weakened, with a true measured fraction of C/O > 0.8 in 10%-15% of stars, and C/O > 1.0 in 1%-5%, although these are still likely overestimates. We suggest that infrared T-dwarf spectra could show how common high C/O is in the stellar neighborhood, as the chemistry and spectra of such objects would differ compared to those with solar-like abundances. While possible at C/O > 0.8, we expect that carbon-dominated rocky planets are rarer than others have suggested.

  10. Preliminary core design studies for the advanced burner reactor over a wide range of conversion ratios.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E. A.; Yang, W. S.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-05-05

    A consistent set of designs for 1000 MWt commercial-scale sodium-cooled Advance Burner Reactors (ABR) have been developed for both metal and oxide-fueled cores with conversion ratios from breakeven (CR=1.0) to fertile-free (CR=0.0). These designs are expected to satisfy thermal and irradiation damage limits based on the currently available data. The very low conversion ratio designs require fuel that is beyond the current fuel database, which is anticipated to be qualified by and for the Advanced Burned Test Reactor. Safety and kinetic parameters were calculated, but a safety analysis was not performed. Development of these designs was required to achieve the primary goal of this study, which was to generate representative fuel cycle mass flows for system studies of ABRs as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). There are slight variations with conversion ratio but the basic ABR configuration consists of 144 fuel assemblies and between 9 and 22 primary control assemblies for both the metal and oxide-fueled cores. Preliminary design studies indicated that it is feasible to design the ABR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio by employing different assembly designs and including sufficient control assemblies to accommodate the large reactivity swing at low conversion ratios. The assemblies are designed to fit within the same geometry, but the size and number of fuel pins within each assembly are significantly different in order to achieve the target conversion ratio while still satisfying thermal limits. Current irradiation experience would allow for a conversion ratio of somewhat below 0.75. The fuel qualification for the first ABR should expand this experience to allow for much lower conversion ratios and higher bunrups. The current designs were based on assumptions about the performance of high and very high enrichment fuel, which results in significant uncertainty about the details of the designs. However, the basic fuel cycle performance trends such as conversion ratio and mass flow parameters are less sensitive to these parameters and the current results should provide a good basis for static and dynamic system analysis. The conversion ratio is fundamentally a ratio of the macroscopic cross section of U-238 capture to that of TRU fission. Since the microscopic cross sections only change moderately with fuel design and isotopic concentration for the fast reactor, a specific conversion ratio requires a specific enrichment. The approximate average charge enrichment (TRU/HM) is 14%, 21%, 33%, 56%, and 100% for conversion ratios of 1.0, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0.0 for the metal-fueled cores. The approximate average charge enrichment is 17%, 25%, 38%, 60%, and 100% for conversion ratios of 1.0, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0.0 for the oxide-fueled core. For the split batch cores, the maximum enrichment will be somewhat higher. For both the metal and oxide-fueled cores, the reactivity feedback coefficients and kinetics parameters seem reasonable. The maximum single control assembly reactivity faults may be too large for the low conversion ratio designs. The average reactivity of the primary control assemblies was increased, which may cause the maximum reactivity of the central control assembly to be excessive. The values of the reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters show that some values appear to improve significantly at lower conversion ratios while others appear far less favorable. Detailed safety analysis is required to determine if these designs have adequate safety margins or if appropriate design modifications are required. Detailed system analysis data has been generated for both metal and oxide-fueled core designs over the entire range of potential burner reactors. Additional data has been calculated for a few alternative fuel cycles. The systems data has been summarized in this report and the detailed data will be provided to the systems analysis team so that static and dynamic system analyses can be performed.

  11. Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films with varying gallium ratios

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Claypoole, Jesse; Peace, Bernadette; Sun, Neville; Dwyer, Dan; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Haldar, Pradeep; Efstathiadis, Harry

    2015-09-05

    Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layers were deposited on molybdenum (Mo) coated soda-lime glass substrates with varying Ga content (described as Ga/(In+Ga) ratios) with respect to depth. As the responsible mechanisms for the limitation of the performance of the CIGS solar cells with high Ga contents are not well understood, the goal of this work was to investigate different properties of CIGS absorber films with Ga/(In+Ga) ratios varied between 0.29 and 0.41 (as determined by X-ray florescence spectroscopy (XRF)) in order to better understand the role that the Ga content has on film quality. The Ga grading in the CIGS layer hasmore » the effect causing a higher bandgap toward the surface and Mo contact while the band gap in the middle of the CIGS layer is lower. Also, a wider and larger Ga/(In+Ga) grading dip located deeper in the CIGS absorber layers tend to produce larger grains in the regions of the films that have lower Ga/(In+Ga) ratios. It was found that surface roughness decreases from 51.2 nm to 41.0 nm with increasing Ga/(In+Ga) ratios. However, the surface roughness generally decreases if the Ga grading occurs deeper in the absorber layer.« less

  12. Using Tensor Momentum Dependent Deuteron Potential to Extract the Asymptotic D/S Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emad El-Deen, A. Sultan; Mustafa, Mustafa M.; Zahran, Elbadry S.

    2010-09-30

    A new value for the deuteron asymptotic D/S ratio {eta} = 0.02640{+-}0.00024 is extracted from an empirical linear {eta}-Q relation found for a class of deuteron momentum dependent potentials with tensor momentum dependent part. These potentials fit a recently published phase shift analysis and the binding energy of the deuteron.

  13. Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films with varying gallium ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claypoole, Jesse; Peace, Bernadette; Sun, Neville; Dwyer, Dan; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Haldar, Pradeep; Efstathiadis, Harry

    2015-09-05

    Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layers were deposited on molybdenum (Mo) coated soda-lime glass substrates with varying Ga content (described as Ga/(In+Ga) ratios) with respect to depth. As the responsible mechanisms for the limitation of the performance of the CIGS solar cells with high Ga contents are not well understood, the goal of this work was to investigate different properties of CIGS absorber films with Ga/(In+Ga) ratios varied between 0.29 and 0.41 (as determined by X-ray florescence spectroscopy (XRF)) in order to better understand the role that the Ga content has on film quality. The Ga grading in the CIGS layer has the effect causing a higher bandgap toward the surface and Mo contact while the band gap in the middle of the CIGS layer is lower. Also, a wider and larger Ga/(In+Ga) grading dip located deeper in the CIGS absorber layers tend to produce larger grains in the regions of the films that have lower Ga/(In+Ga) ratios. It was found that surface roughness decreases from 51.2 nm to 41.0 nm with increasing Ga/(In+Ga) ratios. However, the surface roughness generally decreases if the Ga grading occurs deeper in the absorber layer.

  14. Global gyrokinetic stability of collisionless microtearing modes in large aspect ratio tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swamy, Aditya K.; Ganesh, R., E-mail: ganesh@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Chowdhury, J. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L. [CRPP, EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Linear full radius gyrokinetic calculations show the existence of unstable microtearing modes (MTMs) in purely collisionless, high temperature, large aspect ratio tokamak plasmas. The present study takes into account fully gyrokinetic highly passing ions and electrons. The global 2-D structures of the collisionless mode with full radius coupling of the poloidal modes is obtained and compared with another electromagnetic mode, namely, the Alfvn Ion Temperature Gradient (AITG) mode (or Kinetic Ballooning Mode, KBM) for the same equilibrium profile. Several important characteristics of the modes are brought out and compared, such as a clear signature in the symmetry properties of the two modes, the plasma? dependence, and radial and poloidal length scales of the electrostatic and magnetic vector potential fluctuations. Extensive parameter scans for this collisionless microtearing mode reveal the scaling of the growth rate with ? and the electron temperature gradient ?{sub e}. Scans at different ? values show an inverse relationship between the ?{sub e} threshold and ?, leading to a stability diagram, and implying that the mode might exist at moderate to strong temperature gradients for finite ? plasmas in large aspect ratio tokamaks. In contrast to small aspect ratio tokamaks where the trapped electron magnetic drift resonance is found to be important, in large aspect ratio tokamaks, a strong destabilization due to the magnetic drift resonance of passing electrons is observed and is identified as a possible collisionless drive mechanism for the collisionless MTM.

  15. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  16. Significant enhancement of the strength-to-resistivity ratio by using nanotwins in epitaxial Cu films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Amit; Ronningh, Filip; Anderoglu, Osman; Zhang, X

    2008-01-01

    Epitaxial nanotwinned Cu films, with an average twin spacing ranging from 7 to 16 nm, exhibit a high ratio of strength-to-electrical resisitivity, -400 MPa({mu}{Omega}cm){sup -1}. The hardness of these Cu films approaches 2.8 GPa, and their electrical resistivities are comparable to that of oxygen-free high-conductivity Cu. Compared to high-angle grain boundaries, coherent twin interfaces possess inherently high resistance to the transmission of single dislocations, and yet an order of magnitude lower electron scattering coefficient, determined to be 1.5-5 x 10{sup -7} {mu}{Omega}cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Analytical studies as well as experimental results show that, in polycrystalline Cu, grain refinement leads to a maximum of the strength-to-resistivity ratio, -250 MPa({mu}{Omega}cm){sup -1}, when grain size is comparable to the mean-free path of electrons. However, in twinned Cu, such a ratio increases continuously with decreasing twin spacing down to a few nanometers. Hence nanoscale growth twins are more effective to achieve a higher strength-to-resistivity ratio than high-angle grain boundaries.

  17. State energy data report 1992: Consumption estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This is a report of energy consumption by state for the years 1960 to 1992. The report contains summaries of energy consumption for the US and by state, consumption by source, comparisons to other energy use reports, consumption by energy use sector, and describes the estimation methodologies used in the preparation of the report. Some years are not listed specifically although they are included in the summary of data.

  18. Generalized REGression Package for Nonlinear Parameter Estimation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-05-15

    GREG computes modal (maximum-posterior-density) and interval estimates of the parameters in a user-provided Fortran subroutine MODEL, using a user-provided vector OBS of single-response observations or matrix OBS of multiresponse observations. GREG can also select the optimal next experiment from a menu of simulated candidates, so as to minimize the volume of the parametric inference region based on the resulting augmented data set.

  19. Knowledge Based Estimation of Material Release Transients

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-07-29

    KBERT is an easy to use desktop decision support tool for estimating public and in-facility worker doses and consequences of radioactive material releases in non-reactort nuclear facilities. It automatically calculates release and respirable fractions based on published handbook data, and calculates material transport concurrently with personnel evacuation simulations. Any facility layout can be modeled easily using the intuitive graphical user interface.

  20. Notices Total Estimated Number of Annual

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    372 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 181 / Wednesday, September 18, 2013 / Notices Total Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 10,128. Abstract: Enrollment in the Federal Student Aid (FSA) Student Aid Internet Gateway (SAIG) allows eligible entities to securely exchange Title IV, Higher Education Act (HEA) assistance programs data electronically with the Department of Education processors. Organizations establish Destination Point Administrators (DPAs) to transmit, receive, view and update

  1. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  2. A creep damage estimation method for in-service fossil fuel boiler superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogata, F. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Takahashi, H. . Research Inst. of Fracture Technology)

    1995-02-01

    Because mechanical properties of structural materials for high-temperature use, such as boiler tubing, degrade during long-term service, it is essential to detect toughness degradation by means of a nondestructive and simple field test technique. A grain boundary etching technique is developed to detect material degradation, and assess creep strength and notch toughness. An etching test using a picric acid solution with a wetting agent or using 20 percent HNO[sub 3] with alcoholic solution was found to have great potential for the nondestructive estimation of grain boundary embrittlement caused by carbide and sigma precipitation in SUS stainless steel. The feasibility of this estimation procedure was determined showing the relationships between Charpy impact energy (CVN) and grooving width (W[sub GS]), and creep damage ratio ([Phi]) and W[sub GS]. Superheater tubes of fossil fuel boiler were tested on site to demonstrate the validity of this technique.

  3. Effects of fuel type and equivalence ratios on the flickering of triple flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, K.B.; Kundu, A.; Ganguly, R.; Datta, A.

    2009-02-15

    An experimental study has been conducted in axisymmetric, co-flowing triple flames with different equivalence ratios of the inner and outer reactant streams (2<{phi}{sub in}<3 and 0{<=}{phi}{sub out}<0.7). Different fuel combinations, like propane/propane, propane/methane or methane/methane in the inner and outer streams respectively, have been used in the experiments. The structures of the triple flames have been compared for the different fuel combinations and equivalence ratios. The conditions under which triple flames exhibit oscillation have been identified. During the oscillation, the non-premixed flame and the outer lean premixed flame flicker strongly, while the inner rich premixed flame remains more or less stable. The flickering frequency has been evaluated through image processing and fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the average pixel intensity of the image frames. It is observed that, for all the fuel combinations, the frequency decreases with the increase in the outer equivalence ratio, while it is relatively invariant with the change in the inner equivalence ratio. However, an increase in the inner equivalence ratio affects the structure of the flame by increasing the heights of the inner premixed flame and non-premixed flame and also enlarges the yellow soot-laden zone at the tip of the inner flame. A scaling analysis of the oscillating flames has been performed based on the measured parameters, which show a variation of Strouhal number (St) with Richardson number (Ri) as St {proportional_to} Ri{sup 0.5}. The fuel type is found to have no influence on this correlation. (author)

  4. Sex ratios, bill deformities, and PCBs in nestling double-crested cormorants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stromborg, K.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay, WI (United States); Sileo, L. [National Biological Service, Madison, WI (United States); Tuinen, P. van [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Deformed double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) nestlings examined from 1988--1992 had a sex ratio highly skewed toward females (66 of 81) compared to normal nestlings (43 of 80) (P < 0.005). The collection site, Green Bay, WI, is heavily contaminated with PCBs and the possibility of gender alteration was investigated in a designed study by comparing the sex of nestling birds determined using three techniques. These nestlings were collected at five sites, both contaminated and uncontaminated. Genetic sex was determined by cytogenetic techniques and phenotypic sex was determined by macroscopic and histologic examination of gonads. Differences between techniques resulted in a few instances of classifying genetic males as females by one or the other gonadal examinations. Sex ratios of the nestlings from the five sites were compared to binomial distributions assuming equal probabilities of males and females. Sex ratios of normal nestlings were not different from expected regardless of sex determination technique (P > 0.10). Deformed nestlings sexed cytogenetically or histologically did not differ from expected (P > 0.40), but deformed nestlings tended to be classified , macroscopically as females at a higher rate than expected (P = 0.092). The observed sex ratios obtained by macroscopic techniques did not differ between the 1968--1992 observational study and the designed study (P > 0.50). Histologic examination suggested two explanations for the skewed sex ratio: nestlings with undeterminable macroscopic sex usually had testes and, some gonads which grossly resembled ovaries were, in fact, testes. If phenotypic gender alteration is present in these birds, it is more evident at the gross structural level than at the histologic level.

  5. Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Rayner, Perter; Butler, T.; Lawrence, M.

    2013-06-04

    Model-simulated transport of atmospheric trace components can be combined with observed concentrations to obtain estimates of ground-based sources using various inversion techniques. These approaches have been applied in the past primarily to obtain source estimates for long-lived trace gases such as CO2. We consider the application of similar techniques to source estimation for atmospheric aerosols, by using as a case study the estimation of bacteria emissions from different ecosystem regions in the global atmospheric chemistry and climate model ECHAM5/MESSy-Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC). Simulated particle concentrations in the tropopause region and at high latitudes, as well as transport of particles to tundra and land ice regions are shown to be highly sensitive to scavenging in mixed-phase clouds, which is poorly characterized in most global climate models. This may be a critical uncertainty in correctly simulating the transport of aerosol particles to the Arctic. Source estimation via Monte Carlo Markov Chain is applied to a suite of sensitivity simulations and the global mean emissions are estimated. We present an analysis of the partitioning of uncertainties in the global mean emissions that are attributable to particle size, CCN activity, the ice nucleation scavenging ratios for mixed-phase and cold clouds, and measurement error. Uncertainty due to CCN activity or to a 1 um error in particle size is typically between 10% and 40% of the uncertainty due to data uncertainty, as measured by the 5%-ile to 95%-ile range of the Monte Carlo ensemble. Uncertainty attributable to the ice nucleation scavenging ratio in mized-phase clouds is as high as 10% to 20% of the data uncertainty. Taken together, the four model 20 parameters examined contribute about half as much to the uncertainty in the estimated emissions as do the measurements. This was a surprisingly large contribution from model uncertainty in light of the substantial data uncertainty, which ranges from 81% to 870% for each of ten ecosystems for this case study. The effects of these and other model parameters in contributing to the uncertainties in the transport of atmospheric aerosol particles should be treated explicitly and systematically in both forward and inverse modelling studies.

  6. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates M. Melaina and M. Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-56412 September 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  7. Pension Estimate System PIA, Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Pension Estimate System PIA, Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC Pension Estimate System PIA, Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC Pension Estimate System PIA, Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC PDF icon Pension Estimate System PIA, Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC More Documents & Publications Electronic Document Management System PIA, BechtelJacobs Company, LLC Dosimetry Records System PIA, bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC Medgate, PIA, Bechtel Jacobs

  8. A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

  9. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  10. Position estimation of transceivers in communication networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kent, Claudia A. (Pleasanton, CA); Dowla, Farid (Castro Valley, CA)

    2008-06-03

    This invention provides a system and method using wireless communication interfaces coupled with statistical processing of time-of-flight data to locate by position estimation unknown wireless receivers. Such an invention can be applied in sensor network applications, such as environmental monitoring of water in the soil or chemicals in the air where the position of the network nodes is deemed critical. Moreover, the present invention can be arranged to operate in areas where a Global Positioning System (GPS) is not available, such as inside buildings, caves, and tunnels.

  11. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Process Equipment Cost Estimation Final Report January 2002 H.P. Loh U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 and P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and Jennifer Lyons and Charles W. White, III EG&G Technical Services, Inc. 3604 Collins Ferry Road, Suite 200 Morgantown, WV 26505 DOE/NETL-2002/1169 ii Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an

  12. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  13. WEATHER PREDICTIONS AND SURFACE RADIATION ESTIMATES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ARLV - 3 51 - 4 / WEATHER PREDICTIONS AND SURFACE RADIATION ESTIMATES for the RULISON EVENT Final Report Albert H . S t o u t , Ray E . White, and V i r g i l E. Quinn Environmental Science Services Administration A i r Resources Laboratory - Las Vegas PROPERW OF U. S. GOVERNMENT Prepared Under Contract SF-54-351 f o r the Nevada Operations O f f i c e U . ' S . Atomic Energy Commission January 1970 LEGAL NOTSCCE ; L *U . . . . . - . T h i s r e p o r t w a s prepared a s an account o f

  14. Cell Total Activity Final Estimate.xls

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    WSSRAP Cell Total Activity Final Estimate (calculated September 2002, Fleming) (Waste streams & occupied cell volumes from spreadsheet titled "cell waste volumes-8.23.02 with macros.xls") Waste Stream a Volume (cy) Mass (g) 2 Radiological Profile 3 Nuclide Activity (Ci) 4 Total % of Total U-238 U-234 U-235 Th-228 Th-230 Th-232 Ra-226 Ra-228 Rn-222 5 Activity if > 1% Raffinate Pits Work Zone (Ci) Raffinate processed through CSS Plant 1 159990 1.49E+11 Raffinate 6.12E+01 6.12E+01

  15. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  16. Measurement of the nuclear multiplicity ratio or image hadronization K0s at CLAS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daniel, A.; Hicks, K.; Brooks, W. K.; Hakobyan, H.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amarian, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Avakian, H.; et al

    2011-11-01

    The influence of cold nuclear matter on lepto-production of hadrons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is measured using the CLAS detector in Hall B at Jefferson Lab and a 5.014 GeV electron beam. We report the K0s multiplicity ratios for targets of C, Fe, and Pb relative to deuterium as a function of the fractional virtual photon energy z transferred to the K0sand the transverse momentum squared p2T of the K0s. We find that the multiplicity ratios for K0s are reduced in the nuclear medium at high z and low p2T, with a trend for the K0s transverse momentum tomore » be broadened in the nucleus for large p2T.« less

  17. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting (Ventura, CA)

    2011-04-26

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  18. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2013-08-13

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  19. Improved precision and accuracy in quantifying plutonium isotope ratios by RIMS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Isselhardt, B. H.; Savina, M. R.; Kucher, A.; Gates, S. D.; Knight, K. B.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2015-09-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) holds the promise of rapid, isobar-free quantification of actinide isotope ratios in as-received materials (i.e. not chemically purified). Recent progress in achieving this potential using two Pu test materials is presented. RIMS measurements were conducted multiple times over a period of two months on two different Pu solutions deposited on metal surfaces. Measurements were bracketed with a Pu isotopic standard, and yielded absolute accuracies of the measured 240Pu/239Pu ratios of 0.7% and 0.58%, with precisions (95% confidence intervals) of 1.49% and 0.91%. In conclusion, the minor isotope 238Pu was also quantified despite the presence ofmore » a significant quantity of 238U in the samples.« less

  20. Numerical studies of the flux-to-current ratio method in the KIPT neutron source facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-07-01

    The reactivity of a subcritical assembly has to be monitored continuously in order to assure its safe operation. In this paper, the flux-to-current ratio method has been studied as an approach to provide the on-line reactivity measurement of the subcritical system. Monte Carlo numerical simulations have been performed using the KIPT neutron source facility model. It is found that the reactivity obtained from the flux-to-current ratio method is sensitive to the detector position in the subcritical assembly. However, if multiple detectors are located about 12 cm above the graphite reflector and 54 cm radially, the technique is shown to be very accurate in determining the k{sub eff} this facility in the range of 0.75 to 0.975. (authors)

  1. Structure and electrical characterization of gallium arsenide nanowires with different V/III ratio growth parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhammad, R.; Ahamad, R.; Ibrahim, Z.; Othaman, Z.

    2014-03-05

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires were grown vertically on GaAs(111)B substrate by gold-assisted using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and conductivity atomic force microscopy (CAFM) analysis were carried out to investigate the effects of V/III ratio on structural properties and current-voltage changes in the wires. Results show that GaAs NWs grow preferably in the wurtzite crystal structure than zinc blende crystal structure with increasing V/III ratio. Additionally, CAFM studies have revealed that zincblende nanowires indicate ohmic characteristic compared to oscillation current occurred for wurtzite structures. The GaAs NWs with high quality structures are needed in solar cells technology for trapping energy that directly converts of sunlight into electricity with maximum capacity.

  2. Measurement of the nuclear multiplicity ratio or image hadronization at CLAS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daniel, A; Brooks, W K; Hakobyan, H; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Aghasyan, M; Amarian, M; Anghinolfi, M; Avakian, H; Baghdasryan, H; et al

    2011-11-30

    The influence of cold nuclear matter on lepto-production of hadrons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is measured using the CLAS detector in Hall B at Jefferson Lab and a 5.014 GeV electron beam. We report the View the MathML source multiplicity ratios for targets of C, Fe, and Pb relative to deuterium as a function of the fractional virtual photon energy z transferred to the View the MathML source and the transverse momentum squared View the MathML source of the View the MathML source. We find that the multiplicity ratios for View the MathML source are reduced in the nuclearmoremedium at high z and low View the MathML source, with a trend for the View the MathML source transverse momentum to be broadened in the nucleus for large View the MathML source.less

  3. Improved Measurement of the π→eν Branching Ratio

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; vom Bruch, D.; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; et al

    2015-08-01

    A new measurement of the branching ratio Re/μ=Γ(π+ → e+ν + π+ → e+νγ)/Γ(π+ → μ+ν + π+→μ+νγ) resulted in Rexpe/μ=[1.2344±0.0023(stat)±0.0019(syst)] x 10-4. This is in agreement with the standard model prediction and improves the test of electron-muon universality to the level of 0.1%.

  4. "Table A15. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region and Economic" " Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" ,,,"Consumption","Major" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","Byproducts(b)","Fuel Oil(c)"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","as a

  5. "Table A48. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, and Economic" " Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" ,,,"Consumption","Major" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","Byproducts(b)","Fuel Oil(c)"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of

  6. "Table A50. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Industry Group," " Selected Industries, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991 (Continued)" ,,,,,"Major" ,,,"Consumption","Consumption per","Byproducts(c)","Fuel Oil(d)" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","Dollar of Value","as a Percent

  7. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added Product April 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.

  8. Internal combustion engine cylinder-to-cylinder balancing with balanced air-fuel ratios

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E.; Bourn, Gary D.; Smalley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-03

    A method of balancing combustion among cylinders of an internal combustion engine. For each cylinder, a normalized peak firing pressure is calculated as the ratio of its peak firing pressure to its combustion pressure. Each cylinder's normalized peak firing pressure is compared to a target value for normalized peak firing pressure. The fuel flow is adjusted to any cylinder whose normalized peak firing pressure is not substantially equal to the target value.

  9. Gas breakdown mechanism in pulse-modulated asymmetric ratio frequency dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Jizhong, E-mail: jsun@dlut.edu.cn; Ding, Zhenfeng; Ding, Hongbin; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Nozaki, Tomohiro [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Wang, Zhanhui [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-08-15

    The gas breakdown mechanisms, especially the roles of metastable species in atmospheric pressure pulse-modulated ratio frequency barrier discharges with co-axial cylindrical electrodes, were studied numerically using a one dimensional self-consistent fluid model. Simulation results showed that in low duty cycle cases, the electrons generated from the channels associated with metastable species played a more important role in initializing next breakdown than the direct ionization of helium atoms of electronic grounded states by electron-impact. In order to quantitatively evaluate the contribution to the discharge by the metastables, we defined a characteristic time and examined how the value varied with the gap distance and the electrode asymmetry. The results indicated that the lifetime of the metastable species (including He*and He{sub 2}{sup *}) was much longer than that of the pulse-on period and as effective sources of producing electrons they lasted over a period up to millisecond. When the ratio of the outer radius to the inner radius of the cylindrical electrodes was far bigger than one, it was found that the metastables distributed mainly in a cylindrical region around the inner electrode. When the ratio decreased as the inner electrode moved outward, the density of metastables in the discharge region near the outer electrode became gradually noticeable. As the discharging gap continued to decrease, the two hill-shaped distributions gradually merged to one big hill. When the discharge spacing was fixed, asymmetric electrodes facilitated the discharge.

  10. THE HCN-WATER RATIO IN THE PLANET FORMATION REGION OF DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najita, Joan R.; Salyk, Colette [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)] [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carr, John S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7211, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7211, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Pontoppidan, Klaus M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)] [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Mail Stop 150-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Mail Stop 150-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    We find a trend between the mid-infrared HCN/H{sub 2}O flux ratio and submillimeter disk mass among T Tauri stars in Taurus. While it may seem puzzling that the molecular emission properties of the inner disk (ratio in the inner disk and altering the molecular abundances there. We discuss the assumptions that underlie this interpretation, a possible alternative explanation, and related open questions that motivate future work. Whatever its origin, understanding the meaning of the relation between the HCN/H{sub 2}O ratio and disk mass is of interest as trends like this among T Tauri disk properties are relatively rare.

  11. STOCHASTIC HEATING, DIFFERENTIAL FLOW, AND THE ALPHA-TO-PROTON TEMPERATURE RATIO IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandran, B. D. G.; Verscharen, D.; Isenberg, P. A.; Bourouaine, S.; Quataert, E.; Kasper, J. C. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu E-mail: jkasper@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-10-10

    We extend previous theories of stochastic ion heating to account for the motion of ions along the magnetic field B . We derive an analytic expression for the temperature ratio T{sub i}/T{sub p} in the solar wind assuming that stochastic heating is the dominant ion heating mechanism, where T{sub i} is the perpendicular temperature of species i and T{sub p} is the perpendicular proton temperature. This expression describes how T{sub i}/T{sub p} depends upon U{sub i} and ?{sub ?p}, where U{sub i} is the average velocity along B of species i in the proton frame and ?{sub ?p} is the ratio of the parallel proton pressure to the magnetic pressure, which we take to be ?< 1. We compare our model with previously published measurements of alpha particles and protons from the Wind spacecraft. We find that stochastic heating offers a promising explanation for the dependence of T{sub ?}/T{sub p} on U{sub ?} and ?{sub ?p} when the fractional cross helicity and Alfvn ratio at the proton-gyroradius scale have values that are broadly consistent with solar-wind measurements. We also predict how the temperatures of other ion species depend on their drift speeds.

  12. Effect of Co/Ni ratios in cobalt nickel mixed oxide catalysts on methane combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Tae Hwan; Cho, Sung June; Yang, Hee Sung; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kim, Do Heui

    2015-07-31

    A series of cobalt nickel mixed oxide catalysts with the varying ratios of Co to Ni, prepared by co-precipitation method, were applied to methane combustion. Among the various ratios, cobalt nickel mixed oxides having the ratios of Co to Ni of (50:50) and (67:33) demonstrate the highest activity for methane combustion. Structural analysis obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) evidently demonstrates that CoNi (50:50) and (67:33) samples consist of NiCo2O4and NiO phase and, more importantly, NiCo2O4spinel structure is largely distorted, which is attributed to the insertion of Ni2+ions into octahedral sites in Co3O4spinel structure. Such structural dis-order results in the enhanced portion of surface oxygen species, thus leading to the improved reducibility of the catalysts in the low temperature region as evidenced by temperature programmed reduction by hydrogen (H2TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) O 1s results. They prove that structural disorder in cobalt nickel mixed oxides enhances the catalytic performance for methane combustion. Thus, it is concluded that a strong relationship between structural property and activity in cobalt nickel mixed oxide for methane combustion exists and, more importantly, distorted NiCo2O4spinel structure is found to be an active site for methane combustion.

  13. Bayesian Integration of Isotope Ratio for Geographic Sourcing of Castor Beans

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Kreuzer, Helen; Hart, Garret; Ehleringer, James; West, Jason; Gill, Gary; Duckworth, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Recenmore » t years have seen an increase in the forensic interest associated with the poison ricin, which is extracted from the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant. Both light element (C, N, O, and H) and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios have previously been used to associate organic material with geographic regions of origin. We present a Bayesian integration methodology that can more accurately predict the region of origin for a castor bean than individual models developed independently for light element stable isotopes or Sr isotope ratios. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in the ability to correctly classify regions based on the integrated model with a class accuracy of 60.9 ± 2.1 % versus 55.9 ± 2.1 % and 40.2 ± 1.8 % for the light element and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios, respectively. In addition, we show graphically the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in respect to class prediction and how the integration of these datasets strengthens the overall model.« less

  14. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallaher, B.M.; Benjamin, T.M.; Rokop, D.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-09-22

    For more than three decades Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. Be measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1000 fold along a 3000 ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicates off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  15. Flame Inhibition by Phosphorus-Containing Compounds over a Range of Equivalence Ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayaweera, T M; Melius, C F; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Korobeinichev, O P; Shvartsberg, V M; Shmakov, A G; Rybitskaya, I V; Curran, H

    2004-03-17

    There is much interest in the combustion mechanism of organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) due to their role as potential halon replacements in fire suppression. A continuing investigation of the inhibition activity of organophosphorus compounds under a range of equivalence ratios was performed experimentally and computationally, as measured by the burning velocity. Updates to a previous mechanism were made by the addition and modification of reactions in the mechanism for a more complete description of the recombination reactions. In this work, the laminar flame speed is measured experimentally and calculated numerically for a premixed propane/air flame, under a range of equivalence ratios, undoped and doped with dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). A detailed investigation of the catalytic cycles involved in the recombination of key flame radicals is made for two equivalence ratios, lean and rich. From this, the importance of different catalytic cycles involved in the lean versus rich case is discussed. Although the importance of certain cycles is different under different stoichiometries, the OPCs are similarly effective across the range, demonstrating the robustness of OPCs as flame suppressants. In addition, it is shown that the phosphorus compounds are most active in the high temperature region of the flame. This may, in part, explain their high level of inhibition effectiveness.

  16. Analysis on burnup step effect for evaluating reactor criticality and fuel breeding ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saputra, Geby; Purnama, Aditya Rizki; Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

    2014-09-30

    Criticality condition of the reactors is one of the important factors for evaluating reactor operation and nuclear fuel breeding ratio is another factor to show nuclear fuel sustainability. This study analyzes the effect of burnup steps and cycle operation step for evaluating the criticality condition of the reactor as well as the performance of nuclear fuel breeding or breeding ratio (BR). Burnup step is performed based on a day step analysis which is varied from 10 days up to 800 days and for cycle operation from 1 cycle up to 8 cycles reactor operations. In addition, calculation efficiency based on the variation of computer processors to run the analysis in term of time (time efficiency in the calculation) have been also investigated. Optimization method for reactor design analysis which is used a large fast breeder reactor type as a reference case was performed by adopting an established reactor design code of JOINT-FR. The results show a criticality condition becomes higher for smaller burnup step (day) and for breeding ratio becomes less for smaller burnup step (day). Some nuclides contribute to make better criticality when smaller burnup step due to individul nuclide half-live. Calculation time for different burnup step shows a correlation with the time consuming requirement for more details step calculation, although the consuming time is not directly equivalent with the how many time the burnup time step is divided.

  17. Survey of plutonium and uranium atom ratios and activity levels in Mortandad Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallaher, B.M.; Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.; Benjamin, T.M.; Stoker, A.K.

    1997-10-01

    For more than three decades, Mortandad Canyon has been the primary release area of treated liquid radioactive waste from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Laboratory). In this survey, six water samples and seven stream sediment samples collected in Mortandad Canyon were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to determine the plutonium and uranium activity levels and atom ratios. By measuring the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios, the Laboratory plutonium component was evaluated relative to that from global fallout. Measurements of the relative abundance of {sup 235}U and {sup 236}U were also used to identify non-natural components. The survey results indicate that the Laboratory plutonium and uranium concentrations in waters and sediments decrease relatively rapidly with distance downstream from the major industrial sources. Plutonium concentrations in shallow alluvial groundwater decrease by approximately 1,000-fold along a 3,000-ft distance. At the Laboratory downstream boundary, total plutonium and uranium concentrations were generally within regional background ranges previously reported. Laboratory-derived plutonium is readily distinguished from global fallout in on-site waters and sediments. The isotopic ratio data indicate off-site migration of trace levels of Laboratory plutonium in stream sediments to distances approximately two miles downstream of the Laboratory boundary.

  18. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  19. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  20. Risk Estimation Methodology for Launch Accidents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, Daniel James; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Bechtel, Ryan D.

    2014-02-01

    As compact and light weight power sources with reliable, long lives, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) have made space missions to explore the solar system possible. Due to the hazardous material that can be released during a launch accident, the potential health risk of an accident must be quantified, so that appropriate launch approval decisions can be made. One part of the risk estimation involves modeling the response of the RPS to potential accident environments. Due to the complexity of modeling the full RPS response deterministically on dynamic variables, the evaluation is performed in a stochastic manner with a Monte Carlo simulation. The potential consequences can be determined by modeling the transport of the hazardous material in the environment and in human biological pathways. The consequence analysis results are summed and weighted by appropriate likelihood values to give a collection of probabilistic results for the estimation of the potential health risk. This information is used to guide RPS designs, spacecraft designs, mission architecture, or launch procedures to potentially reduce the risk, as well as to inform decision makers of the potential health risks resulting from the use of RPSs for space missions.

  1. Estimating Terrorist Risk with Possibility Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Darby

    2004-11-30

    This report summarizes techniques that use possibility theory to estimate the risk of terrorist acts. These techniques were developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as part of the National Infrastructure Simulation Analysis Center (NISAC) project. The techniques have been used to estimate the risk of various terrorist scenarios to support NISAC analyses during 2004. The techniques are based on the Logic Evolved Decision (LED) methodology developed over the past few years by Terry Bott and Steve Eisenhawer at LANL. [LED] The LED methodology involves the use of fuzzy sets, possibility theory, and approximate reasoning. LED captures the uncertainty due to vagueness and imprecision that is inherent in the fidelity of the information available for terrorist acts; probability theory cannot capture these uncertainties. This report does not address the philosophy supporting the development of nonprobabilistic approaches, and it does not discuss possibility theory in detail. The references provide a detailed discussion of these subjects. [Shafer] [Klir and Yuan] [Dubois and Prade] Suffice to say that these approaches were developed to address types of uncertainty that cannot be addressed by a probability measure. An earlier report discussed in detail the problems with using a probability measure to evaluate terrorist risk. [Darby Methodology]. Two related techniques are discussed in this report: (1) a numerical technique, and (2) a linguistic technique. The numerical technique uses traditional possibility theory applied to crisp sets, while the linguistic technique applies possibility theory to fuzzy sets. Both of these techniques as applied to terrorist risk for NISAC applications are implemented in software called PossibleRisk. The techniques implemented in PossibleRisk were developed specifically for use in estimating terrorist risk for the NISAC program. The LEDTools code can be used to perform the same linguistic evaluation as performed in PossibleRisk. [LEDTools] LEDTools is a general purpose linguistic evaluation tool and allows user defined universes of discourse and approximate reasoning rules, whereas PossibleRisk uses predefined universes of discourse (risk, attack, success, loss, and consequence) and rules. Also LEDTools has the capability to model a large number of threat scenarios with a graph and to integrate the scenarios (paths from the graph) into the linguistic evaluation. Example uses of PossibleRisk and LEDTools for the possibilistic evaluation of terrorist risk are provided in this report.

  2. ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER ION IN COMET C/2001 Q4 (NEAT): IMPLICATION FOR ORTHO-TO-PARA ABUNDANCE RATIO OF WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Boice, Daniel C.; Martinez, Susan E.

    2012-04-20

    The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of the primordial characteristics of cometary ices, and contains information concerning their formation. Water is the most abundant species in cometary ices, and OPRs of water in comets have been determined from infrared spectroscopic observations of H{sub 2}O rovibrational transitions so far. In this paper, we present a new method to derive OPR of water in comets from the high-dispersion spectrum of the rovibronic emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} in the optical wavelength region. The rovibronic emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} are sometimes contaminated by other molecular emission lines but they are not affected seriously by telluric absorption compared with near-infrared observations. Since H{sub 2}O{sup +} ions are mainly produced from H{sub 2}O by photoionization in the coma, the OPR of H{sub 2}O{sup +} is considered to be equal to that of water based on the nuclear spin conservation through the reaction. We have developed a fluorescence excitation model of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and applied it to the spectrum of comet C/2001 Q4 (NEAT). The derived OPR of water is 2.54{sup +0.32}{sub -0.25}, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature (T{sub spin}) of 30{sup +10}{sub -4} K. This is consistent with the previous value determined in the near-infrared for the same comet (OPR = 2.6 {+-} 0.3, T{sub spin} = 31{sup +11}{sub -5} K).

  3. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  4. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  5. New developments in capital cost estimating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Zocher, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The new developments in cost engineering revolve around the ability to capture information that in the past could not be automated. The purpose of automation is not to eliminate the expert cost engineer. The goal is to use available technology to have more information available to the professionals in the cost engineering field. In that sense, the demand for expertise increases in order to produce the highest quality estimate and project possible from all levels of cost engineers. We cannot overemphasize the importance of using a good source of expert information in building these types of programs. ''Garbage in, garbage out'' still applies in this form of programming. Expert systems technology will become commonplace in many vertical markets; it is important to undersand what can and cannot be accomplished in our field, and where this technology will lead us in the future.

  6. Contractor: Contract Number: Contract Type: Total Estimated

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Contract Number: Contract Type: Total Estimated Contract Cost: Performance Period Total Fee Paid FY2004 $294,316 FY2005 $820,074 FY2006 $799,449 FY2007 $877,898 FY2008 $866,608 FY2009 $886,404 FY2010 $800,314 FY2011 $871,280 FY2012 $824,517 FY2013 Cumulative Fee Paid $7,040,860 $820,074 $799,449 $877,898 $916,130 $886,608 Computer Sciences Corporation DE-AC06-04RL14383 $895,358 $899,230 $907,583 Cost Plus Award Fee $134,100,336 $8,221,404 Fee Available Contract Period: Fee Information Minimum

  7. ORBITAL AND MASS RATIO EVOLUTION OF PROTOBINARIES DRIVEN BY MAGNETIC BRAKING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2013-01-20

    The majority of stars reside in multiple systems, especially binaries. The formation and early evolution of binaries is a longstanding problem in star formation that is not yet fully understood. In particular, how the magnetic field observed in star-forming cores shapes the binary characteristics remains relatively unexplored. We demonstrate numerically, using an MHD version of the ENZO AMR hydro code, that a magnetic field of the observed strength can drastically change two of the basic quantities that characterize a binary system: the orbital separation and mass ratio of the two components. Our calculations focus on the protostellar mass accretion phase, after a pair of stellar 'seeds' have already formed. We find that in dense cores magnetized to a realistic level, the angular momentum of the material accreted by the protobinary is greatly reduced by magnetic braking. Accretion of strongly braked material shrinks the protobinary separation by a large factor compared to the non-magnetic case. The magnetic braking also changes the evolution of the mass ratio of unequal-mass protobinaries by producing material of low specific angular momentum that accretes preferentially onto the more massive primary star rather than the secondary. This is in contrast with the preferential mass accretion onto the secondary previously found numerically for protobinaries accreting from an unmagnetized envelope, which tends to drive the mass ratio toward unity. In addition, the magnetic field greatly modifies the morphology and dynamics of the protobinary accretion flow. It suppresses the traditional circumstellar and circumbinary disks that feed the protobinary in the non-magnetic case; the binary is fed instead by a fast collapsing pseudodisk whose rotation is strongly braked. The magnetic braking-driven inward migration of binaries from their birth locations may be constrained by high-resolution observations of the orbital distribution of deeply embedded protobinaries, especially with ALMA and JVLA.

  8. Characteristics of Cu stabilized Nb3Al strands with low Cu ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kikuchi, A.; Yamada, R.; Barzi, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Lamm, M.; Nakagawa, K.; Sasaki, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /NIMC, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Hitachi, Tsuchiura Works /KEK, Tsukuba

    2008-12-01

    Characteristics of recently developed F4-Nb{sub 3}Al strand with low Cu ratio are described. The overall J{sub c} of the Nb{sub 3}Al strand could be easily increased by decreasing of the Cu ratio. Although the quench of a pulse-like voltage generation is usually observed in superconducting unstable conductor, the F4 strand with a low Cu ratio of 0.61 exhibited an ordinary critical transition of gradual voltage generation. The F4 strand does not have magnetic instabilities at 4.2 K because of the tantalum interfilament matrix. The overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand achieved was 80-85% of the RRP strand. In the large mechanical stress above 100 MPa, the overall J{sub c} of the F4 strand might be comparable to that of high J{sub c} RRP-Nb{sub 3}Sn strands. The Rutherford cable with a high packing factor of 86.5% has been fabricated using F4 strands. The small racetrack magnet, SR07, was also fabricated by a 14 m F4 cable. The quench current, I{sub q}, of SR07 were obtained 22.4 kA at 4.5 K and 25.2 kA at 2.2 K. The tantalum matrix Nb{sub 3}Al strands are promising for the application of super-cooled high-field magnets as well as 4.2 K operation magnets.

  9. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  10. Separated Response Function Ratios in Exclusive, Forward {pi}{sup {+/-}} Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, Garth; Blok, Hendrik; Butuceanu, Cornel; Gaskell, David; Horn, Tanja; Mack, David; Abbott, David; Aniol, Konrad; Anklin, Heinz; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Assamagan, Ketevi; Avery, Steven; Baker, Oliver; Barrett, Brynle; Beise, Elizabeth; Bochna, C.; Boeglin, Werner; Brash, Edward; Breuer, Herbert; Chang, C. C.; Chant, Nicholas; Christy, Michael; Dunne, James; Eden, T.; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Gibson, Edward; Gilman, Ronald; Gustafsson, Kenneth; Hinton, Wendy; Holt, Roy; Jackson, Harold; Jin, Seong uk; Jones, Mark; Keppel, Cynthia; Kim, pyunghun; Kim, Wooyoung; King, Paul; Klein, Andreas; Koltenuk, Douglas; Kovaltchouk, Vitali; Liang, M.; Liu, J.; Lolos, George; Lung, Allison; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Matsumura, Akihiko; McKee, David; Meekins, David; Mitchell, Joseph; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Mueller, Berndt; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Okayasu, Yuichi; Pentchev, Lubomir; Perdrisat, Charles; Pitz, David; Potterveld, David; Punjabi, Vina; Qin, Liming; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Roos, Philip; Sarty, Adam; Shin, Ilkyoung; Smith, Gregory; Stepanyan, Stepan; Tang, Liguang; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tvaskis, Vladas; van der Meer, Rob; Vansyoc, Kelley; Van Westrum, Derek; Vidakovic, Sandra; Volmer, Jochen; Vulcan, William; Warren, Glen; Wood, Stephen; Xu, C.; Yan, C.; Zhao, Wenxia; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zihlmann, Benedikt

    2014-05-01

    The study of exclusive ?{sup } electroproduction on the nucleon, including separation of the various structure functions, is of interest for a number of reasons. The ratio R{sub L}=?{sup ?{sup ?}}{sub L}/?{sup ?{sup +}}{sub L} is sensitive to isoscalar contamination to the dominant isovector pion exchange amplitude, which is the basis for the determination of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data. A change in the value of R{sub T}=?{sup ?{sup ?}}{sub T}/?{sup ?{sup +}}{sub T} from unity at small ?t, to 1/4 at large ?t, would suggest a transition from coupling to a (virtual) pion to coupling to individual quarks. Furthermore, the mentioned ratios may show an earlier approach to pQCD than the individual cross sections. We have performed the first complete separation of the four unpolarized electromagnetic structure functions above the dominant resonances in forward, exclusive ? electroproduction on the deuteron at central Q{sup 2} values of 0.6, 1.0, 1.6 GeV{sup 2} at W=1.95 GeV, and Q{sup 2}=2.45 GeV{sup 2} at W=2.22 GeV. Here, we present the L and T cross sections, with emphasis on R{sub L} and R{sub T}, and compare them with theoretical calculations. Results for the separated ratio RL indicate dominance of the pion-pole diagram at low ?t, while results for R{sub T} are consistent with a transition between pion knockout and quark knockout mechanisms.

  11. Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

    2010-02-05

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg equivalents. AMS provides an sensitive, accurate and precise method of measuring drug compounds in biological matrices.

  12. Cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering and the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters: marginalizing over the physics of galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddick, Rachel M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu; Tinker, Jeremy L. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu

    2014-03-10

    Many approaches to obtaining cosmological constraints rely on the connection between galaxies and dark matter. However, the distribution of galaxies is dependent on their formation and evolution as well as on the cosmological model, and galaxy formation is still not a well-constrained process. Thus, methods that probe cosmology using galaxies as tracers for dark matter must be able to accurately estimate the cosmological parameters. This can be done without knowing details of galaxy formation a priori as long as the galaxies are well represented by a halo occupation distribution (HOD). We apply this reasoning to the method of obtaining ? {sub m} and ?{sub 8} from galaxy clustering combined with the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters. To test the sensitivity of this method to variations due to galaxy formation, we consider several different models applied to the same cosmological dark matter simulation. The cosmological parameters are then estimated using the observables in each model, marginalizing over the parameters of the HOD. We find that for models where the galaxies can be well represented by a parameterized HOD, this method can successfully extract the desired cosmological parameters for a wide range of galaxy formation prescriptions.

  13. Contact resistance improvement by the modulation of peripheral length to area ratio of graphene contact pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Sangchul; Lee, Sang Kyung; Noh, Jin Woo; Park, Woojin; Lee, Young Gon; Hwang, Hyeon Jun; Ham, Moon-Ho; Kang, Chang Goo; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2015-05-25

    High contact resistance between graphene and metal is a major huddle for high performance electronic device applications of graphene. In this work, a method to improve the contact resistance of graphene is investigated by varying the ratio of peripheral length and area of graphene pattern under a metal contact. The contact resistance decreased to 0.8?k??m from 2.1?k??m as the peripheral length increased from 312 to 792??m. This improvement is attributed to the low resistivity of edge-contacted graphene, which is 8.1??10{sup 5} times lower than that of top-contacted graphene.

  14. "Table A51. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region and Economic" " Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991 " ,,,,,"Major" ,,,"Consumption","Consumption per","Byproducts(c)","Fuel Oil(d)" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","Dollar of Value","as a Percent","as a Percent","RSE"

  15. Morphology and aspect ratio of bismuth nanoparticles embedded in a zinc matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Tae Eun; Wilde, Gerhard; Peterlechner, Martin

    2014-12-15

    Nanoscale Bi particles embedded in a Zn matrix were obtained by casting and melt-spinning, resulting in quenching rate-dependent sizes and shapes. With decreasing Bi particle size, an increasing aspect ratio was observed. Due to high resolution transmission electron microscopy performed for different orientations of the nanoparticles and the matrix, the three-dimensional shape and the respective crystallographic orientations of the Bi nanoparticles as well as the orientation relationship with the matrix have been evaluated. It is suggested that the size-dependence of the nanoparticle morphologies has a strong impact on their thermal stabilities thus affecting the size dependence of the melting temperature.

  16. Air-fuel ratio controller for a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serve, J.V.; Eckard, D.W.

    1988-09-13

    This patent describes an air-fuel ratio controller for a gaseous-fueled, turbo-charged engine having an air manifold, a gas manifold, and a turbine inlet. The controller consists of: means for controlling air manifold pressure, comprising means for providing an air manifold pressure set point signal based on gas manifold pressure and engine RPM's and at least one constant input; and means for controlling turbine inlet temperature, the means comprising means for modulating the slope of the set point signal for the air manifold pressure controller.

  17. THE FUELING DIAGRAM: LINKING GALAXY MOLECULAR-TO-ATOMIC GAS RATIOS TO INTERACTIONS AND ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, David V.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Wei, Lisa H.; Baker, Andrew J.; Leroy, Adam K.; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2013-05-20

    To assess how external factors such as local interactions and fresh gas accretion influence the global interstellar medium of galaxies, we analyze the relationship between recent enhancements of central star formation and total molecular-to-atomic (H{sub 2}/H I) gas ratios, using a broad sample of field galaxies spanning early-to-late type morphologies, stellar masses of 10{sup 7.2}-10{sup 11.2} M{sub Sun }, and diverse stages of evolution. We find that galaxies occupy several loci in a ''fueling diagram'' that plots H{sub 2}/H I ratio versus mass-corrected blue-centeredness, a metric tracing the degree to which galaxies have bluer centers than the average galaxy at their stellar mass. Spiral galaxies of all stellar masses show a positive correlation between H{sub 2}/H I ratio and mass-corrected blue-centeredness. When combined with previous results linking mass-corrected blue-centeredness to external perturbations, this correlation suggests a systematic link between local galaxy interactions and molecular gas inflow/replenishment. Intriguingly, E/S0 galaxies show a more complex picture: some follow the same correlation, some are quenched, and a distinct population of blue-sequence E/S0 galaxies (with masses below key scales associated with transitions in gas richness) defines a separate loop in the fueling diagram. This population appears to be composed of low-mass merger remnants currently in late- or post-starburst states, in which the burst first consumes the H{sub 2} while the galaxy center keeps getting bluer, then exhausts the H{sub 2}, at which point the burst population reddens as it ages. Multiple lines of evidence suggest connected evolutionary sequences in the fueling diagram. In particular, tracking total gas-to-stellar mass ratios within the fueling diagram provides evidence of fresh gas accretion onto low-mass E/S0s emerging from their central starburst episodes. Drawing on a comprehensive literature search, we suggest that virtually all galaxies follow the same evolutionary patterns found in our broad sample.

  18. New DOE Modeling Tool Estimates Economic Benefits of Offshore...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling Tool Estimates Economic Benefits of Offshore Wind Plants New DOE Modeling Tool Estimates Economic Benefits of Offshore Wind Plants October 1, 2013 - 3:28pm Addthis To help ...

  19. Property:EstimatedCostLowUSD | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name EstimatedCostLowUSD Property Type Quantity Description the low estimate of cost in USD Use this type to express a monetary value in US Dollars. The default unit is one...

  20. Property:EstimatedCostHighUSD | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name EstimatedCostHighUSD Property Type Quantity Description the high estimate of cost in USD Use this type to express a monetary value in US Dollars. The default unit is one...

  1. Property:EstimatedCostMedianUSD | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name EstimatedCostMedianUSD Property Type Quantity Description the median estimate of cost in USD Use this type to express a monetary value in US Dollars. The default unit is one...

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - 15.1615_Cost Estimating Panel

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cost Estimate (ICE) - Same Basis as Project Cost Estimate (PCE) Sa e as s as ojec Cos s a e ( C ) - Reconcilable with PCE to Facilitate Validation * Independent Cost Review...

  3. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. ... be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the ...

  4. Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  5. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  6. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Savings and Cost Estimate Summary

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home Savings and Cost Estimate Summary, October 2015

  7. Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review | Department of Energy Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech Team Review This presentation reports on direct hydrogen PEMFC manufacturing cost estimation for automotive applications. PDF icon Direct Hydrogen PEMFC Manufacturing Cost Estimation for Automotive Applications: Fuel Cell Tech

  8. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity & Fuel » Appliances & Electronics » Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use Our appliance and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual wattage of products varies depending on product age and features. Enter a wattage value for your own product for the most accurate estimate. Wattage

  9. Analysis of depolarization ratios of ClNO{sub 2} dissolved in methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimithioti, Marilena; Hayes, Sophia C.; Akimov, Alexey V.; Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 ; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2014-01-07

    A detailed analysis of the resonance Raman depolarization ratio dispersion curve for the NO symmetric stretch of nitryl chloride in methanol at excitation wavelengths spanning the D absorption band is presented. The depolarization ratios are modeled using the time-dependent formalism for Raman scattering with contributions from two excited states (2{sup 1}A{sub 1} and 3{sup 1}B{sub 1}), which are taken as linearly dissociative along the ClN coordinate. The analysis focuses on the interplay between different types of broadening revealing the importance of inhomogenous broadening in determining the relative contributions of the two electronic transitions. We find that the transition dipole moment (M) for 2{sup 1}A{sub 1} is greater than for 3{sup 1}B{sub 1}, in agreement with gas phase calculations in the literature [A. Lesar, M. Hdoscek, M. Muhlhauser, and S. D. Peyerimhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 383, 84 (2004)]. However, we find that the polarity of the solvent influences the excited state energetics, leading to a reversal in the ordering of these two states with 3{sup 1}B{sub 1} shifting to lower energies. Molecular dynamics simulations along with linear response and ab initio calculations support the evidence extracted from resonance Raman intensity analysis, providing insights on ClNO{sub 2} electronic structure, solvation effects in methanol, and the source of broadening, emphasizing the importance of a contribution from inhomogeneous linewidth.

  10. FULLY CONVECTIVE MAGNETO-ROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN LARGE ASPECT-RATIO SHEARING BOXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Mignone, A.

    2015-01-20

    We present a numerical study of turbulence and dynamo action in stratified shearing boxes with both finite and zero net magnetic flux. We assume that the fluid obeys the perfect gas law and has finite thermal diffusivity. The latter is chosen to be small enough so that vigorous convective states develop. The properties of these convective solutions are analyzed as the aspect ratio of the computational domain is varied and as the value of the mean field is increased. For the cases with zero net flux, we find that a well-defined converged state is obtained for large enough aspect ratios. In the converged state, the dynamo can be extremely efficient and can generate substantial toroidal flux. We identify solutions in which the toroidal field is mostly symmetric about the mid-plane and solutions in which it is mostly anti-symmetric. The symmetric solutions are found to be more efficient at transporting angular momentum and can give rise to a luminosity that is up to an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding value for the anti-symmetric states. In the cases with a finite net flux, the system appears to spend most of the time in the symmetric states.

  11. A minimal sub-Planckian axion inflation model with large tensor-to-scalar ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a minimal axion inflation model which can generate a large tensor-to-scalar ratio while remaining sub-Planckian. The modulus of a complex scalar field ? with a ?|?|{sup 4} potential couples directly to the gauge field of a strongly-coupled sector via a term of the form (|?|/M{sub Pl}){sup m}F F-tilde . This generates a minimum of the potential which is aperiodic in the phase. The resulting inflation model is equivalent to a ?{sup 4/(m+1)} chaotic inflation model. For the natural case of a leading-order portal-like interaction of the form ?{sup }?F F-tilde , the model is equivalent to a ?{sup 4/3} chaotic inflation model and predicts a tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 16/3N = 0.097 and a scalar spectral index n{sub s} = 1 - 5/3N = 0.970. The value of |?| remains sub-Planckian throughout the observable era of inflation, with |?| ?< 0.01M{sub Pl} for N ?< 60 when ? ? 1.

  12. THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. DETAILED ABUNDANCE RATIOS AT LARGE RADIUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Gunn, James E.; Raskutti, Sudhir; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl

    2013-10-20

    We study the radial dependence in stellar populations of 33 nearby early-type galaxies with central stellar velocity dispersions ?{sub *} ?> 150 km s{sup 1}. We measure stellar population properties in composite spectra, and use ratios of these composites to highlight the largest spectral changes as a function of radius. Based on stellar population modeling, the typical star at 2R{sub e} is old (?10 Gyr), relatively metal-poor ([Fe/H] ? 0.5), and ?-enhanced ([Mg/Fe] ? 0.3). The stars were made rapidly at z ? 1.5-2 in shallow potential wells. Declining radial gradients in [C/Fe], which follow [Fe/H], also arise from rapid star formation timescales due to declining carbon yields from low-metallicity massive stars. In contrast, [N/Fe] remains high at large radius. Stars at large radius have different abundance ratio patterns from stars in the center of any present-day galaxy, but are similar to average Milky Way thick disk stars. Our observations are thus consistent with a picture in which the stellar outskirts are built up through minor mergers with disky galaxies whose star formation is truncated early (z ? 1.5-2)

  13. High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Q2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaohui Zhan

    2010-01-31

    Experiment E08-007 measured the proton elastic form factor ratio ?pGE/GM in the range of Q2 = 0.3?0.7(GeV/c)2 by recoil polarimetry. Data were taken in 2008 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Virginia, USA. A 1.2 GeV polarized electron beam was scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target. The recoil proton was detected in the left HRS in coincidence with the elasticly scattered electrons tagged by the BigBite spectrometer. The proton polarization was measured by the focal plane polarimeter (FPP). In this low Q2 region, previous measurement from Jefferson Lab Hall A (LEDEX) along with various fits and calculations indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. For this new measurement, the proposed statistical uncertainty (< 1%) was achieved. These new results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, which indicate a smaller GEp at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the new results also have implications in determining the proton Zemach radius and the strangeness form factors from parity violation experiments.

  14. The ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crabtree, Kyle N.; Indriolo, Nick; Kreckel, Holger; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-22

    The discovery of H{sub 3}{sup +} in the diffuse interstellar medium has dramatically changed our view of the cosmic-ray ionization rate in diffuse molecular clouds. However, another surprise has been that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in these clouds is inconsistent with the temperature derived from the excitation of H{sub 2}, the dominant species in these clouds. In an effort to understand this discrepancy, we have embarked on an experimental program to measure the nuclear spin dependence of the dissociative electron recombination rate of H{sub 3}{sup +} using the CRYRING and TSR ion storage rings. We have also performed the first measurements of the reaction H{sub 3}{sup +}+H{sub 2}→H{sub 2}+H{sub 3}{sup +} below room temperature. This reaction is likely the most common bimolecular reaction in the universe, and plays an important role in interconverting ortho- and para-H{sub 3}{sup +}. Finally, we have constructed a steady-state chemical model for diffuse clouds, which takes into account the spin-dependence of the formation of H{sub 3}{sup +}, its electron recombination, and its reaction with H{sub 2}. We find that the ortho:para ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} in diffuse clouds is likely governed by a competition between dissociative recombination and thermalization by reactive collisions.

  15. Microscopic silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio structures for thin film conformality analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Arpiainen, Sanna; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2015-01-15

    Film conformality is one of the major drivers for the interest in atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. This work presents new silicon-based microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures for the analysis of the conformality of thin films deposited by ALD and by other chemical vapor deposition means. The microscopic LHAR structures consist of a lateral cavity inside silicon with a roof supported by pillars. The cavity length (e.g., 205000??m) and cavity height (e.g., 2001000?nm) can be varied, giving aspect ratios of, e.g., 20:1 to 25?000:1. Film conformality can be analyzed with the microscopic LHAR by several means, as demonstrated for the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} processes from Me{sub 3}Al/H{sub 2}O and TiCl{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O. The microscopic LHAR test structures introduced in this work expose a new parameter space for thin film conformality investigations expected to prove useful in the development, tuning and modeling of ALD and other chemical vapor deposition processes.

  16. Experimental research on heat transfer of natural convection in vertical rectangular channels with large aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Qing; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui [State Key Laboratory of Multi Phase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an JIaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Tian, Wenxi; Ye, Zhonghao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2010-01-15

    This work presents the experimental research on the steady laminar natural convection heat transfer of air in three vertical thin rectangular channels with different gap clearance. The much higher ratio of width to gap clearance (60-24) and the ratio of length to gap clearance (800-320) make the rectangular channels similar with the coolant flow passage in plate type fuel reactors. The vertical rectangular channels were composed of two stainless steal plates and were heated by electrical heating rods. The wall temperatures were detected with the K-type thermocouples which were inserted into the blind holes drilled in the steal plates. Also the air temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the channel were detected. The wall heat fluxes added to the air flow were calculated by the Fourier heat conduction law. The heat transfer characteristics were analyzed, and the average Nusselt numbers in all the three channels could be well correlated with the Rayleigh number or the modified Rayleigh number in a uniform correlation. Furthermore, the maximum wall temperatures were investigated, which is a key parameter for the fuel's integrity during some accidents. It was found that even the wall heat flux was up to 1500 W/m{sup 2}, the maximum wall temperature was lower than 350 C. All this work is valuable for the plate type reactor's design and safety analysis. (author)

  17. Mechanically stable, high aspect ratio, multifilar, wound, ribbon-type conductor and method for manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A mechanically stable, wound, multifilar, ribbon-type conductor having a cross-sectional aspect ratio which may be greater than 12:1, comprising a plurality of conductive strands wound to form a flattened helix containing a plastic strip into which the strands have been pressed so as to form a bond between the strip and the strands. The bond mechanically stabilizes the conductor under tension, preventing it from collapsing into a tubular configuration. In preferred embodiments the plastic strip may be polytetrafluoroethylene, and the conductive strands may be formed from a superconductive material. Conductors in accordance with the present invention may be manufactured by winding a plurality of conductive strands around a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of a hollow mandrel; the cross-section of the mandrel continuously varying from substantially circular to a high aspect ratio elipse while maintaining a constant circumference. The wound conductive strands are drawn from the mandrel as a multifilar helix while simultaneously a plastic strip is fed through the hollow mandrel so that it is contained within the helix as it is withdrawn from the mandrel. The helical conductor is then compressed into a ribbon-like form and the strands are bonded to the plastic strip by a combination of heat and pressure.

  18. Numerical estimation of adsorption energy distributions from adsorption isotherm data with the expectation-maximization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanley, B.J.; Guiochon, G. |

    1993-08-01

    The expectation-maximization (EM) method of parameter estimation is used to calculate adsorption energy distributions of molecular probes from their adsorption isotherms. EM does not require prior knowledge of the distribution function or the isotherm, requires no smoothing of the isotherm data, and converges with high stability towards the maximum-likelihood estimate. The method is therefore robust and accurate at high iteration numbers. The EM algorithm is tested with simulated energy distributions corresponding to unimodal Gaussian, bimodal Gaussian, Poisson distributions, and the distributions resulting from Misra isotherms. Theoretical isotherms are generated from these distributions using the Langmuir model, and then chromatographic band profiles are computed using the ideal model of chromatography. Noise is then introduced in the theoretical band profiles comparable to those observed experimentally. The isotherm is then calculated using the elution-by-characteristic points method. The energy distribution given by the EM method is compared to the original one. Results are contrasted to those obtained with the House and Jaycock algorithm HILDA, and shown to be superior in terms of robustness, accuracy, and information theory. The effect of undersampling of the high-pressure/low-energy region of the adsorption is reported and discussed for the EM algorithm, as well as the effect of signal-to-noise ratio on the degree of heterogeneity that may be estimated experimentally.

  19. Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor

    2002-08-31

    Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations. Previously developed isohyetal maps were utilized to determine the mean and standard deviation of precipitation within the area. A digital elevation model was obtained to provide elevation information. A geologic model was obtained to provide the spatial distribution of alluvial formations. Both were used to define the lower limit of recharge. In addition, 40 boreholes located in alluvial sediments were drilled and sampled in an attempt to support the argument that the areal distribution of alluvial sediments can be used to define a zone of negligible recharge. The data were compiled in a geographic information system and used in a Monte Carlo analysis to determine recharge occurring within the study area. Results of the analysis yielded estimates of the mean and standard deviation of recharge occurring within the study area (28.168 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 7.008 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}, and 26.838 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1} and 6.928 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} yr{sup -1}) for two sets of simulations using alternate definitions of the lower limit of recharge. A sensitivity analysis determined the recharge estimates were most sensitive to uncertainty associated with the chloride concentration of the spring discharge. The second most sensitive parameter was the uncertainty associated with the mean precipitation within the recharge areas. Comparison of the analysis to previously published estimates of recharge revealed mixed results with the recharge estimates derived during the course of this project generally greater relative to previously published estimates.

  20. Auger electron spectroscopy for the determination of sex and age related Ca/P ratio at different bone sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

    2010-10-15

    The Ca/P ratio of normal cortical and trabecular rat bone was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Semiquantitative analysis was carried out using ratio techniques to draw conclusions on how age, sex and bone site affect the relative composition of calcium and phosphorus. Results show that Ca/P ratio is not sex dependent; quite the opposite, bone sites exhibit variations in elemental stoichiometry where femoral sections demonstrate higher Ca/P ratio than rear and front tibias. Age-related changes are more distinct for cortical bone in comparison with the trabecular bone. The latter's Ca/P ratio remains unaffected from all the parameters under study. This study confirms that AES is able to successfully quantify bone mineral main elements when certain critical points, related to the experimental conditions, are addressed effectively.

  1. Biogenic opal germanium/silicon ratios used to monitor upwelling intensity in Newport Lagoon section, Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murnane, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    Empirical evidence and modeling of geochemical cycles of silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) suggest that opal Ge/Si ratios record water Ge/Si ratios although some fractionation of germanium from silicon occurs during biogenic opal formation. Modeling results also suggest that opal Ge/Si ratios could record changes in upwelling intensity. In today's oceans, areas of high productivity associated with upwelling show relatively elevated surface-water nutrient concentrations, whereas areas of low productivity with restricted upwelling exhibit low surface-water nutrient concentrations. Fractionation of germanium from silicon during biogenic opal formation would cause the surface ocean's Ge/Si ratio to increase as surface-water nutrient concentrations are lowered. Diatomites from the Newport Lagoon section of the Monterey Formation were analyzed to test the hypothesis that biogenic opal Ge/Si ratios could be used to trace upwelling intensity. Diatom assemblages of the Monterey Formation vary with upwelling intensity over a time scale of millions of years. Samples collected from the middle and late Miocene have high ratios (up to 8 x 10/sup -7/) when diatom assemblages indicate relatively weak upwelling, and low ratios (less than 6 x 10/sup -7/) when diatom assemblages indicate relatively strong upwelling. These ratios agree with modeling predictions. Opal Ge/Si ratios may also record upwelling fluctuations on much shorter times scales. Adjacent, centimeter-scale, lighter and darker layers record past variations in biogenic and terrigenous inputs to ocean-bottom sediments. Opal Ge/Si ratios may indicate whether the darker layers result from a relative decrease in surface-water productivity in response to a reduction in upwelling intensity, or only from a relative increase in terrigenous detrital inputs.

  2. Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study: Estimation Framework and Initial Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, Will R.; Goldberg, Miriam L.; Tanimoto, Paulo M.; Celnicker, Dane R.; Poplawski, Michael E.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. DOE Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Solid-State Lighting Program that aims to improve the understanding of lighting energy usage in residential dwellings. The study has developed a regional estimation framework within a national sample design that allows for the estimation of lamp usage and energy consumption 1) nationally and by region of the United States, 2) by certain household characteristics, 3) by location within the home, 4) by certain lamp characteristics, and 5) by certain categorical cross-classifications (e.g., by dwelling type AND lamp type or fixture type AND control type).

  3. Investigation of critical equivalence ratio and chemical speciation in flames of ethylbenzene-ethanol blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therrien, Richard J.; Ergut, Ali; Levendis, Yiannis A.; Richter, Henning; Howard, Jack B.; Carlson, Joel B.

    2010-02-15

    This work investigates five different one-dimensional, laminar, atmospheric pressure, premixed ethanol/ethylbenzene flames (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 90% ethanol by weight) at their soot onset threshold ({phi}{sub critical}). Liquid ethanol/ethylbenzene mixtures were pre-vaporized in nitrogen, blended with an oxygen-nitrogen mixture and, upon ignition, burned in premixed one-dimensional flames at atmospheric pressure. The flames were controlled so that each was at its visual soot onset threshold, and all had similar temperature profiles (determined by thermocouples). Fixed gases, light volatile hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons were directly sampled at three locations in each flame. The experimental results were compared with a detailed kinetic model, and the modeling results were used to perform a reaction flux analysis of key species. The critical equivalence ratio was observed to increase in a parabolic fashion as ethanol concentration increased in the fuel mixture. The experimental results showed increasing trends of methane, ethane, and ethylene with increasing concentrations of ethanol in the flames. Carbon monoxide was also seen to increase significantly with the increase of ethanol in the flame, which removes carbon from the PAH and soot formation pathways. The PAH and oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbon values were very similar in the 0%, 25% and 50% ethanol flames, but significantly lower in the 75% and 90% ethanol flames. These results were in general agreement with the model and were reflected by the model soot predictions. The model predicted similar soot profiles for the 0%, 25% and 50% ethanol flames, however it predicted significantly lower values in the 75% and 90% ethanol flames. The reaction flux analysis revealed benzyl to be a major contributor to single and double ring aromatics (i.e., benzene and naphthalene), which was identified in a similar role in nearly sooting or highly sooting ethylbenzene flames. The presence of this radical was significantly reduced as ethanol concentration was increased in the flames, and this effect in combination with the lower carbon to oxygen ratios and the enhanced formation of carbon monoxide, are likely what allowed higher equivalence ratios to be reached without forming soot. (author)

  4. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining mash left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one employing a quadrupole MS system for compound identification and an isotope ratio MS for measuring the stable isotope ratios of deuterium and hydrogen (D/H) in fatty acids. Finally, the method for analyzing the compound abundance data is included. This study indicates that removal of ricinoleic acid is a conserved consequence of each processing step we tested. Furthermore, the stable isotope D/H ratio of ricinoleic acid distinguished between two of the three castor seed sources. Concentrations of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucosamine and myo-inositol differentiated between crude or acetone extracted samples and samples produced by protein precipitation. Taken together these data illustrate the ability to distinguish between processes used to purify a ricin sample as well as potentially the source seeds.

  5. Mineralization and optical characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles using a high aspect ratio bio-template

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaman, Mohammed Shahriar [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Haberer, Elaine D., E-mail: haberer@ucr.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    Organized chains of copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized, without palladium (Pd) activation, using the M13 filamentous virus as a biological template. The interaction of Cu precursor ions with the negatively charged viral coat proteins were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Discrete nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.5 nm and narrow size distribution were closely spaced along the length of the high aspect ratio templates. The synthesized material was identified as a mixture of cubic Cu?O and monoclinic CuO. UV/Vis absorption measurements were completed and a direct optical band gap of 2.87 eV was determined using Tauc's method. This value was slightly larger than bulk, signaling quantum confinement effects within the templated materials.

  6. Multi-images deconvolution improves signal-to-noise ratio on gated stimulated emission depletion microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Vicidomini, Giuseppe

    2014-12-08

    Time-gated detection, namely, only collecting the fluorescence photons after a time-delay from the excitation events, reduces complexity, cost, and illumination intensity of a stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope. In the gated continuous-wave- (CW-) STED implementation, the spatial resolution improves with increased time-delay, but the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduces. Thus, in sub-optimal conditions, such as a low photon-budget regime, the SNR reduction can cancel-out the expected gain in resolution. Here, we propose a method which does not discard photons, but instead collects all the photons in different time-gates and recombines them through a multi-image deconvolution. Our results, obtained on simulated and experimental data, show that the SNR of the restored image improves relative to the gated image, thereby improving the effective resolution.

  7. Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio pertubation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiter, Paul A; Cooley, James; Kyrala, George; Wilson, Doug; Blue, Brent; Edwards, John; Robey, Harry; Spears, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials over predict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (< 1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.

  8. Flavor ratios of extragalactic neutrinos and neutrino shortcuts in extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aeikens, Elke; Päs, Heinrich; Pakvasa, Sandip; Sicking, Philipp

    2015-10-02

    The recent measurement of high energy extragalactic neutrinos by the IceCube Collaboration has opened a new window to probe non-standard neutrino properties. Among other effects, sterile neutrino altered dispersion relations (ADRs) due to shortcuts in an extra dimension can significantly affect astrophysical flavor ratios. We discuss two limiting cases of this effect, first active-sterile neutrino oscillations with a constant ADR potential and second an MSW-like resonant conversion arising from geodesics oscillating around the brane in an asymmetrically warped extra dimension. We demonstrate that the second case has the potential to suppress significantly the flux of specific flavors such as ν{sub μ} or ν{sub τ} at high energies.

  9. Nonlinear oscillations and waves in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Prabal Singh

    2011-12-15

    It is well known that nonlinear standing oscillations in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma always phase mix away. However, there exist nonlinear electron-ion traveling wave solutions, which do not exhibit phase mixing because they have zero ponderomotive force. The existence of these waves has been demonstrated using a perturbation method. Moreover, it is shown that cold plasma BGK waves [Albritton et al., Nucl. Fusion 15, 1199 (1975)] phase mix away if ions are allowed to move and the scaling of phase mixing is found to be different from earlier work [Sengupta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1867 (1999)]. Phase mixing of these waves has been further verified in 1-D particle in cell simulation.

  10. Performance of Cladding on MOX Fuel with Low 240Pu/239Pu Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, Kevin; Blanpain, Patrick; Morris, Robert Noel

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of its surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. As part of fuel qualification, four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod average burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the world s first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This paper discusses the results of those examinations with emphasis on cladding performance. Exams relevant to the cladding included visual and eddy current exams, profilometry, microscopy, hydrogen analysis, gallium analysis, and mechanical testing. There was no discernible effect of the type of MOX fuel on the performance of the cladding.

  11. Intrinsic low pass filtering improves signal-to-noise ratio in critical-point flexure biosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Ankit; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2014-08-25

    A flexure biosensor consists of a suspended beam and a fixed bottom electrode. The adsorption of the target biomolecules on the beam changes its stiffness and results in change of beam's deflection. It is now well established that the sensitivity of sensor is maximized close to the pull-in instability point, where effective stiffness of the beam vanishes. The question: Do the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit-of-detection (LOD) also improve close to the instability point?, however remains unanswered. In this article, we systematically analyze the noise response to evaluate SNR and establish LOD of critical-point flexure sensors. We find that a flexure sensor acts like an effective low pass filter close to the instability point due to its relatively small resonance frequency, and rejects high frequency noise, leading to improved SNR and LOD. We believe that our conclusions should establish the uniqueness and the technological relevance of critical-point biosensors.

  12. Nanopowder molding method for creating implantable high-aspect-ratio electrodes on thin flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Zhiyu [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2006-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles and a nanopowder molding process were used to fabricate 2D and 3D patternable structures having a height-to-width ratio of up to 10:1. By means of this process, an entire neural stimulation circuit, including stimulating electrode, connection trace, and contact pad, can be fused into one continuous, integrated structure where different sections can have different heights, widths, and shapes. The technique is suitable for mass production, and the fabricated electrode is robust and very flexible. More importantly for biomedical applications, the entire fabricated structure can be packed at room temperature onto a biocompatible flexible substrate, such as polydimethylsiloxane, parylene, and polyimide as well as other temperature-sensitive or vacuum-sensitive materials. The electrodes and wires have about the same electrical resistivities as bulk materials and desirable electrochemical properties, including low impedance.

  13. Measurement of the Branching Ratio Lambda_c+ -> p pi+ pi-

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Hinojosa, Guillermo; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2008-03-01

    The confirmation of the Cabibbo-suppressed charm baryon decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} is reported. All data analyzed are from SELEX, a fixed target experiment at Fermilab that took data during 1996 and 1997, mainly with a 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} beam. The branching ratio of the Cabibbo-suppressed decay mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} relative to the Cabibbo-favored mode {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +} is measured to be: {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Gamma}({Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.103 {+-} 0.022.

  14. IDC RP2 & 3 US Industry Standard Cost Estimate Summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, James M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  15. Maintaining low exhaust emissions with turbocharged gas engines using a feedback air-fuel ratio control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckard, D.W.; Serve, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    Maintaining low exhaust emissions on a turbocharged, natural gas engine through the speed and load range requires precise control of the air-fuel ratio. Changes in ambient conditions or fuel heating value will cause the air-fuel ratio to change substantially. By combining air-gas pressure with preturbine temperature control, the air-fuel ratio can be maintained regardless of changes in the ambient conditions or the fuel's heating value. Design conditions and operating results are presented for an air-fuel controller for a turbocharged engine.

  16. Practical in-situ determination of ortho-para hydrogen ratios via fiber-optic based Raman spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sutherland, Liese -Marie; Knudson, James N.; Mocko, Michal; Renneke, Richard M.

    2015-12-17

    An experiment was designed and developed to prototype a fiber-optic-based laser system, which measures the ratio of ortho-hydrogen to para-hydrogen in an operating neutron moderator system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) spallation neutron source. Preliminary measurements resulted in an ortho to para ratio of 3.06:1, which is within acceptable agreement with the previously published ratio. As a result, the successful demonstration of Raman Spectroscopy for this measurement is expected to lead to a practical method that can be applied for similar in-situ measurements at operating neutron spallation sources.

  17. Parameter estimation with Sandage-Loeb test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin E-mail: jfzhang@mail.neu.edu.cn

    2014-12-01

    The Sandage-Loeb (SL) test directly measures the expansion rate of the universe in the redshift range of 2 ∼< z ∼< 5 by detecting redshift drift in the spectra of Lyman-α forest of distant quasars. We discuss the impact of the future SL test data on parameter estimation for the ΛCDM, the wCDM, and the w{sub 0}w{sub a}CDM models. To avoid the potential inconsistency with other observational data, we take the best-fitting dark energy model constrained by the current observations as the fiducial model to produce 30 mock SL test data. The SL test data provide an important supplement to the other dark energy probes, since they are extremely helpful in breaking the existing parameter degeneracies. We show that the strong degeneracy between Ω{sub m} and H{sub 0} in all the three dark energy models is well broken by the SL test. Compared to the current combined data of type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillation, cosmic microwave background, and Hubble constant, the 30-yr observation of SL test could improve the constraints on Ω{sub m} and H{sub 0} by more than 60% for all the three models. But the SL test can only moderately improve the constraint on the equation of state of dark energy. We show that a 30-yr observation of SL test could help improve the constraint on constant w by about 25%, and improve the constraints on w{sub 0} and w{sub a} by about 20% and 15%, respectively. We also quantify the constraining power of the SL test in the future high-precision joint geometric constraints on dark energy. The mock future supernova and baryon acoustic oscillation data are simulated based on the space-based project JDEM. We find that the 30-yr observation of SL test would help improve the measurement precision of Ω{sub m}, H{sub 0}, and w{sub a} by more than 70%, 20%, and 60%, respectively, for the w{sub 0}w{sub a}CDM model.

  18. Tensor to scalar ratio and large scale power suppression from pre-slow roll initial conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lello, Louis; Boyanovsky, Daniel, E-mail: lal81@pitt.edu, E-mail: boyan@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We study the corrections to the power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r in single field slow roll inflation with standard kinetic term due to initial conditions imprinted by a ''fast-roll'' stage prior to slow roll. For a wide range of initial inflaton kinetic energy, this stage lasts only a few e-folds and merges smoothly with slow-roll thereby leading to non-Bunch-Davies initial conditions for modes that exit the Hubble radius during slow roll. We describe a program that yields the dynamics in the fast-roll stage while matching to the slow roll stage in a manner that is independent of the inflationary potentials. Corrections to the power spectra are encoded in a ''transfer function'' for initial conditions T{sub ?}(k), P{sub ?}(k) = P{sup BD}{sub ?}(k)T{sub ?}(k), implying a modification of the ''consistency condition'' for the tensor to scalar ratio at a pivot scale k{sub 0}: r(k{sub 0}) = ?8n{sub T}(k{sub 0})[T{sub T}(k{sub 0})/T{sub R}(k{sub 0})]. We obtain T{sub ?}(k) to leading order in a Born approximation valid for modes of observational relevance today. A fit yields T{sub ?}(k) = 1+A{sub ?}k{sup ?p}cos [2??k/H{sub sr}+?{sub ?}], with 1.5?ratio of kinetic to potential energy ? and the slow roll parameters ?{sub V}, ?{sub V} to leading order in slow roll. For a wide range of ? and the values of ?{sub V};?{sub V} corresponding to the upper bounds from Planck, we find that the low quadrupole is consistent with the results from Planck, and the oscillations in r(k{sub 0}) as a function of k{sub 0} could be observable if the modes corresponding to the quadrupole and the pivot scale crossed the Hubble radius very few (23) e-folds after the onset of slow roll. We comment on possible impact on the recent BICEP2 results.

  19. AN OVERVIEW OF TOOL FOR RESPONSE ACTION COST ESTIMATING (TRACE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERRIES SR; KLINK KL; OSTAPKOWICZ B

    2012-01-30

    Tools and techniques that provide improved performance and reduced costs are important to government programs, particularly in current times. An opportunity for improvement was identified for preparation of cost estimates used to support the evaluation of response action alternatives. As a result, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company has developed Tool for Response Action Cost Estimating (TRACE). TRACE is a multi-page Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} workbook developed to introduce efficiencies into the timely and consistent production of cost estimates for response action alternatives. This tool combines costs derived from extensive site-specific runs of commercially available remediation cost models with site-specific and estimator-researched and derived costs, providing the best estimating sources available. TRACE also provides for common quantity and key parameter links across multiple alternatives, maximizing ease of updating estimates and performing sensitivity analyses, and ensuring consistency.

  20. Distributed Dynamic State Estimator, Generator Parameter Estimation and Stability Monitoring Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meliopoulos, Sakis; Cokkinides, George; Fardanesh, Bruce; Hedrington, Clinton

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report for this project that was performed in the period: October1, 2009 to June 30, 2013. In this project, a fully distributed high-fidelity dynamic state estimator (DSE) that continuously tracks the real time dynamic model of a wide area system with update rates better than 60 times per second is achieved. The proposed technology is based on GPS-synchronized measurements but also utilizes data from all available Intelligent Electronic Devices in the system (numerical relays, digital fault recorders, digital meters, etc.). The distributed state estimator provides the real time model of the system not only the voltage phasors. The proposed system provides the infrastructure for a variety of applications and two very important applications (a) a high fidelity generating unit parameters estimation and (b) an energy function based transient stability monitoring of a wide area electric power system with predictive capability. Also the dynamic distributed state estimation results are stored (the storage scheme includes data and coincidental model) enabling an automatic reconstruction and “play back” of a system wide disturbance. This approach enables complete play back capability with fidelity equal to that of real time with the advantage of “playing back” at a user selected speed. The proposed technologies were developed and tested in the lab during the first 18 months of the project and then demonstrated on two actual systems, the USVI Water and Power Administration system and the New York Power Authority’s Blenheim-Gilboa pumped hydro plant in the last 18 months of the project. The four main thrusts of this project, mentioned above, are extremely important to the industry. The DSE with the achieved update rates (more than 60 times per second) provides a superior solution to the “grid visibility” question. The generator parameter identification method fills an important and practical need of the industry. The “energy function” based transient stability monitoring opens up new ways to protect the power grid, better manage disturbances, confine their impact and in general improve the reliability and security of the system. Finally, as a by-product of the proposed research project, the developed system is able to “play back” disturbances by a click of a mouse. The importance of this by-product is evident by considering the tremendous effort exerted after the August 2003 blackout to piece together all the disturbance recordings, align them and recreate the sequence of events. This project has moved the state of art from fault recording by individual devices to system wide disturbance recording with “play back” capability.

  1. Matrix Methods for Estimating the Coherence Functions from Estimates of the Cross-Spectral Density Matrix

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smallwood, D. O.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the usual method for estimating the coherence functions (ordinary, partial, and multiple) for a general multiple-input! multiple-output problem can be expressed as a modified form of Cholesky decomposition of the cross-spectral density matrix of the input and output records. The results can be equivalently obtained using singular value decomposition (SVD) of the cross-spectral density matrix. Using SVD suggests a new form of fractional coherence. The formulation as a SVD problem also suggests a way to order the inputs when a natural physical order of the inputs is absent.

  2. Estimation of Heavy Ion Densities From Linearly Polarized EMIC Waves At Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-02-24

    Linearly polarized EMIC waves are expected to concentrate at the location where their wave frequency satisfies the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance condition as the result of a mode conversion process. In this letter, we evaluate absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance in the Earth geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of helium and azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers in dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentration, it only occurs for a limited range of azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Our results suggest that, at L = 6.6, linearly polarized EMIC waves can be generated via mode conversion from the compressional waves near the crossover frequency. Consequently, the heavy ion concentration ratio can be estimated from observations of externally generated EMIC waves that have polarization.

  3. A new maximum-likelihood change estimator for two-pass SAR coherent change detection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.; Jakowatz, Jr., Charles V.; Simonson, Katherine Mary

    2016-01-11

    In past research, two-pass repeat-geometry synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD) predominantly utilized the sample degree of coherence as a measure of the temporal change occurring between two complex-valued image collects. Previous coherence-based CCD approaches tend to show temporal change when there is none in areas of the image that have a low clutter-to-noise power ratio. Instead of employing the sample coherence magnitude as a change metric, in this paper, we derive a new maximum-likelihood (ML) temporal change estimate—the complex reflectance change detection (CRCD) metric to be used for SAR coherent temporal change detection. The new CRCD estimatormore » is a surprisingly simple expression, easy to implement, and optimal in the ML sense. As a result, this new estimate produces improved results in the coherent pair collects that we have tested.« less

  4. CAN DUST EMISSION BE USED TO ESTIMATE THE MASS OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN GALAXIES-A PILOT PROJECT WITH THE HERSCHEL REFERENCE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eales, Stephen; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Auld, Robbie; Davies, Jon; Gear, Walter; Gomez, Haley; Baes, Maarten; De Looze, Ilse; Gentile, Gianfranco; Fritz, Jacopo; Bendo, George J.; Bianchi, Simone; Boselli, Alessandro; Ciesla, Laure; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Cortese, Luca; Galametz, Maud; Hughes, Tom; Madden, Suzanne [Laboratoire AIM, CEA and others

    2012-12-20

    The standard method for estimating the mass of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a galaxy is to use the 21 cm line to trace the atomic gas and the CO 1-0 line to trace the molecular gas. In this paper, we investigate the alternative technique of using the continuum dust emission to estimate the mass of gas in all phases of the ISM. Using Herschel observations of 10 galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey and the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, we show that the emission detected by Herschel is mostly from dust that has a temperature and emissivity index similar to that of dust in the local ISM in our galaxy, with the temperature generally increasing toward the center of each galaxy. We calibrate the dust method using the CO and 21 cm observations to provide an independent estimate of the mass of hydrogen in each galaxy, solving the problem of the uncertain ''X-factor'' for the CO observations by minimizing the dispersion in the ratio of the masses estimated using the two methods. With the calibration for the dust method and the estimate of the X-factor produced in this way, the dispersion in the ratio of the two gas masses is 25%. The calibration we obtain for the dust method is similar to those obtained from Herschel observations of M31 and from Planck observations of the Milky Way. We discuss the practical problems in using this method.

  5. Battery Calendar Life Estimator Manual Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen; Ira Bloom; Ed Thomas; Vince Battaglia

    2012-10-01

    The Battery Life Estimator (BLE) Manual has been prepared to assist developers in their efforts to estimate the calendar life of advanced batteries for automotive applications. Testing requirements and procedures are defined by the various manuals previously published under the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). The purpose of this manual is to describe and standardize a method for estimating calendar life based on statistical models and degradation data acquired from typical USABC battery testing.

  6. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review | Department of Energy Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for

  7. Estimating emissions of 20 VOCs. 2: Diffused aeration (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Estimating emissions of 20 VOCs. 2: Diffused aeration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating emissions of 20 VOCs. 2: Diffused aeration A relationship developed in a companion paper to estimate emissions from surface-aerated reactors that accounts for both gas- and liquid-phase mass-transfer resistances is extended to reactors with diffused-aeration systems. The method accurately predicts the observed stripping rate of 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with

  8. The Efficacy of Galaxy Shape Parameters in Photometric Redshift Estimation:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Neural Network Approach (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: The Efficacy of Galaxy Shape Parameters in Photometric Redshift Estimation: A Neural Network Approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Efficacy of Galaxy Shape Parameters in Photometric Redshift Estimation: A Neural Network Approach We present a determination of the effects of including galaxy morphological parameters in photometric redshift estimation with an

  9. Using Photogrammetry to Estimate Tank Waste Volumes from Video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Jim G.

    2013-03-27

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted with HiLine Engineering & Fabrication, Inc. to assess the accuracy of photogrammetry tools as compared to video Camera/CAD Modeling System (CCMS) estimates. This test report documents the results of using photogrammetry to estimate the volume of waste in tank 241-C-I04 from post-retrieval videos and results using photogrammetry to estimate the volume of waste piles in the CCMS test video.

  10. ARM - Evaluation Product - Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (RIPBE) ProductsRadiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) The Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP combines multiple input datastreams, each with their own temporal

  11. Methodology for EIA Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methodology for EIA Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Estimates Latest Update: November 16, 2015 This report consists of the following sections: Survey and Survey Processing - a description of the survey and an overview of the program Sampling - a description of the selection process used to identify companies in the survey Estimation - how the regional estimates are prepared from the collected data Computing the Five-year Averages, Maxima, Minima, and Year-Ago Values for the Weekly Natural

  12. Estimating the Wind Resource in Uttarakhand: Comparison of Dynamic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Downscaling with Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements | Department of Energy Estimating the Wind Resource in Uttarakhand: Comparison of Dynamic Downscaling with Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements Estimating the Wind Resource in Uttarakhand: Comparison of Dynamic Downscaling with Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements Previous estimates of the wind resources in Uttarakhand, India, suggest minimal wind resources in this region. To explore whether or not the complex terrain in fact provides localized regions

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - Cost Estimating for Hydro Planning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost Estimating for Hydropower Project Planning M Th Mona Thomason Chief, Product Coordination Branch Hydroelectric Design Center 13 J 2012 13 June 2012 US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG ® Overview Overview  Background g  USACE hydropower project cost estimating y p p j g process  Challenges in cost estimating & strategies for mitigation of cost risk BUILDING STRONG ® HYDROELECTRIC DESIGN CENTER 2 USACE regulations USACE regulations  ER 1110-1-1300 Cost Engineering

  14. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Industrial Water Use Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use Document describes a systematic approach to estimate industrial water use in evaporative cooling systems, steam boiler systems, and facility wash applications. It assists Federal agencies in the baseline development by providing a methodology to calculate unmetered sources of industrial water use utilizing engineering estimates. PDF icon est_unmetered_industrial_wtr.pdf More Documents & Publications

  15. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and...

  16. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 Presentations Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Day 1 Presentations On September 30 and October 1, 2014, the Department of Energy...

  17. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 Presentations Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Day 2 Presentations On September 30 and October 1, 2014, the Department of Energy...

  18. Estimation of Gas Leak Rates Through Very Small Orifices

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Estimation of Gas Leak Rates Through Very Small Orifices and Channels by Herbert J. Bomelburg February 1977 Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission -..- Pacific Northwest...

  19. On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer properties using tracer data Authors: Kowalsky, M. B. ; Finsterle, S. ; Commer, M. ; Williams, K. H. ; ...

  20. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation...

  1. Report Now Available: DC Microgrids Scoping Study--Estimate of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Technical and Economic Benefits (March 2015) Report Now Available: DC Microgrids Scoping Study--Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits (March 2015) March 31, ...

  2. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and ... 2. Capacity additions and growth II. Economic Potential 1. Summary of initial results ...

  3. Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22, 2002-July 22, 2002 A report showing a comparative scooping economic analysis of 19 pathways for ...

  4. Issues and Methods for Estimating the Percentage Share of Ethanol...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration 1 Issues and Methods for Estimating the Share of Ethanol in the Motor Gasoline Supply U.S. Energy Information Administration October 6, 2011...

  5. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy ...

  6. Estimating the Opportunity Cost of REDD+: A Training Manual ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Opportunity Cost of REDD+: A Training Manual Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Estimating the Opportunity Cost of REDD+: A Training Manual Agency...

  7. Cost Estimating Guide - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, Cost Estimating Guide by Ruben Sanchez Functional areas: Budget and Financial Management, Financial Management This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that...

  8. Output-Based Error Estimation and Adaptation for Uncertainty...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Output-Based Error Estimation and Adaptation for Uncertainty Quantification Isaac M. Asher and Krzysztof J. Fidkowski University of Michigan US National Congress on Computational...

  9. Battery Life Estimation (BLE) and Data Analysis - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Battery Life Estimation (BLE) and Data Analysis Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About...

  10. Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    research and development for electricity storage technologies and applications. PDF icon EAC - Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets Oct ...

  11. Quality Guidline for Cost Estimation Methodology for NETL Assessments...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Benefits 2 Power Plant Cost Estimation Methodology Quality Guidelines for Energy System Studies April 2011 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work...

  12. Analytical Estimations for Thermal Crosstalk Retention and Scaling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Scaling Limits in Resistive Memory. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analytical Estimations for Thermal Crosstalk Retention and Scaling Limits in Resistive Memory. ...

  13. Derivative-free optimization for parameter estimation in computational...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in computational nuclear physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Derivative-free optimization for parameter estimation in computational nuclear physics Authors: ...

  14. Wind Resource Estimation and Mapping at the National Renewable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resource Estimation and Mapping at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory April 1999 * NRELCP-500-26245 M. Schwartz Presented at the ASES Solar '99 Conference Portland, Maine...

  15. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  16. ,"New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  17. ,"Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Estimated Production (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013...

  18. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual...

  19. Regional Scale Surface CO2 Exchange Estimates Using a Boundary...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimates Using a Boundary Layer Budget Method over the Southern Great Plains Williams, Ian University of Chicago Riley, William Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory...

  20. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy savings ...

  1. A Simple, Fast Method of Estimating Fractured Reservoir Geometry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fractured Reservoir Geometry from Tracer Tests Abstract A simple method of estimating flow geometry and pore geometry from conservative tracer tests in single phase geothermal...

  2. Estimation of the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Estimation of the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use Citation Details ...

  3. Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of carbon stocks and flux, and the uncertainties inherent in each approach. The alternative approaches to estimating continental scale carbon fluxes that we explored here can...

  4. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates....

  5. Retrofit Energy Savings Estimation Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desktop Application Website: btech.lbl.govtoolsresemresem.htm Cost: Free Language: English References: Retrofit Energy Savings Estimation Model1 Logo: Retrofit...

  6. Estimating the Wind Resource in Uttarakhand: Comparison of Dynamic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Previous estimates of the wind resources in Uttarakhand, India, suggest minimal wind resources in this region. To explore whether or not the complex terrain in fact provides ...

  7. Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    applied to thermal systems of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, Long Valley, California, and Raft River, Idaho to estimate deep reservoir temperatures of 360, 240, and 142C,...

  8. A Protocol for Estimating and Mapping Global EGS Potential |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with public Reporting Codes * Present results using common visualization and data architecture The goal of the Protocol is the production of regional estimates and maps of EGS...

  9. Optimization of Drive-Bunch Current Profile for Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Beam-Driven Acceleration Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Prokop, C.R.; Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2012-07-08

    In recent years, wakefield acceleration has gained attention due to its high acceleration gradients and cost effectiveness. In beam-driven wakefield acceleration, a critical parameter to optimize is the transformer ratio. It has been shown that current shaping of electron beams allows for enhanced (> 2) transformer ratios. In this paper we present the optimization of the pulse shape of the drive bunch for dielectric-wakefield acceleration.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of large arrays of mesoscopic gold rings on large-aspect-ratio cantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngo, D. Q.; Petkovi?, I. Lollo, A.; Castellanos-Beltran, M. A.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2014-10-15

    We have fabricated large arrays of mesoscopic metal rings on ultrasensitive cantilevers. The arrays are defined by electron beam lithography and contain up to 10{sup 5} rings. The rings have a circumference of 1 ?m, and are made of ultrapure (6N) Au that is deposited onto a silicon-on-insulator wafer without an adhesion layer. Subsequent processing of the SOI wafer results in each array being supported at the end of a free-standing cantilever. To accommodate the large arrays while maintaining a low spring constant, the cantilevers are nearly 1 mm in both lateral dimensions and 100 nm thick. The extreme aspect ratio of the cantilevers, the large array size, and the absence of a sticking layer are intended to enable measurements of the rings' average persistent current in the presence of relatively small magnetic fields. We describe the motivation for these measurements, the fabrication of the devices, and the characterization of the cantilevers' mechanical properties. We also discuss the devices' expected performance in measurements of .

  11. Etching high aspect ratio (110) silicon grooves in CsOH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, S.; Hesketh, P.J.; Macrander, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    In a previous study the authors developed a fabrication process for a single-crystal silicon X-ray analyzer for use at the Advanced Photon Source, a 6 GeV synchrotron accelerator ring under construction at Argonne National Laboratories. The bent silicon crystal will be used as an analyzer to collect and focus a monochromatic beam of X-rays by Bragg reflection with an energy resolution better than 10 meV for the (hhh) planes (H>6) for diffraction near backscattering. The cross-sectional geometry produced by anisotropic etching high aspect ratio (height/width = 115) silicon grooves with CSOH was studied as a function of the solution concentration. At 50 weight percent (w/o) CSOH straight sidewalls are produced, but at 15 and 25 w/o re-entrant tapered profiles are produced. The etch rates are increased in the groove by 25--100% indicating diffusion effects. The etch rate of the surface was in agreement with previous studies of CSOH etching, but unable to predict the dimensional changes in the grooves.

  12. DEEP, LOW MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XIII. DZ PISCIUM WITH INTRINSIC LIGHT VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B. E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn

    2013-08-01

    New multi-color photometry for the eclipsing binary DZ Psc was performed in 2011 and 2012 using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code, we deduced two sets of photometric solutions. The overcontact degree is f = 89.7({+-} 1.0)%, identifying DZ Psc as a deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary. The asymmetric light curves (i.e., LC{sub 2} in 2012) were modeled by a hot spot on the primary star. Based on all of the available light minimum times, we discovered that the orbital period of DZ Psc may be undergoing a secular period increase with a cyclic variation. The modulated period and semi-amplitude of this oscillation are P{sub mod} = 11.89({+-} 0.19) yr and A = 0.0064({+-} 0.0006) days, which may be possibly attributed to either cyclic magnetic activity or light-time effect due to the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt=+7.43({+-}0.17) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted as conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transferring, DZ Psc will finally merge into a rapid-rotation single star when J{sub spin}/J{sub orb} > 1/3.

  13. Formation of compressed flat electron beams with high transverse-emittance ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, J.; Piot, P.; Mihalcea, D.; Prokop, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    Flat beamsbeams with asymmetric transverse emittanceshave important applications in novel light-source concepts and advanced-acceleration schemes and could possibly alleviate the need for damping rings in lepton colliders. Over the last decade, a flat beam generation technique based on the conversion of an angular-momentum-dominated beam was proposed and experimentally tested. In this paper we explore the production of compressed flat beams. We especially investigate and optimize the flat beam transformation for beams with substantial fractional energy spread. We use as a simulation example the photoinjector of Fermilabs Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator. The optimizations of the flat beam generation and compression at Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator were done via start-to-end numerical simulations for bunch charges of 3.2 nC, 1.0 nC, and 20 pC at ?37??MeV. The optimized emittances of flat beams with different bunch charges were found to be 0.25???m (emittance ratio is ?400), 0.13????m, 15 nm before compression, and 0.41???m, 0.20???m, 16 nm after full compression, respectively, with peak currents as high as 5.5 kA for a 3.2?nC flat beam. These parameters are consistent with requirements needed to excite wakefields in asymmetric dielectric-lined waveguides or produce significant photon flux using small-gap micro-undulators.

  14. Literature review of the concentration ratios of selected radionuclides in freshwater and marine fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Concentration ratios (CR's) used for modeling the uptake and food chain transport of radionuclides in fish have usually been conservative; that is, at the high end of reported values. This practice ensures that the dose to the consumer of contaminated fish will not be underestimated. In many models, however, conservative values have been used for all variables that have any uncertainty associated with them. As a result the dose to the consumer is overestimated. Realistic CR values need to be developed to establish model parameters that will accurately reflect tissue burdens in fish and resulting dose rates to consumers. This report reviews and summarizes published literature on the uptake and distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes of 26 elements. Based on this review, we have made recommendations on CR values to be used for modeling the accumulation of radionuclides in fish. Our recommendations are compared with CR values reported in other publications. A generic discussion of abiotic and biotic factors that influence CR values is provided so that CR values may be adjusted based on site-specific characteristics of the fishes habitat. Recommended CR values for freshwater fish and for marine fish are listed. Although this report emphasizes radionuclides, it is applicable to stable elements as well.

  15. Kinetic electron and ion instability of the lunar wake simulated at physical mass ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haakonsen, Christian Bernt Hutchinson, Ian H. Zhou, Chuteng

    2015-03-15

    The solar wind wake behind the moon is studied with 1D electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using a physical ion to electron mass ratio (unlike prior investigations); the simulations also apply more generally to supersonic flow of dense magnetized plasma past non-magnetic objects. A hybrid electrostatic Boltzmann electron treatment is first used to investigate the ion stability in the absence of kinetic electron effects, showing that the ions are two-stream unstable for downstream wake distances (in lunar radii) greater than about three times the solar wind Mach number. Simulations with PIC electrons are then used to show that kinetic electron effects can lead to disruption of the ion beams at least three times closer to the moon than in the hybrid simulations. This disruption occurs as the result of a novel wake phenomenon: the non-linear growth of electron holes spawned from a narrow dimple in the electron velocity distribution. Most of the holes arising from the dimple are small and quickly leave the wake, approximately following the unperturbed electron phase-space trajectories, but some holes originating near the center of the wake remain and grow large enough to trigger disruption of the ion beams. Non-linear kinetic-electron effects are therefore essential to a comprehensive understanding of the 1D electrostatic stability of such wakes, and possible observational signatures in ARTEMIS data from the lunar wake are discussed.

  16. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-17

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

  17. High aspect ratio iridescent three-dimensional metalinsulatormetal capacitors using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Micheal, E-mail: micheal.burke@tyndall.ie; Blake, Alan; Djara, Vladimir; O'Connell, Dan; Povey, Ian M.; Cherkaoui, Karim; Monaghan, Scott; Scully, Jim; Murphy, Richard; Hurley, Paul K.; Pemble, Martyn E.; Quinn, Aidan J., E-mail: aidan.quinn@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the structural and electrical properties of TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiN metalinsulatormetal (MIM) capacitor structures in submicron three-dimensional (3D) trench geometries with an aspect ratio of ?30. A simplified process route was employed where the three layers for the MIM stack were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a single run at a process temperature of 250?C. The TiN top and bottom electrodes were deposited via plasma-enhanced ALD using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor. 3D trench devices yielded capacitance densities of 36 fF/?m{sup 2} and quality factors >65 at low frequency (200?Hz), with low leakage current densities (<3 nA/cm{sup 2} at 1 V). These devices also show strong optical iridescence which, when combined with the covert embedded capacitance, show potential for system in package (SiP) anticounterfeiting applications.

  18. California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S.

    2005-11-01

    Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

  19. O/M RATIO MEASUREMENT IN PURE AND MIXED OXIDE FULES - WHERE ARE WE NOW?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. RUBIN; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio is one of the most critical parameters of nuclear fuel fabrication, and its measurement is closely monitored for manufacturing process control and to ensure the service behavior of the final product. Thermogravimetry is the most widely used method, the procedure for which has remained largely unchanged since its development some thirty years ago. It was not clear to us, however, that this method is still the optimum one in light of advances in instrumentation, and in the current regulatory environment, particularly with regard to waste management and disposal. As part of the MOX fuel fabrication program at Los Alamos, we conducted a comprehensive review of methods for O/M measurements in UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and mixed oxide fuels for thermal reactors. A concerted effort was made to access information not available in the open literature. We identified approximately thirty five experimental methods that (a) have been developed with the intent of measuring O/M, (b) provided O/M indirectly by suitable reduction of the measured data, or (c) could provide O/M data with suitable data reduction or when combined with other methods. We will discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods in their application to current routine and small-lot production environment.

  20. Estimating transport properties of mortars using image analysis on backscattered electron images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, H.S. . E-mail: hong.wong@imperial.ac.uk; Buenfeld, N.R.; Head, M.K.

    2006-08-15

    The pore structure of two ordinary Portland cement mortars at water-cement ratio of 0.35 and 0.70 was characterised using quantitative backscattered electron imaging. The mortars were cured and conditioned to produce a range of pore structure characteristics. Image analysis was used to characterise the pore structure in terms of simple morphological parameters such as resolvable porosity and the specific surface area. These were found to be correlated to measured transport coefficients (diffusivity, permeability and sorptivity), suggesting the feasibility of image analysis to derive valuable quantitative information describing the pore structure that can be used as input values for a transport prediction model. A simple analytical model incorporating tortuosity and constrictivity was used to predict oxygen diffusivity and a variant of the Kozeny-Carman model was used to predict oxygen permeability. The diffusion model tended to over-predict for the lower w/c ratio mortar, but the general agreement was reasonable, with 90% of the estimated values within a factor of two from the measured values. The modified Kozeny-Carman model, however, over-predicted all permeability values with an error of between half to one order of magnitude.

  1. Improved estimates of rare K decay matrix elements from K{sub l3} decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mescia, Federico; Smith, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    The estimation of rare K decay matrix elements from K{sub l3} experimental data is extended beyond LO in chiral perturbation theory. Isospin-breaking effects at next-to-leading order (and partially next-to-next-to-leading order) in the chiral perturbation theory expansion, as well as QED radiative corrections, are now accounted for. The analysis relies mainly on the cleanness of two specific ratios of form factors, for which the theoretical control is excellent. As a result, the uncertainties on the K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu} and K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{nu} matrix elements are reduced by a factor of about 7 and 4, respectively, and similarly for the direct CP-violating contributions to K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}e{sup -} and K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. They could be reduced even further with better experimental data for the K{sub l3} slopes and the K{sub l3}{sup +} branching ratios. As a result, the nonparametric errors for B(K{yields}{pi}{nu}{nu}) and for the direct CP-violating contributions to B(K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}l{sup +}l{sup -}) are now completely dominated by those on the short-distance physics.

  2. Concurrent signal combining and channel estimation in digital communications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ormesher, Richard C. (Albuquerque, NM); Mason, John J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-30

    In the reception of digital information transmitted on a communication channel, a characteristic exhibited by the communication channel during transmission of the digital information is estimated based on a communication signal that represents the digital information and has been received via the communication channel. Concurrently with the estimating, the communication signal is used to decide what digital information was transmitted.

  3. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operating Procedures | Department of Energy INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures PDF icon ICR_ICE SOP_Sep 2013_Final.pdf More Documents & Publications ICR-ICE Standard Operating Procedures (Update Sept 2013) Contractor SOW Template - ICR Contractor SOW Template - ICE

  4. Cost estimating issues in the Russian integrated system planning context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allentuck, J.

    1996-03-01

    An important factor in the credibility of an optimal capacity expansion plan is the accuracy of cost estimates given the uncertainty of future economic conditions. This paper examines the problems associated with estimating investment and operating costs in the Russian nuclear power context over the period 1994 to 2010.

  5. Estimating the spatio-temporal distribution of geochemical parameters

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    associated with biostimulation using spectral induced polarization data and hierarchical Bayesian models (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Estimating the spatio-temporal distribution of geochemical parameters associated with biostimulation using spectral induced polarization data and hierarchical Bayesian models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating the spatio-temporal distribution of geochemical parameters associated with biostimulation using spectral induced polarization

  6. The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xie,Shaocheng; Qi, Tang

    The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set merges together key surface measurements at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate data application. Data from the original site locations can be found in the ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set.

  7. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  8. Sensitivity of health risk estimates to air quality adjustment procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R.G.

    1997-06-30

    This letter is a summary of risk results associated with exposure estimates using two-parameter Weibull and quadratic air quality adjustment procedures (AQAPs). New exposure estimates were developed for children and child-occurrences, six urban areas, and five alternative air quality scenarios. In all cases, the Weibull and quadratic results are compared to previous results, which are based on a proportional AQAP.

  9. The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie,Shaocheng; Qi, Tang

    2015-06-15

    The ARM Best Estimate 2-dimensional Gridded Surface (ARMBE2DGRID) data set merges together key surface measurements at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate data application. Data from the original site locations can be found in the ARM Best Estimate Station-based Surface (ARMBESTNS) data set.

  10. Measurement of $B_s^0 \\to D_s^{(*)+} D_s^{(*)-}$ Branching Ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; /Dubna, JINR /Texas A-M

    2012-04-01

    The decays B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+}D{sub s}{sup (*)-}s are reconstructed in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.8 fb{sup -1} collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron p{bar p} collider. All decay modes are observed with a significance of more than 10 {sigma}, and we measure the B{sub s}{sup 0} production rate times B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+} D{sub s}{sup (*)-} branching ratios relative to the normalization mode B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}d{sup -} to be 0.183 {+-} 0.021 {+-} 0.017 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, 0.424 {+-} 0.046 {+-} 0.035 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup {+-}} D{sub s}{sup {-+}}, 0.654 {+-} 0.072 {+-} 0.065 for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup *+} D{sub s}{sup *-}, and 1.261 {+-} 0.095 {+-} 0.112 for the inclusive decay B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup (*)+}D{sub s}{sup (*)-}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic. These results are the most precise single measurements to date and provide important constraints for indirect searches for non-standard model physics in B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing.

  11. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the studys results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by radionuclide releases) of waste disposal facilities and decommissioning sites.

  12. How to Estimate the Value of Service Reliability Improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Michael J.; Mercurio, Matthew G.; Schellenberg, Josh A.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2010-06-08

    A robust methodology for estimating the value of service reliability improvements is presented. Although econometric models for estimating value of service (interruption costs) have been established and widely accepted, analysts often resort to applying relatively crude interruption cost estimation techniques in assessing the economic impacts of transmission and distribution investments. This paper first shows how the use of these techniques can substantially impact the estimated value of service improvements. A simple yet robust methodology that does not rely heavily on simplifying assumptions is presented. When a smart grid investment is proposed, reliability improvement is one of the most frequently cited benefits. Using the best methodology for estimating the value of this benefit is imperative. By providing directions on how to implement this methodology, this paper sends a practical, usable message to the industry.

  13. Kalman filter data assimilation: Targeting observations and parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellsky, Thomas Kostelich, Eric J.; Mahalov, Alex

    2014-06-15

    This paper studies the effect of targeted observations on state and parameter estimates determined with Kalman filter data assimilation (DA) techniques. We first provide an analytical result demonstrating that targeting observations within the Kalman filter for a linear model can significantly reduce state estimation error as opposed to fixed or randomly located observations. We next conduct observing system simulation experiments for a chaotic model of meteorological interest, where we demonstrate that the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with targeted observations based on largest ensemble variance is skillful in providing more accurate state estimates than the LETKF with randomly located observations. Additionally, we find that a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter parameter estimation method accurately updates model parameters within the targeted observation context to further improve state estimation.

  14. Being WISE. I. Validating stellar population models and M {sub *}/L ratios at 3.4 and 4.6 ?m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Mark A.; Meidt, Sharon; Van de Ven, Glenn; Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Querejeta, Miguel

    2014-12-10

    Using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission, we have measured near infra-red (NIR) photometry of a diverse sample of dust-free stellar systems (globular clusters, dwarf and giant early-type galaxies) which have metallicities that span the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] (dex) < 0.3. This dramatically increases the sample size and broadens the metallicity regime over which the 3.4 (W1) and 4.6 ?m (W2) photometry of stellar populations have been examined. We find that the W1 W2 colors of intermediate and old (>2 Gyr) stellar populations are insensitive to the age of the stellar population, but that the W1 W2 colors become bluer with increasing metallicity, a trend not well reproduced by most stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. In common with previous studies, we attribute this behavior to the increasing strength of the CO absorption feature located in the 4.6 ?m bandpass with metallicity. Having used our sample to validate the efficacy of some of the SPS models, we use these models to derive stellar mass-to-light ratios in the W1 and W2 bands. Utilizing observational data from the SAURON and ATLAS3D surveys, we demonstrate that these bands provide extremely simple, yet robust stellar mass tracers for dust free older stellar populations that are freed from many of the uncertainties common among optical estimators.

  15. Low temperature plasma channels generated in microcavity trenches with widths of 20-150 {mu}m and aspect ratios as large as 10{sup 4}:1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, M.; Park, S.-J.; Cunningham, B. T.; Eden, J. G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2008-03-10

    Low temperature plasma channels with widths as small as 20 {mu}m, cross-sectional areas of 400-12 000 {mu}m{sup 2}, and aspect ratios (channel length to width) of up to 10{sup 4}:1 have been generated on a steady state basis within sealed microcavity trenches fabricated by replica molding. With lengths up to 1 m and volumes of 10{sup -5}-{approx}10{sup -2} cm{sup 3}, these channels are situated in a dielectric barrier structure having a transverse, buried electrode geometry and are sustained by power loadings as high as {approx}1.2 kW cm{sup -3}. Current densities of {approx}5-10 A cm{sup -2} and estimated electron densities of {approx}10{sup 11}-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} are produced with a 20 kHz sinusoidal voltage of V{sub rms}=225-325 V, rendering these channels of interest as on-chip plasma reactors or nonlinear optical conversion media. With the transversely excited, photolithographically defined microcavity structures reported here, plasma channels of at least several meters in length, and having an arbitrary, folded geometric pattern, can be generated.

  16. Poisson's ratio of collagen fibrils measured by small angle X-ray scattering of strained bovine pericardium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Hannah C.; Sizeland, Katie H.; Kayed, Hanan R.; Haverkamp, Richard G.; Kirby, Nigel; Hawley, Adrian; Mudie, Stephen T.

    2015-01-28

    Type I collagen is the main structural component of skin, tendons, and skin products, such as leather. Understanding the mechanical performance of collagen fibrils is important for understanding the mechanical performance of the tissues that they make up, while the mechanical properties of bulk tissue are well characterized, less is known about the mechanical behavior of individual collagen fibrils. In this study, bovine pericardium is subjected to strain while small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns are recorded using synchrotron radiation. The change in d-spacing, which is a measure of fibril extension, and the change in fibril diameter are determined from SAXS. The tissue is strained 0.25 (25%) with a corresponding strain in the collagen fibrils of 0.045 observed. The ratio of collagen fibril width contraction to length extension, or the Poisson's ratio, is 2.1 ± 0.7 for a tissue strain from 0 to 0.25. This Poisson's ratio indicates that the volume of individual collagen fibrils decreases with increasing strain, which is quite unlike most engineering materials. This high Poisson's ratio of individual fibrils may contribute to high Poisson's ratio observed for tissues, contributing to some of the remarkable properties of collagen-based materials.

  17. DNC/HNC RATIO OF MASSIVE CLUMPS IN EARLY EVOLUTIONARY STAGES OF HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Hirota, Tomoya

    2012-03-10

    We have observed the HN{sup 13}C J = 1-0 and DNC J = 1-0 lines toward 18 massive clumps, including infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), by using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. We have found that the HN{sup 13}C emission is stronger than the DNC emission toward all of the observed sources. The averaged DNC/HNC ratio is indeed lower toward the observed high-mass sources (0.009 {+-} 0.005) than toward the low-mass starless and star-forming cores (0.06). The kinetic temperature derived from the NH{sub 3} (J, K) = (1, 1) and (2, 2) line intensities is higher toward the observed high-mass sources than toward the low-mass cores. However, the DNC/HNC ratio of some IRDCs involving the Spitzer 24 {mu}m sources is found to be lower than that of HMPOs, although the kinetic temperature of the IRDCs is lower than that of the HMPOs. This implies that the DNC/HNC ratio does not depend only on the current kinetic temperature. With the aid of chemical model simulations, we discuss how the DNC/HNC ratio decreases after the birth of protostars. We suggest that the DNC/HNC ratio in star-forming cores depends on the physical conditions and history in their starless-core phase, such as its duration time and the gas kinetic temperature.

  18. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-01

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energys (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to obtain results from a given sample collection. The destructive assay instrument, LAARS-destructive assay (DA), uses a simple purpose-built fixture with a sampling planchet to collect adsorbed UF6 gas from a cylinder valve or from a process line tap or pigtail. A portable LAARS-DA instrument scans the microgram quantity of uranium collected on the planchet and the assay of the uranium is measured to ~0.15% relative precision. Currently, destructive assay samples for bias defect measurements are collected in small sample cylinders for offsite mass spectrometry measurement.

  19. CO/H{sub 2} abundance ratio ? 10{sup 4} in a protoplanetary disk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    France, Kevin; McJunkin, Matthew; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Penton, Steven V.

    2014-10-20

    The relative abundances of atomic and molecular species in planet-forming disks around young stars provide important constraints on photochemical disk models and provide a baseline for calculating disk masses from measurements of trace species. A knowledge of absolute abundances, those relative to molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}), are challenging because of the weak rovibrational transition ladder of H{sub 2} and the inability to spatially resolve different emission components within the circumstellar environment. To address both of these issues, we present new contemporaneous measurements of CO and H{sub 2} absorption through the 'warm molecular layer' of the protoplanetary disk around the Classical T Tauri Star RW Aurigae A. We use a newly commissioned observing mode of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to detect warm H{sub 2} absorption in this region for the first time. An analysis of the emission and absorption spectrum of RW Aur shows components from the accretion region near the stellar photosphere, the molecular disk, and several outflow components. The warm H{sub 2} and CO absorption lines are consistent with a disk origin. We model the 1092-1117 spectrum of RW Aur to derive log{sub 10} N(H{sub 2}) = 19.90{sub ?0.22}{sup +0.33} cm{sup 2} at T {sub rot}(H{sub 2}) = 440 39 K. The CO A - X bands observed from 1410 to 1520 are best fit by log{sub 10} N(CO) = 16.1 {sub ?0.5}{sup +0.3} cm{sup 2} at T {sub rot}(CO) = 200{sub ?125}{sup +650} K. Combining direct measurements of the H I, H{sub 2}, and CO column densities, we find a molecular fraction in the warm disk surface of f {sub H2} ? 0.47 and derive a molecular abundance ratio of CO/H{sub 2} = 1.6{sub ?1.3}{sup +4.7} 10{sup 4}, both consistent with canonical interstellar dense cloud values.

  20. Improving Estimation Accuracy of Aggregate Queries on Data Cubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of estimation of a target database from summary databases derived from a base data cube. We show that such estimates can be derived by choosing a primary database which uses a proxy database to estimate the results. This technique is common in statistics, but an important issue we are addressing is the accuracy of these estimates. Specifically, given multiple primary and multiple proxy databases, that share the same summary measure, the problem is how to select the primary and proxy databases that will generate the most accurate target database estimation possible. We propose an algorithmic approach for determining the steps to select or compute the source databases from multiple summary databases, which makes use of the principles of information entropy. We show that the source databases with the largest number of cells in common provide the more accurate estimates. We prove that this is consistent with maximizing the entropy. We provide some experimental results on the accuracy of the target database estimation in order to verify our results.

  1. Estimation of economic parameters of U.S. hydropower resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Douglas G.; Hunt, Richard T.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Carroll, Greg R.

    2003-06-01

    Tools for estimating the cost of developing and operating and maintaining hydropower resources in the form of regression curves were developed based on historical plant data. Development costs that were addressed included: licensing, construction, and five types of environmental mitigation. It was found that the data for each type of cost correlated well with plant capacity. A tool for estimating the annual and monthly electric generation of hydropower resources was also developed. Additional tools were developed to estimate the cost of upgrading a turbine or a generator. The development and operation and maintenance cost estimating tools, and the generation estimating tool were applied to 2,155 U.S. hydropower sites representing a total potential capacity of 43,036 MW. The sites included totally undeveloped sites, dams without a hydroelectric plant, and hydroelectric plants that could be expanded to achieve greater capacity. Site characteristics and estimated costs and generation for each site were assembled in a database in Excel format that is also included within the EERE Library under the title, “Estimation of Economic Parameters of U.S. Hydropower Resources - INL Hydropower Resource Economics Database.”

  2. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  3. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  4. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  5. Estimating pixel variances in the scenes of staring sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simonson, Katherine M. (Cedar Crest, NM); Ma, Tian J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-24

    A technique for detecting changes in a scene perceived by a staring sensor is disclosed. The technique includes acquiring a reference image frame and a current image frame of a scene with the staring sensor. A raw difference frame is generated based upon differences between the reference image frame and the current image frame. Pixel error estimates are generated for each pixel in the raw difference frame based at least in part upon spatial error estimates related to spatial intensity gradients in the scene. The pixel error estimates are used to mitigate effects of camera jitter in the scene between the current image frame and the reference image frame.

  6. Monitored Geologic Repository Life Cycle Cost Estimate Assumptions Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sweeney

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA), License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance.

  7. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.E. Sweeney

    2001-02-08

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance.

  8. Measurement of the ratio B(Bs0→J/ψf0(980))/B(Bs0→J/ψϕ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ratio B ( B s 0 J f 0 ( 980 ) ) B ( B s 0 J ( 1020 ) ) in pp collisions at s 7 TeV Title: Measurement of the ratio B ( B s 0 J f 0 ( 980 ) ) B ( ...

  9. Summary and Presentations from "Estimating the Benefits and Costs...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy hosted a two-day workshop on "Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies" in Washington DC. The purpose of the workshop was to foster discussion...

  10. Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

  11. Estimates of Particulate Mass in Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    2000-02-16

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulates that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  12. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Estimate the energy consumption and cost to operate an appliance when making a purchase. Investing in an energy-efficient product may save you money in the long run. | Photo...

  13. Chapter 1: Estimating prospective benefits of EERE's portfolio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EEREs programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  14. Estimates of U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption 1992

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass derived primary energy used by the U.S. economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption.

  15. Input-output model for MACCS nuclear accident impacts estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outkin, Alexander V.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Vargas, Vanessa N

    2015-01-27

    Since the original economic model for MACCS was developed, better quality economic data (as well as the tools to gather and process it) and better computational capabilities have become available. The update of the economic impacts component of the MACCS legacy model will provide improved estimates of business disruptions through the use of Input-Output based economic impact estimation. This paper presents an updated MACCS model, bases on Input-Output methodology, in which economic impacts are calculated using the Regional Economic Accounting analysis tool (REAcct) created at Sandia National Laboratories. This new GDP-based model allows quick and consistent estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) losses due to nuclear power plant accidents. This paper outlines the steps taken to combine the REAcct Input-Output-based model with the MACCS code, describes the GDP loss calculation, and discusses the parameters and modeling assumptions necessary for the estimation of long-term effects of nuclear power plant accidents.

  16. Property:EstimatedTimeMedian | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    week,w,Week,Weeks,W,WEEK,WEEKS 12 months,month,m,Month,Months,M,MONTH,MONTHS 1 years,year,y,Year,Years,Y,YEAR,YEARS Pages using the property "EstimatedTimeMedian" Showing 25 pages...

  17. Property:EstimatedTimeLow | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    week,w,Week,Weeks,W,WEEK,WEEKS 12 months,month,m,Month,Months,M,MONTH,MONTHS 1 years,year,y,Year,Years,Y,YEAR,YEARS Pages using the property "EstimatedTimeLow" Showing 25 pages...

  18. Property:EstimatedTimeHigh | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    week,w,Week,Weeks,W,WEEK,WEEKS 12 months,month,m,Month,Months,M,MONTH,MONTHS 1 years,year,y,Year,Years,Y,YEAR,YEARS Pages using the property "EstimatedTimeHigh" Showing 25 pages...

  19. Temperature estimates from zircaloy oxidation kinetics and microstructures. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1982-10-01

    This report reviews state-of-the-art capability to determine peak zircaloy fuel rod cladding temperatures following an abnormal temperature excursion in a nuclear reactor, based on postirradiation metallographic analysis of zircaloy microstructural and oxidation characteristics. Results of a comprehensive literature search are presented to evaluate the suitability of available zircaloy microstructural and oxidation data for estimating anticipated reactor fuel rod cladding temperatures. Additional oxidation experiments were conducted to evaluate low-temperature zircaloy oxidation characteristics for postirradiation estimation of cladding temperature by metallographic examination. Results of these experiments were used to calculate peak cladding temperatures of electrical heater rods and nuclear fuel rods that had been subjected to reactor temperature transients. Comparison of the calculated and measured peak cladding temperatures for these rods indicates that oxidation kinetics is a viable technique for estimating peak cladding temperatures over a broad temperature range. However, further improvement in zircaloy microstructure technology is necessary for precise estimation of peak cladding temperatures by microstructural examination.

  20. Reassessing Wind Potential Estimates for India: Economic and Policy Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Khangura, Jagmeet

    2011-09-15

    We assess developable on-shore wind potential in India at three different hub-heights and under two sensitivity scenarios one with no farmland included, the other with all farmland included. Under the no farmland included case, the total wind potential in India ranges from 748 GW at 80m hub-height to 976 GW at 120m hub-height. Under the all farmland included case, the potential with a minimum capacity factor of 20 percent ranges from 984 GW to 1,549 GW. High quality wind energy sites, at 80m hub-height with a minimum capacity factor of 25 percent, have a potential between 253 GW (no farmland included) and 306 GW (all farmland included). Our estimates are more than 15 times the current official estimate of wind energy potential in India (estimated at 50m hub height) and are about one tenth of the official estimate of the wind energy potential in the US.

  1. U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates - Energy Information Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    all Nuclear Reports U.S. Uranium Reserves Estimates Data for: 2008 | Release Date: July 2010 | Next Release Date: Discontinued The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has...

  2. Biomass Power Generation Market Capacity is Estimated to Reach...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Power Generation Market Capacity is Estimated to Reach 122,331.6 MW by 2022 Home > Groups > Renewable Energy RFPs Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by Wayne31jan(150)...

  3. Table 4. Estimation Results for PAD District Regions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimation Results for PAD District Regions Dependent Variable: D(RETPAD1) Dependent Variable: D(RETPAD2) Dependent Variable: D(RETPAD3) Dependent Variable: D(RETPAD4) Dependent...

  4. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearing sediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeability parameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by means of inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictions with observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and the hydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-ray CT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations are non-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydrate saturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at two locations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parameter sets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydrate saturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parameters require further refinement of the experimental design, and better description of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  5. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearingsediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas productionfrom gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeabilityparameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by meansof inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictionswith observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-raycomputed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and thehydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-rayCT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations arenon-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydratesaturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at twolocations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parametersets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydratesaturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parametersrequire further refinement of the experimental design, and betterdescription of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  6. Appendix C: Biomass Program inputs for FY 2008 benefits estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Document summarizes the results of the benefits analysis of EERE’s programs, as described in the FY 2008 Budget Request. EERE estimates benefits for its overall portfolio and nine Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD3) programs.

  7. Estimates of particulate mass in multi-canister overpacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SLOUGHTER, J.P.

    1999-02-25

    High, best estimate, and low values are developed for particulate inventories within MCO baskets that have been loaded with freshly cleaned fuel assemblies and scrap. These per-basket estimates are then applied to all anticipated MCO payload configurations to identify which configurations are bounding for each type of particulate. Finally the resulting bounding and nominal values for residual particulates are combined with corresponding values [from other documents] for particulate that may be generated by corrosion of exposed uranium after the fuel has been cleaned. The resulting rounded nominal estimate for a typical MCO after 40 years of storage is 8 kg. The estimate for a bounding total particulate case MCO is that it may contain up to 64 kg of particulate after 40 years of storage.

  8. ARM - PI Product - Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govDataPI Data ProductsClimate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Climate...

  9. ARM - Evaluation Product - Climate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsClimate Modeling Best Estimate (CMBE) Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you...

  10. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Wenyuan (Oakdale, MN); Huizinga, John S. (Dellwood, MN)

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  11. Estimating demolition cost of plutonium buildings for dummies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tower, S.E.

    2000-07-01

    The primary purpose of the Rocky Flats Field Office of the US Department of Energy is to decommission the entire plant. In an effort to improve the basis and the accuracy of the future decommissioning cost, Rocky Flats has developed a powerful but easy-to-use tool to determine budget cost estimates to characterize, decontaminate, and demolish all its buildings. The parametric cost-estimating tool is called the Facilities Disposition Cost Model (FDCM).

  12. RADIATION DOSE ESTIMATES TO ADULTS AND CHILDREN FROM VARIOUS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RADIATION DOSE ESTIMATES TO ADULTS AND CHILDREN FROM VARIOUS RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS Latest Revision Date: 4/30/96 Radiation Internal Dose Information Center Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education P.O. Box 117 Mail Stop 51 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 The radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine studies considered in this report are listed in the Table of Contents on page 2. The radiation dose estimates given in the dose tables are based on the assumptions and models given in Chapter 17, Radiation

  13. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM); Jordan, Jay D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Theodore J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-07-03

    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  14. On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    properties using tracer data (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer properties using tracer data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On parameterization of the inverse problem for estimating aquifer properties using tracer data Authors: Kowalsky, M. B. ; Finsterle, S. ; Commer, M. ; Williams, K. H. ; Murray, C. ; Newcomer, D. ; Englert, A. ; Steefel, C. I. ; Hubbard, S. S. Publication Date: 2012-01-01 OSTI Identifier:

  15. Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves The Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis is a change-point model and

  16. PROJECT PROFILE: Improving PV performance Estimates in the System Advisor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model with Component and System Reliability Metrics | Department of Energy Improving PV performance Estimates in the System Advisor Model with Component and System Reliability Metrics PROJECT PROFILE: Improving PV performance Estimates in the System Advisor Model with Component and System Reliability Metrics Funding Opportunity: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Photovoltaics Location: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM Amount Awarded: $600,000 This project will improve the forecasting

  17. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Workshop - Agenda and Summary | Department of Energy Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Agenda and Summary On September 30 and October 1, 2014, the Department of Energy hosted a 2-day workshop on "Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies." The purpose of the workshop was to foster discussion about the analytic challenges

  18. Derivative-free optimization for parameter estimation in computational

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nuclear physics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Derivative-free optimization for parameter estimation in computational nuclear physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Derivative-free optimization for parameter estimation in computational nuclear physics Authors: Wild, S ; Sarich, J ; Schunck, N Publication Date: 2014-06-20 OSTI Identifier: 1177246 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-656057 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource

  19. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    relocatable classrooms (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms This report addresses the results of detailed monitoring completed under Program Element 6 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's High Performance Commercial Building

  20. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    relocatable classrooms (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and

  1. Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of Anisotoropy from Total Cross Section and Optical Model Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-06-03 OSTI Identifier: 1082234 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-24025 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Working Party

  2. Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Thermal Evolution Profiles and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Pyrolysis of Coal/Corn Stover Blends Using Thermogravimetric Analysis Authors:

  3. Estimation of the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    discharge and building energy use (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Estimation of the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimation of the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use This paper examined the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and energy use from

  4. Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plant accidents (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Source term estimation during incident response to severe nuclear power plant accidents × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to

  5. A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity Estimation Method

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity Estimation Method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity Estimation Method An analysis method was developed for determining the thermal conductivity of a thin film on a substrate of known thermal properties using the flash diffusivity method. In order to determine the thermal conductivity of the film using this method, the volumetric heat

  6. Adaptive Wavenumber Estimation for Mode Tracking in a Shallow Ocean

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Environment (Conference) | SciTech Connect Adaptive Wavenumber Estimation for Mode Tracking in a Shallow Ocean Environment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Adaptive Wavenumber Estimation for Mode Tracking in a Shallow Ocean Environment Authors: Candy, J V Publication Date: 2012-06-28 OSTI Identifier: 1059076 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-563556 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: IEEE OCEANS '12, Hampton Roads, VA,

  7. Analytical Estimations for Thermal Crosstalk Retention and Scaling Limits

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Resistive Memory. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Analytical Estimations for Thermal Crosstalk Retention and Scaling Limits in Resistive Memory. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analytical Estimations for Thermal Crosstalk Retention and Scaling Limits in Resistive Memory. Abstract not provided. Authors: Lohn, Andrew ; Mickel, Patrick R. ; Marinella, Matthew Publication Date: 2014-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1141816 Report Number(s): SAND2014-2997J 507562 DOE Contract Number:

  8. DC Microgrids Scoping Study: Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (March 2015) | Department of Energy Microgrids Scoping Study: Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits (March 2015) DC Microgrids Scoping Study: Estimate of Technical and Economic Benefits (March 2015) Microgrid demonstrations and deployments have shown the ability of microgrids to provide higher reliability and higher power quality than utility power systems and improved energy utilization. The vast majority of these microgrids are based on AC power, but some manufacturers, power system

  9. Revision Policy for EIA Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Revision Policy for EIA Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Estimates Latest Update: November 16, 2015 This report consists of the following sections: General EIA Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report Revisions Policy - a description of how revisions to the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report estimates may occur EIA Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report Policy to Allow Unscheduled Release of Revisions - a description of the policy that will be implemented in the event of an out-of-cycle release

  10. Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable Intake

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Valve Actuation | Department of Energy Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable Intake Valve Actuation Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable Intake Valve Actuation Air handling system model for multi-cylinder variable geometry turbocharged diesel engine with cooled EGR and flexible intake valve actuation developed to capture dynamic effects of gas exchange actuators PDF icon deer12_kocher.pdf More Documents & Publications Slide

  11. DOE Challenge Home Savings & Cost Estimate Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Challenge Home Savings & Cost Estimate Summary November 2013 www.buildings.energy.gov/challenge DOE Challenge Home Savings & Cost Estimate Summary November 2013 INTRODUCTION In considering the business strategy for constructing and selling Zero Energy Ready Homes through the DOE Challenge Home program, builders and other program partners understandably want to know about the added costs. Upgrades in insulation, air sealing, mechanical equipment and other systems will mean both

  12. Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating Probability of High-Consequence

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Climate Change. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating Probability of High-Consequence Climate Change. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Statistical Surrogate Models for Estimating Probability of High-Consequence Climate Change. Abstract not provided. Authors: Field, Richard V., ; Boslough, Mark B. E. ; Constantine, Paul Publication Date: 2011-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106521 Report Number(s): SAND2011-8231C 465067 DOE Contract Number:

  13. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Workshop - Day 1 Presentations | Department of Energy 1 Presentations Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Day 1 Presentations On September 30 and October 1, 2014, the Department of Energy hosted a 2-day workshop on "Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies." The purpose of the workshop was to foster discussion about the analytic challenges associated with valuing the diverse impacts of deploying distributed

  14. Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Workshop - Day 2 Presentations | Department of Energy 2 Presentations Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies Workshop - Day 2 Presentations On September 30 and October 1, 2014, the Department of Energy hosted a 2-day workshop on "Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Energy Technologies." The purpose of the workshop was to foster discussion about the analytic challenges associated with valuing the diverse impacts of deploying distributed

  15. Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Landscaping Water Use Guidelines for Estimating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use Document describes the step-by-step instructions to estimate landscaping water using two alternative approaches: the evapotranspiration method and the irrigation audit method. This report presents annual irrigation factors for 36 cities across the United States that represent the gallons of irrigation required per square foot for distinct landscape types. PDF icon est_unmetered_landscape_wtr.pdf More

  16. UWB channel estimation using new generating TR transceivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nekoogar, Faranak (San Ramon, CA); Dowla, Farid U. (Castro Valley, CA); Spiridon, Alex (Palo Alto, CA); Haugen, Peter C. (Livermore, CA); Benzel, Dave M. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-06-28

    The present invention presents a simple and novel channel estimation scheme for UWB communication systems. As disclosed herein, the present invention maximizes the extraction of information by incorporating a new generation of transmitted-reference (Tr) transceivers that utilize a single reference pulse(s) or a preamble of reference pulses to provide improved channel estimation while offering higher Bit Error Rate (BER) performance and data rates without diluting the transmitter power.

  17. Verification of unfold error estimates in the unfold operator code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehl, D.L.; Biggs, F.

    1997-01-01

    Spectral unfolding is an inverse mathematical operation that attempts to obtain spectral source information from a set of response functions and data measurements. Several unfold algorithms have appeared over the past 30 years; among them is the unfold operator (UFO) code written at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition to an unfolded spectrum, the UFO code also estimates the unfold uncertainty (error) induced by estimated random uncertainties in the data. In UFO the unfold uncertainty is obtained from the error matrix. This built-in estimate has now been compared to error estimates obtained by running the code in a Monte Carlo fashion with prescribed data distributions (Gaussian deviates). In the test problem studied, data were simulated from an arbitrarily chosen blackbody spectrum (10 keV) and a set of overlapping response functions. The data were assumed to have an imprecision of 5{percent} (standard deviation). One hundred random data sets were generated. The built-in estimate of unfold uncertainty agreed with the Monte Carlo estimate to within the statistical resolution of this relatively small sample size (95{percent} confidence level). A possible 10{percent} bias between the two methods was unresolved. The Monte Carlo technique is also useful in underdetermined problems, for which the error matrix method does not apply. UFO has been applied to the diagnosis of low energy x rays emitted by Z-pinch and ion-beam driven hohlraums. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Preparation of ortho-para ratio controlled D{sub 2} gas for muon-catalyzed fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imao, H.; Ishida, K.; Matsuzaki, T.; Matsuda, Y.; Iwasaki, M.; Kawamura, N.; Strasser, P.; Toyoda, A.; Nagamine, K.

    2008-05-15

    A negative muon in hydrogen targets, e.g., D{sub 2} or D-T mixture, can catalyze nuclear fusions following a series of atomic processes involving muonic hydrogen molecular formation (muon-catalyzed fusion, {mu}CF). The ortho-para state of D{sub 2} is a crucial parameter not only for enhancing the fusion rate but also to precisely investigate various muonic atom processes. We have developed a system for controlling and measuring the ortho-para ratio of D{sub 2} gas for {mu}CF experiments. We successfully collected para-enriched D{sub 2} without using liquid-hydrogen coolant. Ortho-enriched D{sub 2} was also obtained by using a catalytic conversion method with a mixture of chromium oxide and alumina. The ortho-para ratio of D{sub 2} gas was measured with a compact Raman spectroscopy system. We produced large volume (5-30 l at STP), high-purity (less than ppm high-Z contaminant) D{sub 2} targets with a wide range of ortho-para ratios (ortho 20%-99%). By using the ortho-para controlled D{sub 2} in {mu}CF experiments, we observed the dependence of {mu}CF phenomena on the ortho-para ratio.

  19. Spatially tracking 13C labeled substrate (bicarbonate) accumulation in microbial communities using laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, James J.; Doll, Charles G.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Cory, Alexandra B.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2014-08-25

    This is a manuscript we would like to submit for publication in Environmental Microbiology Reports. This manuscript contains a description of a laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry methodology developed at PNNL and applied to a microbial system at a PNNL project location Hot Lake, Washington. I will submit a word document containing the entire manuscript with this Erica input request form.

  20. Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isselhardt, B H

    2011-09-06

    Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure relative uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process to provide a distinction between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. We explore the laser parameters critical to the ionization process and their effects on the measured isotope ratio. Specifically, the use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser in a 3-color, 3-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from >10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation. A rate equation model for predicting the relative ionization probability has been developed to study the effect of variation in laser parameters on the measured isotope ratio. This work demonstrates that RIMS can be used for the robust measurement of uranium isotope ratios.