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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Determination of Supercooled Liquid Water Content by Measuring Rime Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A ground-based technique is described for determining the liquid water content of supercooled clouds orfog by measuring the mass rate of rime accumulation on a small rotating wire. Development of the techniqueis described, examples of the data ...

David C. Rogers; Darrel Baumgardner; Gabor Vali

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Anaerobic pyrite oxidation rates determined via direct volume-loss measurements: a Vertical Scanning Interferometric approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

determina- tion of dissolution/precipitation kinetic rates. A VSI assessment of pyrite dissolution rates et al., 2008) with applications to oxic ARD processes. Presented here are rate data for the inorganic experiments the bulk chemical changes in the solution composition (e.g. Fe2+ /Fe3+ ) were used to determine

Benning, Liane G.

3

Determining accurate measurements of the growth rate from the galaxy correlation function in simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use high-resolution N-body simulations to develop a new, flexible, empirical approach for measuring the growth rate from redshift-space distortions (RSD) in the 2-point galaxy correlation function. We quantify the systematic error in measuring the growth rate in a $1 \\, h^{-3}$ Gpc$^3$ volume over a range of redshifts, from the dark matter particle distribution and a range of halo-mass catalogues with a number density comparable to the latest large-volume galaxy surveys such as the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Our simulations allow us to span halo masses with bias factors ranging from unity (probed by emission-line galaxies) to more massive haloes hosting Luminous Red Galaxies. We show that the measured growth rate is sensitive to the model adopted for the small-scale real-space correlation function, and in particular that the "standard" assumption of a power-law correlation function can result in a significant systematic error in the growth rate determ...

Contreras, Carlos; Poole, Gregory B; Marin, Felipe; 10.1093/mnras/sts649

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Comparison of Lake-Effect Snow Precipitation Rates Determined from Radar and Aircraft Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow-particle size-mass relations derived from radar reflectivity and particle-size spectra obtained from Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) probes in nonconvective clouds predict greater masses for large particles than are indicated by most direct ...

R. R. Braham Jr.; D. A. R. Kristovich; M. J. Dungey

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Exchange rate determination in Indonesia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis examines the options for adopting normative and prescriptive models of exchange rate determination suitable for developed and developing countries. It also develops a… (more)

Rusydi, Mohammad

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

14C/C measurements support Andreev's internode method to determine lichen growth rates in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti  

SciTech Connect

Growth rates and the ability to date an organism can greatly contribute to understanding its population biology and community dynamics. 1n 1954, Andreev proposed a method to date Cladina, a fruticose lichen, using total thallus length and number of internodes. No research, however, has demonstrated the reliability of this technique or compared its estimates to those derived by other means. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of {sup 14}C/C ratios to determine lichen age and growth rate in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti collected from northwestern Alaska, USA. The average growth rate using {sup 14}C/C ratios was 6.5 mm {center_dot} yr{sup -1}, which was not significantly different from growth rates derived by Andreev's internode method (average = 6.2 mm {center_dot} yr{sup -1}); thus, suggesting the reliability of Andreev's simple field method for dating lichens. In addition, we found lichen growth rates appeared to differ with geographic location, yet did not seem related to ambient temperature and total precipitation.

Holt, E; Bench, G

2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

7

Method for Determining Solids Circulation Rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining Solids Circulation Rate Determining Solids Circulation Rate Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov May 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Method for Determining Solids Circulation Rate." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview This invention provides a method to measure the rate of solids circulation, particularly in those applications where the solids are recycled back to pro- cesses for further use. The applications include processes such as circulating fluidized bed gasifiers and combustors, as well as chemical looping. In the above applications, determining solids circulation rates is needed to

8

Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of {sup tot}Pu content with new approach is {approx}1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's & con's of measuring/determining of {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} and {sup tot}Pu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

9

Remote Determination of Winds, Turbulence Spectra and Energy Dissipation Rates in the Boundary Layer from Lidar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Procedures are described for the analysis of lidar data to remotely measure 1) spectra of aerosol density fluctuations, 2) radial and transverse components of the mean wind and turbulent fluctuations of the transverse component of the wind ...

K. E. Kunkel; E. W. Eloranta; J. A. Weinman

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Radiometric, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTS : Model Output Location Time Series Datastreams MOLTSEDASSNDCLASS1 : Model Output Loc. Time Ser. (MOLTS): EDAS

11

Determination of total Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Neutron Count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to evaluate and develop non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA) [1]. Within this framework, we investigate by simulation a novel analytical approach based on combined information from passive measurement of the total neutron count rate of a SFA and its multiplication determined by the active interrogation using an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique (DDA). We use detailed MCNPX simulations across an extensive set of SFA characteristics to establish the approach and demonstrate its robustness. It is predicted that Pu content can be determined by the proposed method to a few %.

Henzl, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

12

Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

DETERMINATION OF DEPOSITION RATES FOR COOKING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... All calculations of deposition rates were made after ... the in- duct electrostatic precipitator increased the ... (1985) measured the performance of several ...

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

15

Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interactions. Progress report, October 1990--September 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) Steam or water interactions is being designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing butterfly valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of all measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up.

Biney, P.O.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) Steam or water interactions is being designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing butterfly valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of all measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up.

Biney, P.O.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Investigation of determinism in heart rate variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article searches for the possible presence of determinism in heart rate variability (HRV) signals by using a new approach based on NARMA (nonlinear autoregressive moving average) modeling and free-run prediction. Thirty-three 256-point HRV time series obtained from Wistar rats submitted to different autonomic blockade protocols are considered

M. E. D. Gomes; A. V. P. Souza; H. N. Guimarães; L. A. Aguirre

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Radar Determination of Snowfall Rate and Accumulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unique method that provides for relating radar-measured reflectivity factors to snowfall rates at the ground is presented. Data were provided by a CPS-9, 3.2 cm radar from six 1978 Massachusetts snowstorms A best-fit power-law relationship ...

Roland J. Boucher; James G. Wieler

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Apparatus and method for determining solids circulation rate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a method of determining bed velocity and solids circulation rate in a standpipe experiencing a moving packed bed flow, such as the in the standpipe section of a circulating bed fluidized reactor The method utilizes in-situ measurement of differential pressure over known axial lengths of the standpipe in conjunction with in-situ gas velocity measurement for a novel application of Ergun equations allowing determination of standpipe void fraction and moving packed bed velocity. The method takes advantage of the moving packed bed property of constant void fraction in order to integrate measured parameters into simultaneous solution of Ergun-based equations and conservation of mass equations across multiple sections of the standpipe.

Ludlow, J. Christopher (Morgantown, WV); Spenik, James L. (Morgantown, WV)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

20

Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally Ventilated Building Speaker(s): Sezin Eren Ozcan Date: May 16, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Due to limited energy sources, countries are looking for alternative solutions to decrease energy needs. In that context, natural ventilation can be seen as a very attractive sustainable technique in building design. However, understanding of ventilation dynamics is needed to provide an efficient control. Ventilation rate has to be determined not only in terms of energy, but also for controlling indoor air quality and emissions. For these reasons, agricultural buildings (livestock houses, greenhouses, etc.), naturally ventilated industrial buildings, and residences require a reliable ventilation rate measuring technique. Measuring techniques suffer

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building  

SciTech Connect

Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

22

RATES OF RETURN AND ALTERNATIVE MEASURES OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We employ the EU KLEMS database to estimate the real rate of return to capital in 14 countries (11 in the EU, three outside the EU) in 10 branches of the market economy plus the market economy as a whole. Our measure of capital is an aggregate over seven types of asset: three ICT assets and four non-ICT assets. The real rate of return in the market economy does not vary very much across countries, the extremes being Spain (high) and Italy (low). The real rate appears to be trendless in most countries. Within each country however, the rate varies widely across the 10 branches, often being implausibly high or low. We also estimate the growth of capital services by two different methods: ex-post and ex-ante, and the contribution of capital to output growth by three methods: ex-post, ex-ante and hybrid. The ex-ante method uses an estimate of the required rate of return for each country instead of the actual, average rate of return to calculate user costs and also employs the expected growth of asset prices rather than the actual growth. These estimates are derived from exactly the same data as for the ex-post method, ie without any extraneous data being employed. For estimating the contribution of capital to output growth, the ex-ante method uses ex-ante profit as the weight, while both the ex-post and the hybrid method use ex-post profit. We find that the three methods produce very similar results at the market economy level. But differences are much larger at the branch level, particularly between the ex-post and ex-ante methods.

Nicholas Oulton; Ana Rincon-aznar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Measuring rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems Title Measuring rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-51583 Year...

24

The development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/steam interaction. Final report 9-21-90--3-31-95  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this research to experimentally determine the hydrogen generation rate during the beginning and subsequent stages of liquid metal (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) and water reaction. The experimental set-up has been built. It includes a metal sample preparation apparatus, a reaction system, a measurement system and a PC based data acquisition and control system. The most important feature of the reaction system is a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature, all stainless steel valve used the system for reaction time control. The PC system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all the systems except the metal preparation apparatus. Due to the reactivity of the lithium, all the metal sampling, preparation and loading procedures are executed in a glove box under argon protection. The metal temperature was varied between 350{degrees}C-650{degrees}C and water temperature fixed at 60{degrees}C during the experiments. A set of experimental procedures and two analyses methods: (1) thermodynamics method and (2) heat transfer method are discussed. All the measurements and data collections are executed under the PC system control. A data analysis program is used to calculate both the partial pressure of hydrogen and the hydrogen generation rate. The experiment results indicate that the amount of hydrogen generated is relate to the initial liquid metal temperature when the reaction surface is fixed. The mass of hydrogen generated as a function of initial liquid metal temperature and time of reaction is presented, The hydrogen generation over a time period of 240 seconds and the calculated errors are summarized in Table 1.

Biney, P.O.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Ignition Rate Measurement of Laser-Ignited Coals  

SciTech Connect

We established a novel experiment to study the ignition of pulverized coals under conditions relevant to utility boilers. Specifically, we determined the ignition mechanism of pulverized-coal particles under various conditions of particle size, coal type, and freestream oxygen concentration. We also measured the ignition rate constant of a Pittsburgh #8 high-volatile bituminous coal by direct measurement of the particle temperature at ignition, and incorporating this measurement into a mathematical model for the ignition process. The model, called Distributed Activation Energy Model of Ignition, was developed previously by our group to interpret conventional drop-tube ignition experiments, and was modified to accommodate the present study.

John C. Chen; Vinayak Kabadi

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Rain Rate Estimates from Differential Polarization Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of the accuracy of rain rate estimates from data observed with a radar that has alternating horizontal and vertical polarization. Theoretical accuracies of rain rates from the reflectivity, the differential ...

M. Sachidananda; D. S. Zrni?

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling Title Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6257E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Amanda Parra, Marion L. Russell, and Wen-Yee Lee Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords indoor air quality, Passive Sampling, Uptake Rates, vocs Abstract Diffusive or passive sampling methods using commercially filled axial-sampling thermal desorption tubes are widely used for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The passive sampling method provides a robust, cost effective way to measure air quality with time-averaged concentrations spanning up to a week or more. Sampling rates for VOCs can be calculated using tube geometry and Fick's Law for ideal diffusion behavior or measured experimentally. There is evidence that uptake rates deviate from ideal and may not be constant over time. Therefore, experimentally measured sampling rates are preferred. In this project, a calibration chamber with a continuous stirred tank reactor design and constant VOC source was combined with active sampling to generate a controlled dynamic calibration environment for passive samplers. The chamber air was augmented with a continuous source of 45 VOCs ranging from pentane to diethyl phthalate representing a variety of chemical classes and physiochemical properties. Both passive and active samples were collected on commercially filled Tenax TA thermal desorption tubes over an 11-day period and used to calculate passive sampling rates. A second experiment was designed to determine the impact of ozone on passive sampling by using the calibration chamber to passively load five terpenes on a set of Tenax tubes and then exposing the tubes to different ozone environments with and without ozone scrubbers attached to the tube inlet. During the sampling rate experiment, the measured diffusive uptake was constant for up to seven days for most of the VOCs tested but deviated from linearity for some of the more volatile compounds between seven and eleven days. In the ozone experiment, both exposed and unexposed tubes showed a similar decline in terpene mass over time indicating back diffusion when uncapped tubes were transferred to a clean environment but there was no indication of significant loss by ozone reaction.

28

Electric generating or transmission facility: determination of rate-making  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric generating or transmission facility: determination of Electric generating or transmission facility: determination of rate-making principles and treatment: procedure (Kansas) Electric generating or transmission facility: determination of rate-making principles and treatment: procedure (Kansas) < Back Eligibility Municipal/Public Utility Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Kansas Program Type Generating Facility Rate-Making Provider Kansas Corporation Commission This legislation permits the KCC to determine rate-making principles that will apply to a utility's investment in generation or transmission before constructing a facility or entering into a contract for purchasing power. There is no restriction on the type or the size of electric generating unit

29

PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

30

Bayesian sample-size determination for two independent Poisson rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract: Because of the high cost and time constraints for clinical trials, researchers often need to determine the smallest sample size that provides accurate inferences for a parameter of interest. Although most experimenters have employed frequentist ... Keywords: Average length criterion, Average power, Bayesian sample-size determination, Comparison of two Poisson rates

Austin L. Hand; James D. Stamey; Dean M. Young

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Method and apparatus for determining quality and mass flow rate of flowing steam  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for determining the quality and the two-phase mass flow rate of steam containing both liquid and vapor components and flowing in an orifice-containing steam line. The apparatus consists of: steam sampling means for drawing off through an orifice-containing sample conduit from the steam line a sample of the steam having substantially the same quality as the line steam, means for measuring the temperature in the sample conduit, means for measuring the static pressure in the sample conduit, means for measuring the differential pressure across the sample conduit orifice, means connected to the sample conduit for measuring the two-phase mass flow rate of the drawn off sample of steam, such that the sample steam quality may be determined by means of an equation relating the measured sample conduit temperature, static pressure, differential pressure, and two-phase mass flow rate, the determined sample steam quality being substantially the same as the desired line steam quality, means for measuring the temperature in the steam line, means for measuring the static pressure in the steam line, and means for measuring the differential pressure across the steam line orifice, such that the line steam two-phase mass flow rate may be determined by means of an equation relating the measured steam line temperature, static pressure, and differential pressure, and the line steam quality which is substantially the same as the determined sample steam quality.

Huang, W.-S.; Mims, D.S.; Allen, R.S.

1986-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

32

Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries. 3 figs.

Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

33

Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Measurements of waste tank passive ventilation rates using tracer gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of ventilation rate studies of eight passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks using tracer gases. Head space ventilation rates were determined for Tanks A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, S-102, U-103, and U-105 using sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and/or helium (He) as tracer gases. Passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of several key safety issues. These safety issues are associated with the rates of flammable gas production and ventilation, the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out, and the estimation of organic solvent waste surface areas. This tracer gas study involves injecting a tracer gas into the tank headspace and measuring its concentration at different times to establish the rate at which the tracer is removed by ventilation. Tracer gas injection and sample collection were performed by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation and/or Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Characterization Project Operations. Headspace samples were analyzed for He and SF{sub 6} by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The tracer gas method was first demonstrated on Tank S-102. Tests were conducted on Tank S-102 to verify that the tracer gas was uniformly distributed throughout the tank headspace before baseline samples were collected, and that mixing was sufficiently vigorous to maintain an approximately uniform distribution of tracer gas in the headspace during the course of the study. Headspace samples, collected from a location about 4 in away from the injection point and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the injection of He and SF{sub 6}, indicated that both tracer gases were rapidly mixed. The samples were found to have the same concentration of tracer gases after 1 hour as after 24 hours, suggesting that mixing of the tracer gas was essentially complete within 1 hour.

Huckaby, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Remund, K.M.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Measurement of Hydrogen Production Rate Based on Dew Point Temperature...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MP-150-42237 U. S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program Measurement of Hydrogen Production Rate Based on Dew Point Temperatures National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole...

36

A Dual-Wavelength Radar Method to Measure Snowfall Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dual-wavelength radar method to estimate snowfall rate has been developed. The method suggests taking simultaneous and collocated reflectivity measurements at two radar wavelengths. Snowfall backscattering at one of these wavelengths should be ...

Sergey Y. Matrosov

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

A Rain-Rate Retrieval Algorithm for Attenuated Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamic regularization scheme for rain-rate retrievals from attenuated radar measurements is presented. Most regularization techniques, including the optimal estimation method, use the state-space parameters to regularize the problem, which ...

Prabhat K. Koner; Alessandro Battaglia; Clemens Simmer

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Picosecond to Nanosecond Measurements at High Repetition Rate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Picosecond to Nanosecond Measurements at High Repetition Rate Since FY2012, SSRL is now scheduling three to four three-day periods each year dedicated to running SPEAR3 in hybrid...

39

Acoustic measurement of the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well flow rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On May 31, 2010, a direct acoustic measurement method was used to quantify fluid leakage rate from the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well prior to removal of its broken riser. This method utilized an acoustic imaging sonar and ...

Camilli, Richard

40

High data-rate atom interferometer for measuring acceleration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate a high data-rate light-pulse atom interferometer for measuring acceleration. The device is optimized to operate at rates between 50 Hz to 330 Hz with sensitivities of 0.57{mu}g/{radical}(Hz) to 36.7{mu}g/{radical}(Hz), respectively. Our method offers a dramatic increase in data rate and demonstrates a path to applications in highly dynamic environments. The performance of the device can largely be attributed to the high recapture efficiency of atoms from one interferometer measurement cycle to another.

McGuinness, Hayden J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Rakholia, Akash V.; Biedermann, Grant W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131 (United States)

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Estimating Rain Rates from Tipping-Bucket Rain Gauge Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the cubic spline–based operational system for the generation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 1-min rain-rate product 2A-56 from tipping-bucket (TB) gauge measurements. A simulated TB gauge from a Joss–...

Jianxin Wang; Brad L. Fisher; David B. Wolff

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

An optical transducer measuring low gas flow rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An optical transducer was developed and tested for measuring the rate of biogas production in the range of 0 to 400 ml min/sup -1/ with an average absolute accuracy of 4.6% for 12.75 mm tube and 2.2% for the 22.2 mm diameter tube. In a comparison test of the optical transducer with a displacement gasometer, biogas measurements agreed within 2%.

Fischer, J.R.; Potter, J.H.; Iannotti, E.L.; Hulse, M.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Determination of the Effects of Cooling Rate from Solution Treatment ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

notch rupture life are possible through control of the cooling rate after solution .... Notch stress rupture testing was conducted at 1000°F with a constant load.

44

Determining Photosynthesis Rate Constants in Lake Harapan Penang  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lake Harapan was created in 1990 to serve as a runoff detention pond in Universiti Sains Malaysia USM. The lake is eutrophic with occasional high levels of 300 ug/l chl a, with dissolved oxygen reaching 12 - 16 mg/l in the late afternoon and near anaerobic ... Keywords: Photosynthesis, Rate Constants, Dissolved Oxygen

Teh Su Yean; Koh Hock Lye; Ahmad Izani Md Ismail; Mashhor Mansor

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Flow Rate Measurement Using {sup 99m}Tc Radiotracer Method in a Pipe Installation  

SciTech Connect

Flow rate is a significant parameter for managing processes in chemical processing plants and water processing facility. Accurate measurement of the flow rate allows engineers to monitor the delivery of process material, which in turn impacts a plant's capacity to produce their products. One of the available methods for determining the flow rate of a process material is by introducing a radiotracer to the system that mimics the material's flow pattern. In this study, a low activity Technetium-99m radioisotope was injected into a water piping setup and the 2'' x 2'' NaI (Tl) detectors were calibrated to detect spectrum peaks at specific points of the pipe installation. Using pulse velocity method, water flow rate was determined to be 11.3 litres per minute. For the sampling method, at different pump capacity, the flow rate was 15.0 litres per minute.

Sipaun, S. M.; Bakar, A. Q. Abu; Othman, N.; Shaari, M. R.; Adnan, M. A. K. [Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Bangi (Malaysia); Yusof, J. Mohd; Demanah, R. [Waste and Environmental Technology Divison, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Bangi (Malaysia)

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

46

Rates of Return and Alternative Measures of Capital  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We employ the EU KLEMS database to estimate the real rate of return to capital in 14 countries (11 in the EU, three outside the EU) in 10 branches of the market economy plus the market economy as a whole. Our measure of capital is an aggregate over seven types of asset: three ICT assets (computers, communications equipment, and software) and four non-ICT assets (machinery and equipment, nonresidential structures, transport equipment, and other). The real rate of return in the market economy does not vary very much across countries, with the exception of Spain where it is exceptionally high and in Italy where it is exceptionally low. The real rate appears to be trendless in most countries. Within each country however, the rate varies widely across the 10 branches, often being implausibly high or low. We also estimate the growth of capital services by two different methods: ex-post and exante, and the contribution of capital to output growth by three methods: ex-post, ex-ante and hybrid. Our implementation of the ex-ante method uses an estimate of the required rate of return for each country instead of the actual, average rate of return to calculate user costs and also employs the expected growth of asset prices rather than the actual growth. These estimates are derived from exactly the same data as for the ex-post method, ie without any extraneous data being employed. For estimating the contribution of capital to output growth, the ex-ante method uses ex-ante profit as the weight, while both the ex-post and the hybrid method use ex-post profit. We find that the three methods produce very similar results at the market economy level. But differences are much larger at the branch level, particularly between the ex-post and ex-ante methods.

Nicholas Oulton; Ana Rincon-aznar Abstract

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Experiments for the Measurement of LNG Mass Burning Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is a commonly used flammable fuel that has safety concerns associated with vapor dispersion and radiation emitted from pool fires. The main objective of this effort is to advance the knowledge of pool fires and to expand the data that is commonly used to validate semi-empirical models. This includes evaluation of the methods that are utilized to obtain experimental values of mass burning rates, which are used in models where semi-empirical correlations cannot be applied. A total of three small-size experiments designed to study the radiative characteristics of LNG pool fires were carried out at Texas A & M University's Brayton Fire Training Field (BFTF). This set of experiments was designed to study how the heat feedback from the fire to the pool surface is subsequently distributed through the liquid volume and the validity of different methods for measuring burning rates. In this work, a number of semi-empirical correlations were used to predict the characteristics of the flame and examine the predictive accuracy of these correlations when compared to the values obtained experimentally. In addition, the heat transferred from the energy received at the pool's surface to the surroundings was investigated. Finally, the parameters that influenced the measurement of radiative head feedback to the liquid pool were analyzed to investigate potential causes of calibration drift in the instrumentation. The results of this work provided information regarding the validity of certain techniques for the measurement of mass burning rates and the use of correlations to predict the characteristics of an LNG pool fire on a small-scale. The findings from this work indicate that the energy received at the liquid surface was used entirely for evaporation and no indications of transmission to the surroundings were observed. Lastly, it was found that during the experiments, the sink temperature of the sensor was not constant, and therefore, the readings of the radiative heat were unreliable. This was due to the insufficient cooling effect of the water circulated. It was later shown in the laboratory that through a series of qualitative tests, a change of 20°C in the cooling water resulted in a calibration drift.

Herrera Gomez, Lady Carolina

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Residual stress determination using strain gage measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A strain gage technique, which relates the prior residual stress state in a material to the strain data obtained by fixing a strain gage on one surface and grinding off the other, has been proposed previously. In the current work, a generalized solution for obtaining an arbitrary residual stress profile from strain gage data is presented. Numerical analysis using the solution indicates that the formulation is insensitive to random errors of 10% or less in the experimental data. Based on the results of the analysis, a procedure for determining stress profiles from strain gage data is outlined. Experimental data for tempered glass was analyzed using the technique proposed. The stress profiles predicted are in good agreement with independent observations using indentation and strength data.

Tandon, R.; Green, D.J. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (US))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Neutron detectors for fusion reaction-rate measurements  

SciTech Connect

Fusion reactions in an inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) target filled with deuterium or a deuterium/tritium fuel release nearly monoenergetic neutrons. Because most the neutrons leave the compressed target without collision, they preserve reaction-rate information as they travel radially outward from their point of origin. Three fast, neutron detector techniques, each capable of measuring the fusion reaction-rate of ICF targets, have been demonstrated. The most advanced detector is based on the fast rise-time of a commercial plastic scintillator material (BC-422) which acts as a neutron-to-light converter. Signals, which are recorded with a fast optical streak camera, have a resolution of 25 ps. Good signals can be recorded for targets producing only 5 x 10{sup 7} DT neutrons. Two other detectors use knock-on collisions between neutrons and protons in a thin polyethylene (CH{sub 2}) converter. In one, the converter is placed in front of the photocathode of an x-ray streak camera. Recoil protons pass through the photocathode and knock out electrons which are accelerated and deflected to produce a signal. Resolutions < 25 ps are possible. In the other, the converter is placed in front of a microchannel plate (MCP) with a gated microstrip. Recoil protons eject electrons from the gold layer forming the microstrip. If a gate pulse is present, the signal is amplified. Present gate times are about 80 ps.

Lerche, R.A.; Phillion, D.W.; Landen, O.L.; Murphy, T.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Jaanimagi, P.A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Laboratory for Laser Energetics

1994-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

50

Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures This document provides a set of model protocols for determining energy and demand savings that result from specific energy efficiency measures implemented through state and utility efficiency programs. The methods described here are approaches that are-or are among-the most commonly used in the energy efficiency industry for certain measures or programs. Acknowledgements Introduction Commercial and Industrial Lighting Evaluation Protocol Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol

51

Measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates from Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland area shores. Addendum 1  

SciTech Connect

Environmental radiation exposure rate measurements are taken on and around the Hanford Site for Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. In 1992, environmental radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from shoreline and island areas ranging from Vernita, along the Hanford Reach, down to the Richland Pumphouse. Measurements were taken primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates as determined by examination of aerial photographs depicting radiation exposure measurements. Results from the 1992 survey indicated radiation exposure rates taken from the Hanford Reach area were elevated in comparison to the measurements taken from the Vernita area with ranges of 8 to 28 {mu}R/hr and 4 to 11 {mu}R/hr, respectively. In January 1994, additional shoreline radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from the Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland areas to determine the relationship of radiation exposure rates along the Richland area shores when compared to Vernita and Hanford Reach area exposure rates (measurements along the Richland area were not collected during the 1992 survey). This report discusses the 1994 results and is an addendum to the report that discussed the 1992 survey. An analysis of variance indicated a significant location interaction at a p-value of 0.0014. To determine differences between paried locations a post-hoc comparison of location means was performed on log transformed data using the Scheff{acute e}`s F-test. This test indicated a significant difference between Hanford Reach and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.075 /{mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.0014. No significant difference was found between Hanford Reach and Vernita area means: The mean difference was 0.031 {mu}R/hr and the p-value was 0.3138. No significant difference was found between Vernita and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.044 {mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.1155.

Cooper, A.T.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

DOSE TO CURIE DETERMINATION FOR CONTAINERS WITH MEASURABLE CS-137  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Next Generation Retrieval (NGR) project will retrieve suspect transuranic (TRU) waste containers from Trenches 17 and 27 in the 218-E-12B (12B) burial ground. The trenches were in operation from May 1970 through October 1972. A portion of the retrieved containers that will require shipment to and acceptance at a treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facility and the containers will be either remote-handled (RH) and/or contact-handled (CH). The method discussed in this document will be used for the RH and some of the CH containers to determine the radionuclide inventory. Waste disposition (shipment and TSD acceptance) requires that the radioactive content be characterized for each container. Source-term estimates using high resolution, shielded, gamma-ray scan assay techniques cannot be performed on a number of RH and other containers with high dose rates from {sup 137}Cs-{sup 137m}Ba. This document provides the method to quantify the radioactive inventory of fission product gamma emitters within the containers based on the surface dose rate measurements taken in the field with hand-held survey instruments.

RATHBUN LA; ANDERSON JD; SWAN RJ

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

53

Determination of tritium permeation rate through T-22 in GCFR helium environment  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were made on tritium permeation rates through T-22 tubular samples in the temperature range of 300/sup 0/ to 550/sup 0/C. The tritium source consists of tritium in helium containing hydrogen at 6 vol % and sufficient water vapor to maintain a hydrogen-to-water-pressure ratio of 10, the total pressure being 1.01 x 10/sup 5/ Pa (1 atm). Two tritium sources at specific activities of 2.6 x 10/sup -3/ and 3.1 x 10/sup -2/ ..mu..Ci/std cc, respectively, were used for determining how the permeation rate varies with tritium concentration. The T-22 tubular samples have a wall thickness of 0.437 x 10/sup -2/ m (0.172 in.), and two samples are used for checking the reproducibility of the results. During the measurements, the tritium diffusing through the wall of the sample is swept out with a helium-steam mixture by bubbling helium at atmospheric pressure through a water reservoir maintained at 90/sup 0/C.

Yang, L.; Baugh, W.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Estimating Salinity Variance Dissipation Rate from Conductivity Microstructure Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the smallest length scales, conductivity measurements include a contribution from salinity fluctuations in the inertial–convective and viscous–diffusive ranges of the turbulent scalar variance spectrum. Interpreting these measurements is ...

Jonathan D. Nash; James N. Moum

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Assessing Snowfall Rates from X-Band Radar Reflectivity Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Realistic aggregate snowflake models and experimental snowflake size distribution parameters are used to derive X-band power-law relations between the equivalent radar reflectivity factor Ze and the liquid equivalent snowfall precipitation rate S ...

Sergey Y. Matrosov; Carroll Campbell; David Kingsmill; Ellen Sukovich

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Determining Meaningful Differences for SMACEX Eddy Covariance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two eddy covariance instrument comparison studies were conducted before and after the Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX) field campaign to 1) determine if observations from multiple sensors were equivalent for the measured ...

D. W. Meek; J. H. Prueger; W. P. Kustas; J. L. Hatfield

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Determination of Total Ozone Amount from TIROS Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total ozone amounts are determined from atmospheric radiances measured by the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS). The retrieval procedure is one of linear regression where total ozone amounts derived from Dobson spectrophotometer ...

Walter G. Planet; David S. Crosby; James H. Lienesch; Michael L. Hill

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Turbidity Determination from Broadband Irradiance Measurements: A Detailed Multicoefficient Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A physically modeled method is presented to obtain accurate turbidity determinations from broadband direct irradiance measurements. The method uses parameterizations of various extinction processes affecting the transfer of shortwave radiation in ...

Christian A. Gueymard

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Measurement of Hydrogen Production Rate Based on Dew Point Temperatures: Independent Review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This independent review verified Idaho National Labotory's approach of measuring the rate of hydrogen production using dew point temperatures.

Duffy, M.; Harrison, K.; Sheahen, T.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

A Method for Determining the Sensor Degradation Rates of NOAA AVHRR Channels 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described to determine the degradation rates of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) visible channels. Thirty-eight desert targets (each 20 km × 20 km) were selected over the northwest region of China after testing ...

A. Wu; Q. Zhonc

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Evaluation of Methodologies for Real-Time Incremental Heat Rate Determination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reduced staffing, tighter budgets, ISOs, and increased competition have created the need for maintaining up-to-date incremental heat rate information. Combining recent advances in analytics with modern performance monitoring packages and data historians may provide the capability for closer-to-real-time incremental heat rate determination. Many power generating companies either rely on historic data or slow and labor intensive testing to establish incremental heat rate curves. Those curves are ...

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

62

Laboratory-Scale Melter for Determination of Melting Rate of Waste Glass Feeds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to develop the laboratory-scale melter (LSM) as a quick and inexpensive method to determine the processing rate of various waste glass slurry feeds. The LSM uses a 3 or 4 in. diameter-fused quartz crucible with feed and off-gas ports on top. This LSM setup allows cold-cap formation above the molten glass to be directly monitored to obtain a steady-state melting rate of the waste glass feeds. The melting rate data from extensive scaled-melter tests with Hanford Site high-level wastes performed for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant have been compiled. Preliminary empirical model that expresses the melting rate as a function of bubbling rate and glass yield were developed from the compiled database. The two waste glass feeds with most melter run data were selected for detailed evaluation and model development and for the LSM tests so the melting rates obtained from LSM tests can be compared with those from scaled-melter tests. The present LSM results suggest the LSM setup can be used to determine the glass production rates for the development of new glass compositions or feed makeups that are designed to increase the processing rate of the slurry feeds.

Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Buchmiller, William C.; Matyas, Josef

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

63

Estimation of compact binary coalescense rates from short gamma-ray burst redshift measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short gamma-ray bursts are believed to originate from the merger of two compact objects. If this scenario is correct, these bursts will be accompanied by the emission of strong gravitational waves, detectable by current or planned GW detectors, such as LIGO and Virgo. No detection of a gravitational wave has been made up to date. In this paper I will use a set of observed redshift measurements of short gamma-ray bursts to fit a model in order to determine the rate of such merger events in the nearby universe. Various corrections will be included in that calculation, as the field-of-view of the satellite missions, the beaming factors of gamma-ray bursts and other parameters. The computed rate estimations will be compared to other rate estimations, based on observations on binary neutron stars and population synthesis models. Given the upper limit established by LIGO/Virgo measurements, it is possible to draw conclusions on the beaming angle of gamma-ray bursts.

Alexander Dietz

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

64

Satellite Passive Microwave Rain Rate Measurement over Croplands during Spring, Summer and Fall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain rate algorithms for spring, summer and fall that have been developed from comparisons between the brightness temperatures measured by the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and rain rates derived from operational WSR-...

Roy W. Spencer

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Measuring OutdoorAir Intake Rates Using Electronic Velocity Sensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow Straighteners  

SciTech Connect

Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100percent, and were often greater than 25percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones Title Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5887E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hult, Erin L., Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and Phillip N. Price Date Published 09/2012 Keywords infiltration, leakage, residential ventilation Abstract Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage.In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate inter- zone leakage. The best of the measurement and analysis methods was a method that uses two blower doors simultaneously based on the methods of Herrlin and Modera (1988) to determine the inter-zone leakage to within 16% of the inter-zone leakage flow at 4Pa, over the range of expected conditions for a house and attached garage. Methods were also identified that use a single blower door to determine the inter-zone leakage to within 30% of its value. The test configuration selected can have a large impact on the uncertainty of the results and there are testing configurations and methods that should definitely be avoided. The most rigorous calculation method identified assumes a fixed value for the pressure exponent for the interface between the two zones (rather than determining the interface pressure exponent from the measured data) and then uses an optimization routine to fit a single set of air leakage coefficients and pressure exponents for each of three wall interfaces using both pressurization and depressurization data. Multiple pressure station tests have much less uncertainty than single pressure station approaches. Analyses of field data sets confirm a similar level of variation between test methods as was expected from the analysis of synthesized data sets and confirm the selection of specific test methods to reduce experimental uncertainty.

67

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marketing > RATES Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1 Ancillary CV-RFS4 CV-SPR4 CV-SUR4 CV-EID4 CV-GID1 Future and Other Rates SNR Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K)

68

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Planning & Projects Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates Power Revenue Requirement Worksheet (FY 2014) (Oct 2013 - Sep 2014) (PDF - 30K) PRR Notification Letter (Sep 27, 2013) (PDF - 959K) FY 2012 FP% True-Up Calculations(PDF - 387K) Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) PRR Forecast FY14-FY17 (May 23, 2013) (PDF - 100K) Forecasted Transmission Rates (May 2013) (PDF - 164K) Past Rates 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Historical CVP Transmission Rates (April 2013) (PDF - 287K) Rate Schedules Power - CV-F13 - CPP-2 Transmission - CV-T3 - CV-NWT5 - PACI-T3 - COTP-T3 - CV-TPT7 - CV-UUP1 Ancillary - CV-RFS4 - CV-SPR4 - CV-SUR4 - CV-EID4 - CV-GID1 Federal Register Notices - CVP, COTP and PACI

69

Eddy Dissipation Rates in Thunderstorms Estimated by Doppler Radar in Relation to Aircraft In Situ Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution aircraft turbulence measurements, well coordinated with radar Doppler spectral width measurements, have been used to verify radar-estimated energy dissipation rates within thunderstorms anvils. The radar-estimated eddy dissipation ...

Peter Meischner; Robert Baumann; Hartmut Höller; Thomas Jank

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

MEASURED AND CALCULATED HEATING AND DOSE RATES FOR THE HFIR HB4 BEAM TUBE AND COLD SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was upgraded to install a cold source in horizontal beam tube number 4. Calculations were performed and measurements were made to determine heating within the cold source and dose rates within and outside a shield tunnel surrounding the beam tube. This report briefly describes the calculations and presents comparisons of the measured and calculated results. Some calculated dose rates are in fair to good agreement with the measured results while others, particularly those at the shield interfaces, differ greatly from the measured results. Calculated neutron exposure to the Teflon seals in the hydrogen transfer line is about one fourth of the measured value, underpredicting the lifetime by a factor of four. The calculated cold source heating is in good agreement with the measured heating.

Slater, Charles O [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Selby, Douglas L [ORNL; Ferguson, Phillip D [ORNL; Bucholz, James A [ORNL; Popov, Emilian L [ORNL

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RATES RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K) Appendix D - Western Transmission System Facilities Map (PDF - 274K) Appendix E - Estimated FY12 FP and BR Customer (PDF - 1144K) Appendix F - Forecasted Replacements and Additions FY11 - FY16 (PDF - 491K) Appendix G - Definitions (PDF - 1758K) Appendix H - Acronyms (PDF - 720K)

72

Operator renewal theory and mixing rates for dynamical systems with infinite measure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a theory of operator renewal sequences in the context of infinite ergodic theory. For large classes of dynamical systems preserving an infinite measure, we determine the asymptotic behaviour of iterates $L^n$ of the transfer operator. This was previously an intractable problem. Examples of systems covered by our results include (i) parabolic rational maps of the complex plane and (ii) (not necessarily Markovian) nonuniformly expanding interval maps with indifferent fixed points. In addition, we give a particularly simple proof of pointwise dual ergodicity (asymptotic behaviour of $\\sum_{j=1}^nL^j$) for the class of systems under consideration. In certain situations, including Pomeau-Manneville intermittency maps, we obtain higher order expansions for $L^n$ and rates of mixing. Also, we obtain error estimates in the associated Dynkin-Lamperti arcsine laws.

Melbourne, Ian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Laser-based irradiation apparatus and method to measure the functional dose-rate response of semiconductor devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can measure the parametric or functional response of a semiconductor device to exposure to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light. Comparisons of dose-rate response from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. The dependence of these changes on equivalent dose-rate pulse intensity and/or duration can be measured with the apparatus. The synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into the device under test can be used to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure while exposing the device to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light.

Horn, Kevin M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

74

Step Complexity Measure for Emergency Operating Procedures - Determining Weighting Factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In complex systems, such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) or airplane control systems, human error has been regarded as the primary cause of many events. Therefore, to ensure system safety, extensive effort has been made to identify the significant factors that can cause human error. According to related studies, written manuals or operating procedures are revealed as one of the important factors, and the understandability is pointed out as one of the major reasons for procedure-related human errors.Many qualitative checklists have been suggested to evaluate emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of NPPs so as to minimize procedure-related human errors. However, since qualitative evaluations using checklists have some drawbacks, a quantitative measure that can quantify the complexity of EOPs is indispensable.From this necessity, Park et al. suggested the step complexity (SC) measure to quantify the complexity of procedural steps included in EOPs. To verify the appropriateness of the SC measure, averaged step performance time data obtained from emergency training records of the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and the excess steam demand event were compared with estimated SC scores. However, although averaged step performance time data and estimated SC scores show meaningful correlation, some important issues such as determining proper weighting factors have to be clarified to ensure the appropriateness of the SC measure. These were not properly dealt with due to a lack of backup data.In this paper, to resolve one of the important issues, emergency training records are additionally collected and analyzed in order to determine proper weighting factors. The total number of collected records is 66, and the training scenarios cover five emergency conditions including the LOCA, the steam generator tube rupture, the loss of all feedwater, the loss of off-site power, and the station blackout. From these records, average step performance time data are retrieved, and new weighting factors are determined by using a nonlinear regression analysis. The results show that the SC scores quantified by the new weighting factors show statistically meaningful correlation with averaged step performance time data. Thus, it can be concluded that the SC measure can represent the complexity of procedural steps included in EOPs.

Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Kim, Jaewhan; Ha, Jaejoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

75

Determination of total ozone from DMSP multichannel filter radiometer measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) infrared sensor was first flown in 1977 on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series satellite operated by the US Air Force. The first four satellites in this series carried MFR sensors from which total atmospheric column ozone amounts may be derived. The last MFR sensor ceased operating on February 16, 1980. The series of four sensors spans a data period of nearly three years. The MFR sensor measures infrared radiances for 16 channels. Total ozone amounts are determined from sets of radiance measurements using an empirical relationship that is developed using linear regression analysis. Total ozone is modeled as a linear combination of terms involving functions of the MFR radiances for four channels (1, 3, 7 and 16) and the secant of the zenith angle. The ozone retrieval methodology is described schematically. The ozone retrieval model is developed through regression analysis using sets of simulated MFR radiances derived from detailed radiative transfer calculations. The MFR total ozone data are compared with independent ground-based Dobson measurements in order to evaluate the ozone retrieval methodology. Many Dobson observatories have been providing their daily measurements of total ozone which are taken close in time to DMSP overpass times. MFR total ozone data are compared with Dobson measurements taken between January 1 and February 15, 1979, and the results are summarized. Comparisons were made where the MFR and Dobson measurements are within 300 km and 300 minutes of each other. Percentages are computed with respect to the Dobson values. The MFR data were processed using a preliminary methodology, and the data will be reprocessed in the near future.

Luther, F.M.; Weichel, R.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Evaluation Of Methods To Measure Hydrogen Generation Rate In A Shielded Cell Environment And A Method Recommendation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to describe the current state of the art for determination of hydrogen generation rates of radioactive slurries and solutions to provide a basis for design, fabrication, testing, and implementation of a measurement method for Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) during qualification of waste feeds for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The HGR measurement will be performed on samples of the Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) staged waste feeds for the WTP as well as on samples from selected unit operations testing during the qualification program. SRNL has performed a review of techniques utilized to measure HGR of high level radioactive waste slurries, evaluated the Hanford 222-S Laboratory method for measurement of hydrogen, and reviewed the hydrogen generation rate models for Hanford waste.Based on the literature review, method evaluation, and SRNL experience with measuring hydrogen generation rate, SRNL recommends that a continuous flow system with online gas analysis be used as the HGR measurement method during waste qualification.

Stone, M. E.

2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

77

EVALUATION OF METHODS TO MEASURE HYDROGEN GENERATION RATE IN A SHIELDED CELL ENVIRONMENT AND A METHOD RECOMMENDATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to describe the current state of the art for determination of hydrogen generation rates of radioactive slurries and solutions to provide a basis for design, fabrication, testing, and implementation of a measurement method for Hydrogen Generation Rate (HGR) during qualification of waste feeds for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The HGR measurement will be performed on samples of the Low Activity Waste (LAW) and High Level Waste (HLW) staged waste feeds for the WTP as well as on samples from selected unit operations testing during the qualification program. SRNL has performed a review of techniques utilized to measure HGR of high level radioactive waste slurries, evaluated the Hanford 222-S Laboratory method for measurement of hydrogen, and reviewed the hydrogen generation rate models for Hanford waste.Based on the literature review, method evaluation, and SRNL experience with measuring hydrogen generation rate, SRNL recommends that a continuous flow system with online gas analysis be used as the HGR measurement method during waste qualification.

Stone, M.

2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

78

Quantitative Measurements of Path-Integrated Rain Rate by an Airborne Microwave Radiometer over the Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data on the airborne microwave radiometer, which is one of the sensors of the airborne microwave rain-scatterometer/radiometer (AMRS) system, are analyzed to infer path-integrated rain rate measured from topside. The equation of radiative ...

Masaharu Fujita; Ken'ichi Okamoto; Harunobu Masuko; Takeyuki Ojima; Nobuyoshi Fugono

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

I. Determination of chemical reaction rate constants by numerical nonlinear analysis: differential methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary emphasis of this work on kinetics is to illustrate the a posteriori approach to applications, where focus on data leads to novel outcomes, rather than the a priori tendencies of applied analysis which imposes constructs on the nature of the observable. The secondary intention is the development of appropriate methods consonant with experimental definitions. By focusing on gradients, it is possible to determine both the average and instantaneous rate constants that can monitor changes in the rate constant with concentration changes as suggested by this theory. Here, methods are developed and discussed utilizing nonlinear analysis which does not require exact knowledge of initial concentrations. These methods are compared with those derived from standard methodology. These gradient methods are shown to be consistent with the ones from standard methods and could readily serve as alternatives for studies where there are limits or unknowns in the initial conditions, such as in the burgeoning fields of ...

Jesudason, Christopher G

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Performance assessment of mass flow rate measurement capability in a large scale transient two-phase flow test system  

SciTech Connect

Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT.

Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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81

A METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING THE DOSE RATE FOR BOUNDING MASS LIMITS IN A 9977 PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that the hazards associated with the shipment of a radioactive material are directly proportional to its mass. This study describes a methodology that estimates the acceptable masses for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a 9977 Package compliant with the Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) external radiation level limits. 10CFR71.33 states that a shipping application identifies the radioactive and fissile materials at their maximum quantity and provides an evaluation demonstrating compliance with the external radiation standards. Since rather small amounts of some isotopes emit sufficiently strong radiation to produce a large external dose rate, quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. A methodology was established for determining the dose rate for bounding mass limits for a set of isotopes in the Model 9977 Shipping Package. Calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels using the MCNP radiation transport code to develop a set of response multipliers (Green's functions) for 'dose per source particle' for each neutron and photon spectral group. The source spectrum from one gram of each isotope was folded with the response multipliers to generate the dose rate per gram of each isotope in the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers. The maximum amount of a single isotope that could be shipped within the regulatory limits for dose rate at the surface was determined. For a package containing a mixture of isotopes, the acceptability for shipment can be determined by a sum of fractions approach. Furthermore, the results of this analysis can be easily extended to additional radioisotopes by simply evaluating the neutron and/or photon spectra of those isotopes and folding the spectral data with the Green's functions provided.

Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

82

Liberty Deprived: The Social and Political Determinants of Female Incarceration Rates, 1979-2001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

female incarceration rate increase by 604 percent, while thethe female incarceration rate increase, on average, by 5 perof threat; incarceration rates increase in response to this

McAnnally, Linda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Online Monitoring And Determination Of Environmental Dose Rate, Using Radiological Network In Albania  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From May 2004, in the Institute of Nuclear Physics is installed Albanian Radiological Monitoring Network, in the framework of emergency monitoring in the territory of Albania. In this network, this is unique monitoring on-line system in our country. are included 5(five) monitoring stations, respectively in Tirane, Shkoder, Kukes, Korce and Vlore. The last four stations are near Albanian borders The network performs measures of ambient dose rate in a range from 5 nSv/h up to 10 Sv/h. For measurements are used detector of type VACUTEC 70045 A, which are calibrated in the Centre of Applied Nuclear Physics, University of Tirana, using standard radiation source Cs-137. This monitoring help to warn in real time the relative authorities, in case of radiological accidents of 5th degree (for example accidents in nuclear power plants, near Albanian territory).

Telhaj, Ervis [Centre of Applied Nuclear Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana (Albania); Deda, Antoneta [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana (Albania)

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

84

SEU rate prediction and measurement of GaAs SRAMs onboard the CRRES satellite  

SciTech Connect

The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) launched in July of 1990 included experiments to study effects of Single Event Upset (SEU) on various microelectronic ICs. The MicroElectronics Package (MEP) subsection of the satellite experiments monitored upset rates on 65 devices over a 15 month period. One of the purposes of the SEU experiments was to determine if the soft error modeling techniques were of sufficient accuracy to predict error rates, and if not, to determine where the deficiencies existed. An analysis is presented on SPICE predicted, SEU ground tested, and CRRES observed heavy ion and proton soft error rates of GaAs SRAMs. Upset rates overestimated the susceptibility of the GaAs SRAMs. Differences are accounted to several factors.

Weatherford, T.R.; McDonald, P.T. (SFA, Inc., Landover, MD (United States) Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Campbell, A.B.; Langworthy, J.B. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Measurement of Hydrogen Purge Rates in Parabolic Trough Receiver Tubes: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods to remove hydrogen centrally from commercial parabolic trough power plants. A mathematical model was developed that tracks the generation and transport of hydrogen within an operating plant. Modeling results predicted the steady-state partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to be ~1 torr. This result agrees with measured values for the hydrogen partial pressure. The model also predicted the rate at which hydrogen must be actively removed from the expansion tank to reduce the partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to less than 0.001 torr. Based on these results, mitigation strategies implemented at operating parabolic trough power plants can reduce hydrogen partial pressure to acceptable levels. Transient modeling predicted the time required to reduce the hydrogen partial pressures within receiver annuli to acceptable levels. The times were estimated as a function of bellows temperature, getter quantity, and getter temperature. This work also includes an experimental effort that will determine the time required to purge hydrogen from a receiver annulus with no getter.

Glatzmaier, G. C.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Measuring Spectral Actinic Flux and Irradiance: Experimental Results from the Actinic Flux Determination from Measurements of Irradiance (ADMIRA) Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from the Actinic Flux Determination from Measurements of Irradiance (ADMIRA) campaign to measure spectral global UV irradiance and actinic flux at the ground, beneath an atmosphere well defined by supporting measurements. ...

A. R. Webb; A. F. Bais; M. Blumthaler; G-P. Gobbi; A. Kylling; R. Schmitt; S. Thiel; F. Barnaba; T. Danielsen; W. Junkermann; A. Kazantzidis; P. Kelly; R. Kift; G. L. Liberti; M. Misslbeck; B. Schallhart; J. Schreder; C. Topaloglou

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature.

Colombani, Jean

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature.

Jean Colombani

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

89

PCP METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials, are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This study describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials perform, under both normal and accident conditions, the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within regulatory limits. 10 CFR 71.33(b)(1)(2)&(3) state radioactive and fissile materials must be identified and their maximum quantity, chemical and physical forms be included in an application. Furthermore, the U.S. Federal Regulations require application contain an evaluation demonstrating the package (i.e., the packaging and its contents) satisfies the external radiation standards for all packages (10 CFR 71.31(2), 71.35(a), & 71.47). By placing the contents in a He leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large external dose rate. Quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings described in this report provides bounding mass limits for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. Methodology calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels for the 9977 shipping package using the MCNP radiation transport code to develop a set of response multipliers (Green's functions) for 'dose per particle' for each neutron and photon spectral group. The source spectrum for each isotope generated using the ORIGEN-S and RASTA computer codes was folded with the response multipliers to generate the dose rate per gram of each isotope in the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers. The maximum amount of a single isotope that could be shipped within the regulatory limits contained in 10 CFR 71.47 for dose rate at the surface of the package is determined. If a package contains a mixture of isotopes, the acceptability for shipment can be determined by a sum of fractions approach. Furthermore, the results of this analysis can be easily extended to additional radioisotopes by simply evaluating the neutron and/or photon spectra of those isotopes and folding the spectral data with the Green's functions provided.

Nathan, S.

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

90

Deflagration Rate Measurements of Three Insensitive High Explosives: LLM-105, TATB, and DAAF  

SciTech Connect

The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105, DAAF and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. One DAAF formulation, two different formulations of LLM-105, and four formulations of TATB were studied; results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating DAAF and TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

Glascoe, E A; Maienschein, J L; Lorenz, K T; Tan, N; Koerner, J G

2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

91

PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT DEFLAGRATION RATE MEASUREMENTS OF LLM-105 AND TATB BASED EXPLOSIVES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105 and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. Two different formulations of LLM-105 and three formulations of TATB were studied and results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate and become erratic. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N; Koerner, J; Lorenz, K T; Maienschein, J L

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

92

Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

Peeping at chaos: Nondestructive monitoring of chaotic systems by measuring long-time escape rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One or more small holes provide non-destructive windows to observe corresponding closed systems, for example by measuring long time escape rates of particles as a function of hole sizes and positions. To leading order the escape rate of chaotic systems is proportional to the hole size and independent of position. Here we give exact formulas for the subsequent terms, as sums of correlation functions; these depend on hole size and position, hence yield information on the closed system dynamics. Conversely, the theory can be readily applied to experimental design, for example to control escape rates.

L. A. Bunimovich; C. P. Dettmann

2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

94

I. Determination of chemical reaction rate constants by numerical nonlinear analysis: differential methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary emphasis of this work on kinetics is to illustrate the a posteriori approach to applications, where focus on data leads to novel outcomes, rather than the a priori tendencies of applied analysis which imposes constructs on the nature of the observable. The secondary intention is the development of appropriate methods consonant with experimental definitions. By focusing on gradients, it is possible to determine both the average and instantaneous rate constants that can monitor changes in the rate constant with concentration changes as suggested by this theory. Here, methods are developed and discussed utilizing nonlinear analysis which does not require exact knowledge of initial concentrations. These methods are compared with those derived from standard methodology. These gradient methods are shown to be consistent with the ones from standard methods and could readily serve as alternatives for studies where there are limits or unknowns in the initial conditions, such as in the burgeoning fields of astrophysics and astrochemistry, forensics, archeology and biology . All four reactions studied exhibited semi sinusoidal-like change with reactant concentration change which standard methods cannot detect, which seems to constitute the observation of a new effect that is not predicted by current formulations, where the possibility that the observations are due to artifacts from instrumental errors or the optimization method is reasoned as unlikely since the experiments were conducted by different groups at very different times with different classes of reactions.

Christopher G. Jesudason

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

95

A GREEN'S FUNCTION APPROACH FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials (RAM), are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This paper describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package in compliance with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. The neutron and photon sources were calculated using both ORIGEN-S and RASTA. The response from a unit source in each neutron and photon group was calculated using MCNP5 with each unshielded and shielded container configuration. Effects of self-shielding on both neutron and photon response were evaluated by including either plutonium oxide or iron in the source region for the case with no shielded container. For the cases of actinides mixed with light elements, beryllium is the bounding light element. The added beryllium (10 to 90 percent of the actinide mass) in the cases studied represents between 9 and 47 percent concentration of the total mixture mass. For beryllium concentrations larger than 50 percent, the increase in the neutron source term and dose rate tend to increase at a much lower rate than at concentrations lower than 50%. The intimately mixed actinide-beryllium form used in these models is very conservative and thus the limits presented in this report are practical bounds on the mass that can be safely shipped. The calculated dose rate from one gram of each isotope was then used to determin the maximum amount of a single isotope that could be shipped in the Model 9977 Package (or packagings having the same or larger external dimensions as well as similar structural materials) and have the external radiation level within the regulatory dose limits at the surface of the package. The estimates of the mass limits presented would also serve as conservative limits for both the Models 9975 and 9978 packages. If a package contains a mixture of isotopes, the acceptability for shipment can be determined by a sum of fractions approach. It should be noted that the SGQ masses presented in this report represent limits that would comply with the external radiation limits under 10CFR Part 71. They do not necessarily bound lower limits that may be required to comply with other factors such as heat load of the package.

Nathan, S.

2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

96

PACKAGING CERTIFICATION PROGRAM METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials (RAM), are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This paper describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials, under both normal and accident conditions, to perform the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within the specified limits. By placing the contents in a helium leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large dose rate outside the package. Quantifying the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings provides bounding shielding calculations that define mass limits compliant with 10 CFR 71.47 for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. The approach is based on energy superposition with dose response calculated for a set of spectral groups for a baseline physical packaging configuration. The methodology includes using the MCNP radiation transport code to evaluate a family of neutron and photon spectral groups using the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers as the base case. This results in a set of multipliers for 'dose per particle' for each spectral group. For a given isotope, the source spectrum is folded with the response for each group. The summed contribution from all isotopes determines the total dose from the RAM in the container.

Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

97

Liberty Deprived: The Social and Political Determinants of Female Incarceration Rates, 1979-2001  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

White and nonwhite rates of imprisonment.   Social Problems of  Incarceration Rates.   Journal of Politics, 66(3): 925?Why Are U.S.  Incarceration Rates So High?   Crime and 

McAnnally, Linda

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Exclusive measurements of b?s? transition rate and photon energy spectrum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use 429??fb[superscript -1] of e[superscript +]e[superscript -] collision data collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector to measure the radiative transition rate of b?s? with a sum of 38 exclusive final ...

Dujmic, Denis

99

A PORTABLE DOSE RATE INSTRUMENT FOR MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL BACK-GROUND RADIATION LEVELS  

SciTech Connect

An instrument of the ionization chamber type which is capable of measuring radiation dose rates down to and below those encountered in natural background was designed and constructed. It consists of a 40-liter ionization chamber coupled to a portable battery-powered electrometer. The chamber polarizing battery is a part of the chamber center electrode assembly and is located inside the chamber. (auth)

Rising, F.L.

1960-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

100

AN EMPIRICAL MEASURE OF THE RATE OF WHITE DWARF COOLING IN 47 TUCANAE  

SciTech Connect

We present an empirical determination of the white dwarf cooling sequence in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Using spectral models, we determine temperatures for 887 objects from Wide Field Camera 3 data, as well as 292 objects from data taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. We make the assumption that the rate of white dwarf formation in the cluster is constant. Stellar evolution models are then used to determine the rate at which objects are leaving the main sequence, which must be the same as the rate at which objects are arriving on the white dwarf sequence in our field. The result is an empirically derived relation between temperature (T {sub eff}) and time (t) on the white dwarf cooling sequence. Comparing this result to theoretical cooling models, we find general agreement with the expected slopes between 20,000 K and 30,000 K and between 6000 K and 20,000 K, but the transition to the Mestel cooling rate of T {sub eff}{proportional_to}t {sup -0.4} is found to occur at hotter temperatures, and more abruptly than is predicted by any of these models.

Goldsbury, R.; Heyl, J.; Richer, H. B.; Woodley, K. A., E-mail: rgoldsb@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: heyl@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: richer@astro.ubc.ca, E-mail: kwoodley@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Measurement and Analysis of Fission Rates in a Spherical Mockup of Uranium and Polyethylene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the reaction rate distribution were carried out using two kinds of Plate Micro Fission Chamber(PMFC). The first is a depleted uranium chamber and the second an enriched uranium chamber. The material in the depleted uranium chamber is strictly the same as the material in the uranium assembly. With the equation solution to conduct the isotope contribution correction, the fission rate of 238U and 235U were obtained from the fission rate of depleted uranium and enriched uranium. And then, the fission count of 238U and 235U in an individual uranium shell was obtained. In this work, MCNP5 and continuous energy cross sections ENDF/BV.0 were used for the analysis of fission rate distribution and fission count. The calculated results were compared with the experimental ones. The calculation of fission rate of DU and EU were found to agree with the measured ones within 10% except at the positions in polyethylene region and the two positions near the outer surface. Beacause the fission chamber was not co...

Tong-Hua, Zhu; Xin-Xin, Lu; Rong, Liu; Zi-Jie, Han; Li, Jiang; Mei, Wang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Determination of parameters of a nuclear reactor through noise measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring parameters of a nuclear reactor by noise measurements is described. Noise signals are developed by the detectors placed in the reactor core. The polarity coincidence between the noise signals is used to develop quantities from which various parameters of the reactor can be calculated. (auth)

Cohn, C.E.

1975-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABRIDGED We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z <0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3$. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of $({0.37}^{+0.17+0.01}_{-0.12-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.55}^{+0.13+0.02}_{-0.11-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ ($\\mathrm{SNu}x = 10^{-12} L_{x\\sun}^{-1} \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be $({0.31}^{+0.18+0.01}_{-0.12-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.49}^{+0.15+0.02}_{-0.11-0.01})$ $\\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be $({2.04}^{+1.99+0.07}_{-1.11-0.04}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.36}^{+0.84+0.01}_...

Dilday, Benjamin; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Frieman, Joshua A; Galbany, Lluís; Garnavich, Peter; Goobar, Ariel; Hopp, Ulrich; Ihara, Yutaka; Jha, Saurabh W; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Mollá, Mercedes; Nichol, Robert C; Nordin, Jakob; Riess, Adam G; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Smith, Mathew; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J Craig; Östman, Linda; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Tropospheric Water Vapor Transport as Determined from Airborne Lidar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first collocated measurements during THORPEX (The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment) regional campaign in Europe in 2007 were performed by a novel four-wavelength differential absorption lidar and a scanning 2-?m Doppler ...

Andreas Schäfler; Andreas Dörnbrack; Christoph Kiemle; Stephan Rahm; Martin Wirth

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Measured leak rates of the temporary seals in DWPF canistered waste forms after three years of on site storage  

SciTech Connect

In the summer of 1990 a study was carried out to determine the-internal pressure, relative humidity, and chemical composition of the gas within the free volume of four canistered waste forms produced at TNX in May of 1988. Three of these canistered waste forms were sealed only by temporary seals and subsequently stored in the TNX boneyard' with no protection. The fourth canister was sealed by upset resistance welding. All three canisters with temporary seals were decontaminated by aqueous frit blasting. It was important to remeasure the leak rates of these seals to ensure that leaktightness had not deteriorated during canister handling and storage prior to the time the experiment were performed. This paper details the results of two separate measurements of the leak rates of these seals.

Harbour, J.R.; Miller, T.J.

1992-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

106

Measured leak rates of the temporary seals in DWPF canistered waste forms after three years of on site storage  

SciTech Connect

In the summer of 1990 a study was carried out to determine the-internal pressure, relative humidity, and chemical composition of the gas within the free volume of four canistered waste forms produced at TNX in May of 1988. Three of these canistered waste forms were sealed only by temporary seals and subsequently stored in the TNX `boneyard` with no protection. The fourth canister was sealed by upset resistance welding. All three canisters with temporary seals were decontaminated by aqueous frit blasting. It was important to remeasure the leak rates of these seals to ensure that leaktightness had not deteriorated during canister handling and storage prior to the time the experiment were performed. This paper details the results of two separate measurements of the leak rates of these seals.

Harbour, J.R.; Miller, T.J.

1992-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

107

A Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO 2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures Nicholas B. Janda (nbj2@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-2648) Philip W. Morrison, Jr. (pwm5@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-4238) Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7217 Beverly Z. Saylor (bzs@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3763) Gerald Matisoff (gxm4@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3677) Department of Geological Sciences Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7216 Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep, porous, and permeable reservoir rocks is one of the most promising technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Although oil and gas reservoirs are a sensible first step for sequestration of carbon dioxide in geologic

108

Development and evaluation of a meter for measuring return line fluid flow rates during drilling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most costly problem routinely encountered in geothermal drilling is lost circulation, which occurs when drilling fluid is lost to the formation rather than circulating back to the surface. The successful and economical treatment of lost circulation requires the accurate measurement of drilling fluid flow rate both into and out of the well. This report documents the development of a meter for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates in the return line of a drilling rig. The meter employs a rolling counterbalanced float that rides on the surface of the fluid in the return line. The angle of the float pivot arm is sensed with a pendulum potentiometer, and the height of the float is calculated from this measurement. The float height is closely related to the fluid height and, therefore, the flow rate in the line. The prototype rolling float meter was extensively tested under laboratory conditions in the Wellbore Hydraulics Flow Facility; results from these tests were used in the design of the field prototype rolling float meter. The field prototype meter was tested under actual drilling conditions in August and September 1991 at the Long Valley Exploratory Well near Mammoth Lakes, Ca. In addition, the performance of several other commercially available inflow and outflow meters was evaluated in the field. The tested inflow meters included conventional pump stroke counters, rotary pump speed counters, magnetic flowmeters, and an ultrasonic Doppler flowmeter. On the return flow line, a standard paddlemeter, an acoustic level meter, and the prototype rolling float meter were evaluated for measuring drilling fluid outflow rates.

Loeppke, G.E.; Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Scott, D.D.; Wernig, M.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Wright, E.K. (Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Storage-ring measurements of hyperfine induced transition rates in berylliumlike ions  

SciTech Connect

The status of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of the hyperfine induced 2s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}2s{sup 21}S{sub 0} transition rate in Be-like ions is reviewed. Possible reasons, such as external electromagnetic fields and competing E1M1 two-photon transitions, for presently existing significant discrepancies between experiment and theory are discussed. Finally, directions for future research are outlined.

Schippers, Stefan [Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Leihgesterner Weg 217, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

2013-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

110

Method and means for dynamic measurement of rates of adsorption from solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are described for the dynamic measurement of rates of absorption from solutions. The method has the advantage of avoiding the use of solvent normally used to establish a baseline. The method involves pre-evacuating the adsorbent contained in an adsorbent cell and thereafter rapidly contacting the adsorbent with analytical solution, all without prior exposure of adsorbent to pure solvent. The result is a sharp characteristic adsorption line. 5 figs.

Slomka, B.J.; Buttermore, W.H.

1992-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

111

Method and means for dynamic measurement of rates of adsorption from solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for dynamic measurement of rates of absorption from solutions. The method has the advantage of avoiding the use of solvent normally used to establish a baseline. The method involves pre-evacuating the adsorbent contained in an adsorbent cell and thereafter rapidly contacting the adsorbent with analytical solution, all without prior exposure of adsorbent to pure solvent. The result is a sharp characteristic adsorption line.

Slomka, Bogdan J. (Ames, IA); Buttermore, William H. (Ames, IA)

1992-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

112

An evaluation of three commercially available technologies for real-time measurement of rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RATES OF OUTDOOR AIRFLOW INTO HVAC SYSTEMS William J. Fisk,determine flow resistance of hvac ducts and fittings. A S H

Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

THE DETERMINATION OF EXCESSIVE EMULSIFICATION BY COALESCENCE BEHAVIOR MEASUREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The development of a remotely operated device for determining the coalescence times of plant process streams suspected of containing surfactants such as silicic compounds and fission product zirconium compounds is described. A general correlation between the coalescence times of pilot plant extraction column aluminum nitrate feeds and 3.25 percent tributyl phosphate extractant streams and the observations of column behavior of these streams is demonstrated. The application of the coalescence test to plant streams is given. (auth)

Parrett, O.W.

1959-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

114

Determination of influence factors and accident rates for the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operating environments, such as road type, road location, and time of day, play an important role in the observed accident rates of heavy trucks used in general commerce. These same factors influence the accident rate of the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer (AT/SST) used by the Department of Energy to transport hazardous cargos within the continental United States. This report discusses the development of accident rate influence factors. These factors, based on heavy trucks used in general commerce, are used to modify the observed overall AT/SST accident rate to account for the different operating environments.

Phillips, J.S.; Clauss, D.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blower, D.F. [Univ. of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Center for National Truck Statistics

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Analyses and applications of pressure, flow rate, and temperature measurements during a perforating run. [Measurement while perforating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perforating technology has undergone significant advances during the last decade. Tubing-conveyed perforating, underbalanced perforating, high-shot-density guns, better shaped charges, and improved gun systems have contributed to safer operations and improved productivity of the perforated completions. A recent development described in this paper is a perforating tool that makes real-time downhole measurements (including pressure, flow rate, temperature, gamma ray, casing-collar locator (CCL), and cable tension) during a perforating run and can selectively fire a number of guns at different depths or times. In addition to providing better control of the perforating process, the simultaneous downhole measurements can provide in a single trip a production log, conventional well tests before and after perforating, and a fill-up or slug test soon after perforating for underbalanced conditions. Thus, the completion can be evaluated in real time and any needed remedial reperforating can be performed while the gun is still in the hole. Other applications include limited-entry perforating, monitoring of bottomhole pressure (BHP) during minifracture jobs, better depth control with a gamma ray detector, fluid-level monitoring, and underbalance control. The applications of these measurements, with field data obtained with the Measurement While Perforating (MWP{sup SM}) tool, are the subject of this paper. Examples show the capabilities and the versatility of the MWP tool.

Tariq, S.M. (Schlumberger Perforating and Testing Center (US)); Ayestaran, L.C. (Schlumberger Well Services (US))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes  

SciTech Connect

High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length {proportional_to}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=(1.90{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1705{+-}56 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=(1.86{+-}0.24) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1513{+-}123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=(2.02{+-}0.19) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1799{+-}96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=(2.55{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1824{+-}114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779}exp(97 K/T)cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=3.169 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.679}exp(119 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148}exp(536 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325}exp(602 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment. (author)

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J.V. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, D-193, Bldg. 200, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes.  

SciTech Connect

High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length 4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm3 molecule-1 s-1, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = (1.90 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1705 {+-} 156 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = (1.86 {+-} 0.24) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1513 {+-} 123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = (2.02 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1799 {+-} 96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = (2.55 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1824 {+-} 114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = 1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779} exp(97 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = 3.169 x 10{sup -16} T{sup 1.679} exp(119 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = 6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148} exp(536 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = 2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325} exp(602 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment.

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Determining biological tissue optical properties via integrating sphere spatial measurements  

SciTech Connect

An optical sample is mounted on a spatial-acquisition apparatus that is placed in or on an enclosure. An incident beam is irradiated on a surface of the sample and the specular reflection is allowed to escape from the enclosure through an opening. The spatial-acquisition apparatus is provided with a light-occluding slider that moves in front of the sample to block portions of diffuse scattering from the sample. As the light-occluding slider moves across the front of the sample, diffuse light scattered into the area of the backside of the light-occluding slider is absorbed by back side surface of the light-occluding slider. By measuring a baseline diffuse reflectance without a light-occluding slider and subtracting measured diffuse reflectance with a light-occluding slider therefrom, diffuse reflectance for the area blocked by the light-occluding slider can be calculated.

Baba, Justin S. (Knoxville, TN); Letzen, Brian S. (Coral Springs, FL)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

119

A matrix-based methodology for determining a part family's learning rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Learning is a decrease in the time to perform an operation due to repetition and is an important consideration when forecasting process times or product costs. This paper presents a new method for calculating the learning rate for a family of parts using ... Keywords: Cost estimation, Family learning rate, Learning

William A. Young, II; Dale T. Masel; Robert P. Judd

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Deformation of Olivine at Subduction Zone Conditions Determined from In situ Measurements with Synchrotron Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report measurements of the deformation stress for San Carlos olivine at pressures of 3-5 GPa, temperatures of 25-1150 C, and strain rates of 10{sup -7}-10{sup -5} s{sup -1}. We determine a deformation stress of approximately 2.5 GPa that is relatively temperature and strain rate independent in the temperature range of 400-900 C. The deformation experiments have been carried out on a deformation DIA (D-DIA) apparatus, Sam85, at X17B2, NSLS. Powder samples are used in these experiments. Enstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}) (3-5% total quality of sample) is used as the buffer to control the activity of silica. Ni foil is used in some experiments to buffer the oxygen fugacity. Water content is confirmed by IR spectra of the recovered samples. Samples are compressed at room temperature and are then annealed at 1200 C for at least 2 h before deformation. The total (plastic and elastic) strains (macroscopic) are derived from the direct measurements of the images taken by X-ray radiograph technique. The differential stresses are derived from the diffraction determined elastic strains. In the regime of 25-400 C, there is a small decrease of stress at steady state as temperature increases; in the regime of 400 C to the 'transition temperature', the differential stress at steady state ({approx}2.5 GPa) is relatively insensitive to the changes of temperature and strain rate; however, it drastically decreases to about 1 GPa and becomes temperature-dependent above the transition temperature and thereafter. The transition temperature is near 900 C. Above the transition temperature, the flow agrees with power law creep measurements of previous investigations. The anisotropy of differential stress in individual planes indicates that the deformation of olivine at low temperature is dominated by [0 0 1](1 0 0). Accounting to a slower strain rate in the natural system, the transition temperature for the olivine in the slab is most likely in the range of 570-660 C.

H Long; D Weidner; L Li; J Chen; L Wang

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research: discount rate determination and the fossil fuel price effect  

SciTech Connect

In current and previous efforts, ECON has provided a preliminary economic assessment of a fusion research program. Part of this effort was the demonstration of a methodology for the estimation of reactor system costs and risk and for the treatment of program alternatives as a series of steps (tests) to buy information, thereby controlling program risk and providing a sound economic rationale for properly constructed research programs. The first phase of work also identified two areas which greatly affect the overall economic evaluation of fusion research and which warranted further study in the second phase. This led to the two tasks of the second phase reported herein: (1) discount rate determination and (2) evaluation of the effect of the expectation of the introduction of fusion power on current fossil fuel prices. In the first task, various conceptual measures of the social rate of discount were reviewed and critiqued. In the second task, a benefit area that had been called out by ECON was further examined. Long-range R and D yields short-term benefits in the form of lower nonrenewable energy resource prices because the R and D provides an expectation of future competition for the remaining reserves at the time of technology availability. ECON developed a model of optimal OPEC petroleum pricing as a function of the expectation of future competing technologies. It was shown that the existence of this expectation lowers the optimal OPEC export price and that accelerated technology R and D programs should provide further price decreases. These price reductions translate into benefits to the U.S. of at least a billion dollars.

1978-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

122

Determination of the Rate of Formation of Hydroceramic Waste Forms made with INEEL Calcined Wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formulation, synthesis, characterization and hydration kinetics of hydroceramic waste forms designed as potential hosts for existing INEEL calcine high-level wastes have been established as functions of temperature and processing time. Initial experimentations were conducted with several aluminosilicate pozzolanic materials, ranging from fly ash obtained from various power generating coal and other combustion industries to reactive alumina, natural clays and ground bottled glass powders. The final selection criteria were based on the ease of processing, excellent physical properties and chemical durability (low-leaching) determined from the PCT test produced in hydroceramic. The formulation contains vermiculite, Sr(NO32), CsC1, NaOH, thermally altered (calcined natural clay) and INEEL simulated calcine high-level nuclear wastes and 30 weight percent of fluorinel blend calcine and zirconia calcine. Syntheses were carried out at 75-200 degree C at autogeneous water pressure (100% relative humidity) at various time intervals. The resulting monolithic compact products were hard and resisted breaking when dropped from a 5 ft height. Hydroceramic host mixed with fluorinel blend calcine and processed at 75 degree C crumbled into rice hull-side grains or developed scaly flakes. However, the samples equally possessed the same chemical durability as their unbroken counterparts. Phase identification by XRD revealed that hydroceramic host crystallized type zeolite at 75-150 degree C and NaP1 at 175-200 degree C in addition to the presence of quartz phase originating from the clay reactant. Hydroceramic host mixed with either fluorinel blend calcine or zirconia calcine crystallized type A zeolite at 75-95 degree C, formed a mixture of type A zeolite and hydroxysodalite at 125-150 degree C and hydroxysodalite at 175-200 degree C. Quartz, calcium fluoride and zirconia phases from the clay reactant and the two calcine wastes were also detected. The PCT test solution conductivity, pH and analytical concentration measured as a function of time decrease exponentially. In some cases nitrate, sulfate, chloride and fluoride ion concentrations increased with time and processing temperature with respect to the reference sample. The increasing concentration of these ions was due to the lack of formation of crystalline phases that can incorporate them in their structures, especially cancrinite. Another plausible explanations for their increase was due to the continuous withdrawal of cations with time, for example sodium to form zeolites, thereby increase their concentrations.

Barry Scheetz; Johnson Olanrewaju

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Isotope Shift Measurements of Stable and Short-Lived Lithium Isotopes for Nuclear Charge Radii Determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Changes in the mean-square nuclear charge radii along the lithium isotopic chain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift measurements and theoretical atomic structure calculations. Nuclear charge radii of light elements are of high interest due to the appearance of the nuclear halo phenomenon in this region of the nuclear chart. During the past years we have developed a new laser spectroscopic approach to determine the charge radii of lithium isotopes which combines high sensitivity, speed, and accuracy to measure the extremely small field shift of an 8 ms lifetime isotope with production rates on the order of only 10,000 atoms/s. The method was applied to all bound isotopes of lithium including the two-neutron halo isotope Li-11 at the on-line isotope separators at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany and at TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada. We describe the laser spectroscopic method in detail, present updated and improved values from theory and experiment, and discuss the results.

Nörtershäuser, W; Ewald, G; Dax, A; Behr, J; Bricault, P; Bushaw, B A; Dilling, J; Dombsky, M; Drake, G W F; Götte, S; Kluge, H -J; Kühl, Th; Lassen, J; Levy, C D P; Pachucki, K; Pearson, M; Puchalski, M; Wojtaszek, A; Yan, Z -C; Zimmermann, C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs used to determine sediment accretion rates at selected northern European coastal wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Sediment cores were collected form five coastal wetlands along the North Sea (England and Netherlands) and Baltic Sea (Poland). {sup 137}Cs dating was used to assess sediment accretion rates, including rates based on the {sup 137}Cs peak from the 1986 accident at Chernobyl. Peaks form the Chernobyl fallout were found in cores from the Oder and Vistula Rivers in Poland, from the Eastern Scheldt in the Netherlands, and in one of the two cores from Stiffkey Marsh, UK. No evidence of Chernobyl fallout was found in cores from Dengie Marsh, UK. The Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs peak serves as an excellent marker for short-term accretion rates because of its high activity. Vertical accretion rates (cm yr{sup {minus}1}) based on 1963 and 1986 peaks were similar at most sites; differences may be due to large inputs of sediment from storms or recent accumulation of organic matter. Large differences in sediment characteristics and accretion rates were found between samples from Poland and western Europe. Vertical accretion rates over the period 1963-1986 ranged from 0.26 to 0.85 cm{sup {minus}1} and from 0.30 to 1.90 cm yr{sup {minus}1} over the 1986-1991 period. Vertical accretion rates for the period these sites are in imminent danger of excessive flooding. The Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs peak will be especially useful for studies of short-term (i.e. very recent) sedimentation in the near future and for comparisons of sediment processes over different time scales. 33 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Callaway, J.C.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Exclusive Measurements of the b to s gamma Transition Rate and Photon Energy Spectrum  

SciTech Connect

We use 429 fb{sup -1} of e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector to measure the radiative transition rate of b {yields} s{gamma} with a sum of 38 exclusive final states. The inclusive branching fraction with a minimum photon energy of 1.9 GeV is found to be {Beta}({bar B} {yields} Xs{gamma}) = (3.29 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.48) x 10{sup -4} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We also measure the first and second moments of the photon energy spectrum and extract the best fit values for the heavy-quark parameters, m{sub b} and {mu}{sub {pi}}{sup 2}, in the kinetic and shape function models.

Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Brown, David Nathan; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; /Ruhr U., Bochum; Asgeirsson, D.J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T.S.; McKenna, J.A.; /British Columbia U.; Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Blinov, V.E.; Buzykaev, A.R.; /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Harvey Mudd Coll. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U., Comp. Sci. Dept. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U.; /more authors..

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

126

Tumor Volume Reduction Rate Measured by Magnetic Resonance Volumetry Correlated With Pathologic Tumor Response of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlates with the pathologic tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study included 405 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-T4) who had undergone preoperative CRT and radical proctectomy. The tumor volume was measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry before and after CRT but before surgery. We analyzed the correlation between the TVRR and the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and tumor regression grade (TRG). Downstaging was defined as ypStage 0-I (ypT0-T2N0M0), and the TRG proposed by Dworak et al. was used. Results: The mean TVRR was 65.0% {+-} 22.3%. Downstaging and complete regression occurred in 167 (41.2%) and 58 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The TVRRs according to ypT classification (ypT0-T2 vs. ypT3-T4), ypN classification (ypN0 vs. ypN1-N2), downstaging (ypStage 0-I vs. ypStage II-III), good regression (TRG 3-4 vs. TRG 1-2), and complete regression (TRG 4 vs. TRG 1-3) were all significantly different (p <.05). When the TVRR was categorized into three groups (<60%, 60-80%, and >80%), the rates of ypT0-T2, ypN0, downstaging, and good regression were all significantly greater for patients with a TVRR of {>=}60%, as was the complete regression rate for patients with a TVRR >80% (p <.05). Conclusion: The TVRR measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlated significantly with the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and TRG after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer.

Yeo, Seung-Gu [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Soon Chun Hyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong, E-mail: radiopiakim@hanmail.ne [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyun [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung Hae; Hong, Yong Sang [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medical Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Ji Won [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seok-Byung [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyo Seong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung-Yong [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Determination of the Scaled Optical Thickness of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for determining the scaled optical thickness of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. The procedure compares measurements of the reflection function with asymptotic expressions for the reflection function of ...

Michael D. King

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Determining Surface Solar Absorption from Broadband Satellite Measurements for Clear Skies: Comparison with Surface Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two separate datasets both of which provide measurements of net downward shortwave radiation have been combined, so as to provide a means of critically examining methods for transferring satellite measurements to the surface. This is further ...

Robert D. Cess; Ellsworth G. Dutton; John J. Deluisi; Feng Jiang

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Maximal heart rates of 130140beats min-1 have been measured in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) (Brill, 1987;  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximal heart rates of 130­140beats min-1 have been measured in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) (Brill, 1987; Farrell et al., 1992; Keen et al., 1995). These heart rates slightly exceed the suggested, skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) have maximum heart rates of 154­191 beats min-1 (Brill, 1987; Farrell et

Vellend, Mark

130

Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. However,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 of 4 Abstract--Heart rate variability (HRV) is frequently used to measure autonomic nervous frequency (HF) ratio with little change in mean heart rate. Results suggest that nicotine affects both components may yield erroneous results. Keywords--Autonomic regulation, heart rate variability, Lomb

131

A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are hostless to be (9.4{sub -5.1}{sup +8.3})%.

Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Addendum to High Pressure Burn Rate Measurements on an Ammonium Perchlorate Propellant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a small follow-on study, the burn rate of the ammonium perchlorate (AP) based material TAL-1503 was studied at a relatively mild pressure. The goal of this final experiment was to burn TAL-1503 at the lowest pressures possible using the LLNL High Pressure Strand Burner (LLNL-HPSB). The following is a description of the experiment and the results with a brief discussion of data and a comparison to the higher pressure data. This is not meant to be a stand-alone report and readers should refer to the main report for experimental details and discussion. High pressure deflagration rate measurements of a unique AP/HTPB based material (TAL-1503) were performed using the LLNL high pressure strand burner apparatus. The material burns in a well behaved, laminar fashion between 20 and 300 MPa with a burn law of B = (0.6 {+-} 0.1) x P{sup (1.05{+-}0.02)} that was calculated based on the best data available from the experiments. In the pressure range of 2 and 10 MPa the material burned laminarly with a burn law of B = (2.0 {+-} 0.2) x P{sup (0.66{+-}0.05)}. In these results, B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is the pressure in units of MPa. Comparison of the TAL-1503 results with similar propellants that contain micrometer sized aluminum indicate that the burn rates are relatively unaffected by the aluminum. However, the pressure change is significantly larger when aluminum is present, most likely due to the high temperatures achieved from burning aluminum.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

133

OPPORTUNITIES TO CONSTRAIN ASTROPHYSICAL REACTION RATES FOR THE s-PROCESS VIA DETERMINATION OF THE GROUND-STATE CROSS-SECTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Modern models of s-process nucleosynthesis in stars require stellar reaction rates of high precision. Most neutron-capture cross-sections in the s-process have been measured, and for an increasing number of reactions the required precision is achieved. This does not necessarily mean, however, that the stellar rates are constrained equally well, because only the capture of the ground state of a target is measured in the laboratory. Captures of excited states can contribute considerably to stellar rates that are already at typical s-process temperatures. We show that the ground-state contribution X to a stellar rate is the relevant measure to identify reactions that are or could be well constrained by experiments and apply it to (n,{gamma}) reactions in the s-process. We further show that the maximum possible reduction in uncertainty of a rate via determination of the ground-state cross-section is given directly by X. An error analysis of X is presented, and it is found that X is a robust measure with mostly small uncertainties. Several specific examples (neutron capture of {sup 79}Se, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 121}Sn, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 193}Pt) are discussed in detail. The ground-state contributions for a set of 412 neutron-capture reactions around the s-process path are presented in a table. This allows identification of reactions that may be better constrained by experiments and that cannot be constrained solely by measuring ground-state cross-sections (and thus require supplementary studies). General trends and implications are discussed.

Rauscher, T. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Mohr, P. [Diakonie-Klinikum, D-74523 Schwaebisch Hall (Germany); Dillmann, I.; Plag, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

134

Comments on the use of boiler efficiencies to determine unit heat rate  

SciTech Connect

The expression for boiler efficiency defined in ASME PTC4.1 was developed for evaluating boiler performance, carrying out acceptance tests on boilers and computing the effects of changes in parameters such as fuel characteristics on boiler performance. While satisfactory for applications such as these, this particular definition of boiler efficiency can result in substantial errors when used for computing unit performance. Sample calculations are presented for a 600 MW coal fired unit which show errors in net unit heat rate of 1 to 3 percent due to inconsistent definitions for boiler efficiency.

Levy, E.K.; Sarunac, N. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (USA). Energy Research Center); Leyse, R. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Commissioning of the Electron Line of the Linac Coherent Light Source. Dose Rate Measurements and Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (operated by Stanford University for the US Department of Energy) is the world's first hard X-ray Free Electron Laser machine. It uses high energy electrons delivered by a linac to create ultrafast and brilliant X-ray pulses that can be used as a 'high-speed' camera to obtain images of atoms and molecules. LCLS is a pioneer machine and, as such, its design has encountered unprecedented challenges, the solutions to which will benefit future facilities of its kind across the globe. This article describes the radiation protection aspects of LCLS electron beamlines. Special emphasis is put on the successful commissioning of the LCLS electron line, where, for all examined loss sources, the measured prompt and residual dose rates are in agreement with or below the values predicted through detailed Monte Carlo simulations, used earlier to design the shielding.

Santana Leitner, M; Bauer, J.M.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; Mao, X.S.; Prinz, A.; Rokni, H.; /SLAC; Sanami, T.; /SLAC /KEK, Tsukuba; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

136

EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF THE ENERGY LOSS RATE OF ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN A WELL-OBSERVED SOLAR FLARE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present electron images of an extended solar flare source, deduced from RHESSI hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy data. We apply the electron continuity equation to these maps in order to determine empirically the form of the energy loss rate for the bremsstrahlung-emitting electrons. We show that this form is consistent with an energy transport model involving Coulomb collisions in a target with a temperature of about 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K, with a continuous injection of fresh deka-keV electrons at a rate of approximately 10{sup -2} electrons s{sup -1} per ambient electron.

Torre, Gabriele; Pinamonti, Nicola; Guo, Jingnan; Piana, Michele [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Genova, Genova, via Dodecaneso 35, 16146 Genova (Italy); Emslie, A. Gordon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Massone, Anna Maria, E-mail: torre@dima.unige.it, E-mail: pinamont@dima.unige.it, E-mail: guo@pitagora.dima.unige.it, E-mail: piana@dima.unige.it, E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu, E-mail: annamaria.massone@cnr.it [CNR-SPIN, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Determination of Optical-Field Ionization Dynamics in Plasmas through the Direct Measurement of the Optical Phase Change  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detailed dynamics of an atom in a strong laser field is rich in both interesting physics and potential applications. The goal of this project was to develop a technique for characterizing high-field laser-plasma interactions with femtosecond resolution based on the direct measurement of the phase change of an optical pulse. The authors developed the technique of Multi-pulse Interferometric Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (MI-FROG), which recovers (to all orders) the phase difference between pumped and unpumped probe pulses, enabling the determination of sub-pulsewidth time-resolved phase and frequency shifts impressed by a pump pulse on a weak probe pulse. Using MI-FROG, the authors obtained the first quantitative measurements of high-field ionization rates in noble gases and diatomic molecules. They obtained agreement between the measured ionization rates an d those calculated for the noble gases and diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen using a one-dimensional fluid model and rates derived from tunneling theory. However, much higher rates are measured for diatomic oxygen than predicted by tunneling theory calculations.

Taylor, A.J.; Omenetto, G.; Rodriguez, G.; Siders, C.W.; Siders, J.L.W.; Downer, C.

1999-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

138

Experimental Determination of Ca-Silicate Dissolution Rates: A Source of Calcium for Geologic CO2 Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experimental Determination of Ca-Silicate Dissolution Rates: Experimental Determination of Ca-Silicate Dissolution Rates: A Source of Calcium for Geologic CO 2 Sequestration Susan A. Carroll (carroll6@llnl.gov; 925-423-5694) Energy and Environment Directorate Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory L-219 Livermore, CA 94550 Kevin G. Knauss (knauss@llnl.gov; 925-422-1372) Energy and Environment Directorate Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory L-219 Livermore, CA 94550 2 Introduction The international scientific community recognizes that greenhouse gases have the potential to influence climate, and that potential changes in sea level and weather patterns would be largely deleterious. Because CO 2 is emitted in such large quantities and its atmospheric concentration has been consistently rising throughout the recent past, it is only prudent to focus attention on reducing

139

Laboratory measurements of the drying rates of low-slope roofing systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The service life of a roofing system typically ends when excessive amounts of water have entered the system. Roofing professionals determine whether the existing failed roofing system can be repaired or salvaged by recovering. A key element in this decision is whether the accumulated water will be able to leave the roofing system in a time frame that will prevent irreparable structural damage. There are several combined heat and mass transfer models that can be used to predict drying times for low-slope roofing systems. Very little experimental data exists that can be used to validate the performance of these models. To satisfy these needs, a series of laboratory experiments has been performed. Five test panels, comprised of a plywood deck, four types of roofing insulation, and a single ply membrane were installed in a climate simulator. The test panels were outfitted with temperature sensors and heat flux transducers, and were mounted on load cells. Water was added to the test panels and they were subjected to external diurnal cycles representative of summer and winter conditions for a southern US continental climate. The load cells supplied continuous records of the weights of the test panels; these data were used to compute the drying rates of the test panels. When these experiments were completed, the test panels were ``recovered`` with different thicknesses of insulation and the environmental conditions were reapplied to the test panels. This paper reports on the design and performance of these experiments. The data compiled during these tests supply insight into the effects of meteorological conditions, insulation R-value, insulation water vapor permeance, and roof recover on the rate that water will be removed from low-slope roofing systems.

Desjarlais, A.O.; Kyle, D.M.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Precision Measurement of the Decay Rate of 7Be in Host Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A controlled and precise determination of the cross-sections of the fusion reactions 7Be(p,gamma)8B and 3He(4He,gamma)7Be, which play an important role in determining the solar neutrino flux, necessitates the knowledge of a precise value of the electron-capture half-life of 7Be. This half-life may depend on the material hosting the 7Be atoms via small modifications of the electron density around the 7Be nucleus. In this brief communication we report on the measurement of 7Be implanted in four materials: copper, aluminum, sapphire and PVC. The four results are consistent with a null host dependence within two standard deviations and their weighted average of 53.236(39)d agrees very well with the adopted value in the literature, 53.22(6)d. The present results may exhibit a slight (0.22%) increase of the half-life at room temperature for metals compared to insulators that requires further studies.

Y. Nir-El; G. Haquin; Z. Yungreiss; M. Hass; G. Goldring; S. K. Chamoli; B. S. Nara Singh; S. Lakshmi; U. Koester; N. Champault; A. Dorsival; G. Georgiev; V. N. Fedoseyev; B. A. Marsh; D. Schumann; G. Heidenreich; S. Teichmann

2006-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Determining Reserves in Low Permeability and Layered Reservoirs Using the Minimum Terminal Decline Rate Method: How Good are the Predictions?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the applicability of forecasting production from low permeability and layered tight gas wells using the Arps hyperbolic equation at earlier times and then switching to the exponential form of the equation at a predetermined minimum decline rate. This methodology is called the minimum terminal decline rate method. Two separate completion types have been analyzed. The first is horizontal completions with multi-stage hydraulic fractures while the second is vertical fractured wells in layered formations, completed with hydraulic fractures. For both completion types both simulated data and real world well performance histories have been evaluated using differing minimum terminal decline rates and the benefit of increasing portions of production history to make predictions. The application of the minimum terminal decline rate method to the simulated data in this study (3 percent minimum decline applied to multiple fractured horizontal wells MFHW- and 7 percent applied to vertical fractured layered wells) gave high errors for some simulations within the first two years. Once additional production data is considered in making predictions, the errors in estimated ultimate recovery and in remaining reserves is significantly reduced. This result provides a note of caution, when using the minimum decline rate method for forecasting using small quantities of production history. The evaluation of real world data using the minimum terminal decline rate method introduces other inaccuracies such as poor data quality, low data frequency, operational changes which affect the production profile and workovers / re-stimulations which require a restart of production forecasting process. Real well data for MFHW comes from the Barnett Shale completions of the type which have been widely utilized since 2004. There is insufficient production history from real wells to determine an appropriate minimum terminal decline rate. In the absence of suitable analogs for the determination of the minimum terminal decline rate it would be impossible to correctly apply this methodology. Real well data for vertical fractured layered wells from the Carthage Cotton Valley field indicate that for wells similar to Conoco operated Panola County wells a feasible decline rate is between 5 percent and 10 percent. Further if a consistent production trend and with more than 2 years of production history are used to forecast, the EUR can be predicted to within plus/minus 10 percent and remaining reserves to within plus/minus 15 percent.

McMillan, Marcia Donna

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

A Comparison of Gamma and Lognormal Distributions for Characterizing Satellite Rain Rates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the spatial characteristics of nonzero rain rates to develop a probability density function (PDF) model of precipitation using rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The minimum ?2 ...

Hye-Kyung Cho; Kenneth P. Bowman; Gerald R. North

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Relationships between Radar Properties at High Elevations and Surface Rain Rate: Potential Use for Spaceborne Rainfall Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-based radar data have been used to investigate the relationship between reflectivity at high elevations and surface rain rates. Such relations are useful for rainfall measurements by spaceborne radars at attenuating wavelength such as the ...

Eyal Amitai

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Measurement of longitudinal and transverse spin relaxation rates using the ground-state Hanle effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a theoretical and experimental study of the resonant circularly-polarized-light-induced Hanle effect in the ground state of Cs vapor atoms in a paraffin-coated cell. The effect manifests itself as a narrow resonance (centered at B=0) in the dependence of the optical transmission coefficient of the vapor on the magnitude of an external magnetic field B(vector sign). We develop a theoretical model that yields an algebraic expression for the shape of these resonances for arbitrary field orientations and arbitrary angular momenta of the states coupled by the exciting light, provided that the light power is kept sufficiently small. An experimental procedure for assessing the range of validity of the model is given. Experiments were carried out on the laser-driven Cs D{sub 1} transition both in longitudinal and transverse field geometries, and the observed line shapes of the corresponding bright and dark resonances give an excellent confirmation of the model predictions. The method is applied for determining the intrinsic longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates of the vector magnetization in the vapor and their dependence on light power.

Castagna, N.; Weis, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Fribourg, Chemin du Musee 3, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Estimating Continuous-Coverage Instantaneous Precipitation Rates Using Remotely Sensed and Ground-Based Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study demonstrates a method of temporally and spatially scaling precipitation rates at low probability of precipitation-rate exceedance levels (e.g., 0.1%) from coarser-resolution global datasets to near-instantaneous localized rain gauge ...

Joseph A. Grim; James O. Pinto

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

First Measurement of the Inclusive Rate for the Radiative Penguin Decay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have measured the branching ratio for the inclusive radiative penguin process b ! sfl. We find BR(b ! sfl) = (2:32 \\Sigma 0:51 \\Sigma 0:29 \\Sigma 0:32) \\Theta 10 \\Gamma4 ; where the first error is statistical, the second error is the additive systematic error from uncertainty in yield, and the third error is the multiplicative systematic error from uncertainty in efficiency, which includes model dependence. Permanent address: University of Hawaii at Manoa 2 I. INTRODUCTION Last year CLEO observed [1] the decay B ! K (892)fl, thereby establishing the existence of the radiative penguin process b ! sfl. However, the fraction of the inclusive b ! sfl rate which hadronizes into B ! K (892)fl exhibits large model variation. The inclusive b ! sfl branching ratio is more reliably predicted [2], at (2.75 \\Sigma 0.80) \\Theta 10 \\Gamma4 for a top quark mass of 175 GeV. The branching ratio is sensitive to the existence of a charged Higgs [3], to anomalous WW fl couplings [4],...

Barish Chadha Chan; S. Chan; G. Eigen

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Determination of Longwave Heat Flux at the Air-Sea Interface Using Measurements from Buoy Platforms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theory for pyrgeometer operation is utilized for determining downwelling longwave radiation. Errors in downwelling longwave radiation measurements are due to differences in pyrgeometer body and dome temperatures compared to that of the ...

T. D. Dickey; D. V. Manov; R. A. Weller; D. A. Siegel

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Rate Schedules  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

149

An assessment of the measurement equivalence of rating sources in a multisource feedback system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present study used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate a series of models representing the relations among performance ratings from multiple sources across multiple performance dimensions. The results suggest that the variance in performance ratings can be attributed to three distinct sources. First, there is common variance attributable to performance dimensions or factor loadings. Second, there is variance that can be attributed to the rating source (peer, self, or supervisor). Third, there is unique variance beyond that explained by the performance dimensions and source effects. Further, these results suggest that the rating sources appear to be rating the same performance dimensions, and even tapping the performance constructs to the same extent in some cases. The source effects do account for some variance, but these effects are smaller than the performance dimensions. Additionally, the unique variance accounted for a large component of the variance associated with the performance ratings in the present study.

Sheehan, Mary Kathleen

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

DETERMINING THE RATIO OF THE H+ YIELDS TV TO H+ YIELDS TB DECAY RATES FOR LARGE TAN BETA AT THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER.  

SciTech Connect

We present results on the determination of the observable ratio R = BR(H{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}{sup -})/BR(H{sup +} {yields} t{bar b}) of charged Higgs boson decay rates as a discriminant quantity between Supersymmetric and non-Supersymmetric models. Simulation of measurements of this quantity through the analysis of the charged Higgs production process gb {yields} tbH{sup +} and relative backgrounds in the two above decay channels has been performed in the context of ATLAS. A {approx} 12-14% accuracy on R can be achieved for tan {beta} = 50, m{sub H{sup {+-}}} = 300-500 GeV and after an integrated luminosity of 300 fb{sup -1}. With this precision measurement, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can easily discriminate between models for the two above scenarios, so long as tan {beta} > 20.

ASSAMAGAN,K.A.GUASCH,J.MORETTI,S.PENARANDA,S.

2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

151

Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

NEW DETERMINATION OF THE {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O REACTION RATE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE s-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN AGB STARS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new measurement of the {alpha}-spectroscopic factor (S{sub {alpha}}) and the asymptotic normalization coefficient for the 6.356 MeV 1/2{sup +} subthreshold state of {sup 17}O through the {sup 13}C({sup 11}B, {sup 7}Li){sup 17}O transfer reaction and we determine the {alpha}-width of this state. This is believed to have a strong effect on the rate of the {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O reaction, the main neutron source for slow neutron captures (the s-process) in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Based on the new width we derive the astrophysical S-factor and the stellar rate of the {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O reaction. At a temperature of 100 MK, our rate is roughly two times larger than that by Caughlan and Fowler and two times smaller than that recommended by the NACRE compilation. We use the new rate and different rates available in the literature as input in simulations of AGB stars to study their influence on the abundances of selected s-process elements and isotopic ratios. There are no changes in the final results using the different rates for the {sup 13}C({alpha}, n){sup 16}O reaction when the {sup 13}C burns completely in radiative conditions. When the {sup 13}C burns in convective conditions, as in stars of initial mass lower than {approx}2 M{sub Sun} and in post-AGB stars, some changes are to be expected, e.g., of up to 25% for Pb in our models. These variations will have to be carefully analyzed when more accurate stellar mixing models and more precise observational constraints are available.

Guo, B.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Y. J.; Su, J.; Yan, S. Q.; Bai, X. X.; Chen, Y. S.; Fan, Q. W.; Jin, S. J.; Li, E. T.; Li, Z. C.; Lian, G.; Liu, J. C.; Liu, X.; Shu, N. C. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(1), Beijing 102413 (China); Lugaro, M.; Buntain, J. [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria (Australia); Pang, D. Y. [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Karakas, A. I. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Shi, J. R., E-mail: wpliu@ciae.ac.cn, E-mail: guobing@ciae.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); and others

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

153

IN-LINE MEASUREMENTS BY COLORIMETRY. PART I. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSORPTION SPECTRA FOR THE DIRECT COLORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF URANIUM.  

SciTech Connect

The absorption spectra of uranium (VI) and uranium (IV) in aqueous nitric acid solutions and in 30% TBP/Shellsol-T solutions were established. The absorbance of the various solutions was measured as a function of the wavelength, uranium concentration and nitric acid concentration. Most of the results obtained are presented in the form of diagrams. On the basis of the present investigation the possibility of using a direct in-line colorimetric determination of uranium in plant solutions can be assessed at each individual measuring point. (auth)

Markl, P.; Humblet, L.; Wichmann, H.; Eschrich, H.

1966-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

A Satellite Passive 37-GHz Scattering-based Method for Measuring Oceanic Rain Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of theory and measurement is used to develop a scattering-based method for quantitatively measuring rainfall over the ocean from Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 37-GHz observations. This technique takes ...

Roy W. Spencer

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Rate constants for OH with selected large alkanes : shock-tube measurements and an improved group scheme.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-temperature rate constant experiments on OH with the five large (C{sub 5}-C{sub 8}) saturated hydrocarbons n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-tetramethylbutane (2,2,3,3-TMB), n-pentane, n-hexane, and 2,3-dimethylbutane (2,3-DMB) were performed with the reflected-shock-tube technique using multipass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. Single-point determinations at {approx}1200 K on n-heptane, 2,2,3,3-TMB, n-hexane, and 2,3-DMB were previously reported by Cohen and co-workers; however, the present work substantially extends the database to both lower and higher temperature. The present experiments span a wide temperature range, 789-1308 K, and represent the first direct measurements of rate constants at T > 800 K for n-pentane. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length of {approx}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high OH concentration detection sensitivity permitted pseudo-first-order analyses for unambiguously measuring rate constants. The experimental results can be expressed in Arrhenius form in units of cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} as follows: K{sub OH+n-heptane} = (2.48 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1927 {+-} 69 K)/T] (838-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = (8.26 {+-} 0.89) x 10{sup -11} exp[(-1337 {+-} 94 K)/T] (789-1061 K); K{sub OH+n-pentane} = (1.60 {+-} 0.25) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1903 {+-} 146 K)/T] (823-1308 K); K{sub OH+n-hexane} = (2.79 {+-} 0.39) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-2301 {+-} 134 K)/T] (798-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = (1.27 {+-} 0.16) x 10{sup -10} exp[(-1617 {+-} 118 K)/T] (843-1292 K). The available experimental data, along with lower-T determinations, were used to obtain evaluations of the experimental rate constants over the temperature range from {approx}230 to 1300 K for most of the title reactions. These extended-temperature-range evaluations, given as three-parameter fits, are as follows: k{sub OH+n-heptane} = 2.059 x 10{sup -5}T{sup 1.401} exp(33 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (241-1287 K); k{sub OH+2,2,3,3-TMB} = 6.835 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.886} exp(-365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (290-1180 K); k{sub OH+n-pentane} = 2.495 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.649} exp(80 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (224-1308 K); k{sub OH+n-hexane} = 3.959 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.218} exp(443 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (292-1299 K); and k{sub OH+2,3-DMB} = 2.287 x 10{sup -17}T{sup 1.958} exp(365 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (220-1292 K). The experimental data and the evaluations obtained for these five larger alkanes in the present work were used along with prior data/evaluations obtained in this laboratory for H abstractions by OH from a series of smaller alkanes (C{sub 3}?C{sub 5}) to devise rate rules for abstractions from various types of primary, secondary, and tertiary H atoms. Specifically, the current scheme was applied with good success to H abstractions by OH from a series of n-alkanes (n-octane through n-hexadecane). The total rate constants using this group scheme for reactions of OH with selected large alkanes are given as three-parameter fits in this article. The rate constants for the various abstraction channels in any large n-alkane can also be obtained using the groups listed in this article. The present group scheme serves to reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for OH + alkane reactions.

Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

156

Irradiators for measuring the biological effects of low dose-rate ionizing radiation fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biological response to ionizing radiation differs with radiation field. Particle type, energy spectrum, and dose-rate all affect biological response per unit dose. This thesis describes methods of spectral analysis, ...

Davidson, Matthew Allen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Measurement of Turbulent Kinetic Energy Dissipation Rate with a Lagrangian Float  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study tests the ability of a neutrally buoyant float to estimate the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy ? from its vertical acceleration spectrum using an inertial subrange method. A Lagrangian float was equipped with a SonTek ...

Ren-Chieh Lien; Eric A. D'Asaro

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Homogeneous Condensation—Freezing Nucleation Rate Measurements for Small Water Droplets in an Expansion Cloud Chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental data on ice nucleation, presented in an earlier paper, are analyzed to yield information about the homogeneous nucleation rate of ice from supercooled liquid and the heights of energy barriers to that nucleation. The experiment ...

Donald E. Hagen; Rodney J. Anderson; James L. Kassner Jr.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Satellite Cloud Classification and Rain-Rate Estimation Using Multispectral Radiances and Measures of Spatial Texture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Twelve months of Southern Hemisphere (maritime) midlatitudes Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer local area coverage data at full radiometric and spatial resolution have been collocated with rain-rate data from three Doppler weather radars.

Michael J. Uddstrom; Warren R. Gray

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Overview of existing residential energy-efficiency rating systems and measuring tools  

SciTech Connect

Three categories of rating systems/tools were identified: prescriptive, calculational, and performance. Prescriptive systems include rating systems that assign points to various conservation features. Most systems that have been implemented to date have been prescriptive systems. The vast majority of these are investor-owned utility programs affiliated with the National Energy Watch program of the Edison Electric Institute. The calculational category includes computational tools that can be used to estimate energy consumption. This estimate could then be transformed, probably by indexing, into a rating. The available computational tools range from very simple to complex tools requiring use of a main-frame computer. Performance systems refer to residential energy-efficiency ratings that are based on past fuel consumption of a home. There are few of these systems. For each identified system/tool, the name, address, and telephone number of the developer is included. In addition, relevant publications discussing the system/tool are cited. The extent of field validation/verification of individual systems and tools is discussed. In general, there has been little validation/verification done. A bibliography of literature relevant to the use and implementation of a home energy rating system is also included.

Hendrickson, P.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Determination of H{sub 2} Diffusion Rates through Various Closures on TRU Waste Bag-Out Bags  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The amount of H{sub 2} diffusion through twist and tape (horse-tail), wire tie, plastic tie, and heat sealed closures on transuranic (TRU) waste bag-out bags has been determined. H{sub 2} diffusion through wire and plastic tie closures on TRU waste bag-out bags has not been previously characterized and, as such, TRU waste drums containing bags with these closures cannot be certified and/or shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Since wire ties have been used at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1980 to 1991 and the plastic ties from 1991 to the present, there are currently thousands of waste drums that cannot be shipped to the WIPP site. Repackaging the waste would be prohibitively expensive. Diffusion experiments performed on the above mentioned closures show that the diffusion rates of plastic tie and horse-tail closures are greater than the accepted value presented in the TRU-PACT 11 Safety Analysis Report (SAR). Diffusion rates for wire tie closures are not statistically different from the SAR value. Thus, drums containing bags with these closures can now potentially be certified which would allow for their consequent shipment to WIPP.

Phillip D. Noll, Jr.; E. Larry Callis; Kirsten M. Norman

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Determination of mobile source emission fraction using ambient field measurements. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted a series of experiments in 1995 to quantify emission rates of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and speciated nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from in-use vehicles in several highway tunnels. This report describes a parallel effort in which ambient hydrocarbon samples were collected by DRI at several sites in the Boston and Los Angeles areas to determine the mobile source emissions contributed to total ambient NMHC using receptor modeling.

Fujita, E.M.; Lu, Z.; Sheetz, L.; Harshfield, G.; Zielinska, B.

1997-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

163

Chapter 1, Introduction: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

: Introduction : Introduction Hossein Haeri, The Cadmus Group, Inc. Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 1 - 1 Chapter 1 - Table of Contents About the Protocols......................................................................................................................... 2 Rationale ......................................................................................................................................... 2 The Audiences and Objectives ........................................................................................................ 3 Definitions....................................................................................................................................... 4

164

Determination of a time-dependent heat transfer coefficient from non-standard boundary measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the determination of the time-dependent heat transfer coefficient in one-dimensional transient heat conduction from a non-standard boundary measurement is investigated. For this inverse nonlinear ill-posed problem the uniqueness of the ... Keywords: Boundary element method, Heat conduction, Heat transfer coefficient, Inverse problem

T. T. M. Onyango; D. B. Ingham; D. Lesnic; M. Slodi?ka

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

'In vivo' Dose Measurements in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Treatments for Cervical Cancer: A Project Proposal  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this thesis project is to compare doses calculated from the treatment planning system using computed tomography images, with those measured 'in vivo' by using thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at different regions of the rectum and bladder of a patient during high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma. The experimental dosimeters characterisation and calibration have concluded and the protocol to carry out the 'in vivo' measurements has been established. In this work, the calibration curves of two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters (rods and chips) are presented, and the proposed protocol to measure the 'in vivo' dose is fully described.

Reynoso Mejia, C. A.; Buenfil Burgos, A. E.; Ruiz Trejo, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 20-364, 01000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Mota Garcia, A.; Trejo Duran, E.; Rodriguez Ponce, M. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando 22, Tlalpan, 4080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

166

On the Measurement of the Turbulence Dissipation Rate from Rising Balloons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we analyze the feasibility of turbulence measurements below a rising balloon. From a typical case study we show the ability of the helisonde, hung below a large diameter balloon, to resolve the vertical profile of the dissipation ...

J. Barat; C. Cot; C. Sidi

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Determination of astrophysical 12N(p,g)13O reaction rate from the 2H(12N, 13O)n reaction and its astrophysical implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The evolution of massive stars with very low-metallicities depends critically on the amount of CNO nuclides which they produce. The $^{12}$N($p$,\\,$\\gamma$)$^{13}$O reaction is an important branching point in the rap-processes, which are believed to be alternative paths to the slow 3$\\alpha$ process for producing CNO seed nuclei and thus could change the fate of massive stars. In the present work, the angular distribution of the $^2$H($^{12}$N,\\,$^{13}$O)$n$ proton transfer reaction at $E_{\\mathrm{c.m.}}$ = 8.4 MeV has been measured for the first time. Based on the Johnson-Soper approach, the square of the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for the virtual decay of $^{13}$O$_\\mathrm{g.s.}$ $\\rightarrow$ $^{12}$N + $p$ was extracted to be 3.92 $\\pm$ 1.47 fm$^{-1}$ from the measured angular distribution and utilized to compute the direct component in the $^{12}$N($p$,\\,$\\gamma$)$^{13}$O reaction. The direct astrophysical S-factor at zero energy was then found to be 0.39 $\\pm$ 0.15 keV b. By considering the direct capture into the ground state of $^{13}$O, the resonant capture via the first excited state of $^{13}$O and their interference, we determined the total astrophysical S-factors and rates of the $^{12}$N($p$,\\,$\\gamma$)$^{13}$O reaction. The new rate is two orders of magnitude slower than that from the REACLIB compilation. Our reaction network calculations with the present rate imply that $^{12}$N($p,\\,\\gamma$)$^{13}$O will only compete successfully with the $\\beta^+$ decay of $^{12}$N at higher ($\\sim$two orders of magnitude) densities than initially predicted.

B. Guo; J. Su; Zhihong Li; Y. B. Wang; S. Q. Yan; Y. J. Li; N. C. Shu; Y. L. Han; X. X. Bai; Y. S. Chen; W. P. Liu; H. Yamaguchi; D. N. Binh; T. Hashimoto; S. Hayakawa; D. Kahl; S. Kubono; J. J. He; J. Hu; S. W. Xu; N. Iwasa; N. Kume; Zhihuan Li

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

168

Absolute rate measurements of two-photon process of gases, liquids, and solids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Due to rapid improvements in high-power laser performance, two-photon absorption processes have become a very useful tool for studying the molecular structures of various gases, liquids and solids. However, measurements of absolute two-photon absorption cross sections were more or less ignored previously because of their small size. In this work, we obtained not only the two-photon absorption spectra, but also measurements of their absolute cross sections for various gases, liquids, and solids. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Chen, C.H.; McCann, M.P.; Payne, M.G.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Use of a high repetition rate neutron generator for in vivo body composition measurements via neutron inelastic scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A small D-T neutron generator with a high pulse rate is used for the in vivo measurement of body carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. The core of the neutron generator is a 13 cm-long Zetatron tube pulsed at a rate of 10 kHz delivering 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 4/ neutrons per pulse. A target-current feedback system regulates the source of the accelerator to assure constant neutron output. Carbon is measured by detecting the 4.44 MeV ..gamma..-rays from inelastic scattering. The short half-life of the 4.44 MeV state of carbon requires detection of the ..gamma..-rays during the 10 ..mu..s neutron pulse. Generators with low pulsing rate were found inappropriate for carbon measurements because of their low duty-cycle (high neutron output during the pulse). In vivo measurements were performed with normal volunteers using a scanning bed facility for a dose less than 25 mrem. This technique offers medical as well as general bulk analysis applications. 8 refs., 5 figs.

Kehayias, J.J.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.; Weinlein, J.H.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures; January 2012 - March 2013  

SciTech Connect

Under the Uniform Methods Project, DOE is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining the energy savings from specific energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols provide a straightforward method for evaluating gross energy savings for common residential and commercial measures offered in ratepayer-funded initiatives in the United States. They represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. This document deals with savings from the following measures: commercial and industrial lighting, commercial and industrial lighting controls, small commercial and residential unitary and split system HVAC cooling equipment, residential furnaces and boilers, residential lighting, refrigerator recycling, whole-building retrofit using billing analysis, metering, peak demand and time-differentiated energy savings, sample design, survey design and implementation, and assessing persistence and other evaluation issues.

Jayaweera, T.; Haeri, H.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Analysis of environmental influences in nuclear half-life measurements exhibiting time-dependent decay rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a recent series of papers evidence has been presented for correlations between solar activity and nuclear decay rates. This includes an apparent correlation between Earth-Sun distance and data taken at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Although these correlations could arise from a direct interaction between the decaying nuclei and some particles or fields emanating from the Sun, they could also represent an "environmental" effect arising from a seasonal variation of the sensitivities of the BNL and PTB detectors due to changes in temperature, relative humidity, background radiation, etc. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the responses of the detectors actually used in the BNL and PTB experiments, and show that sensitivities to seasonal variations in the respective detectors are likely too small to produce the observed fluctuations.

Jere H. Jenkins; Daniel W. Mundy; Ephraim Fischbach

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

172

Size and time-resolved growth rate measurements of 1 to 5 nm freshly formed atmospheric nuclei  

SciTech Connect

This study presents measurements of size and time-resolved particle diameter growth rates for freshly nucleated particles down to 1 nm geometric diameter. Novel data analysis methods were developed, de-coupling for the first time the size and time-dependence of particle growth rates by fitting the aerosol general dynamic equation to size distributions obtained at an instant in time. Size distributions of freshly nucleated total aerosol (neutral and charged) were measured during two intensive measurement campaigns in different environments (Atlanta, GA and Boulder, CO) using a recently developed electrical mobility spectrometer with a diethylene glycol-based ultrafine condensation particle counter as the particle detector. One new particle formation (NPF) event from each campaign was analyzed in detail. At a given instant in time during the NPF event, size-resolved growth rates were obtained directly from measured size distributions and were found to increase approximately linearly with particle size from {approx}1 to 3 nm geometric diameter, increasing from 5.5 {+-} 0.8 to 7.6 {+-} 0.6 nm h{sup -1} in Atlanta (13:00) and from 5.6 {+-} 2 to 27 {+-} 5 nm h{sup -1} in Boulder (13:00). The resulting growth rate enhancement {Lambda}, defined as the ratio of the observed growth rate to the growth rate due to the condensation of sulfuric acid only, was found to increase approximately linearly with size from {approx}1 to 3 nm geometric diameter. For the presented NPF events, values for {Lambda} had lower limits that approached {approx}1 at 1.2 nm geometric diameter in Atlanta and {approx}3 at 0.8 nm geometric diameter in Boulder, and had upper limits that reached 8.3 at 4.1 nm geometric diameter in Atlanta and 25 at 2.7 nm geometric diameter in Boulder. Nucleated particle survival probability calculations comparing the effects of constant and size-dependent growth indicate that neglecting the strong dependence of growth rate on size from 1 to 3 nm observed in this study could lead to a significant overestimation of CCN survival probability.

Kuang C.; Chen, M.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J.; McMurry, P. H.; Wang, J.

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

173

Measurement of intensity-dependent rates of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atomic hydrogen at 248 nm  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measured rates of multiphoton ionization (MPI) from the ground state of atomic hydrogen by a linearly polarized, subpicosecond KrF laser pulse at 248 nm wavelength are compared to predictions of lowest-order perturbation theory, Floquet theory, and Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss (KFR) theory with and without Coulomb correction for peak irradiance of 3 {times} 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14}W/cm{sup 2}. The Coulomb-corrected Keldysh model falls closest to the measured rates, the others being much higher or much lower. At 5 {times} 10{sup 13}W/cm{sup 2}, the number of ATI electrons decreased by a factor of approximately 40 with each additional photon absorbed. ATI of the molecular hydrogen background and of atoms from photodissociation of the molecules were also observed. The experiment employed a crossed-beam technique at ultrahigh vacuum with an rf-discharge atomic hydrogen source and a magnetic-bottle type electron time-of-flight spectrometer to count the electrons in the different ATI channels separately. The apparatus was calibrated to allow comparison of absolute as well as relative ionization rates to the theoretical predictions. This calibration involved measuring the distribution of irradiance in a focal volume that moved randomly and changed its size from time to time. A data collection system under computer control divided the time-of-flight spectra into bins according to the energy of each laser pulse. This is the first measurement of absolute rates of ATI in atomic hydrogen, and the first measurement of absolute test of MPI in atomic hydrogen without a large factor to account for multiple modes in the laser field. As such, the results of this work are important to the development of ATI theories, which presently differ by orders of magnitude in their prediction of the ionization rates. They are also important to recent calculations of temperatures in laser-heated plasmas, many of which incorporate KFR theory.

Nichols, T.D.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Isotope-shift measurements of stable and short-lived lithium isotopes for nuclear-charge-radii determination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in the mean square nuclear charge radii along the lithium isotopic chain were determined using a combination of precise isotope shift measurements and theoretical atomic structure calculations. Nuclear charge radii of light elements are of high interest due to the appearance of the nuclear halo phenomenon in this region of the nuclear chart. During the past years we have developed a laser spectroscopic approach to determine the charge radii of lithium isotopes which combines high sensitivity, speed, and accuracy to measure the extremely small field shift of an 8-ms-lifetime isotope with production rates on the order of only 10 000 atoms/s. The method was applied to all bound isotopes of lithium including the two-neutron halo isotope {sup 11}Li at the on-line isotope separators at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, and at TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada. We describe the laser spectroscopic method in detail, present updated and improved values from theory and experiment, and discuss the results.

Noertershaeuser, W.; Sanchez, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Ewald, G.; Dax, A.; Goette, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kuehl, Th.; Wojtaszek, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Behr, J.; Bricault, P.; Dilling, J.; Dombsky, M.; Lassen, J.; Levy, C. D. P.; Pearson, M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Bushaw, B. A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Drake, G. W. F. [Department of Physics, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, N9B 3P4 (Canada); Pachucki, K. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Puchalski, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, PL-60-780 Poznan (Poland); Yan, Z.-C. [Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Fast distortion measurement using chord-length parameterisation within the vertex-based rate-distortion optimal shape coding framework  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Existing vertex-based operational rate-distortion (ORD) optimal shape coding algorithms use the shortest absolute distance (SAD) or alternatively either the distortion band (DB) or tolerance band (TB) as their distortion measuring technique. Each approach however can lead to inaccurate distortion measurements, though these can be avoided by employing the accurate distortion measurement technique for shape coding (ADMSC). From a computational time 2 O N time for DB and TB for both polygon and B-spline based encoding, perspective, an N point contour requires () 2 while SAD and ADMSC incur order O ( N) time for polygonal encoding, but ( N) O complexity for B-spline based encoding, thereby rendering ORD optimal algorithms computationally inefficient. This paper presents a novel distortion measurement strategy based on chord-length parameterisation (DMCLP) of a boundary that incurs order O ( N) complexity for both polygon and B-spline based encoding, while preserving an analogous rate-distortion performance to the original ORD optimal shape coding algorithms, when it is embedded within the ORD framework. I.

Ferdous A. Sohel; Gour C. Karmakar; Laurence S. Dooley

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Measurements of excitation rate coefficients for Al-like ions: Fe XIV, Ni XVI, and Cu XVII  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absolute excitation rate coefficients for Fe XVI and Ni xvi ions ions are measured spectroscopically in the Texas Experimental Tokamak. Previous measurements for the 3d-3p transition array of Cu XVII are verified and the measurements are extended to the 3s3p/sup 2/..-->..3s/sup 2/3p transition array of this ion. The experimental rate coefficient for the 3d-3p transition array of Fe XIV is 6.2 x 10/sup -9/ cm/sup 3/ s/sup -1/ at an electron temperature near 160 eV and for Ni XVI and Cu XVII, the values are 4.2 x 10/sup -9/ and 3.8 x 10/sup -9/ cm/sup 3/ s/sup -1/, respectively, at an electron temperature near 240 eV. For the 3s3p/sup 2/ /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/..-->..3s/sup 2/3p /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/ transition array, the experimental excitation rate coefficient for Fe XIV is 8.2 x 10/sup -9/ cm/sup 3/ s/sup -1/ at an electron temperature near 160eV and for Ni XVI and Cu XVII the value is 5.5 x 10/sup -9/ cm/sup 3/ s/sup -1/ at an electron temperature near 240 eV. The uncertainty in these results is estimated to be +- 50% (one standard deviation). Computed values of absolute excitation rates in a distorted-wave approximation and Mewe's semiempirical formula are found to be in good agreement with the experimental values.

Datla, R.U.; Roberts, J.R.; Durst, R.D.; Hodge, W.L.; Klepper, C.C.; Rowan, W.L.; Mann, J.B.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

An Energy Signature Scheme for Steam Trap Assessment and Flow Rate Estimation Using Pipe-Induced Acoustic Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The US Congress has passed legislation dictating that all government agencies establish a plan and process for improving energy efficiencies at their sites. In response to this legislation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently conducted a pilot study to explore the deployment of a wireless sensor system for a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework within the steam distribution system within the ORNL campus. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by observing the state measurements of acoustic sensors mounted on the steam pipes/traps/valves. In this paper, we describe a spectral-based energy signature scheme that interprets acoustic vibration sensor data to estimate steam flow rates and assess steam traps health status. Experimental results show that the energy signature scheme has the potential to identify different steam trap health status and it has sufficient sensitivity to estimate steam flow rate. Moreover, results indicate a nearly quadratic relationship over the test region between the overall energy signature factor and flow rate in the pipe. The analysis based on estimated steam flow and steam trap status helps generate alerts that enable operators and maintenance personnel to take remedial action. The goal is to achieve significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam pipes/traps/valves.

Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Lake, Joe E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

The Endogeneity of the Exchange Rate as a Determinant of FDI: A Model of Money, Entry, and Multinational Firms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of FDI: A Model of Money, Entry, and Multinational Firmsinvestment behavior with money. JEL Classi?cations: F1, F2,equilibrium framework with money, endogenous exchange rates,

Russ, Katheryn

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Laboratory evaluation of the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the constant rate of strain and constant head techniques for measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of fine grained soils. A laboratory program compares hydraulic conductivity measurements made ...

Adams, Amy Lynn

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Determination of far-field antenna patterns from near-field measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstracf-In many cases, it is impractical or impossible to make antenna patfern measurements on a conventional far-field range; the distance to the radiating far field may be too long, it may be impractical to move the antenna from its operating environment to an antenna range, or the desired amount of pattern data may require too much time on a far-field range. For these and other reasons, it is often desirable or necessary to determine far-field antenna patterns from measurements made in the radiating near-field region; three basic techniques for accomplishing this have proven to be successful. In the 6rst technique, the aperture phase and amplitude distributions are sampled by a scanning field probe, and then the measured distributions are transformed to the far field. In the second technique, a plane wave that is approximately uniform in amplitude is created by a feed and large reflector in the immediate vicinity of the test antenna. And in the third technique, the test antenna is focused within the radiating near-field region, patterns are measured at the reduced range, and then the antenna is refocused to infinity. Each of these techniques is discussed, and the various advantages and limitations of each technique are presented.

Richard C. Johnson; H. Allen Ecrer; J. Searcy Hollis

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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181

Solid-state track recorder dosimetry device to measure absolute reaction rates and neutron fluence as a function of time  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state track recording type dosimeter is disclosed to measure the time dependence of the absolute fission rates of nuclides or neutron fluence over a period of time. In a primary species an inner recording drum is rotatably contained within an exterior housing drum that defines a series of collimating slit apertures overlying windows defined in the stationary drum through which radiation can enter. Film type solid state track recorders are positioned circumferentially about the surface of the internal recording drum to record such radiation or its secondary products during relative rotation of the two elements. In another species both the recording element and the aperture element assume the configuration of adjacent disks. Based on slit size of apertures and relative rotational velocity of the inner drum, radiation parameters within a test area may be measured as a function of time and spectra deduced therefrom.

Gold, Raymond (1393 George Washington Way, Suite No. 7, P.O. Box 944, Richland, WA 99352); Roberts, James H. (1393 George Washington Way, Suite No. 7, P.O. Box 944, Richland, WA 99352)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Exact method for determining subsurface radioactivity depth profiles from gamma spectroscopy measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Subsurface radioactivity may be due to transport of radionuclides from a contaminated surface into the solid volume, as occurs for radioactive fallout deposited on soil, or from fast neutron activation of a solid volume, as occurs in concrete blocks used for radiation shielding. For purposes including fate and transport studies of radionuclides in the environment, decommissioning and decontamination of radiation facilities, and nuclear forensics, an in situ, nondestructive method for ascertaining the subsurface distribution of radioactivity is desired. The method developed here obtains a polynomial expression for the radioactivity depth profile, using a small set of gamma-ray count rates measured by a collimated detector directed towards the surface at a variety of angles with respect to the surface normal. To demonstrate its capabilities, this polynomial method is applied to the simple case where the radioactivity is maximal at the surface and decreases exponentially with depth below the surface, and to the ...

Van Siclen, Clinton DeW

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: measuring the cosmic growth rate with the two-point galaxy correlation function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The growth history of large-scale structure in the Universe is a powerful probe of the cosmological model, including the nature of dark energy. We study the growth rate of cosmic structure to redshift $z = 0.9$ using more than $162{,}000$ galaxy redshifts from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We divide the data into four redshift slices with effective redshifts $z = [0.2,0.4,0.6,0.76]$ and in each of the samples measure and model the 2-point galaxy correlation function in parallel and transverse directions to the line-of-sight. After simultaneously fitting for the galaxy bias factor we recover values for the cosmic growth rate which are consistent with our assumed $\\Lambda$CDM input cosmological model, with an accuracy of around 20% in each redshift slice. We investigate the sensitivity of our results to the details of the assumed model and the range of physical scales fitted, making close comparison with a set of N-body simulations for calibration. Our measurements are consistent with an independent power-spe...

Contreras, Carlos; Poole, Gregory B; Marin, Felipe; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick; Croom, Scott; Croton, Darren; Davis, Tamara M; Drinkwater, Michael J; Forster, Karl; Gilbank, David; Gladders, Mike; Glazebrook, Karl; Jelliffe, Ben; Jurek, Russell J; Li, I-hui; Madore, Barry; Martin, D Christopher; Pimbblet, Kevin; Pracy, Michael; Sharp, Rob; Wisnioski, Emily; Woods, David; Wyder, Ted K; Yee, H K C; 10.1093/mnras/sts608

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Methodology for Rating a Building's Overall Performance based on the ASHRAE/CIBSE/USGBC Performance Measurement Protocols for Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study developed and applied a field test to evaluate the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE)/United States Green Building Council (USGBC) Performance Measurement Protocols (PMP) for Commercial Buildings in a case-study office building in central Texas. As the first integrated protocol on building performance measurement, the ASHRAE PMP accomplished its goal of providing the standardized protocols for measuring and comparing the overall performance of a building, including energy, water, thermal comfort, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), lighting, and acoustics. However, several areas for improvement were identified such as conflicting results from different procedures or benchmarks provided in the ASHRAE PMP; limited guidelines for performing the measurements; lack of detailed modeling techniques, graphical indices, and clear benchmarks; and some practical issues (i.e., high cost requirements and time-intensive procedures). All these observations are listed as the forty issues, including thirteen for energy, five for water, and twenty-two for Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ). Recommendations were developed for each issue identified. For the selected high-priority issues, twelve new or modified approaches were proposed and then evaluated against the existing procedures in the ASHRAE PMP. Of these twelve new or modified approaches, the following are the most significant developments: a more accurate monthly energy use regression model including occupancy; a monthly water use regression model for a weather-normalized comparison of measured water performance; a method how to use a vertical temperature profile to evaluate room air circulation; a method how to use LCeq – LAeq difference as a low-cost alternative to estimate low frequency noise annoyance; a statistical decomposition method of time-varying distribution of indices; and a real-time wireless IEQ monitoring system for the continuous IEQ measurements. The application of the forty recommendations and the twelve new or modified approaches developed in this study to the ASHRAE PMP is expected to improve the applicability of the ASHRAE PMP, which aligns the overall purpose of this study. Finally, this study developed a new single figure-of-merit rating system based on the ASHRAE PMP procedures. The developed rating system is expected to improve the usability of the protocols.

Kim, Hyojin 1981-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Direct measurements of intramolecular electron transfer rates between cytochrome c and cytochrome c peroxidase: effects of exothermicity and primary sequence on rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rapid mixing of ferrocytochrome c peroxidase (cyt c peroxidase(II)) and ferricytochrome c (cyt c(III)) results in the reduction of cyt c(III) by cyt c peroxidase(II). In 10 mM phosphate, pH 7.0, the rate of decay of cyt c peroxidase(II) and the rate of accumulation of cyt c(II) give equal first-order rate constants. Equivalent results are obtained by pulse radiolysis using isopropanol radical as the reducing agent. This rate is independent of the initial cyt c(III):cyt c peroxidase(II) ratios. These results are consistent with unimolecular electron transfer occurring within a cyt c(III)-cyt c peroxidase(II) complex. When cyt c is replaced by porphyrin cyt c (iron-free cyt c), a complex still forms with cyt c peroxidase. On radiolysis intracomplex electron transfer occurs from the porphyrin cyt c anion radical to cyt c peroxidase(III). This large rate increase suggest that the barrier for intracomplex electron transfer is large. Finally, the authors have briefly investigated how the cyt c peroxidase(II) ..-->.. cyt c(III) rate depends on the primary structure of cyt c(III). They find the reactivity order to be as follows: yeast > horse > tuna.

Cheung, E.; Taylor, K.; Kornblatt, J.A.; English, A.M.; McLendon, G.; Miller, J.R.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

A new measurement technique for tracking voltage phasors, local system frequency, and rate of change of frequency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the advent of Substation Computer Systems dedicated to protection, control and data logging functions in a Substation, it becomes possible to develop new applications which can utilize the processing power available within the substation. The microcomputer based Symmetrical Component Distance Relay (SCDR) described in the references cited at the end of this paper possesses certain characteristics which facilitate real-time monitoring of positive sequence voltage phasor at the local power system bus. With a regression analysis the frequency and rate-of-change of frequency at the bus can also be determined from the positive sequence voltage phase angle. This paper describes the theoretical basis of these computations and describes results of experiments performed in the AEP power system simulation laboratory. Plans for future field tests on the AEP system are also outlined.

Phadke, A.G.; Adamiak, M.G.; Thorp, J.S.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Application of spatial and non-spatial data analysis in determination of the factors that impact municipal solid waste generation rates in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial autocorrelation exists in municipal solid waste generation rates for different provinces in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Traditional non-spatial regression models may not provide sufficient information for better solid waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unemployment rate is a global variable that significantly impacts the waste generation rates in Turkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significances of global parameters may diminish at local scale for some provinces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GWR model can be used to create clusters of cities for solid waste management. - Abstract: In studies focusing on the factors that impact solid waste generation habits and rates, the potential spatial dependency in solid waste generation data is not considered in relating the waste generation rates to its determinants. In this study, spatial dependency is taken into account in determination of the significant socio-economic and climatic factors that may be of importance for the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rates in different provinces of Turkey. Simultaneous spatial autoregression (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used for the spatial data analyses. Similar to ordinary least squares regression (OLSR), regression coefficients are global in SAR model. In other words, the effect of a given independent variable on a dependent variable is valid for the whole country. Unlike OLSR or SAR, GWR reveals the local impact of a given factor (or independent variable) on the waste generation rates of different provinces. Results show that provinces within closer neighborhoods have similar MSW generation rates. On the other hand, this spatial autocorrelation is not very high for the exploratory variables considered in the study. OLSR and SAR models have similar regression coefficients. GWR is useful to indicate the local determinants of MSW generation rates. GWR model can be utilized to plan waste management activities at local scale including waste minimization, collection, treatment, and disposal. At global scale, the MSW generation rates in Turkey are significantly related to unemployment rate and asphalt-paved roads ratio. Yet, significances of these variables may diminish at local scale for some provinces. At local scale, different factors may be important in affecting MSW generation rates.

Keser, Saniye [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Duzgun, Sebnem [Department of Mining Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Geodetic and Geographic Information Technologies, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Aksoy, Aysegul, E-mail: aaksoy@metu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

An Experimental Test of a Theoretical Model to Determine the Rate at which Freely Falling Water Drops Scavenge SO2 in Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental method involving the UCLA Rain Shaft is described. This method allows determining the rate at which SO2 is scavenged from air by freely falling water drops. In the present experiment water drops of radii near 300 ?m were allowed ...

C. Walcek; P. K. Wang; J. H. Topalian; S. K. Mitra; H. R. Pruppacher

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Measurement of B \\to X \\gamma Decays and Determination of |V_{td}/V_{ts}|  

SciTech Connect

Using a sample of 383 million B{bar B} events collected by the BABAR experiment, they measure sums of seven exclusive final states B {yields} X{sub d(s)}{gamma}, where X{sub d}(X{sub s}) is a non-strange (strange) charmless hadronic system in the mass range 0.6-1.8 GeV/c{sup 2}. After correcting for unmeasured decay modes in this mass range, they obtain a branching fraction for b {yields} d{gamma} of (7.2 {+-} 2.7(stat.) {+-} 2.3(syst.)) x 10{sup -6}. Taking the ratio of X{sub d} to X{sub s} they find {Lambda}(b {yields} d{gamma})/{Lambda}(b {yields} s{gamma}) = 0.033 {+-} 0.013(stat.) {+-} 0.009(syst.), from which they determine |V{sub td}/V{sub ts}| = 0.177 {+-} 0.043.

Collaboration, The BABAR; Aubert, B.

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

190

Determination of Clear-Sky Radiative Flux Profiles, Heating Rates, and Optical Depths Using Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles as a Platform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the authors report results obtained using an unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV) as an experimental platform for atmospheric radiative transfer research. These are the first ever climate measurements made from a UAV and represent a ...

Francisco P. J. Valero; Shelly K. Pope; Robert G. Ellingson; Anthony W. Strawa; John Vitko Jr.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.

Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Determining an optimal sampling frequency for measuring bulk temporal changes in ground-water quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process, statistical methods are used to determine an optimal sampling and analysis plan. When the DQO decision rule for instituting remedial actions is based on a critical change in water quality, the monitoring program design must ensure that this change can be detected and measured with a specified confidence. Usually the focus is on the change at a single monitoring location and the process is limited to addressing the uncertainty inherent in the analytical methods and the variability at that location. However, new strategies that permit ranking the waste sites and prioritizing remedial activities require the means for assessing overall changes for small regions over time, where both spatial and temporal variability exist and where the uncertainty associated with these variations far exceeds measurement error. Two new methods for assessing these overall changes have been developed and are demonstrated by application to a waste disposal site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These methods incorporate historical data where available and allow the user to either test the statistical significance of a linear trend or of an annual change compared to a baseline year for a group of water quality wells.

Moline, G.R.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity are disclosed. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie's Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation.

Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity are disclosed. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie`s Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation. 7 figs.

Vail, W.B. III

1997-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

195

Energy Rating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistent, accurate, and uniform ratings based on a single statewide rating scale Reasonable estimates of potential utility bill savings and reliable recommendations on cost-effective measures to improve energy efficiency Training and certification procedures for home raters and quality assurance procedures to promote accurate ratings and to protect consumers Labeling procedures that will meet the needs of home buyers, homeowners, renters, the real estate industry, and mortgage lenders with an interest in home energy ratings

Cabec Conference; Rashid Mir P. E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

A measurement of the 2 neutrino double beta decay rate of Te-130 in the CUORICINO experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CUORICINO was a cryogenic bolometer experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay and other rare processes, including double beta decay with two neutrinos (2{nu}{beta}{beta}). The experiment was located at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and ran for a period of about 5 years, from 2003 to 2008. The detector consisted of an array of 62 TeO{sub 2} crystals arranged in a tower and operated at a temperature of #24;10 mK. Events depositing energy in the detectors, such as radioactive decays or impinging particles, produced thermal pulses in the crystals which were read out using sensitive thermistors. The experiment included 4 enriched crystals, 2 enriched with {sup 130}Te and 2 with {sup 128}Te, in order to aid in the measurement of the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} rate. The enriched crystals contained a total of #24;350 g {sup 130}Te. The 128-enriched (130-depleted) crystals were used as background monitors, so that the shared backgrounds could be subtracted from the energy spectrum of the 130- enriched crystals. Residual backgrounds in the subtracted spectrum were fit using spectra generated by Monte-Carlo simulations of natural radioactive contaminants located in and on the crystals. The 2{nu}{beta}{beta} half-life was measured to be T{sup 2{nu}}{sub 1/2} = [9.81{+-} #6;0.96(stat){+-} 0.49(syst)]#2;x10{sup 20} y.

Kogler, Laura

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

197

Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part I: Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for determining the optical thickness and effective particle radius of stratiform cloud layers from reflected solar radiation measurements. A detailed study is presented which shows that the cloud optical thickness (?c) and ...

Teruyuki Nakajima; Michael D. King

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Comparison of Average Heart Rates Determined by Surface ECG and 24-Hour Ambulatory ECG (Holter) in Dogs with Spontaneous Atrial Fibrillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rates of dogs presenting with spontaneous atrial fibrillation (AF) by a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and a 24 hour ambulatory ECG (Holter recording) in order to determine if there was a difference between these two diagnostic tests. Seven dogs with clinically stable, spontaneous AF were evaluated with a 6 lead surface ECG (MAC 5000, GE® Milwaukee) and a Holter monitor (Monitor device: LifecardCE Delmar Reynolds Medical, Holter analysis:Aria Holter software). Statistical analyses, including t-tests and linear regression models, were performed using Stata® data-analysis and statistical software. When heart rates (bpm) determined by both diagnostic testing methods were compared individually and among all of the dogs, no statistically significant differences were found. Complete data for analysis were available in 4 of the 7 dogs. This study demonstrates that despite the potential superiority of Holter monitoring relative to the surface ECG for the diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias, average heart rates were not statistically different in these 4 dogs with controlled AF. Therefore, the average HR determined by surface ECG in the hospital may be as reliable as the average HR determined by Holter monitoring in dogs with well controlled spontaneous AF.

Perea Lugo, Adriana

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Determination of the Lower Temperature Limit of Void Swelling of Stainless Steels at Relatively Low Displacement Rates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An issue of current interest to PWRs is the possibility that void swelling of austenitic near-core internal components may exert some deleterious effect on component functionality, particularly during extended operation to 60 years. A similar concern has also been raised for water-cooled fusion devices. One question of particular interest is the range of temperature over which void swelling can occur, since the internal components experience temperatures from ~290 to perhaps as high as 390 degrees C in some limited locations. This question was addressed using a flow restrictor component from the low-flux breeder zone of the BN-350 fast reactor in Kazakhstan. This component was constructed of annealed 12X18H10T, an alloy similar to AISI 321 which is used in Russian reactors for applications where AISI 304L would be used in comparable Western and Japanese reactors. Extensive sectioning to produce 114 separate specimens, followed by examination of the radiation-induced microstructure showed that void swelling in the range of temperatures and dpa rates of PWR interest occurs down to ~305 degrees C. At 330 degrees C the swelling reached ~1% at 20 dpa. Comparison of these data with other published results from Russian LWR reactors at <10 dpa confirms that the lowest temperature that stainless steels can begin swelling appears to be ~300 degrees C. Since fusion and PWR spectra generate similar levels of hydrogen and helium, it is expected that these conclusions are also application to fusion devices operating at comparable dpa rates.

Porollo, S. I.; Konobeev, Yu V.; Dvoriashin, Alexander M.; Krigan, V. M.; Garner, Francis A.

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Determination of the Rate of Dissipation of Turbulent Energy from Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Shear Microstructure Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spectra of turbulence have been examined for both temperature gradient and velocity shear. The data for this comparison are 10–15 m segments of vertical microstructure profiles (at depths of 5–100 m) obtained during the 1978 Joint Air Sea ...

N. S. Oakey

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

A Method for Estimating the Turbulent Kinetic Energy Dissipation Rate from a Vertically Pointing Doppler Lidar, and Independent Evaluation from Balloon-Borne In Situ Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of estimating dissipation rates from a vertically pointing Doppler lidar with high temporal and spatial resolution has been evaluated by comparison with independent measurements derived from a balloon-borne sonic anemometer. This method ...

Ewan J. O’Connor; Anthony J. Illingworth; Ian M. Brooks; Christopher D. Westbrook; Robin J. Hogan; Fay Davies; Barbara J. Brooks

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Determination of Ionospheric Current Systems by Measuring the Phase Shift on Amateur Satellite Frequencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the possibility of measuring and using the phase delay of radio frequency transmissions in the amateur satellite band as a method to determine the distribution of currents systems in the ionosphere. The amateur satellite transmissions at 7M Hz, 14M Hz, and 144M Hz are low enough for Faraday rotation to cause a significant phase delay on the propagating signals in addition to the phase delay produced by the total electron content (TEC) in the ionosphere. The ionosphere in the E and F regions is modeled as an equivalent thin planar shell of collision free cold plasma 100 km in thickness located in an altitude range of 100 ? 200 km. The earth’s magnetic field is superposed with a weaker magnetic field due to a narrow Gaussian strip of current representing an ionospheric electrojet. The profile of the current system is obtained by numerically optimizing the Appleton-Hartree dispersion relation for rays of simulated radio frequency (RF) signals that propagate through the ionosphere shell. The optimization procedure is performed with a differential evolution algorithm. From the optimization procedure, we obtain the ionosphere total electron content (TEC) and the strength, profile, and orientation of the ionospheric current system. (53 pages) iv

Prajwal M Kasturi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Determination of the proton separation energy of {sup 93}Rh from mass measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proposed {nu}p process, which occurs in the early time proton-rich neutrino winds of core-collapse supernovae, has the potential to resolve the long-standing uncertainty in the production of the light p-nuclei {sup 92}Mo and {sup 94}Mo. A recent study incorporating this {nu}p process has indicated that the proton separation energy S{sub p} of {sup 93}Rh is especially important in determining the relative production of these two isotopes. To reproduce the observed solar {sup 92}Mo/{sup 94}Mo abundance ratio of 1.57 a S{sub p} value for {sup 93}Rh of 1.64{+-}0.1 MeV is required. The previously unknown masses of {sup 92}Ru and {sup 93}Rh have been measured with the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer resulting in an experimental value for S{sub p}({sup 93}Rh) of 2.007{+-}0.009 MeV. This implies that with our current understanding of the conditions in core-collapse supernova explosions the {nu}p process is not solely responsible for the observed solar {sup 92}Mo/{sup 94}Mo abundance ratio.

Fallis, J.; Russell, S.; Vorst, M. Scholte van de; Sharma, H.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Clark, J. A. [Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Sharma, K. S. [Department of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Savard, G.; Caldwell, S.; Sternberg, M.; Schelt, J. Van [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J. E.; Gulick, S.; Lee, J. K. P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Deibel, C. M.; Wrede, C. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Fisker, J. L. [Physical Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hecht, A. A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] (and others)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Chapter 6, Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6: Residential Lighting 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol Scott Dimetrosky, Apex Analytics, LLC Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 6 - 1 Chapter 6 - Table of Contents 1 Measure Description .............................................................................................................. 2 2 Application Conditions of Protocol ....................................................................................... 3 3 Savings Calculations .............................................................................................................. 4 4 Measurement and Verification Plan ....................................................................................... 5

205

Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie's Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation. Resistivity measurements are obtained from within the cased well by conducting A.C. current from within the cased well to a remote electrode at a frequency that is within the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 20 Hz.

Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

A Measurement of the Rate of type-Ia Supernovae at Redshift $z\\approx$ 0.1 from the First Season of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a measurement of the rate of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the first of three seasons of data from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. For this measurement, we include 17 SNe Ia at redshift $z\\le0.12$. Assuming a flat cosmology with $\\Omega_m = 0.3=1-\\Omega_\\Lambda$, we find a volumetric SN Ia rate of $[2.93^{+0.17}_{-0.04}({\\rm systematic})^{+0.90}_{-0.71}({\\rm statistical})] \\times 10^{-5} {\\rm SNe} {\\rm Mpc}^{-3} h_{70}^3 {\\rm year}^{-1}$, at a volume-weighted mean redshift of 0.09. This result is consistent with previous measurements of the SN Ia rate in a similar redshift range. The systematic errors are well controlled, resulting in the most precise measurement of the SN Ia rate in this redshift range. We use a maximum likelihood method to fit SN rate models to the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data in combination with other rate measurements, thereby constraining models for the redshift-evolution of the SN Ia rate. Fitting the combined data to a simple power-law evolution of the volumetric SN Ia rate, $r_V \\propto (1+z)^{\\beta}$, we obtain a value of $\\beta = 1.5 \\pm 0.6$, i.e. the SN Ia rate is determined to be an increasing function of redshift at the $\\sim 2.5 \\sigma$ level. Fitting the results to a model in which the volumetric SN rate, $r_V=A\\rho(t)+B\\dot \\rho(t)$, where $\\rho(t)$ is the stellar mass density and $\\dot \\rho(t)$ is the star formation rate, we find $A = (2.8 \\pm 1.2) \\times 10^{-14} \\mathrm{SNe} \\mathrm{M}_{\\sun}^{-1} \\mathrm{year}^{-1}$, $B = (9.3^{+3.4}_{-3.1})\\times 10^{-4} \\mathrm{SNe} \\mathrm{M}_{\\sun}^{-1}$.

Benjamin Dilday; R. Kessler; J. A. Frieman; J. Holtzman; J. Marriner; G. Miknaitis; R. C. Nichol; R. Romani; M. Sako; B. Bassett; A. Becker; D. Cinabro; F. DeJongh; D. L. Depoy; M. Doi; P. M. Garnavich; C. J. Hogan; S. Jha; K. Konishi; H. Lampeitl; J. L. Marshall; D. McGinnis; J. L. Prieto; A. G. Riess; M. W. Richmond; D. P. Schneider; M. Smith; N. Takanashi; K. Tokita; K. van der Heyden; N. Yasuda; C. Zheng; J. Barentine; H. Brewington; C. Choi; A. Crotts; J. Dembicky; M. Harvanek; M. Im; W. Ketzeback; S. J. Kleinman; J. Krzesi?ski; D. C. Long; E. Malanushenko; V. Malanushenko; R. J. McMillan; A. Nitta; K. Pan; G. Saurage; S. A. Snedden; S. Watters; J. C. Wheeler; D. York

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

207

Use of Operational Comparability Techniques to Determine Realtime Acceptability of Meteorological Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparability techniques have been applied operationally to processing meteorological measurements. Examples of comparability statistics are presented for both typical and atypical (instrument problem) situations. The comparability techniques ...

A. Edgar Mitchell Jr.; Robert W. Jubach; Ayhan Malkoc; Ray F. Zucker

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Chapter 7, Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7: Refrigerator 7: Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol Doug Bruchs and Josh Keeling, The Cadmus Group, Inc. Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 7 - 1 Chapter 7 - Table of Contents 1 Measure Description .............................................................................................................. 2 2 Application Conditions of Protocol ....................................................................................... 3 3 Savings Calculations .............................................................................................................. 4 4 Gross Savings......................................................................................................................... 5

209

Surface Temperature Determination from an Amalgamation of GOES and TIROS-N Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to depict quasi-continuous surface temperature features is presented. Half-hourly GOES window channel brightness temperature determinations are employed to monitor time changes in the surface temperature field. TIROS-N water vapor ...

J. A. Zandlo; W. L. Smith; W. P. Menzel; C. M. Hayden

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Cloud Layers, Particle Identification, and Rain-Rate Profiles from ZRVf Measurements by Clear-Air Doppler Radars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Networks of radars that point almost vertically and continuously measure the vertical profile of the horizontal wind will, in the future, be operated at many locations around the world. Although such radars are designed to measure the Doppler-...

E. E. Gossard; R. G. Strauch; D. C. Welsh; S. Y. Matrosov

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2008.09.007 Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature. 1

Jean Colombani

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Correction of Drop Shape-Induced Errors on Rain Rates Derived from Radar-Measured Doppler Spectra at Vertical Incidence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape of larger raindrops shows a deviation from spheres. This leads to a radar backscatter cross section different from the Rayleigh cross section. The drop shape-induced error for deducing rain rates is calculated. The resulting correction ...

Dirk Klugmann; Carolin Richter

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Ground-to-Air Gas Emission Rate Inferred from Measured Concentration Rise within a Disturbed Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In reference to previously observed concentrations of methane released from a source enclosed by a windbreak, this paper examines a refined “inverse dispersion” approach for estimating the rate of emission Q from a small ground-level source, when ...

J. D. Wilson; T. K. Flesch; P. Bourdin

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Experimental Tests of Methods for the Measurement of Rainfall Rate Using an Airborne Dual-Wavelength Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For a spaceborne meteorological radar, the use of frequencies above 10 GHz may be necessary to attain sufficient spatial resolution. As the frequency increases, however, attenuation by rain becomes significant. To extend the range of rain rates ...

R. Meneghini; K. Nakamura; C. W. Ulbrich; D. Atlas

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Spatially resolved measurements of kinematics and flow-induced birefringence in worm-like micellar solutions undergoing high rate deformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Worm-like micellar solutions are model non-Newtonian systems on account of their well understood linear viscoelastic behavior. Their high deformation rate, non-linear rheological response, however, remains inadequately ...

Ober, Thomas J. (Thomas Joseph)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Real-Time Measurement of Rates of Outdoor Airflow into HVAC Systems: A Field Study of Three Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to determine flow resistance of HVAC ducts and fittings.W. 2003. Outdoor airflow into HVAC systems: an evaluation ofof outdoor airflow into HVAC systems. Lawrence Berkeley

Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

The young's modulus of 1018 steel and 67061-T6 aluminum measured from quasi-static to elastic precursor strain-rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The assumption that Young's modulus is strain-rate invariant is tested for 6061-T6 aluminium alloy and 1018 steel over 10 decades of strain-rate. For the same billets of material, 3 quasi-static strain-rates are investigated with foil strain gauges at room temperature. The ultrasonic sound speeds are measured and used to calculate the moduli at approximately 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. Finally, ID plate impact is used to generate an elastic pre-cursor in the alloys at a strain-rate of approximately 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} from which the longitudinal sound speed may be obtained. It is found that indeed the Young's modulus is strain-rate independent within the experimental accuracy.

Rae, Philip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lovato, Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

A physical measure of consistency among speech parameter vectors: Application to speech intelligibility determination.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new computational approach is being investigated for determining the intelligibility of speech subjected to a waveform degradation or signal?processing transformation. The approach employs a model of the human auditory system which reduces a speech waveform to a sequence of discrete symbols

Matthew H. Power; Louis D. Braida

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

An instrument for the measurement and determination of chemical pulse column parameters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to an instrument for monitoring and measuring pneumatic driving force pulse parameters applied to chemical separation pulse columns obtains real time pulse frequency and root mean square amplitude values, calculates column inch values and compares these values against preset limits to alert column operators to the variations of pulse column operational parameters beyond desired limits. 2 figs.

Marchant, N.J.; Morgan, J.P.

1988-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Diffusion in the Lower Stratosphere as Determined from Lidar Measurements of Volcanic Aerosol Dispersion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lidar measurements of the stratospheric aerosol layer from the Fuego volcanic eruption in 1974 are analyzed to yield estimates of effective vertical mixing coefficients Kz. The data at 19°N latitude give Kz=6.6×102 cm2 s?1 for the altitude range ...

Ellis E. Remsperg

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Measurement of the Rates of Production and Dissipation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in an Energetic Tidal Flow: Red Wharf Bay Revisited  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of the rates of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation (?) and production (P) have been made over a period of 24 h at a tidally energetic site in the northern Irish Sea in water of 25-m depth. Some ? profiles from 5 ...

Tom P. Rippeth; John H. Simpson; Eirwen Williams; Mark E. Inall

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Modified Fowler-Milne method for the spectroscopic determination of thermal plasma temperature without the measurement of continuum radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique based on the Fowler-Milne method for the spectroscopic determination of thermal plasma temperatures without measuring continuum radiation is presented. This technique avoids the influence of continuum radiation with the combined line and continuum emission coefficients to derive the plasma temperatures. The amount of continuum emission coefficient is estimated by using an expression related to the Biberman factors. Parameters that affect the accuracy of the proposed technique and errors in the measured plasma temperatures are analyzed. It is shown that, by using the Ar I 696.5 nm line with a bandwidth of 3.27 nm without taking into account the continuum radiation, the plasma temperature measured will be lower on the order of up to 1000-3000 K for temperatures from 20 000 to 24 000 K. The theoretically predicted temperature errors are in good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the proposed technique is reliable for plasma temperature measurement.

Ma Shuiliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Plasma Research Laboratory, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Gao Hongming; Wu Lin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

Determination of accuracy of measurements by NREL's Scanning Hartmann Optical Test instrument  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL's Scanning Hartmann Optical Test (SHOT) instrument is routinely used to characterize the surface of candidate dish concentration elements for solar thermal applications. An approach was devised to quantify the accuracy of these measurements. Excellent reproducibility was exhibited and high confidence established. The SHOT instrument was designed to allow the surface figure of large optical test articles to be accurately specified. Such test articles are nominally parabolic with an f/D ratio (in which f=focal length and D=aperture diameter) in the range of 0.5--1.0. Recent modifications of SHOT have extended the characterization range out to about f/D=3.0. A series of experiments was designed to investigate and quantify the uncertainties associated with optical characterization performed by SHOT. This approach involved making a series of measurements with an arbitrary test article positioned at a number of locations transverse to the optical axis of SHOT. 3 refs.

Jorgensen, G.; Wendelin, T.; Carasso, M.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Determination of accuracy of measurements by NREL`s Scanning Hartmann Optical Test instrument  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL`s Scanning Hartmann Optical Test (SHOT) instrument is routinely used to characterize the surface of candidate dish concentration elements for solar thermal applications. An approach was devised to quantify the accuracy of these measurements. Excellent reproducibility was exhibited and high confidence established. The SHOT instrument was designed to allow the surface figure of large optical test articles to be accurately specified. Such test articles are nominally parabolic with an f/D ratio (in which f=focal length and D=aperture diameter) in the range of 0.5--1.0. Recent modifications of SHOT have extended the characterization range out to about f/D=3.0. A series of experiments was designed to investigate and quantify the uncertainties associated with optical characterization performed by SHOT. This approach involved making a series of measurements with an arbitrary test article positioned at a number of locations transverse to the optical axis of SHOT. 3 refs.

Jorgensen, G.; Wendelin, T.; Carasso, M.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

A Method to Determine the Optimal Tank Size for a Chilled Water Storage System Under a Time-of-Use Electricity Rate Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the downtown area of Austin, it is planned to build a new naturally stratified chilled water storage tank and share it among four separated chilled water plants. An underground piping system is to be established to connect these four plants together. This paper presents the method of determining the optimal tank size as well as corresponding optimal operating strategies for this project. Based on the analysis of the historical log data, utility rate structures, and equipment information, the baseline profiles of electricity fed to buildings, plant cooling load, and utility billing cost for each plant are generated. A simplified TES plus four plants model is built based on some assumptions. The results show that a 3.5 million gallon tank has the shortest payback time and the projected total capital cost is within the budget. The annual billing cost savings are $907,231 and the simple payback time is 12.5 years.

Zhang, Z.; Turner, W. D.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.; Deng, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures: January 2012 - March 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures January 2012 - March 2013 Tina Jayaweera Hossein Haeri The Cadmus Group Portland, Oregon NREL Technical Monitor: Charles Kurnik Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

227

Chapter 9, Metering Cross-Cutting Protocols: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9: Metering Cross- 9: Metering Cross- Cutting Protocols Dan Mort, ADM Associates, Inc. Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 9 - 1 Chapter 9 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 3 2 Metering Application and Considerations ............................................................................. 4 2.1 Identifying Scope ............................................................................................................. 4 2.2 Ensuring Precision and Verification ................................................................................ 4

228

Differential Emission Measure Determination of Collisionally Ionized Plasma: II. Application to Hot Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a previous paper we have described a technique to derive constraints on the differential emission measure (DEM) distribution, a measure of the temperature distribution, of collisionally ionized hot plasmas from their X-ray emission line spectra. We apply this technique to the Chandra/HETG spectra of all of the nine hot stars available to us at the time this project was initiated. We find that DEM distributions of six of the seven O stars in our sample are very similar but that theta Ori has an X-ray spectrum characterized by higher temperatures. The DEM distributions of both of B stars in our sample have lower magnitudes than those of the O stars and one, tau Sco, is characterized by higher temperatures than the other, beta Cru. These results confirm previous work in which high temperatures have been found for theta Ori and tau Sco and taken as evidence for channeling of the wind in magnetic fields, the existence of which are related to the stars' youth. Our results demonstrate the utility of our method for deriving temperature information for large samples of X-ray emission line spectra.

Patrick S. Wojdowski; Norbert S. Schulz

2005-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

229

High-temperature heat-capacity measurements and critical property determinations using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter: Results of measurements on toluene, tetralin, and JP-10  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid-phase heat capacities (from near 300 K to near the critical temperature) and critical properties were determined for toluene, tetralin, and the specialty fuel JP-10 with a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) using high-temperature/high-pressure sample cells and procedural methods developed at NIPER. A complete description of the methods and calculational procedures is included as an appendix to the report. The results for toluene and tetralin compare very favorably with available literature values, while those for JP-10 are the first reported high-temperature heat capacity and critical property measurements for this material. This research was completed to demonstrate the type and scope of measurements needed for materials key to new process development, and in particular to the development of ''endothermic fuels'' for the development of new High-Speed Flight Vehicles. 20 refs., 5 figs., 21 tabs.

Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Smith, N.K.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Mass flow rate measurements in gas-liquid flows by means of a venturi or orifice plate coupled to a void fraction sensor  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase flow measurements were carried out using a resistive void fraction meter coupled to a venturi or orifice plate. The measurement system used to estimate the liquid and gas mass flow rates was evaluated using an air-water experimental facility. Experiments included upward vertical and horizontal flow, annular, bubbly, churn and slug patterns, void fraction ranging from 2% to 85%, water flow rate up to 4000 kg/h, air flow rate up to 50 kg/h, and quality up to almost 10%. The fractional root mean square (RMS) deviation of the two-phase mass flow rate in upward vertical flow through a venturi plate is 6.8% using the correlation of Chisholm (D. Chisholm, Pressure gradients during the flow of incompressible two-phase mixtures through pipes, venturis and orifice plates, British Chemical Engineering 12 (9) (1967) 454-457). For the orifice plate, the RMS deviation of the vertical flow is 5.5% using the correlation of Zhang et al. (H.J. Zhang, W.T. Yue, Z.Y. Huang, Investigation of oil-air two-phase mass flow rate measurement using venturi and void fraction sensor, Journal of Zhejiang University Science 6A (6) (2005) 601-606). The results show that the flow direction has no significant influence on the meters in relation to the pressure drop in the experimental operation range. Quality and slip ratio analyses were also performed. The results show a mean slip ratio lower than 1.1, when bubbly and slug flow patterns are encountered for mean void fractions lower than 70%. (author)

Oliveira, Jorge Luiz Goes; Passos, Julio Cesar [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica-LEPTEN/Boiling-UFSC, Campus Universitario, Trindade, 88.040-900 Florianopolis-SC (Brazil); Verschaeren, Ruud; Geld, Cees van der [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, W-hoog 2.135, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Exchange Rates, Information, and Crises  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 Intervention and Exchange Rate Misalignment 4 Conclusion 5explain the exchange rate determination puzzle? Americanrisk to defend the exchange rate. Universit¨at Trier Working

Fernholz, Ricardo Turrin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z \\lesssim 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04+1.61-0.95 % of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used t...

Dilday, Benjamin; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Filippenko, Alexei V; Frieman, Joshua A; Galbany, Lluis; Garnavich, Peter M; Goobar, Ariel; Hopp, Ulrich; Ihara, Yutaka; Jha, Saurabh W; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Molla, Mercedes; Nichol, Robert C; Nordin, Jakob; Riess, Adam G; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J Craig; Ostman, Linda; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Method Evaluation And Field Sample Measurements For The Rate Of Movement Of The Oxidation Front In Saltstone  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate a series of methods and validate their capability to measure differences in oxidized versus reduced saltstone. Validated methods were then applied to samples cured under field conditions to simulate Performance Assessment (PA) needs for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Four analytical approaches were evaluated using laboratory-cured saltstone samples. These methods were X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), chemical redox indicators, and thin-section leaching methods. XAS and thin-section leaching methods were validated as viable methods for studying oxidation movement in saltstone. Each method used samples that were spiked with chromium (Cr) as a tracer for oxidation of the saltstone. The two methods were subsequently applied to field-cured samples containing chromium to characterize the oxidation state of chromium as a function of distance from the exposed air/cementitious material surface.

Almond, P. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Kaplan, D. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Stefanko, D. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Spencer, W. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hatfield, A. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Arai, Y. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

234

Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III: Results for the 2002--2007 data-taking period  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in Dec. 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. We give here the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in Dec. 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through Dec. 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4 (+3.1)(-3.0) (stat) (+2.6)(-2.8) (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 +/- 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced 37Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior 51Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87 +/- 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63-66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be (6.0 +/- 0.8) x 10^(10)/(cm^2 s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

SAGE Collaboration; J. N. Abdurashitov; V. N. Gavrin; V. V. Gorbachev; P. P. Gurkina; T. V. Ibragimova; A. V. Kalikhov; N. G. Khairnasov; T. V. Knodel; I. N. Mirmov; A. A. Shikhin; E. P. Veretenkin; V. E. Yants; G. T. Zatsepin; T. J. Bowles; S. R. Elliott; W. A. Teasdale; J. S. Nico; B. T. Cleveland; J. F. Wilkerson

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Piepel, Greg F. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z {approx}< 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04{sub -0.95}{sup +1.61}% of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used to infer a value of the SN rate of r{sub V} = (2.69{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.34+0.21}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} at a mean redshift of {approx} 0.12, based on 79 SNe Ia of which 72 are spectroscopically confirmed. However, the large sample of SNe Ia included in this study allows us to place constraints on the redshift dependence of the SN Ia rate based on the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data alone. Fitting a power-law model of the SN rate evolution, r{sub V} (z) = A{sub p} x ((1+z)/(1+z{sub 0})){sup {nu}}, over the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.3 with z{sub 0} = 0.21, results in A{sub p} = (3.43{sub -0.15}{sup +0.15}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} and {nu} = 2.04{sub -0.89}{sup +0.90}.

Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /Portsmouth U.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; /UC, Berkeley; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Determination of the spin-flip time in ferromagnetic SrRuO3 from time-resolved Kerr measurements  

SciTech Connect

We report time-resolved Kerr effect measurements of magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic SrRuO{sub 3}. We observe that the demagnetization time slows substantially at temperatures within 15K of the Curie temperature, which is {approx} 150K. We analyze the data with a phenomenological model that relates the demagnetization time to the spin flip time. In agreement with our observations the model yields a demagnetization time that is inversely proportional to T-T{sub c}. We also make a direct comparison of the spin flip rate and the Gilbert damping coefficient showing that their ratio very close to k{sub B}T{sub c}, indicating a common origin for these phenomena.

Kantner, C.L.S.; Langner, M.C.; Siemons, W.; Blok, J.L.; Koster, G.; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.; Ramesh, R.; Orenstein, J.

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

238

Measurement of the solar 8B neutrino rate with a liquid scintillator target and 3 MeV energy threshold in the Borexino detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the measurement of electron neutrino elastic scattering from 8B solar neutrinos with 3 MeV energy threshold by the Borexino detector in Gran Sasso (Italy). The rate of solar neutrino-induced electron scattering events above this energy in Borexino is 0.217 +- 0.038 (stat) +- 0.008 (syst) cpd/100 t, which corresponds to the equivalent unoscillated flux of (2.4 +- 0.4 (stat) +- 0.1 (syst))x10^6 cm^-2 s^-1, in good agreement with measurements from SNO and SuperKamiokaNDE. Assuming the 8B neutrino flux predicted by the high metallicity Standard Solar Model, the average 8B neutrino survival probability above 3 MeV is measured to be 0.29+-0.10. The survival probabilities for 7Be and 8B neutrinos as measured by Borexino differ by 1.9 sigma. These results are consistent with the prediction of the MSW-LMA solution of a transition in the solar electron neutrino survival probability between the low energy vacuum-driven and the high-energy matter-enhanced solar neutrino oscillation regimes.

The Borexino Collaboration

2008-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

239

A Survey of Radar Rain Measurement Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several methods used to estimate rainfall rate R are surveyed. The distribution N(D) of drop sizes is of central importance in determining the reflectivity factor Z, attenuation rate K, and R. With single-parameter measurement techniques either ...

Richard J. Doviak

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Humidity Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Quantities. Humidity Measurements. Rate our Services. Technical ... Special Tests of Humidity (36070S). Tests ...

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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241

Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Kurtz, S.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Chapter 5, Residential Furnaces and Boilers Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5: Residential 5: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Evaluation Protocol David Jacobson, Jacobson Energy Research Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 5 - 1 Chapter 5 - Table of Contents 1 Measure Description .............................................................................................................. 2 2 Application Conditions of Protocol ....................................................................................... 3 3 Savings Calculations .............................................................................................................. 5 4 Measurement and Verification Plan ....................................................................................... 8

243

Materials Reliability Program: Determination of Crack Growth Rates for Alloy 82 at Low K Values Under PWR Primary Water Environment: 2011 Interim Report (MRP-337)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crack propagation experiments, which were performed in the past on nickel-based materials under pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water environments, have left some open questions that need to be answered. In particular, no crack growth rate (CGR) data for control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) nozzle materials are available at low stress intensity (K) values (K 15 MPam). This interim report summarizes the work done during 2011 on a cooperative project to generate CGR data at low K values for alloy 82 ...

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

244

Materials Reliability Program: Determination of Crack Growth Rates for Alloy 82 at Low K Values Under Pressurized Water Reactor Prim ary Water Environment (MRP-270)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crack propagation experiments, which were performed in the past on nickel-based materials under PWR primary water environment, have left some open questions that need to be answered. In particular, no crack growth rate (CGR) data for control rod driving mechanism (CRDM) nozzle materials are available at low stress intensity (K) values (K < 15 MPam). This interim report summarizes the work done during 2009 on a cooperative project to generate crack growth data under low K values for alloy 82 weld metal.

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

245

The Determination of Surface-Layer Stability and Eddy Fluxes Using Wind Speed and Vertical Temperature Gradient Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytical relations are developed that relate the Monin-Obukhov parameter to a modified bulk Richardson number expressed in terms of measured wind speed and vertical temperature difference. Measured Monin-Obukhov parameters and Richardson ...

I. T. Wang

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

A new database of residential building measures and estimated costs helps the U.S. building industry determine the most  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new database of residential building measures and estimated costs helps the U.S. building at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed the National Residential Efficiency Measures with using various measures to improve the efficiency of residential buildings. This database offers

247

Materials Reliability Program: Determination of Crack Growth Rates for Alloy 82 at Low K Values Under PWR Primary Water Environment (MRP-256)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crack propagation experiments, which were performed in the past on nickel-based materials in a PWR primary water environment, have left some open questions that need to be answered. In particular, no crack growth rate (CRD) data for control rod driving mechanism (CRDM) nozzle materials are available at low stress intensity (K) values (K 15 MPam). This interim report describes the planning and first stages of a cooperative project to generate crack growth data under low K values for alloy 82 weld metal.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

248

Application Guide for Determining Maximum Switching Transient Overvoltages of Overhead Lines Rated 100 kV and Above Using the Electr omagnetic Transients Program (EMTP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, through attrition and in other ways, utilities have lost many of the engineers that once performed time-domain (transient) simulations of their power systems. As a result, using the electromagnetic transients program (EMTP) to perform time-domain simulations of the power system has become a lost art; and, as a consequence, such tasks as being able to easily determine the maximum transient overvoltage for a particular transmission line have become arduous for some utilities. At the same t...

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

249

A Measurement of the Rate of type-Ia Supernovae at Redshift $z\\approx$ 0.1 from the First Season of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a measurement of the rate of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the first of three seasons of data from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. For this measurement, we include 17 SNe Ia at redshift $z\\le0.12$. Assuming a flat cosmology with $\\Omega_m = 0.3=1-\\Omega_\\Lambda$, we find a volumetric SN Ia rate of $[2.93^{+0.17}_{-0.04}({\\rm systematic})^{+0.90}_{-0.71}({\\rm statistical})] \\times 10^{-5} {\\rm SNe} {\\rm Mpc}^{-3} h_{70}^3 {\\rm year}^{-1}$, at a volume-weighted mean redshift of 0.09. This result is consistent with previous measurements of the SN Ia rate in a similar redshift range. The systematic errors are well controlled, resulting in the most precise measurement of the SN Ia rate in this redshift range. We use a maximum likelihood method to fit SN rate models to the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data in combination with other rate measurements, thereby constraining models for the redshift-evolution of the SN Ia rate. Fitting the combined data to a simple power-law evolution of the volumetric SN Ia rat...

Dilday, Benjamin; Frieman, J A; Holtzman, J; Marriner, J; Miknaitis, G; Nichol, R C; Romani, R; Sako, M; Bassett, B; Becker, A; Cinabro, D; De Jongh, F; Depoy, D L; Doi, M; Garnavich, P M; Hogan, C J; Jha, S; Konishi, K; Lampeitl, H; Marshall, J L; McGinnis, D; Prieto, J L; Riess, A G; Richmond, M W; Schneider, D P; Smith, M; Takanashi, N; Tokita, K; van der Heyden, K; Zheng, N Yasuda C; Barentine, J; Brewington, H; Choi, C; Crotts, A; Dembicky, J; Harvanek, M; Im, M; Ketzeback, W; Kleinman, S J; KrzesiÅ?ski, J; Long, D C; Malanushenko, E; Malanushenko, V; McMillan, R J; Nitta, A; Pan, K; Saurage, G; Snedden, S A; Watters, S; Wheeler, J C; York, D

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Aerosol Single-Scattering Albedo in the Arctic, Determined from Ground-Based Nonspectral Solar Irradiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The single-scattering albedo of atmospheric aerosol is a crucial parameter in realistic radiative transfer calculations. Various attempts have been undertaken to determine this variable.

J. Freund

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Rates - WAPA-137 Rate Order  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WAPA-137 Rate Order WAPA-137 Rate Order 2009 CRSP Management Center Customer Rates Second Step Presentation from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Handout Materials from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Customer Comment Letters ATEA CREDA Farmington ITCA AMPUA Rate Adjustment Information The second step of WAPA-137 SLCA/IP Firm Power, CRSP Transmission and Ancillary Services rate adjustment. FERC Approval of Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Notice Of Filing for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Letter to Customers regarding the published Notice of Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 FRN Follow-up Public Information and Comment Forum Flier WAPA-137 Customer Meetings and Rate Adjustment Schedule

252

Chapter 3, Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Commercial and 3: Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol Stephen Carlson, DNV KEMA Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 3 - 1 Chapter 3 - Table of Contents 1 Measure Description .............................................................................................................. 2 2 Application Conditions of Protocol ....................................................................................... 3 3 Savings Calculations .............................................................................................................. 5 3.1 Algorithms ....................................................................................................................... 5

253

An Assessment of Aircraft-Generated Contamination on In Situ Trace Gas Measurements: Determinations from Empirical Data Acquired Aloft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are reported from an experiment conducted aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft to determine whether cabin air vented upstream of investigator's inlets had potentially contaminated ambient air samples obtained aboard the aircraft during ...

S. A. Vay; B. E. Anderson; K. L. Thornhill; C. H. Hudgins

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Insertion Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HOME > Insertion Rates. TECH HEADLINES. Research Explores a New Layer in Additive Manufacturin... Grand Opening Slated for Electron Microscopy Facility.

255

Global distributions of total ozone during January and February 1979 as determined from DMSP multichannel filter radiometer measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multichannel filter radiometer instrument (MFR) was first flown on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series satellite in 1977. Daily analyses of the global distribution of retrieved total ozone are presented for January and February 1979. The temporal and spatial averages and variability of ozone during this period are discussed. Retrieved total column ozone data derived from the MFR measurements for January 1979 are compared with preliminary SBUV measurements and with distributions of total ozone measured between 1958 and 1967.

Luther, F.M.; Ellis, J.S.; Lovill, J.E.; Sullivan, T.J.; Weichel, R.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Determination of silica scale deposition rates and thresholds applied toward protection of injection reservoirs. Quarterly progress report, August 1--December 31, 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Instrumentation and the components required for the probe and reactor assemblies were procured. Probes were fabricated and tested to assess their sensitivity to scaling. In October, the focus was on design and fabrication of the reactors. This required close coordination with welding and machine shop subvendors. Contact was made with the two Nevada power plants where the experimental equipment will be field tested. Each has indicated their support for the project and will accommodate field testing efforts. Lab testing of the components in November determined that a probe sensitivity problem existed. It was decided to request the specification for the materials used by the Costa Rican utility for pipelines and vessels at Miravalles. By building the probe assemblies from these same materials, experimental results would not be subject to the question of whether preferential scaling occurred due to a specific probe material. New probes were manufactured using the same material as the steel pipelines at Miravalles. Electrical problems still existed, however, probably due to the type of excitation used to monitor the scaling effects. Signal conditioning was added between the probe and recorder to convert from direct current to alternating current excitation. This eliminated additional galvanic effects which may have been masking changes in the signal caused by scale formation.

Booth, G.M. III

1998-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

257

FORMALISM FOR INCLUSION OF MEASURED REACTION CROSS SECTIONS IN STELLAR RATES INCLUDING UNCERTAINTIES AND ITS APPLICATION TO NEUTRON CAPTURE IN THE s-PROCESS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general formalism to include experimental reaction cross sections into calculations of stellar rates is presented. It also allows us to assess the maximally possible reduction of uncertainties in the stellar rates by experiments. As an example for the application of the procedure, stellar neutron capture reactivities from KADoNiS v0.3 are revised and the remaining uncertainties shown. Many of the uncertainties in the stellar rates are larger than those obtained experimentally. This has important consequences for s-process models and the interpretation of meteoritic data because it allows the rates of some reactions to vary within a larger range than previously assumed.

Rauscher, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

258

The Added Value of Surface Data to Radar-Derived Rainfall-Rate Estimation Using an Artificial Neural Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radar measurements are useful for determining rainfall rates because of their ability to cover large areas. Unfortunately, estimating rainfall rates from radar reflectivity data alone is prone to errors resulting from variations in drop size ...

B. Root; T-Y. Yu; M. Yeary; M. B. Richman

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Rate schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Rate/Charges Effective Through (or until superceded) Firm Sales (SLIP-F9) Composite Rate SLIP 29.62 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Demand Charge SLIP $5.18/kW-month 9/30/2015 Energy Charge SLIP 12.19 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) SLIP 0 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Transmission Service Provided by Current Rates effective10/12 - 9/15 (or until superceded) Rate Schedule Effective Through Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-PTP7) CRSP $1.14 per kW-month $13.69/kW-year $0.00156/kW-hour $0.04/kW-day $0.26/kW-week 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Network Integration Transmission (SP-NW3) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Non-Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-NFT6) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Ancillary Services Provided by Rate Rate Schedule

260

FINAL REPORT DETERMINATION OF THE PROCESSING RATE OF RPP WTP HLW SIMULANTS USING A DURAMELTER J 1000 VITRIFICATION SYSTEM VSL-00R2590-2 REV 0 8/21/00  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides data, analysis, and conclusions from a series of tests that were conducted at the Vitreous State Laboratory of The Catholic University of America (VSL) to determine the melter processing rates that are achievable with RPP-WTP HLW simulants. The principal findings were presented earlier in a summary report (VSL-00R2S90-l) but the present report provides additional details. One of the most critical pieces of information in determining the required size of the RPP-WTP HLW melter is the specific glass production rate in terms of the mass of glass that can be produced per unit area of melt surface per unit time. The specific glass production rate together with the waste loading (essentially, the ratio of waste-in to glass-out, which is determined from glass formulation activities) determines the melt area that is needed to achieve a given waste processing rate with due allowance for system availability. As a consequence of the limited amount of relevant information, there exists, for good reasons, a significant disparity between design-base specific glass production rates for the RPP-WTP LAW and HLW conceptual designs (1.0 MT/m{sup 2}/d and 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d, respectively); furthermore, small-scale melter tests with HLW simulants that were conducted during Part A indicated typical processing rates with bubbling of around 2.0 MT/m{sup 2}/d. This range translates into more than a factor of five variation in the resultant surface area of the HLW melter, which is clearly not without significant consequence. It is clear that an undersized melter is undesirable in that it will not be able to support the required waste processing rates. It is less obvious that there are potential disadvantages associated with an oversized melter, over and above the increased capital costs. A melt surface that is consistently underutilized will have poor cold cap coverage, which will result in increased volatilization from the melt (which is generally undesirable) and increased plenum temperatures due to increased thermal radiation from the melt surface (which mayor may not be desirable but the flexibility to choose may be lost). Increased volatilization is an issue both in terms of the increased challenge to the off-gas system as well as for the ability to effectively close the recycle loops for volatile species that must be immobilized in the glass product, most notably technetium and cesium. For these reasons, improved information is needed on the specific glass production rates of RPP-WTP HLW streams in DuraMelterJ systems over a range of operating conditions. Unlike the RPP-WTP LAW program, for which a pilot melter system to provide large-scale throughout information is already in operation, there is no comparable HLW activity; the results of the present study are therefore especially important. This information will reduce project risk by reducing the uncertainty associated with the amount of conservatism that mayor may not be associated with the baseline RPP-WTP HLW melter sizing decision. After the submission of the first Test Plan for this work, the RPP-WTP requested revisions to include tests to determine the processing rates that are achievable without bubbling, which was driven by the potential advantages of omitting bubblers from the HLW melter design in terms of reduced maintenance. A further objective of this effort became the determination of whether the basis of design processing rate could be achieved without bubbling. Ideally, processing rate tests would be conducted on a full-scale RPP-WTP melter system with actual HLW materials, but that is clearly unrealistic during Part B1. As a practical compromise the processing rate determinations were made with HL W simulants on a DuraMelter J system at as close to full scale as possible and the DM 1000 system at VSL was selected for that purpose. That system has a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}, which corresponds to about one-third scale based on the specific glass processing rate of 0.4 MT/m{sup 2}/d assumed in the RPP-WTP HLW conceptual design, but would correspon

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEREZ-CARDENAS F; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Measurement of Total Water with a Tunable Diode Laser Hygrometer: Inlet Analysis, Calibration Procedure, and Ice Water Content Determination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Colorado closed-path tunable diode laser hygrometer (CLH), a new instrument for the in situ measurement of enhanced total water (eTW, the sum of water vapor and condensed water enhanced by a subisokinetic inlet), has recently ...

Sean M. Davis; A. Gannet Hallar; Linnea M. Avallone; William Engblom

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Measurement of B-->X gamma Decays and Determination of |V[subscript td]/V[subscript ts]|  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a sample of 383×106 B[bar-over B] events collected by the BABAR experiment, we measure sums of seven exclusive final states B?X[subscript d(s)]gamma, where X[subscript d](X[subscript s]) is a nonstrange (strange) ...

Zhao, M.

263

Determination of the Spectral Absorption of Solar Radiation by Marine Stratocumulus Clouds from Airborne Measurements within Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiwavelength scanning radiometer has been used to measure the angular distribution of scattered radiation deep within a cloud layer at discrete wavelengths between 0.5 and 2.3 ?m. The relative angular distribution of the intensity field at ...

Michael D. King; Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Pressure and Temperature Dependence of the Reaction of Vinyl Radical with Alkenes III: Measured Rates and Predicted Product Distributions for Vinyl + Butene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work reports experimental and theoretical first-order rate constants for the reaction of vinyl radical with C4H8 alkenes: 1-butene, 2-butene, and iso-butene. The experiments are performed over a temperature range of ...

Ismail, Huzeifa

265

Chapter 10, Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocols: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Peak Demand and 0: Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocols Frank Stern, Navigant Consulting Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 10 - 1 Chapter 10 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................2 2 Purpose of Peak Demand and Time-differentiated Energy Savings .......................................3 3 Key Concepts ..........................................................................................................................5 4 Methods of Determining Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Impacts ...............7

266

Laboratory and Field Measurements of Electrical Resistivity to Determine Saturation and Detect Fractures in a Heated Rock Mass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of the electrical resistivity of intact and fractured representative geothermal reservoir rocks were performed to investigate the resistivity contrast caused by active boiling and to infer saturation and fracture location in a large-scale field test. Measurements were performed to simulate test conditions with confining pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures to 145 C. Measurements presented are a first step toward making the search for fractures using electrical methods quantitatively. Intact samples showed a gradual resistivity increase when pore pressure was decreased below the phase-boundary pressure of free water, while fractured samples show a larger resistivity change at the onset of boiling. The resistivity change is greatest for samples with the most exposed surface area. Analysis of a field test provided the opportunity to evaluate fracture detection using electrical methods at a large scale. Interpretation of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) images of resistivity contrasts, aided by laboratory derived resistivity-saturation-temperature relationships, indicates that dynamic saturation changes in a heated rock mass are observable and that fractures experiencing drying or resaturation can be identified. The same techniques can be used to locate fractures in geothermal reservoirs using electrical field methods.

Roberts, J J; Ramirez, A; Carlson, S; Ralph, W; Bonner, B P

2001-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

267

Application of Prony analysis to the determination of modal content and equivalent models for measured power system response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prony analysis is an emerging methodology that extends Fourier analysis by directly estimating the frequency, damping, strength, and relative phase of the modal components present in a recorded signal. This paper extends earlier work that concentrated upon power system planning applications, for stability program outputs. In this paper results are presented for modal analysis and detailed model construction based upon response data obtained through large-scale tests of the western U.S. power system. BPA's optimal modeling program, SYSFIT, is used to supplement the measurements.

Hauer, J.F. (Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (US))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Chapter 12, Survey Design and Implementation Cross-Cutting Protocols for Estimating Gross Savings: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chapter 12: Survey Design and Chapter 12: Survey Design and Implementation Cross-Cutting Protocols for Estimating Gross Savings Robert Baumgartner, Tetra Tech Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 12 - 1 Chapter 12 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 2 2 The Total Survey Error Framework ....................................................................................... 4 2.1 TSE Framework for Evaluating Survey and Data Quality .............................................. 4 2.2 Sampling Errors ............................................................................................................... 5

269

Chapter 11, Sample Design Cross-Cutting Protocols: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: Sample Design 1: Sample Design Cross-Cutting Protocols M. Sami Khawaja, Josh Rushton, and Josh Keeling, The Cadmus Group, Inc. Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 11 - 1 Chapter 11 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 3 1.1 Chapter Organization ....................................................................................................... 3 2 Overview ................................................................................................................................ 5 2.1 Sampling and Sample Design .......................................................................................... 5

270

Chapter 13, Assessing Persistence and Other Evaluation Issues Cross-Cutting Protocols: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Assessing 3: Assessing Persistence and Other Evaluation Issues Cross- Cutting Protocols Daniel M. Violette, Navigant Consulting Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 13 - 1 Chapter 13 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................2 2 Persistence of Energy Savings ................................................................................................3 2.1 Addressing Persistence .................................................................................................... 3 2.2 State of the Practice in Assessing Persistence ................................................................. 7

271

Gamma-Ray Exposure Rate Distribution in a Steam Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gamma-ray exposure rate measurements were made with thermoluminescent dosimeters to determine the relative contribution of various surface areas in a steam generator to the overall radiation levels. The measurements were compared with analytic predictions based on discrete ordinates and point kernel techniques, and assessments of the radiation source inventory of the various surfaces were developed.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A Class of Single- and Dual-Frequency Algorithms for Rain-Rate Profiling from a Spaceborne Radar. Part II: Tests from Airborne Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Part I, four single-frequency (SF) algorithms and a dual-frequency (DF) algorithm for range profiling of the rain rate from a spaceborne radar were described and tested from numerical simulations. In Part II, performances of these algorithms ...

Paul Amayenc; Jean Philippe Diguet; Mongi Marzoug; Taoufik Tani

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

High Redshift Supernova Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a sample of 42 supernovae detected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on-board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey to measure the rate of core collapse supernovae to z~0.7 and type Ia supernovae to z~1.6. This significantly increases the redshift range where supernova rates have been estimated from observations. The rate of core collapse supernovae can be used as an independent probe of the cosmic star formation rate. Based on the observations of 17 core collapse supernovae, we measure an increase in the core collapse supernova rate by a factor of 1.6 in the range 0.3rate. The increase in the rate in this redshift range in consistent with recent measurements of the star formation rate derived from UV-luminosity densities and IR datasets. Based on 25 type Ia supernovae, we find a SN Ia rate that is a factor 3-5 higher at z~1 compared to earlier estimates at lower redshifts (zrate traces a higher star formation rate at redshifts z>1 compared to low redshift. At higher redshift (z>1), we find a suggested decrease in the type Ia rate with redshift. This evolution of the Ia rate with redshift is consistent with a type Ia progenitor model where there is a substantial delay between the formation of the progenitor star and the explosion of the supernova. Assuming that the type Ia progenitor stars have initial main sequence masses 3-8 M_Sun, we find that 5-7% of the available progenitors explode as type Ia supernovae.

Tomas Dahlen; Louis-Gregory Strolger; Adam G. Riess; Bahram Mobasher; Ranga-Ram Chary; Christopher J. Conselice; Henry C. Ferguson; Andrew S. Fruchter; Mauro Giavalisco; Mario Livio; Piero Madau; Nino Panagia; John L. Tonry

2004-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

274

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tariff Rates FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2011 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2010 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

275

Comparison of the rate constants for energy transfer in the light-harvesting protein, C-phycocyanin, calculated from Foerster`s theory and experimentally measured by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have measured and assigned rate constants for energy transfer between chromophores in the light-harvesting protein C-phycocyanin (PC), in the monomeric and trimeric aggregation states, isolated from Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. In order to compare the measured rate constants with those predicted by Fdrster`s theory of inductive resonance in the weak coupling limit, we have experimentally resolved several properties of the three chromophore types ({beta}{sub 155} {alpha}{sub 84}, {beta}{sub 84}) found in PC monomers, including absorption and fluorescence spectra, extinction coefficients, fluorescence quantum yields, and fluorescence lifetimes. The cpcB/C155S mutant, whose PC is missing the {beta}{sub 155} chromophore, was, useful in effecting the resolution of the chromophore properties and in assigning the experimentally observed rate constants for energy transfer to specific pathways.

Debreczeny, M.P.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Determination of filter-cake thicknesses from on-line flow measurements and gas/particle transport modeling  

SciTech Connect

The use of cylindrical candle filters to remove fine ({approx}0.005 mm) particles from hot ({approx}500- 900{degrees}C) gas streams currently is being developed for applications in advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technologies. Successfully deployed with hot-gas filtration, PFBC and IGCC technologies will allow the conversion of coal to electrical energy by direct passage of the filtered gases into non-ruggedized turbines and thus provide substantially greater conversion efficiencies with reduced environmental impacts. In the usual approach, one or more clusters of candle filters are suspended from a tubesheet in a pressurized (P {approx_lt}1 MPa) vessel into which hot gases and suspended particles enter, the gases pass through the walls of the cylindrical filters, and the filtered particles form a cake on the outside of each filter. The cake is then removed periodically by a backpulse of compressed air from inside the filter, which passes through the filter wall and filter cake. In various development or demonstration systems the thickness of the filter cake has proved to be an important, but unknown, process parameter. This paper describes a physical model for cake and pressure buildups between cleaning backpulses, and for longer term buildups of the ``baseline`` pressure drop, as caused by incomplete filter cleaning and/or re-entrainment. When combined with operating data and laboratory measurements of the cake porosity, the model may be used to calculate the (average) filter permeability, the filter-cake thickness and permeability, and the fraction of filter-cake left on the filter by the cleaning backpulse or re-entrained after the backpulse. When used for a variety of operating conditions (e.g., different coals, sorbents, temperatures, etc.), the model eventually may provide useful information on how the filter-cake properties depend on the various operating parameters.

Smith, D.H.; Powell, V. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Ibrahim, E. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Ferer, M. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ahmadi, G. [National Research Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

TRANSVERSE ECHO MEASUREMENTS IN RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

Diffusion counteracts cooling and the knowledge of diffusion rates is important for the calculation of cooling times and equilibrium beam sizes. Echo measurements are a potentially sensitive method to determine diffusion rates, and longitudinal measurements were done in a number of machines. We report on transverse echo measurements in RHIC and the observed dependence of echo amplitudes on a number of parameters for beams of gold and copper ions, and protons. In particular they examine the echo amplitudes of gold and copper ion bunches of varying intensity, which exhibit different diffusion rates from intrabeam scattering.

FISCHER, W.

2005-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

278

High Range Resolution Radar Measurements of the Speed Distribution of Breaking Events in Wind-Generated Ocean Waves: Surface Impulse and Wave Energy Dissipation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of X-band radar measurements, backscattered from the sea surface at near grazing incidence with very high spatial and temporal resolution (30 cm in range and 2000-Hz pulse repetition frequency) in moderate wind conditions, are dominated by ...

O. M. Phillips; F. L. Posner; J. P. Hansen

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Evaluation of beta partical densitometry for determination of self-absorption factors in gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity measurements on air particulate filter samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alpha and beta particles emitted from radioactive material collected on an air filter may be significantly attenuated by the mass (thickness) of collected dust. In this study, we determined the mass or thickness of the simulated dust deposit by measurement of the attenuation of beta particles from an external radioactive source as the particles pass through the filter-dust combination. This measured attenuation should be empirically related to demonstrated counting efficiency. A graph of mass density vs. fraction of beta source transmitted was developed. This graph provides factors which will correct for selfabsorption losses in the filter during the counting procedure. This experimental procedure could favorably affect the cost and effort required to accurately monitor airborne radioactivity releases from nuclear facilities.

Breida, Margaret A

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Measurement of ''closing volume'' as affected by lung volume at tracer bolus inspiration, breath holding, and expiratory flow rate  

SciTech Connect

From international symposium on regional lung function and closing volumes; Malmo, Sweden (14 Sep 1973). The measurement of closing volume is of great interest in the early detection of diseases of the small airways, especially if this technique can be used for mass screening with mobile equipment. The basis undenlying the closing volume measurement involves either the inspiration of a tracer gas bolus, such as radioactive /sup 133/Xe or /sup 13/N or stable argon or helium, followed by measurement of the tracer concentration in the expirate, or analysis of the expirate for nitrogen, following a vital capacity (VC) inspiration of pure oxygen. The point (expired volume) at which the alveolar gas concentration changes discretely from the alveolar plateau, Phase III, to Phase IV is denoted as the closing volume, and is believed to represent the onset of closure of the dependent airways. The mechanisms involved were studied in four healthy young human volunteers following the inhalation of a 1-ml bolus of helium. (CH)

Susskind, H.; Richards, P.; Atkins, H.L.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

flow_measurements_cryogenic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A dynamic weighing system is used to measure ... using liquid nitrogen at flow rates of 1 ... For volumetric flow rate measurement, the uncertainty in fluid ...

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

282

Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presented at the 7th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (CPV-7), 4-6 April 2011, Las Vegas, Nevada. The CPV community has agreed to have both indoor and outdoor power ratings at the module level. The indoor rating provides a repeatable measure of module performance as it leaves the factory line while the outdoor rating provides a measure of true performance under real world conditions. The challenge with an outdoor rating is that the spectrum, temperature, wind speed, etc are constantly in flux and therefore the resulting power rating varies from day to day and month to month. This work examines different methodologies for determining the outdoor power rating with the goal of minimizing variation even if data are collected under changing meteorological conditions.

Muller, M.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2009 Rates and Rate Schedule 2008 Rates and...

284

Mythology of rate design  

SciTech Connect

If power rates are determined by marginal costs with clear signals to the consumer, then the load curve will regulate itself without burdening the public with ethical and patriotic issues. Manipulation of the load factor will only cause hardship and inconvenience, but a choice of rates will allow consumers to determine their own balance between rates and convenience. It makes sense to charge consumers the true cost rather than having the same rate apply during a 24-hour period when costs are not uniform. Discussions of how to determine equitable rate structures flounder because we cannot define equity. Economists, who base their recommendations on the assumption that income distribution is reasonable, believe marginal-cost pricing allows the customer to save whatever the utility is saving. Such a system is economically efficient in that the utility charges 100 percent-load-factor consumers according to a base load plant, while charging peak and offpeak consumers what it costs to add them to the system. Adjustment of prices to cause a minimal distortion of the market is the economists' general rule for handling the balancing of cost increases and regulated profits. (DCK)

Streiter, S.H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

laser_measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimensional Measurements. Laser Measurements. Rate our Services. Technical ... Laser Frequency/Wavelength (14510S-14511S). The ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

286

A dynamic soil chamber system coupled with a tunable diode laser for online measurements of delta-13C, delta-18O, and efflux rate of soil respired CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High frequency observations of the stable isotopic composition of CO(2) effluxes from soil have been sparse due in part to measurement challenges. We have developed an open-system method that utilizes a flow-through chamber coupled to a tunable diode laser (TDL) to quantify the rate of soil CO(2) efflux and its delta(13)C and delta(18)O values (delta(13)C(R) and delta(18)O(R), respectively). We tested the method first in the laboratory using an artificial soil test column and then in a semi-arid woodland. We found that the CO(2) efflux rates of 1.2 to 7.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1) measured by the chamber-TDL system were similar to measurements made using the chamber and an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) (R(2) = 0.99) and compared well with efflux rates generated from the soil test column (R(2) = 0.94). Measured delta(13)C and delta(18)O values of CO(2) efflux using the chamber-TDL system at 2 min intervals were not significantly different from source air values across all efflux rates after accounting for diffusive enrichment. Field measurements during drought demonstrated a strong dependency of CO(2) efflux and isotopic composition on soil water content. Addition of water to the soil beneath the chamber resulted in average changes of +6.9 micromol m(-2) s(-1), -5.0 per thousand, and -55.0 per thousand for soil CO(2) efflux, delta(13)C(R) and delta(18)O(R), respectively. All three variables initiated responses within 2 min of water addition, with peak responses observed within 10 min for isotopes and 20 min for efflux. The observed delta(18)O(R) was more enriched than predicted from temperature-dependent H(2)O-CO(2) equilibration theory, similar to other recent observations of delta(18)O(R) from dry soils (Wingate L, Seibt U, Maseyk K, Ogee J, Almeida P, Yakir D, Pereira JS, Mencuccini M. Global Change Biol. 2008; 14: 2178). The soil chamber coupled with the TDL was found to be an effective method for capturing soil CO(2) efflux and its stable isotope composition at high temporal frequency.

Powers, Heath H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdowell, Nate [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hanson, David [UNM; Hunt, John [LANDCARE RESEARCH

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates Loveland Area Project Firm Power Rates Transmission and Ancillary Services Rates 2012 Rate Adjustment-Transmission and Ancillary Services 2010 Rate Adjustment-Firm Power 2009...

288

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process DSW Multiple System Transmission...

289

Rate Schedules | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rate Schedules Rate Schedules Rate Schedules One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate levels and these studies for each of Southeastern's four power marketing systems are updated annually. They demonstrate the adequacy of the rates for each system. Rates are considered to be adequate when revenues are sufficient to repay all costs associated with power production and transmission costs, which include the amortization of the Federal investment allocated to power. Latest Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012

290

PCN-based measured rate termination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Overload in a packet-based network can be prevented by admitting or blocking new flows depending on its load conditions. However, overload can occur in spite of admission control due to unforseen events, e.g., when admitted traffic is rerouted in the ... Keywords: Admission control, Differentiated services, Flow termination, QoS, Resilience

Michael Menth; Frank Lehrieder

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Rates & Repayment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current and Historical Rate Information Collbran Power Rates CRSP Power Rates CRSP Transmission System Rates CRSP Management Center interest rates Falcon-Amistad Power Rates Provo River Power Rates Rio Grande Power Rates Seedskadee Power Rates SLCA/IP Power Rates Rate Schedules & Supplemental Rate Information Current Rates for Firm Power, Firm & Non-firm Transmission Service, & Ancillary Services Current Transmission & Ancillary Services Rates Tariffs Components of the SLCA/IP Existing Firm Power Rate Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Page MOA Concerning the Upper Colorado River Basin

292

Rotating electrical machines, pt.2: Methods for determining losses and efficiency of rotating electrical machinery form tests (excl. machines for traction vehicles), 1st suppl. Measurement of losses by the calorimetric method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Describes methods for measuring the efficiency of electrical rotating machines either by determining total losses on load or by determination of the segregated losses for air and water cooling mediums. Applies to large generators but may be used for other machines.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Size structuring of planktonic communities : biological rates and ecosystem dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measuring growth and mortality rates among Prochlorococcustemperature on metabolic rate. Science 293:2248-2251. Gregg,and temperature on metabolic rate. Science. 293:2248-2251.

Taniguchi, Darcy Anne Akiko

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Chapter 4, Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Small Commercial 4: Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol David Jacobson, Jacobson Energy Research Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 4 - 1 Chapter 4 - Table of Contents 1 Measure Description .............................................................................................................. 2 2 Application Conditions of Protocol ....................................................................................... 3 2.1 Programs with Enhanced Measures ................................................................................. 5 3 Savings Calculations .............................................................................................................. 6

295

Absolute rate constant measurements of CF(X{sup 2}II) reactions. 1. Reactions with O{sub 2}, F{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, and NO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rate coefficients of the elementary reactions of CF(X{sup 2}II, v=O) with O{sub 2}, F{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, and NO at T = 294 K and p = 2-10 Torr (He or Ar bath gas) have been determined for the first time, using laser photodissociation/laser induced induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques. The CF(X{sup 2}II) radicals were generated by excimer laser photolysis of CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2} at 248 nm. Exponential decays of CF(X, v=0) were monitored by LIF (A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}, v{prime}=1{l_arrow}X{sup 2}II, v{double_prime}=0 transition) at varying concentrations of the reactant, in very large excess over CF. The rate constant for each of the title reactions was found to be independent of pressure in the 2-10-Torr range: k(O{sub 2}) = (1.6 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -12}; k(F{sub 2}) = (3.9 {+-}0.4) x 10{sup -12}; k(Cl{sub 2}) = (1.7 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -11}, and k(NO) = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Besides, an upper limit K {le} 10{sup 14} was established for the reactions of CF(X) with H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CF{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2}. In general, the rate coefficients obtained for the investigated CF(X{sup 2}II) reactions are close to literature data on CCl and CBr analogues but far below reported rate constants of corresponding CH(X{sup 2}II) reactions are close to literature data on CCl and CBr analogues but far below reported rate constants of corresponding CH(X{sup 2}II) processes, specifically regarding reactions with closed-shell molecules. The exceptional stability and concomitantly low reactivity of CF-relative to CH-can be attributed to strong back-donation from one of the fluorine 2p{pi} orbitals into the vacant carbon 2p{pi} orbital. 33 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Peeters, J.; Van Hoeymissen, J.; Vanhaelemeersch, S. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)] [and others

1992-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

296

7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during a one-day period and the rate of air flowing through the furnace are to be determined.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7-11 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during The heating value of the coal is given to be 28,000 kJ/kg. Analysis (a) The rate and the amount of heat inputs'tQQ The amount and rate of coal consumed during this period are kg/s48.33 s360024 kg10893.2 MJ/kg28 MJ101.8 6

Bahrami, Majid

297

A Single-Channel, Double-Viewing Angle Method for Sea Surface Temperature Determination from Coincident METEOSAT and TIROS-N Radiometric Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental simulation of a single-channel, double-angle viewing technique for the determination of sea surface temperature from satellite is presented. This method relies upon the fact that the same area can be viewed simultaneously at two ...

A. Chedin; N. A. Scott; A. Berroir

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Measuring Residential Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measured. The local exhaust flows can be measured or can meet prescriptive ducting and fan labeling requirements that use ratings provided by the Home Ventilating Institute (HVI,...

299

Distributed Rate Allocation for Wireless Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a distributed algorithm for rate allocation in wireless networks. As the main result, the paper establishes that this algorithm is throughput-optimal for very general class of throughput regions. In contrast to distributed on-off scheduling algorithms, this algorithm enables optimal utilization of physical layer schemes by scheduling multiple rate levels. The algorithm is based on a Markov process on these discrete set of rates with certain transition rates. For dealing with multiple rate levels, the paper introduces an important structure for the transition rates, which enable the design of appropriate update rule for these transition rates. The update uses local queue length information alone, and thus does not require global exchange of queue length information. In addition, the algorithm requires that each link can determine the feasibility of increasing its data-rate from the current value without reducing the data-rates of other links. Determining rate feasibility does not introduce...

Jose, Jubin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Occupancy Rates and Emergency Department Work Index Scores Correlate with Leaving Without Being Seen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The left-without-being-seen rate: an imperfect measure ofdepartment occupancy rate: a simple measure of emergencytimes, lengths of stay, and rate of left without being seen.

Kulstad, Erik B; Hart, K. Michael; Waghchoure, Simon

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Experimental Determination of Water Vapor Profiles from Ground-Based Radiometer Measurements at 21.0 and 31.4 GHz.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor profiles have been obtained from radiometer measurements at 21.0 and 31.4 GHz and ground values of humidity, temperature and pressure. The inversion technique was based on minimum variance estimation, including constraints derived ...

B. G. Skoog; J. I. H. Askne; G. Elgered

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Improved Measurement of B[superscript +]-->rho[superscript +]rho[superscript 0] and Determination of the Quark-Mixing Phase Angle alpha  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present improved measurements of the branching fraction B, the longitudinal polarization fraction fL, and the direct CP asymmetry ACP in the B meson decay channel B+-->?+?0. The data sample was collected with the BABAR ...

Cowan, Ray Franklin

303

ASHRAE's Proposed Guideline 14P for Measurement of Energy and Demand Savings: How to Determine What Was Really Saved by the Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASHRAE has recently completed the development of Guideline 14 to fill a need for a standard set of energy (and demand) savings calculation procedures. Guideline 14 is intended to be a guideline that provides a minimum acceptable level of performance in the measurement of energy and demand savings from energy management projects applied to residential, commercial or industrial buildings. Such measurements can serve as the basis for commercial transactions between Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and their customers, or other energy conservation providers that rely on energy savings as the basis for repayment of the costs of the retrofit. When applied properly, ASHRAE Guideline 14 is expected to provide adequate assurance for the payment of services by allowing for well specified measurement methods that provide reasonably accurate savings calculations. ASHRAE Guideline 14 may also be used by governments to calculate pollution reductions from energy efficiency activities. Since Guideline 14 is intended to be applied to an individual building, or a few buildings served by a utility meter, large scale utility energy conservation programs, such as those involving statistical sampling, are not addressed by the current version of Guideline 14. Furthermore, metering standards and procedures for calculating savings from modifications to major industrial process loads are also not covered. This paper presents an overview of the measurement methods contained in ASHRAE Guideline 14 , including a discussion about how they were developed, and their intended relationship with other national protocols for measuring savings from energy conservation programs, such as the USDOE's International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocols (IPMVP).

Haberl, J. S.; Reeves, G.; Gillespie, K.; Claridge, D. E.; Cowan, J.; Culp, C.; Frazell, W.; Heinemeier, K.; Kromer, S.; Kummer, J.; Mazzucchi, R.; Reddy, A.; Schiller, S.; Sud, I.; Wolpert, J.; Wutka, T.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Solids mass flow determination  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

A method for determining an indicator of effective dose calculation due to inhalation of Radon and its progeny from in vivo measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct measurement of the absolved dose to lung tissue from inhalation of radon and its progeny is not possible and must be calculated using dosimetric models, taking into consideration the several parameters upon which the dose calculation depends. To asses the dose due to inhalation of radon and its progeny, it is necessary to estimate the cumulative exposure. Historically, this has been done using WLM values estimated with measurements of radon concentration in air. The radon concentration in air varies significantly, however, in space with time, and the exposed individual is also constantly moving around. This makes it almost impossible to obtain a precise estimate of an individual's inhalation exposure. This work describes a pilot study to calculate lung dose from the deposition of radon progeny, via estimates of cumulative exposure derived from in vivo measurements of sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Pb, in subjects exposed to above-average radon and its progeny concentrations in their home environments. The measureme...

Estrada, J

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at High Redshift  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the rates of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) over a wide range of redshifts using a complete sample from the IfA Deep Survey. This sample of more than 100 SNIa is the largest set ever collected from a single survey, and therefore uniquely powerful for a detailed supernova rate (SNR) calculation. Measurements of the SNR as a function of cosmological time offer a glimpse into the relationship between the star formation rate (SFR) and Type Ia SNR, and may provide evidence for the progenitor pathway. We observe a progressively increasing Type Ia SNR between redshifts z~0.3-0.8. The Type Ia SNR measurements are consistent with a short time delay (t~1 Gyr) with respect to the SFR, indicating a fairly prompt evolution of SNIa progenitor systems. We derive a best-fit value of SFR/SNR 580 h_70^(-2) M_solar/SNIa for the conversion factor between star formation and SNIa rates, as determined for a delay time of t~1 Gyr between the SFR and the Type Ia SNR. More complete measurements of the Type Ia SNR at z>1 are necessary to conclusively determine the SFR--SNR relationship and constrain SNIa evolutionary pathways.

Brian J. Barris; John L. Tonry

2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

307

Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part II: Marine Stratocumulus Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multispectral scanning radiometer has been used to obtain measurements of the reflection function of marine stratocumulus clouds at 0.75, 1.65 and 2.16 ?m. These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the First ISCCP [...

Teruyuki Nakajima; Michael D. King; James D. Spinhirne; Lawrence F. Radke

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Data Center Rating Infrastructure Rating Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Portfolio Manager on June 7, 2010. The questions below are designed to help data center owners and operators better understand the rating and benchmark their buildings in...

309

Tracking the Libor Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigating the Libor Rate,” mimeo. Abrantes-Metz, R. ,Libor data: Historial 1 month Libor rates, British Bankers1108R) Tracking the Libor Rate Rosa M. Abrantes-Metz , Sofia

Abrantes-Metz, Rosa; Villas-Boas, Sofia B.; Judge, George G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Nuclear moment measurements of Neutron-rich Aluminum Isotopes Using Spin-polarized RI beams: Determination of the Boundary of the 'Island of Inversion'  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electric quadrupole moment Q for the ground state of 32Al has been measured using the {beta}-NMR technique. Spin-polarized 32Al nuclei were obtained from the fragmentation of 40Ar projectiles at E/A = 95 MeV/nucleon, and were implanted in a single crystal {alpha}-Al2O3 stopper. The quadrupole moment was deduced from the measured quadrupole coupling constant. The obtained value, |Q(32Alg.s.)| = 24(2) mb, was well reproduced by shell model calculations within the sd shell, indicating that 32Al is a normal sd-shell nucleus. The result is in sharp contrast to the strongly deformed nuclei 32Mg and 31Mg neighboring the 32Al isotope.

Kameda, D.; Ueno, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Kobayashi, Y.; Haseyama, T.; Ishihara, M. [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Asahi, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Takemura, M.; Nagae, D.; Shimada, K.; Uchida, M.; Takase, K.; Arai, T.; Inoue, T.; Suda, S. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Murata, J.; Kawamura, H. [Department of physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Watanabe, H. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra AT 0200 (Australia)

2007-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

311

Method for Determining Performance of Sulfur Oxide Adsorbents for Diesel Emission Control Using Online Measurement of SO2 and SO3 in the Effluent  

SciTech Connect

Upcoming regulations regarding diesel engine emissions require substantial reduction in particulate matter and nitrogen oxides through aftertreatment methods. Since sulfur oxides in the exhaust greatly reduce the performance of the aftertreatment system, a dedicated trap for removal of sulfur oxides has been considered. Most adsorbents are more effective in removing SO{sub 3} than SO{sub 2}; hence oxidation catalysts have been employed to maximize the concentration of SO{sub 3} in the effluent. Although SO{sub 2} concentrations are easily measured, SO3 is less easily quantified. As a result, the only figure of merit for the SOx trap performance has been total capacity, provided by post-characterization. In this paper we describe a chromatographic method for measurement of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption in real time, which provides adsorbent performance data on breakthrough capacities and sulfur slip, especially important when operating at high space velocities. We also provide experimental measurements of break through capacities for SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} adsorption for some common metal oxide adsorbents using this analytical system.

Li, Liyu; King, David L.

2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

312

Measurement of the Luminous-Region Profile at the PEP-II IP, And Application to e^\\pm Bunch-Length Determination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional luminosity distribution at the interaction point (IP) of the SLAC B-Factory is measured continuously, using e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}, {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} events reconstructed online in the BABAR detector. The centroid of the transverse luminosity profile provides a very precise and reliable monitor of medium- and long-term orbit drifts at the IP. The longitudinal centroid is sensitive to variations in the relative RF phase of the colliding beams, both over time and differentially along the bunch train. The measured horizontal r.m.s. width of the distribution is consistent with a sizeable dynamic-{beta} effect; it is also useful as a benchmark of strong-strong beam-beam simulations. The longitudinal luminosity distribution depends on the e{sup {+-}} bunch lengths and vertical IP {beta}-functions, which can be different in the high- and low-energy rings. Using independent estimates of the {beta}functions, we analyze the longitudinal shape of the luminosity distribution in the presence of controlled variations in accelerating RF voltage and/or beam current, to extract measurements of the e{sup +} and e{sup -} bunch lengths.

Viaud, B.F.; /Montreal U.; Kozanecki, W.; /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay; Narsky, I.V.; /Caltech; O'Grady, C.; Perazzo, A.; /SLAC

2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

313

2012 Rate Adjustments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Register Notices Meetings Brochure Brochure Addendum Customer Comment Letter Approved Rate Order FERC Confirmation If you have questions, call Rates and Repayment, 800-472-2306...

314

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

figure data Figure 7 shows the percent change in average real rates for those state-to-state ... Estimated transportation rates for coal delivered to electric ...

315

Effective Rate Period  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10012012 - 09302013 Mid-Year Changes (if applicable) 10012012 - 09302013 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 73,381,487...

316

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this project is to obtain improved, quantitative understanding of the transient plasticity of bituminous coals under high heating rates and other reaction and pretreatment conditions of scientific and practical interest. To these ends the research plan is to measure the softening and resolidification behavior of two US bituminous coals with a rapid-heating, fast response, high-temperature coal plastometer, previously developed in this laboratory. Specific measurements planned for the project include determinations of apparent viscosity, softening temperature, plastic period, and resolidificationtime for molten coal: (1) as a function of independent variations in coal type, heating rate, final temperature, gaseous atmosphere (inert, 0{sub 2} or H{sub 2}), and shear rate; and (2) in exploratory runs where coal is pretreated (preoxidation, pyridine extraction, metaplast cracking agents), before heating. The intra-coal inventory and molecular weight distribution of pyridine extractables will also be measured using a rapid quenching, electrical screen heater coal pyrolysis reactor. The yield of extractables is representative of the intra-coal inventory of plasticing agent (metaplast) remaining after quenching. Coal plasticity kinetics will then be mathematically modeled from metaplast generation and depletion rates, via a correlation between the viscosity of a suspension and the concentration of deformable medium (here metaplast) in that suspension. Work during this reporting period has been concerned with re-commissioning the rapid heating rate plastometer apparatus.

Darivakis, G.S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Determination of the Strange-Quark Density of the Proton from ATLAS Measurements of the W greater than lv and Z greater than ll Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

A QCD analysis is reported of ATLAS data on inclusive W{sup {+-}} and Z boson production in pp collisions at the LHC, jointly with ep deep-inelastic scattering data from HERA. The ATLAS data exhibit sensitivity to the light quark sea composition and magnitude at Bjorken x {approx} 0.01. Specifically, the data support the hypothesis of a symmetric composition of the light quark sea at low x. The ratio of the strange-to-down sea quark distributions is determined to be 1.00{sub -0.28}{sup +0.25} at absolute four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} = 1.9 GeV{sup 2} and x = 0.023.

Aad G.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; et al.

2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

318

Energy Management Through Innovative Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increased costs and a continuing dependence on uncertain supplies of domestic and foreign energy resources have prompted many companies to focus their attention on energy management. The author explores the potential for achieving a greater measure of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so.

Williams, M. L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

Baker, John (Livermore, CA); Collins, Leland F. (Pleasanton, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA); Micali, James V. (Dublin, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Electric generating or transmission facility: determination of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric generating or transmission facility: determination of rate-making principles and treatment: procedure (Kansas) Electric generating or transmission facility: determination...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

CX-007790: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination CX-007790: Categorical Exclusion Determination Hydroelectric Power Rate Increase for the Integrated System of Hydropower Projects CX(s) Applied: B4.3 Date:...

322

CX-009087: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination CX-009087: Categorical Exclusion Determination Hydroelectric Power Rate Increase for the Robert Douglas Willis Hydropower Project CX(s) Applied: B4.3 Date:...

323

Measurements of Humidity and Temperature in the Marine Environment during the HEXOS Main Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate measurement of fluctuations in temperature and humidity are needed for determination of the surface evaporation rate and the air-sea sensible heat flux using either the eddy correlation or inertial dissipation method for flux ...

K.B. Katsaros; J. DeCosmo; R.J. Lind; R.J. Anderson; S.D. Smith; R. Kraan; W. Oost; K. Uhlig; P.G. Mestayer; S.E. Larsen; M.H. Smith; G. De Leeuw

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Spatially Distributed Measurements of Platform Motion for the Correction of Ship-Based Turbulent Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for determining the angular offsets between measurement axes for multiple motion sensing systems and a sonic anemometer using underway data is demonstrated. This enables a single angular rate sensor to be used with spatially separated ...

Ian M. Brooks

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

rates | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

rates rates Dataset Summary Description This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011. Source NREL and Ventyx Date Released February 24th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords electric rates rates US utilities Data text/csv icon IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 1.7 MiB) text/csv icon Non-IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 2.1 MiB)

326

Total Gamma Count Rate Analysis Method for Nondestructive Assay Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new approach to nondestructively characterize waste for disposal, based on total gamma response, has been developed at the Idaho Cleanup Project by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC and Idaho State University, and is called the total gamma count rate analysis method. The total gamma count rate analysis method measures gamma interactions that produce energetic electrons or positrons in a detector. Based on previous experience with waste assays, the radionuclide content of the waste container is then determined. This approach potentially can yield minimum detection limits of less than 10 nCi/g. The importance of this method is twofold. First, determination of transuranic activity can be made for waste containers that are below the traditional minimum detection limits. Second, waste above 10 nCi/g and below 100 nCi/g can be identified, and a potential path for disposal resolved.

Cecilia R. Hoffman; Yale D. Harker

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Historical Interest Rates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Current and Historical Interest Rates Current and Historical Interest Rates The table lists interest rates, from the project's inception through the present, for all projects with repayment supervised by the CRSP MC. The latest available interest rate is used for all future interest rate calculations. The Amistad-Falcon, Collbran, Provo River, and Rio Grande Projects are all assigned the average daily "Yield Rate" calculated by the U.S. Treasury, on an annual basis, for Treasury bonds having terms of 15 years or more remaining to maturity. The calculated yield rate is rounded to the nearest one-eighth of one percent. The yield rate is based upon the bond's interest rate, as well as its market value. The Colorado River Storage Project and its participating projects, Dolores and Seedskadee, are assigned the average daily "Coupon Rate," annualized for the same U.S. Treasury bonds used in "Yield Rate" calculations. The coupon rate is the interest rate that the bond carries upon its face.

328

Tracking the Libor Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paper 1108R2 Paper 1108R) Tracking the Libor Rate Rosa M.revision 2013 by author(s). Tracking the Libor Rate Rosa M.providing a methodology for tracking the dynamic integrity

Abrantes-Metz, Rosa; Villas-Boas, Sofia B.; Judge, George G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

2009 Rate Adjustments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

provisional rates will be in effect until the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) confirms and approves them on a final basis or until they are replaced by other rates....

330

Mouse heart rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mouse heart rate Name: amj Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: Is it possible to get the heart rate of a mouse without special equipment?...

331

Dynamics of heart rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heart rate oscillates on several different time scales and has long?term variability in the form of 1/fnoise. The physiological control of heart rate is briefly reviewed

Daniel T. Kaplan; Mario Talajic

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Low-Interest Rates Entice...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rate. EnergyWorks in Philadelphia is using low-interest loan rates to incentivize homeowners by tying the interest rate to the number of energy efficiency measures incorporated...

333

A Robust Estimator of Rainfall Rate Using Differential Reflectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conventional estimator of rainfall rate using reflectivity factor and differential reflectivity ZDR becomes unstable when the measured values of ZDR are small due to measurement errors. An alternate estimator of rainfall rate using reflectivity ...

Eugenio Gorgucca; Gianfranco Scarchilli; V. Chandrasekar

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

Henry, J.J.

1961-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Measurements of inclusive $W+$jets production rates as a function of jet transverse momentum in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$~TeV  

SciTech Connect

This Letter describes measurements of inclusive W({yields} e{nu}) + n jet cross sections (n = 1-4), presented as total inclusive cross sections and differentially in the n{sup th} jet transverse momentum. The measurements are made using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.2 fb{sup -1} collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, and achieve considerably smaller uncertainties on W+jets production cross sections than previous measurements. The measurements are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations in the n = 1-3 jet multiplicity bins and to leading order pQCD calculations in the 4-jet bin. The measurements are generally in agreement with pQCD predictions, although certain regions of phase space are identified where the calculations could be improved.

Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; /Nijmegen U. /Fermilab

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Dynamic Behavior of Polymer at High Strain Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Measurement and Modeling of High Strain-rate Deformation. Presentation Title ...

337

Measurement of branching fractions of B decays to K1(1270)pi and K1(1400)pi and determination of the CKM angle alpha from B0 --> a1(1260) - pi-  

SciTech Connect

In the Standard Model, CP violation in weak interactions involving quarks is parameterized by an irreducible complex phase in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark-mixing-matrix. The precise determination of the CKM elements is a necessary ingredient for a stringent test of the Standard Model predictions, and is a crucial input for reducing the theoretical error in many New Physics searches with flavor, e.g., in the kaon sector. The unitarity of the CKM matrix is typically expressed as a triangle relationship among its parameters, where the area of the so-called Unitarity Triangle visually depicts the amount of asymmetry between the decays of B particles and their antimatter counterparts. In the past few years, the BABAR and Belle experiments have been able to measure all three angles of the triangle from CP asymmetry measurements. The first asymmetry measurements in B particle decays, about ten years ago, allowed to determine {beta}, which is now known to better than 5% precision. The angles {alpha} and {gamma}, measured in much rarer processes, required several years of data taking before analyses could yield reliable answers. A remarkable feature is that the direct measurement of the angles of the Unitarity Triangle generates an area that is consistent with the area predicted by measurement of the sides. In this thesis we have presented the branching fraction measurements of charged and neutral B meson decays to K{sub 1}(1270){pi} and K{sub 1}(1400){pi}, obtained from a data sample of 454 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events. This analysis is particularly challenging from the experimental side since the branching fractions involved are very low, at the level of 10{sup -6} - 10{sup -7}, and the signal is characterized by the simultaneous presence of two overlapping resonances, which exhibit sizeable interference effects. The combined K{sub 1}(1270){pi} and K{sub 1}(1400){pi} signal is therefore modeled with a K-matrix formalism, which accounts for the effects of interference between the K{sub 1}(1270) and K{sub 1}(1400) mesons by introducing two effective parameters. The model is derived from the analysis, performed by the ACCMOR Collaboration, of the diffractive production of strange mesons.

Stracka, Simone; /Milan U. /SLAC

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

338

On the Effect of Ramp Rate in Damage Accumulation of the CPV Die-Attach: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is commonly understood that thermal cycling at high temperature ramp rates may activate unrepresentative failure mechanisms. Increasing the temperature ramp rate of thermal cycling, however, could dramatically reduce the test time required to achieve an equivalent amount of thermal fatigue damage, thereby reducing overall test time. Therefore, the effect of temperature ramp rate on physical damage in the CPV die-attach is investigated. Finite Element Model (FEM) simulations of thermal fatigue and thermal cycling experiments are made to determine if the amount of damage calculated results in a corresponding amount of physical damage measured to the die-attach for a variety of fast temperature ramp rates. Preliminary experimental results are in good agreement with simulations and reinforce the potential of increasing temperature ramp rates. Characterization of the microstructure and resulting fatigue crack in the die-attach suggest a similar failure mechanism across all ramp rates tested.

Bosco, N. S.; Silverman, T. J.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Measurement of the muon charge asymmetry in inclusive pp to WX production at sqrt(s)=7 TeV and an improved determination of light parton distribution functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the muon charge asymmetry in inclusive pp to WX production at sqrt(s)=7 TeV are presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 inverse femtobarns recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. With a sample of more than twenty million W to mu nu events, the statistical precision is greatly improved in comparison to previous measurements. These new results provide additional constraints on the parton distribution functions of the proton in the range of the Bjorken scaling variable x from 10E-3 to 10E-1. These measurements and the recent CMS measurement of associated W + charm production are used together with the cross sections for inclusive deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA in a next-to-leading-order QCD analysis. The determination of the valence quark distributions is improved, and the strange-quark distribution is probed directly through the leading-order process g + s to W + c in proton-proton collisions at the LHC.

CMS Collaboration

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

340

Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

Emery, K.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Determining the Acceleration Rates for PV Module Stress ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. ... wind speed) for a particular site to calculate ... thermal cycles – without really adding to cost of ...

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique April 2, 2012 - 3:11pm Addthis The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. What does this mean for me? You can save 5%-30% on your energy bill by making upgrades following a home energy assessment. A professional energy auditor may use the PFT air infiltration measurement technique to find out where your home has air leaks, though a blower door test is more commonly used.

343

About the Ratings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2008 Ratings Changes 2008 Ratings Changes EPA's "New" Fuel Economy Ratings Video about EPA's New Fuel Economy Ratings Windows Media Video (6.8 MB) Quicktime Video (7.8 MB) Text Version EPA changed the way it estimates fuel economy starting with the 2008 model year. This "new" way of estimating fuel economy supplements the previous method by incorporating the effects of Faster speeds and acceleration Air conditioner use Colder outside temperatures What else do I need to know about the "new" ratings? The tests lower MPG estimates for most vehicles. View old/new MPG ratings for a specific vehicle The actual mileage you get will still vary based on your driving habits, traffic conditions, and other factors. All MPG estimates in Find-a-Car have been converted to the new

344

Effective Rate Period  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fiscal Year 2014 Fiscal Year 2014 Effective Rate Period As of Beginning of the FY 10/01/2013 - 09/30/2014 Mid-Year Changes (if applicable) 10/01/2013 - 09/30/2014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement $73,441,557 CV-F13 Base Resource Revenue Requirement $69,585,875 First Preference Revenue Requirement $3,855,682

345

Measurement Needs for Local Structure Determination in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Industry Perspectives 1:30 pm Keynote: American Chemical Society (ACS) & Green Chemistry Institute (GCI) David Constable, Director, ACS GCI ...

2013-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

346

Rate Schedule CPP-2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) or other regulatory bodies will be passed on to each relevant customer. The FERC's or...

347

Definition: Penetration Rate | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Penetration Rate Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Penetration Rate The Rate of penetration, abbreviated as ROP as used in the drilling industry, is the speed at which a drill bit breaks the rock under it to deepen the borehole. It is normally measured in feet per minute or meters per hour, but sometimes it is expressed in minutes per foot.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition The Rate of penetration, abbreviated as ROP as used in the drilling industry, is the speed at which a drill bit breaks the rock under it to deepen the borehole. Also known as penetration rate or drill rate. It is normally measured in feet per minute or meters per hour, but sometimes it is expressed in minutes per foot.

348

Exchange Rates and Fundamentals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near–random walk behavior if fundamentals are I(1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs, inflation, and interest rates provide little help in predicting changes in floating exchange rates. As well, we show that the data do exhibit a related link suggested by standard models—that the exchange rate helps predict these fundamentals. The implication is that exchange rates and fundamentals are linked in a way that is broadly consistent with asset-pricing models of the exchange rate. I.

Charles Engel; Kenneth D. West

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Comparison of radon fluxes with gamma-radiation exposure rates and soil /sup 226/Ra concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radon fluxes and contact gamma-radiation-exposure rates were measured at the grid points of rectangular grids on three properties in Edgemont, South Dakota that were known to have deposits of residual radioactivity relatively near to the surface. The coefficient of determination, r/sup 2/, between the radon fluxes and the contact gamma-radiation-exposure rates varied from 0.89 to 0.31 for the three properties. The property having the highest fluxes and residual radioactivity of relatively uniform depth showed the highest correlation between fluxes and exposure rates, and the property having residual radioactivity that varied considerably in depth showed the lowest. Correlations between fluxes and /sup 226/Ra concentrations measured in boreholes that varied in depth from 60 to 195 cm were lower than those between fluxes and exposure rates, indicating that exposure rates are better than /sup 226/Ra measurements for detecting elevated radon fluxes from near-surface deposits. Measurements made on one property at two different times indicated that if the average flux were determined from a large number (40) of measurements at one time, the average flux at a later time could be estimated from a few measurements using the assumption that the change in the flux at individual locations will be equal to the change in the average flux. Flux measurements around two buildings showing elevated indoor radon-daughter concentrations, but around which no residual radioactivity had been discovered by /sup 226/Ra and gamma-radiation measurements, provided no clear indication of the presence of such material, possibly because none was present.

Young, J.A.; Thomas, V.W.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Home Energy Ratings and Building Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the Home Energy Rating System (HERS). A short summary of the origination and history of the HERS system will lead to a more detailed description of the inspection and testing protocol. The HERS rating provides an accepted method to determine home efficiency based on standards developed and overseen by the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET), a not-for-profit corporation. The paper will discuss the effect of various building systems and effects of local climate as they affect the rating score of a proposed or completed structure. The rating is used to determine the most cost effective mechanical systems, building envelope design including window and door types, effect of various roofing materials and radiant barriers. The paper will conclude by comparing specifics of an actual report to the construction characteristics of a home as they relate to the HERS Rating and the result.

Gardner, J.C.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

First observation of the Bs->K+K- decay mode, and measurement of the B0 and Bs mesons decay-rates into two-body charmless final states at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The authors searched for decays of the type B{sub (s)}{sup 0} {yields} h{sup +}h{prime}{sup -} (where h, h{prime} = K or {pi}) in a sample corresponding to 180 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, collected by the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A total signal of approximately 900 events was reconstructed, and the relative branching fractions ({Beta}) of each decay mode were determined with a likelihood fit.

Tonelli, Diego; /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

OpenEI - rates  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

U.S. Electric Utility U.S. Electric Utility Companies and Rates: Look-up by Zipcode (Feb 2011) http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/899 This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011.

353

<RatesMiscInfo>  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION Power Supply Report June 2013 (53kb pdf) May 2013 (53kb pdf) April 2013 (52kb pdf) March 2013 (54kb pdf) February 2013 (54kb pdf) January 2013 (54kb...

354

Rate Schedule CPP-2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

be determined based on customer's account status. If the CPP is funded through appropriations, Federal reimbursable, or use of receipts authority, the cost of the CPP is passed...

355

Heat Rate Program Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power plant facilities with performance or heat rate improvement programs perform better than those that do not have those programs. A heat rate improvement program typically provides sufficient information for decision making with respect to timely maintenance actions and/or operational adjustments. Monitoring the performance of any power plant component includes the trending of parameters that also describe the performance of other plant components, providing insight and information on improving ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Rate of reduction of ore-carbon composites: Part II. Modeling of reduction in extended composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new process for ironmaking was proposed using a rotary hearth furnace and an iron bath smelter to produce iron employing wood charcoal as an energy source and reductant. This paper examines reactions in composite pellet samples with sizes close to sizes used in industrial practice (10 to 16 min in diameter). A model was constructed using the combined kinetic mechanism developed in Part I of this series of articles along with equations for the computation of pellet temperature and shrinkage during the reaction. The analysis of reaction rates measured for pellets with wood charcoal showed that heat transfer plays a significant role in their overall rate of reaction at elevated temperatures. The slower rates measured in pellets containing coal char show that the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation is more significant than heat transfer. Model calculations suggest that the rates are highly sensitive to the thermal conductivity of pellets containing wood charcoal and are less sensitive to the external conditions of heat transfer. It was seen that the changes in pellet surface area and diameter due to shrinkage introduce little change on reaction rates. The model developed provides an adequate description of pellets of wood charcoal up to circa 90% of reduction. Experimentally determined rates of reduction of iron oxide by wood charcoal were approximately 5 to 10 times faster than rates measured in pellets with coal char.

Fortini, O.M.; Fruehan, R.J. [US Steel Research & Technological Center, Monroeville, PA (United States)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Cat Heart Rate Monitoring  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cat Heart Rate Monitoring Cat Heart Rate Monitoring Name: Shakti Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: TX Country: USA Date: Summer 2010 Question: What is the best way to find a cat's heart rate using a stethoscope? Because I have tried to hear their heart beat but their purring is all I can hear. If I shouldn't use a stethoscope, then what should I use? Replies: Hi Shakti! If you want to use a stethoscope, the trick is to get your cat to stop purring. Two good ways that I have found to help stop the purring 1. Cover their nose (generally cats don't like this and will stop purring) or 2. Put on the tap to drip or lightly stream water (also, they generally don't like this and will stop purring). Alternatively, you can get their heart rate from feeling their pulse. A good place to try to feel a pulse is right where the leg attaches to the abdomen - in an area called the inguinal region. Now granted there are some heart conditions that will cause an animals pulse and their heart rates don't match up, and it's hard to feel if you have a fat cat, but it's a good place to try if you are really trying to get a heart rate in a healthy kitty!

358

Field Evidence Supporting Quantitative Predictions of Secondary Ice Production Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field observations from three different areas in the United States are used to determine the rates of appearance of ice particles in cumulus clouds. Those rates are compared to predictions obtained using the laboratory studies of the Hallett-...

Raymond L. Harris-Hobbs; William A. Cooper

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Data Center Rating Infrastructure Rating Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DRAFT - November 2009 DRAFT - November 2009 No- and Low-Cost Energy-Saving Tips for Multifamily Housing Common Areas Utility costs are typically the largest controllable operating expense in multifamily housing communities. Strategic energy management practices can greatly reduce these costs, increasing net operating income. ENERGY STAR partners have found the following no- and low-cost measures to be effective in reducing energy consumption and operating expenses. Replace all incandescent bulbs, flood lights, and decorative spot lights with ENERGY STAR qualified compact fluorescents. Replacing one 60 watt incandescent bulb with a 13-watt CFL will save $56 in energy costs over the CFL's lifetime (at $0.12/kWh). In addition, CFLs reduce

360

Utility Rate Discounts | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Discounts Discounts Jump to: navigation, search A few electric utilities offer rate discounts to encourage residential energy efficiency. For homes that meet certain energy efficiency criteria, such as those established by the federal Energy Star program, the owner or tenant is awarded a percentage discount on each monthÂ’s electric bill. [1] Contents 1 Utility Rate Discount Incentives 2 References Utility Rate Discount Incentives CSV (rows 1 - 14) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Cleco Power - Power Miser New Home Program (Louisiana) Utility Rate Discount Louisiana Residential Building Insulation Central Air conditioners Clothes Washers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Doors Duct/Air sealing Furnaces Heat pumps

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Definition: Dynamic Capability Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Capability Rating Capability Rating Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Dynamic Capability Rating Dynamic capability rating can be achieved through real-time determination of an element's (e.g., line, transformer etc.) ability to carry load based on electrical and environmental conditions.[1] Related Terms rating References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Functions' An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Dynamic_Capability_Rating&oldid=506158" Categories: Definitions ISGAN Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load)

363

Heart Physiology Lab Part 1: Pulse Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heart Physiology Lab Part 1: Pulse Rate Measure your pulse in each of the following conditions (in in the class. You may use Table 1 in the Heart Physiology Worksheet for this, if you wish. Once you have all of the class averages for each measurement. You may use Graph 1 in the Heart Physiology Worksheet for this

Loughry, Jim

364

Sodium tetraphenylborate solubility and dissolution rates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The rate of solid sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) dissolution in In-Tank Precipitation salt solutions has been experimentally determined. The data indicates that the dissolution rate of solid NaTPB is a minor contributor the lag time experienced in the 1983 Salt Decontamination Demonstration Test and should not be considered as the rate determining step. Current analytical models for predicting the time to reach the composite lower flammability limit assume that the lag time is not more than 6 hours, and the data supports this assumption (i.e., dissolution by itself requires much less than 6 hours). The data suggests that another step--such as mass transport, the reaction of a benzene precursor or the mixing behavior--is the rate determining factor for benzene release to the vapor space in Tank 48H. In addition, preliminary results from this program show that the degree of agitation employed is not a significant parameter in determining the rate of NaTPB dissolution. As a result of this study, an improved equation for predicting equilibrium tetraphenylborate solubility with respect to temperature and sodium ion concentration has been determined.

Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.; Swingle, R.F.; Reeves, C.T.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

CX-010020: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination CX-010020: Categorical Exclusion Determination F-08 Industrial Wastewater Outfall Flow Measurement Improvements CX(s) Applied: B3.1 Date: 01282013...

366

CX-009073: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Determination CX-009073: Categorical Exclusion Determination Measurement of Reduction Capacity of Simulated Saltstone CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 07162012 Location(s): South...

367

Trade, Interdependence and Exchange Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

period is 1971-2000. All inflation rates and predictions areof Goods and Real Exchange Rate Fluc- tuations,” mimeo [5]Between Trade and Exchange Rate Volatility,” mimeo [6

Fitzgerald, Doireann

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales of Petroleum Products Sold for Local Consumption." These data measure primary petroleum product deliveries into the States where they are locally marketed and consumed....

369

Phenyl radical thermolysis and rate constants for phenyl + O{sub 2}  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}I has been used to prepare in-situ known initial concentrations of phenyl radicals at high temperatures. These can be degraded by direct decomposition at T > 1350 K giving H + C{sub 6}H{sub 4}. Using H-atom ARAS, rate constants for C{sub 6}H{sub 5} dissociation have been measured. Using the same ARAS technique, constants for C{sub 6}H{sub 5} dissociation have been measured. Using the same ARAS technique, the H- and O-atoms formed from the reaction, C{sub 6}H{sub 5} + O{sub 2}, have both been measured. The rate constant results are discussed along with lower T measurements in terms of RRKM calculations using published ab initio electronic structure determinations of transition states.

Kumaran, S.S.; Michael, J.V.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

BCP Annual Rate Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 BCP Annual Rate Process 2013 BCP Annual Rate Process Informal Process Rate Activity Schedule (doc) Informal Customer Meeting Thursday March 6, 2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms 3&4 Informal Customer Meeting Presentation (Pdf) PRS Executive Summary (Mar 07, 2013) (Pdf) FY2014 Final Ten Year Operating Plan PRS Executive Summary (PDF) FORM for Foreign Visits (doc) Formal Process Initial Federal Register Notice (pdf) Public Information Forum March 27,2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms3&4 Customer Meeting Presentation PIF Presentation (PPT) Presentation Details (pdf) Reclamation Fund Status Report PIF PRS Executive Summary (pdf) PIF Transcripts (PDF) Visitor Center Cost Analysis Questions - Responses Public Comment Forum April 10, 2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms3&4 PCF Transcripts Customer Letters

371

Multiple System Rate Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savings Under Various MSTR (XLS) Public Information Forum March 29, 2005 Customer Meeting Overview (Power Point) Customer Meeting Overview (PDF) Customer Meeting Transcript (PDF) Public Comment Forum April 6, 2005 Customer Meeting Transcript (PDF) Response Letter 5-17-05 (PDF) Customer Letters Tonopah ID-5/25/05 (PDF) APS-5/26/05 (PDF) SRP-5/27/05 (PDF) RSLynch-6/1/05 (PDF) KRSaline-6/1/05 (PDF) Formal Process Federal Register Notice (Word) Federal Register Notice (PDF) Brochure (Word) Appendices to Brochure: A B C D E1 E2 F1 F2 GH Public Information Forum July 14, 2004 Customer Meeting Overview (Power Point)

372

Temperature determination using pyrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Upper Great Plains Rates information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates and Repayment Services Rates and Repayment Services Rates 2010 Firm Power Rate (effective January 1, 2010) Rate Adjustments 2010 Firm Power Rate Adjustment 2009 Firm Power Rate Adjustment IS Rate Adjustments Rate Adjustment Process Rate Orders Signed, December 23, 2009 (16kb pdf) Announcements Firm Electric Service Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component, June 27, 2013 (74kb pdf) Customer Letter - Final Notice of Drought Adder Component, October 2, 2013 (68kb pdf) Integrated System (IS) Rates 2014 IS Rates Customer Information Meeting Presentation, October 15, 2013 (611kb pdf) Customer Letter - Notification of 2014 Rates, September 13, 2013 (160kb pdf) 2014 Transmission and Ancillary Services Rate Calculation and 2012 Rate True-up Calculation (4.9mb pdf) 2013 IS Rates

374

LAP Transmission Rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LAP Transmission Rate 4.50 4.00 3.82 3.50 3.00 of 2.50 c 0 2.I2 2.68 I 3: 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012...

375

Natural Gas Conveyance and Rates  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Natural gas transportation market; Competition vs. market power; Rate structures Cost-of-service Performance based rates

Information Center

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Heart rate variability in mice with coronary heart disease  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuation of the heart rate, is a non-invasive test that measures the autonomic regulation of the heart. Assessment of HRV has been shown to predict the risk of mortality ...

Zapanta, Laurence (Laurence F.)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Denitrification rates in a wastewater-irrigated forest soil in New Zealand  

SciTech Connect

Denitrification is considered to be an important N removal process in land-based wastewater treatment systems, although in situ denitrification rates have rarely been reported. The authors investigated the contribution of denitrification to N removal in a land treatment system by measuring in situ denitrification rates for 12 mo in a Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) forest irrigated with tertiary-treated wastewater. The variability of denitrification rates was investigated using a nested field design that divided the land treatment system into four spatial components (irrigation block, topographic position, field site, and sample plot) and two temporal components (sample period, sample day). Denitrification was measured using undisturbed soil cores collected daily, for six consecutive days on 21 occasions throughout the year. Soil moisture content, NO{sub 3} concentration, available C, denitrifying enzyme activity, and temperature also were measured. The annual denitrification rate in the irrigated soil was 2.4 kg N ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1}, and only slightly higher than the unirrigated soil. Temporal effects contributed more than spatial effects to the overall variation in denitrification rates. Multiple regression analysis showed that soil factors could only explain 29% of the variation in denitrification rates. Soil water-filled porosity was low in the land treatment system, and less than the critical threshold value determined in a laboratory study. The authors concluded that denitrification in this land treatment system studied was limited by excessive aeration in the free-draining soils.

Barton, L.; McLay, C.D.A.; Schipper, L.A.; Smith, C.T.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Deep Saline Aquifers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project was to bridge the gap between our knowledge of small-scale geochemical reaction rates and reaction rates meaningful for modeling transport at core scales. The working hypothesis was that reaction rates, determined from laboratory measurements based upon reactions typically conducted in well mixed batch reactors using pulverized reactive media may be significantly changed in in situ porous media flow due to rock microstructure heterogeneity. Specifically we hypothesized that, generally, reactive mineral surfaces are not uniformly accessible to reactive fluids due to the random deposition of mineral grains and to the variation in flow rates within a pore network. Expected bulk reaction rates would therefore have to be correctly up-scaled to reflect such heterogeneity. The specific objective was to develop a computational tool that integrates existing measurement capabilities with pore-scale network models of fluid flow and reactive transport. The existing measurement capabilities to be integrated consisted of (a) pore space morphology, (b) rock mineralogy, and (c) geochemical reaction rates. The objective was accomplished by: (1) characterizing sedimentary sandstone rock morphology using X-ray computed microtomography, (2) mapping rock mineralogy using back-scattered electron microscopy (BSE), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and CMT, (3) characterizing pore-accessible reactive mineral surface area, and (4) creating network models to model acidic CO{sub 2} saturated brine injection into the sandstone rock samples.

Lindquist, W Brent

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

379

HEU age determination  

SciTech Connect

A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples.

Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Determining Reactor Neutrino Flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flux is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. It is determined from thermal power measurements, reactor core simulation, and knowledge of neutrino spectra of fuel isotopes. Past reactor neutrino experiments have determined the flux to (2-3)% precision. Precision measurements of mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by reactor neutrino experiments in the coming years will use near-far detector configurations. Most uncertainties from reactor will be canceled out. Understanding of the correlation of uncertainties is required for $\\theta_{13}$ experiments. Precise determination of reactor neutrino flux will also improve the sensitivity of the non-proliferation monitoring and future reactor experiments. We will discuss the flux calculation and recent progresses.

Cao, Jun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Determining Reactor Neutrino Flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flux is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. It is determined from thermal power measurements, reactor core simulation, and knowledge of neutrino spectra of fuel isotopes. Past reactor neutrino experiments have determined the flux to (2-3)% precision. Precision measurements of mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by reactor neutrino experiments in the coming years will use near-far detector configurations. Most uncertainties from reactor will be canceled out. Understanding of the correlation of uncertainties is required for $\\theta_{13}$ experiments. Precise determination of reactor neutrino flux will also improve the sensitivity of the non-proliferation monitoring and future reactor experiments. We will discuss the flux calculation and recent progresses.

Jun Cao

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

Determination of Cryolite Ratio of Aluminum Electrolytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Applicability of Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Primary Aluminium Smelters · The Determination of Pot Current Distribution by Measuring Magnetic ...

383

Achievable Rate and Optimal Physical Layer Rate Allocation in Interference-Free Wireless Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the achievable rate in interference-free wireless networks with physical layer fading channels and orthogonal multiple access. As a starting point, the point-to-point channel is considered. We find the optimal physical and network layer rate trade-off which maximizes the achievable overall rate for both a fixed rate transmission scheme and an improved scheme based on multiple virtual users and superposition coding. These initial results are extended to the network setting, where, based on a cut-set formulation, the achievable rate at each node and its upper bound are derived. We propose a distributed optimization algorithm which allows to jointly determine the maximum achievable rate, the optimal physical layer rates on each network link, and an opportunistic back-pressure-type routing strategy on the network layer. This inherently justifies the layered architecture in existing wireless networks. Finally, we show that the proposed layered optimization approach can achieve almost all of the ergodic ...

Cui, Tao; Kliewer, Joerg

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

reports reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

385

Plant Tumor Growth Rates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plant Tumor Growth Rates Plant Tumor Growth Rates Name: Gina and Maria Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: We are doing a science fair project on if B. Carotene, Green tea, and Grape Seed Extract helps plants against the crown gall disease. We injected sunflowers with agrobacterium tum. one week ago (Sun. Feb. 27, 2000). Our questions is how long will it take for the tumors to grow? We scratched the surface of the stems and injected the agrobacterium in the wound. Also which do you think, in your opinion, will do the best, if any? Our science fair is April 13, do you think we'll have growth before then, atleast enough time to do our conclusion and results? Thank you, any information you forward will be very helpful. Replies: Sunflowers form galls relatively quickly. I usually get them in two weeks at least. Good luck.

386

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% 4,100 4,400 4,700 5,000 5,300 5,600 5,900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: 2.5% Aug '12 to Aug '13: -1.3% YTD '12 to YTD '13: 1.5% 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Residual Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: -0.8%

387

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: New York | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Field Office May 13, 2010 CX-002238: Categorical Exclusion Determination Evaluation of Instrumentation and Dynamic Thermal Circuit Rating (DTCR) for Overhead Lines CX(s)...

388

Trap-depth determination from residual gas collisions  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for determining the depth of an atomic or molecular trap of any type. This method relies on a measurement of the trap loss rate induced by collisions with background gas particles. Given a fixed gas composition, the loss rate uniquely determines the trap depth. Because of the ''soft'' long-range nature of the van der Waals interaction, these collisions transfer kinetic energy to trapped particles across a broad range of energy scales, from room temperature to the microkelvin energy scale. The resulting loss rate therefore exhibits a significant variation over an enormous range of trap depths, making this technique a powerful diagnostic with a large dynamic range. We present trap depth measurements of a Rb magneto-optical trap using this method and a different technique that relies on measurements of loss rates during optical excitation of colliding atoms to a repulsive molecular state. The main advantage of the method presented here is its large dynamic range and applicability to traps of any type requiring only knowledge of the background gas density and the interaction potential between the trapped and background gas particles.

Van Dongen, J.; Zhu, C.; Clement, D.; Dufour, G.; Madison, K. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Booth, J. L. [Physics Department, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 3700 Willingdon Avenue, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5G 3H2 (Canada)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjusted Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -7.4% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -0.1% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -0.1% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -16.8% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -3.2% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -3.2% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -9.3% Jan '99 to Jan '00: +3.5% YTD '99 to YTD '00: +3.5% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

390

Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Title Effect of Outside Air Ventilation Rate on Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in a Call Center Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Hodgson, Alfred T., David Faulkner, Douglas P. Sullivan, Dennis L. DiBartolomeo, Marion L. Russell, and William J. Fisk Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 5517-5528 Abstract A study of the relationship between outside air ventilation rate and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated indoors was conducted in a call center office building. The building, with two floors and a floor area of 4,600 m2, was located in the San Francisco Bay Area, CA. Ventilation rates were manipulated with the building's four air handling units (AHUs). VOC concentrations in the AHU returns were measured on seven days during a 13-week period. VOC emission factors were determined for individual zones on days when they were operating at near steady-state conditions. The emission factor data were subjected to principal component (PC) analysis to identify groups of co-varying compounds. Potential sources of the PC vectors were ascribed based on information from the literature supporting the associations. Two vectors with high loadings of compounds including formaldehyde, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- pentanediol monoisobutyrate, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (d5 siloxane), and isoprene likely identified occupant-related sources. One vector likely represented emissions from building materials. Another vector represented emissions of solvents from cleaning products. The relationships between indoor minus outdoor VOC concentrations and ventilation rate were qualitatively examined for eight VOCs. Of these, acetaldehyde and hexanal, which were likely associated with material sources, and d5 siloxane exhibited general trends of higher concentrations at lower ventilation rates. For other compounds, the operation of the building and variations in pollutant generation and removal rates apparently combined to obscure the inverse relationship between VOC concentrations and ventilation. This result emphasizes the importance of utilizing source control measures, in addition to adequate ventilation, to limit concentrations of VOCs of concern in office buildings

391

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +1.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -1.9% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -0.1% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -1.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.7% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: +22.3% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +21.1%

392

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.4% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.1% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.6% YTD '98 to YTD '99: 0.0% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: +7.3% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +8.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +8.3%

393

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

June '99 to July '99: -5.4% June '99 to July '99: -5.4% July '98 to July '99: +3.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.3% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: -0.5% July '98 to July '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +0.5% July '98 to July '99: +1.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.3% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +1.5% July '98 to July '99: +10.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +7.2%

394

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +8.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.0% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +6.0% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +4.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +2.4% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +3.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +32.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +2.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.5%

395

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +5.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.5% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: -0.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +1.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +2.5% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +6.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.8% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +9.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +2.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.2%

396

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: +2.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.4% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -0.2% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.9% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.0% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -1.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.4% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -2.1% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -6.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.6%

397

Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement Documents Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement Documents CRSP Transmission 9/16/2013 WAPA-161 FRN, CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates extension Letter announcing two-year extension to CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2014 Accompanying calculation table for FY 2014 CRSP transmission rate letter Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2013 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2012 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2011 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2010 SLCA/IP 9/16/2013 WAPA-161 FRN, SLCA/IP firm power rate extension Letter announcing two-year extension to SLCA/IP firm power rate SLCA/IP Tentative Rate Adjustment Schedule

398

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability  

SciTech Connect

Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Convergent ablator performance measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The velocity and remaining ablator mass of an imploding capsule are critical metrics for assessing the progress toward ignition of an inertially confined fusion experiment. These and other convergent ablator performance parameters have been measured using a single streaked x-ray radiograph. Traditional Abel inversion of such a radiograph is ill-posed since backlighter intensity profiles and x-ray attenuation by the ablated plasma are unknown. To address this we have developed a regularization technique which allows the ablator density profile {rho}(r) and effective backlighter profile I{sub 0}(y) at each time step to be uniquely determined subject to the constraints that {rho}(r) is localized in radius space and I{sub 0}(y) is delocalized in object space. Moments of {rho}(r) then provide the time-resolved areal density, mass, and average radius (and thus velocity) of the remaining ablator material. These results are combined in the spherical rocket model to determine the ablation pressure and mass ablation rate during the implosion. The technique has been validated on simulated radiographs of implosions at the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] and implemented on experiments at the OMEGA laser facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)].

Hicks, D. G.; Spears, B. K.; Braun, D. G.; Sorce, C. M.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Olson, R. E. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Radiative Heating Rates for Saharan Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined longwave and shortwave radiative transfer model was used to determine effects of Saharan dust on the radiative fluxes and heating/cooling rates in the atmosphere. Cases are treated for cloud-free and overcast conditions over the ocean ...

Toby N. Carlson; Stanley G. Benjamin

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

PULSE RATE DIVIDER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

McDonald, H.C. Jr.

1962-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

402

HEU age determination  

SciTech Connect

A new technique has been developed to determine the age of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in solids. Uranium age is defined as the time since the uranium-containing material was last subjected to a process capable of separating uranium from its radioactive-decay daughters. [Most chemical processing, uranium enrichment, volatilization processes, and phase transformations (especially relevant for uranium hexafluoride) can result in separation of the uranium parent material from the decay-product daughters.] Determination of the uranium age, as defined here, may be relevant in verifying arms-control agreements involving uranium-containing nuclear weapons. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium daughter isotopes and their parents, viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gamma rays and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples, where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the samples. In this report the methodology and the data for determining the age of two HEU samples are presented.

Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Event loss rates and readout chips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

98-57 The LHCb experiment aims at a deadtimeless readout of B­events at a primary bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. In order to achieve this goal, information from all events must be stored in a pipeline with latency matched to the time needed for the Level 0 trigger decision. Accepted events, which constitute only a small fraction of the total sample, are stored in a fifo of a certain depth and read out with a fixed clock rate. The fifo, also referred to as multi­event or derandomizing buffer, is needed in order to even out statistical fluctuations in the trigger rate. Apart from the length of the pipeline, which determines the maximum latency of the chip, the crucial parameter characterizing a readout chip is the fraction of triggers lost due to limitations of the chip's architecture. This note describes how the different design parameters and operation conditions determine the chip's performance.

Schmelling, M

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Measurement and Modeling of High Strain-rate Deformation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with Numerical Simulation · Using Huge Pendulum Impact Tester to Evaluate the Dynamic Fracture Toughness and Crack Behavior of Pipeline Steels ...

405

Velcro Measurement of Turbulence Kinetic Energy Dissipation Rate ?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turbulence in the ocean results from many different processes operating over a wide range of space scales and timescales, with spatial and temporal variability particularly extreme in coastal oceans. If the origins and effects of turbulent ...

Ann E. Gargett

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bldg. 90 Due to limited energy sources, countries are looking for alternative solutions to decrease energy needs. In that context, natural ventilation can be seen as a very...

407

Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

400-2006-005 for the California Energy Commission. Jacobs,survey information. California Energy Commission report 500-was supported by the California Energy Commission through

Fisk, William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Measurement and Mapping of Pulse Combustion Impingement Heat Transfer Rates .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current research shows that pulse combustion impingement drying is an improvement over the steady impingement drying currently in commercial use. Pulse combustion impingement has higher… (more)

Hagadorn, Charles C., III

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Measuring Crystal Growth Rates during Laser Annealing of  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conference Tools for 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition ... Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. .... Contact programming@programmaster.org.

410

ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH' PHEROMONE COMPONENT EMISSION RATES MEASURED AFTER COLLECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (Received October 16, 1979; revised December 10, 1979) Abstract-We collected and quantified both syntheticand natural Oriental fruit moth an elapsed time (Kuhr et a1 , 1972; Maitlen et a]., 1976); (2) visual inspection of quantity remaining

411

Survey of innovative rates, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Current innovative rate data from 135 major utilities throughout the United States were gathered and analyzed. Over 1000 innovative rates that were in use by the utilities in 1990 and 1991 were identified, abstracted and entered into a database. Survey results indicate that over 616 million MWh were sold to the nearly five million customers using the innovative rates offered. From an annual sales perspective, the most widely used rates are demand-side management rates -- rates intended to change customer energy use -- and rates that are market-driven.'' The survey identified 525 demand-side management rates serving our four million customers with reported sales of approximately 520 million MWh. These rates serve over 80% of the total innovative rate customers and account for 84% of the total MWh sales. Also important in terms of MWh sales they represent are market-driven rates, which accounted for sales of 48 million MWh in 1990. Both demand-side management and market-driven rates show a 20% customer growth rate between 1988 and 1990. Other innovative rates examined in the survey included: prepaid service; load retention incentive rates; technology specific rates; and those rates related expressly to non-utility generators -- namely buy-back and standby rates.

White, L.J.; Wakefield, R.A.; McVicker, C.M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Survey of innovative rates, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current innovative rate data from 135 major utilities throughout the United States were gathered and analyzed. Over 1000 innovative rates that were in use by the utilities in 1990 and 1991 were identified, abstracted and entered into a database. Survey results indicate that over 616 million MWh were sold to the nearly five million customers using the innovative rates offered. From an annual sales perspective, the most widely used rates are demand-side management rates -- rates intended to change customer energy use -- and rates that are market-driven.'' The survey identified 525 demand-side management rates serving our four million customers with reported sales of approximately 520 million MWh. These rates serve over 80% of the total innovative rate customers and account for 84% of the total MWh sales. Also important in terms of the MWh sales they represent are market-driven rates, which accounted for sales of 48 million MWh in 1990. Both demand-side management and market-driven rates show a 20% customer growth rate between 1988 and 1990. Other innovative rates examined in the survey included: prepaid service; load retention incentive rates; technology specific rates; and those rates related expressly to non-utility generators -- namely buy-back and standby rates.

White, L.J.; Wakefield, R.A.; McVicker, C.M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B3.6 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7, 2012 7, 2012 CX-009108: Categorical Exclusion Determination Precipitation of Mixed Actinide Solid Solutions CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/27/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office August 27, 2012 CX-009107: Categorical Exclusion Determination Xylene Measurement for Saltstone Antifoams CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/27/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office August 27, 2012 CX-008998: Categorical Exclusion Determination "Sustainable Manufacturing via Multi-scale Physics-based Process Modeling and Manufacturing-informed Design CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08/27/2012 Location(s): Minnesota Offices(s): Golden Field Office" August 27, 2012 CX-009006: Categorical Exclusion Determination High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

414

Very Slow Strain Rate Stress-Strain Behavior and Resisting Stress ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

rectly obtained from measurements of yield stress and flow stress made in constant strain rate tests at creep strain rates and temperatures. In this paper, constant.

415

ARM - Measurement - CO2 flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

: CO2 flux The rate of flow for carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is...

416

Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL); Zelipsky, Steven A. (Tinley Park, IL); Rezmer, Ronald R. (Lisle, IL); Smelser, Peter (Bruner, MO)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

The Cosmic Stellar Birth and Death Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cosmic stellar birth rate can be measured by standard astronomical techniques. It can also be probed via the cosmic stellar death rate, though until recently, this was much less precise. However, recent results based on measured supernova rates, and importantly, also on the attendant diffuse fluxes of neutrinos and gamma rays, have become competitive, and a concordant history of stellar birth and death is emerging. The neutrino flux from all past core-collapse supernovae, while faint, is realistically within reach of detection in Super-Kamiokande, and a useful limit has already been set. I will discuss predictions for this flux, the prospects for neutrino detection, the implications for understanding core-collapse supernovae, and a new limit on the contribution of type-Ia supernovae to the diffuse gamma-ray background.

John F. Beacom

2006-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

418

Minimizing Variation in Outdoor CPV Power Ratings (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Module data from NREL's CPV test bed is used to examine methods for calculating outdoor CPV power ratings. IEC 62670 and ASTM E2527 are used as a starting point for determining a module power rating on a monthly basis. Monthly power ratings vary by more than desired using existing methods. The presentation examines modifications to existing methods as well as spectral corrections to reduce variation in monthly module power ratings.

Muller, M.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Utility Rate Discount | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Discount Discount Jump to: navigation, search A few electric utilities offer rate discounts to encourage residential energy efficiency. For homes that meet certain energy efficiency criteria, such as those established by the federal Energy Star program, the owner or tenant is awarded a percentage discount on each monthÂ’s electric bill. [1] Utility Rate Discount Incentives CSV (rows 1 - 14) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Cleco Power - Power Miser New Home Program (Louisiana) Utility Rate Discount Louisiana Residential Building Insulation Central Air conditioners Clothes Washers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Doors Duct/Air sealing Furnaces Heat pumps Water Heaters Windows Yes Dominion North Carolina Power - Energy Saver Home Plus (North Carolina) Utility Rate Discount North Carolina Residential Water Heaters

420

Power and Energy Measurements Low Frequency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Power and Energy Measurements, Low-Frequency. Rate our Services. ... Power and Energy Measurements, Low-Frequency (56200C-56202C). ...

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rating measure determined" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

What Is the New Normal Unemployment Rate?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent labor markets developments, including mismatches in the skills of workers and jobs, extended unemployment benefits, and very high rates of long-term joblessness, may be impeding the return to “normal ” unemployment rates of around 5%. An examination of alternative measures of labor market conditions suggests that the “normal ” unemployment rate may have risen as much as 1.7 percentage points to about 6.7%, although much of this increase is likely to prove temporary. Even with such an increase, sizable labor market slack is expected to persist for years. In the past, the U.S. labor market has proven to be very flexible and recessions have not usually been followed by long-lasting increases in the unemployment rate. But, in the wake of the most recent recession, many economists are concerned that developments such as mismatches in the skills of workers and jobs, extended unemployment benefits, and a rise in long-term joblessness may have raised the “normal ” or “natural ” rate of unemployment above the 5 % level that was thought to be typical before the downturn. Indeed, a few economists have gone so far as to argue that the rise in the unemployment rate to its current level of 9 % primarily reflects an increase in the natural rate, implying there is little slack in labor markets and therefore little downward pressure on inflation. This Economic Letter

Weidner; John C. Williams

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

High-energy threshold reaction rates on 0.8 GeV proton-irradiated thick Pb-target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This works presents results of activation-aided determination of threshold reaction rates in 92 209Bi, natPb, 197Au, 181Ta, 169Tm, natIn, 93Nb, 64Zn, 65Cu, 63Cu, 59Co, 19F, and 12C samples and in 121 27Al samples. All the samples were aligned with the proton beam axis inside and outside the demountable 92-cm thick Pb target of 15-cm diameter assembled of 23 4-cm thick discs. The samples were placed on 12 target disks to reproduce the long axis distribution of protons and neutrons. In June 2006, the target was exposed for 18 hours to a 800-MeV proton beam extracted from the ITEP U-10 accelerator. The proton fluence and the proton beam shape were determined using the 27Al(p,x)7Be monitor reaction. The reaction rates were determined by the direct gamma-spectrometry techniques. In total, 1196 gamma-spectra have been measured, and about 1500 reaction rates determined. The measured reaction rates were simulated by the MCNPX code using the following databases: ENDF/B6 for neutrons below 20 MeV, MENDL2 for 20-100 MeV neutrons, and MENDL2P for proton cross sections up to 200 MeV. An acceptable agreement of simulations with experimental data has been found.

Yu. E. Titarenko; V. F. Batyaev; A. Yu. Titarenko; M. A. Butko; K. V. Pavlov; R. S. Tikhonov; S. N. Florya; S. G. Mashnik; W. Gudowski

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

423

electric rates | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

electric rates electric rates Dataset Summary Description This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011. Source NREL and Ventyx Date Released February 24th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords electric rates rates US utilities Data text/csv icon IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 1.7 MiB) text/csv icon Non-IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 2.1 MiB)

424

The Relation of Radar to Cloud Area-Time Integrals and Implications for Rain Measurements from Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we determine the relationships between satellite-based and radar-measured area-time integrals (ATI) for convective storms and show how both depend upon the climatological conditional mean rain rate Rc, and the ratio of the measured ...

David Atlas; Thomas L. Bell

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

National Utility Rate Database: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Hydrogen Generation Rate Scoping Study of DOW Corning Antifoam Agent  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The antifoam agent DOW Corning Q2-3183A will be added to waste streams in the Hanford River Protection Program-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) to prevent foaming. It consists mostly of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polypropylene glycol (PPG). These and other minor constituents of the antifoam have organic constituents that may participate in radiolytic and chemical reactions that produce hydrogen in Hanford waste. It has been recommended by The WTP R&T Department recommended personnel to treat the organic compounds of the antifoam like the in a similar manner as other organic compounds that are native to the Hanford waste with respect to hydrogen production. This testing has investigated the radiolytic and thermal production of hydrogen from antifoam added to simulant waste solutions to determine if the organic components of the antifoam produce hydrogen in the same manner as the native organic species in Hanford waste. Antifoam additions for this testing were in the range of 4 to 10 wt% to ensure adequate hydrogen detection. Test conditions were selected to bound exposures to the antifoam agent in the WTP. These levels are higher than previously recommended values of 350 mg/L for actual applications in WTP tanks containing air spargers and pulse jet mixers. Limited degradation analyses for the organic components of the antifoam were investigated in this study. A more detailed study involving analyses of antifoam degradation and product formation is in progress at SRNL and results from that study will be reported at a later time. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the Q2-3183A antifoam was measured to be 39.7 {+-} 4.9 wt% TOC. This measurement was performed in triplicate with on three different dilutions of the pure antifoam liquid using a TOC combustion analyzer instrument with catalytic oxidation, followed by CO{sub 2} quantification using an infrared detector. Test results from this study indicate that the WTP HGR correlation conservatively bounds hydrogen generation rates (HGRs) from antifoam-containing simulants if the antifoam organic components are treated the same as other native organics. Tests that used the combination of radiolysis and thermolysis conducted on simulants containing antifoam produced measured hydrogen that was bounded by the WTP correlation. These tests used the bounding WTP temperature of 90 C and a dose rate of 1.8 x 10{sup 5} rad/hr. This dose rate is about ten times higher than the dose rate equivalent calculated for a bounding Hanford sludge slurry composition of 10 Ci/L, or 2 x 10{sup 4} rad/hr. Hydrogen was measured using a quadrupole mass spectroscopy instrument. Based on the analyses from the 4wt% and 10wt% antifoam samples, it is expected that the HGR results are directly proportional to the antifoam concentration added. A native organic-containing simulant that did not contain any added antifoam also produced a measurable radiolytic/thermal hydrogen rates that was in bounded by the WTP correlation. A base simulant with no added organic produced a measurable radiolytic/thermal HGR that was {approx}2X higher than the predicted HGR. Analysis of antifoam-containing simulants after prolonged irradiation of 52 Mrad and heating (23 days at 90 C) indicates that essentially all of the PDMS and greater than 60% of the PPG components are degraded, likely to lower molecular weight species. The antifoam components were analyzed by extraction from the salt simulants, followed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) by personnel at Dow Corning. A more detailed study of the antifoam degradation and product formation from radiolysis and thermolysis is currently in progress at SRNL. That study uses a dose rate of about 2 x 10{sup 4} rad/hr and bounding temperatures of 90 C. Results from that study will be reported in a future report.

Crawford, Charles

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

427

Corrosion Rate, Effect of Soil Properties: Development of a Sensor System to Calculate Corrosion Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report addresses corrosion of substation ground grids and the development of a corrosion sensor system and supporting algorithms that can be used in the field to quickly estimate the corrosion rate of a metal in soils of low resistivity.The system is based on the linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique, an electrochemical method of calculating corrosion rates by measuring the relationship between electrochemical potential and the electric current between electrodes. ...

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

428

ARM - Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Select below to highlight measurements in specified measurement categories. Aerosols The effect of aerosols is measured by instrument systems and lidars that provide data...

429

Comparison of Rain Rates over the Ocean Derived from TRMM Microwave Imager and Precipitation Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface rain rates over the ocean derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and precipitation radar (PR) are compared and systematic differences between TMI-derived rain rates and PR-derived rain rates are ...

Junji Ikai; Kenji Nakamura

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Operational dose rate visualization techniques  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of the gamma ray dose rate in the vicinity of a radiation source can be greatly aided by the use of recent state-of-the-art visualization techniques. The method involves calculating dose rates at thousands of locations within a complex geometry system. This information is then processed to create contour plots of the dose rate. Additionally, when these contour plots are created, animations can be created that dynamically display the dose rate as the shields or sources are moved.

Schwarz, R.A.; Morford, R.J.; Carter, L.L.; Jones, G.B.; Greenborg, J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

DOE Guidance-Category Rating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This memorandum is to establish the Department of Energy's (DOE's) policy for the use of Category Rating.

432

ARCS – Access Rate Control System  

protected steel housing. ... Access Rate Control System This rugged, maintenance- ... Y-12 is seeking an industry partner to fully com-

433

Measurement and Modeling Implications of Transfer and Transformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement and Modeling Implications of Transfer and Transformation Measurement and Modeling Implications of Transfer and Transformation Processes at the Plant/Air Interface Speaker(s): Randy Maddalena Date: October 13, 1998 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Richard Sextro To understand the chemodynamic role of vegetation in a multimedia system, the rate and extent of chemical partitioning from adjacent environmental media and the rate of chemical transformation associated with vegetation need to be determined. An exposure system was used to isolate and expose above ground vegetation to semi-volatile air contaminants. Measurements of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene in the chamber air and the plant tissue were collected during both the uptake and clearance phase of exposure events. The measurements were fitted to the mass balance of the

434

DWPF Macrobatch 2 Melt Rate Tests  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister production rate must be increased to meet canister production goals. Although a number of factors exist that could potentially increase melt rate, this study focused on two: (1) changes in frit composition and (2) changes to the feed preparation process to alter the redox of the melter feed. These two factors were investigated for Macrobatch 2 (sludge batch 1B) utilizing crucible studies and a specially designed ''melt rate'' furnace. Other potential factors that could increase melt rate include: mechanical mixing via stirring or the use of bubblers, changing the power skewing to redistribute the power input to the melter, and elimination of heat loss (e.g. air in leakage). The melt rate testing in FY00 demonstrated that melt rate can be improved by adding a different frit or producing a much more reducing glass by the addition of sugar as a reductant. The frit that melted the fastest in the melt rate testing was Frit 165. A paper stud y was performed using the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to determine the impact on predicted glass viscosity, liquidus, durability, and operating window if the frit was changed from Frit 200 to Frit 165. PCCS indicated that the window was very similar for both frits. In addition, the predicted viscosity of the frit 165 glass was 46 poise versus 84 poise for the Frit 200 glass. As a result, a change from Frit 200 to Frit 165 is expected to increase the melt rate in DWPF without decreasing waste loading.

Stone, M.E.

2001-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

435

Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride: and Chloroform: Progress in FY 2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a letter report summarizing work performed in FY2008 to determine the rates of carbon tetrachloride hydrolysis at temperatures close to actual groundwater temperatures. The report describes the project, the methodology, and the results obtained since the project's inception in FY2006. Measurements of hydrolysis rates in homogeneous solution have been completed for temperaturs of 70 C through 40 C, with additional data available at 30 C and 20 C. These results show no difference between the rates in deionized H2O and in filter-sterilized Hanford-Site groundwater. Moreover, the rates measured are 2-3 times slower than predicted from the open literature. Measurements of rates involving sterile suspensions of Hanford-Site sediment in Hanford-Site groundwater, however, show faster hydrolysis at temperatures below 40 C. Extrapolation of the current data available suggests a six-fold increase in rate would be expected at groundwater temperature of 16 C due to the presence of the sediment. This result translates into a 78-year half-life, rather than the 470-680 year half-life that would be predicted from rate determinations in homogeneous solution. The hydrolysis rate data at 20 C, in contrast to those at higher temperatures, are preliminary and have low statistical power. While significant (p < 0.05) differences between the heterogeneous and homogeneous systems are seen at 30 C, the results at 20 C are not statistically significant at this level due to limited data and the very slow nature of the reaction. More time is needed to collect data at these low temperatures to improve the statistical power of our observation. Given the critical need for hydrolysis rate data at temperatures relevant to groundwater systems, we have three recommendations for future work. First, we recommend a continuation of the sampling and analysis of the remaining long-term sealed-ampule experiments described in this report. These are primarily 20 C and 30 C experiments. The data at 20°C, which are most germane to the groundwater environment, will likely take two more years before they are complete. Second, due to the importance of heterogeneous effects, we recommend the continuation of sampling and analysis for a similar set of experiments looking at hydrolysis rates of CT and CF in contact with individual minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite, albite, and muscovite) or Hanford-Site sediment, and, for CF, in homogeneous solutions. These experiments were set up under a separate project funded by a congressional earmark (EM-22) for which funding expired at the end of FY08. Third, we strongly recommend development of a 13C/12C isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) approach for determination of hydrolysis rates at groundwater temperatures and relevant CT and CF concentrations. The technique is sensitive enough that we expect to be able to shorten the time required for a rate-constant determination by 20-fold. Thus, a 5-year experiment conducted by the sealed-ampule approach could be shortened to 3 months by the IRMS approach. This sensitivity also would allow the IRMS technique to be used to follow hydrolysis rates at concentrations found in groundwater plumes at Hanford.

Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Measuring Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Compressed Natural Gas Retail Motor-Fuel Dispensers; Hydrogen Measuring Devices; Liquefied Petroleum Gas Liquid-Measuring Devices; Loading ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

437

Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1995-1996 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state, and tribal fisheries entities to determine (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Colombia and Snake rivers.

Rien, Thomas A.; Beiningen, Kirk T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Brookhaven air infiltration measurement system (BNL/AIMS) description and application  

SciTech Connect

A unique capability to measure part-per-quadrillion concentrations of a family of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) is presented. Together with our unique PFT source and passive sampler, measurement of average air exchange and infiltration rate can be determined for periods as short as 12 hours. A more expensive programmable sampler can provide information on a frequency of as little as once per minute for each of its 23 sampling tubes. The principal of AIMS is based on the applicable steady-state assumption that the average concentration (e.g., in pL/L) of a tracer vapor in a chamber (i.e., a building or room) is equal to the emission rate of the tracer source (e.g., in pL/min) divided by the air leakage or infiltration rate (e.g., in L/min). Knowing the source rate and measuring the average concentration then provides a means to calculate the air leakage rate. Extending this technique to a multichamber concept, in which a different type of PFT source is deployed in each chamber of a building, allows the calculation of not only the infiltration rates in each chamber but also the air exchange rates between chambers as well. Since both the PFT source and the passive sampler, a miniature Capillary Adsorption Tube Sampler (CATS), are about the size of a cigarette, inexpensive, and reusable, the BNL/AIMS is a very cost-effective means (if not the only means) for determining these air exchange rates.

Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.; Cote, E.A.; Wieser, R.F.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Asymptotic Cellular Growth Rate as the Effective Information Utilization Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the average asymptotic growth rate of cells in randomly fluctuating environments. Using a game-theoretic perspective, we show that any response strategy has an asymptotic growth rate, which is the sum of: (i) the maximal growth rate at the worst possible distribution of environments, (ii) relative information between the actual distribution of environments to the worst one, and (iii) information utilization rate which is the information rate of the sensory devices minus the "information dissipation rate", the amount of information not utilized by the cell for growth. In non-stationary environments, the optimal strategy is the time average of the instantaneous optimal strategy and the optimal switching times are evenly spaced in the statistical (Fisher) metric.

Pugatch, Rami; Tlusty, Tsvi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

CX-004216: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

16: Categorical Exclusion Determination 16: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004216: Categorical Exclusion Determination Kirtland Air Force Base Cougar Research Support CX(s) Applied: B3.3 Date: 06/08/2010 Location(s): New Mexico Office(s): Sandia Site Office Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) proposes to assist Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) contract biologists in the use of track surveys and systematic camera arrays to assess the prevalence of cougars (Puma concolor) on KAFB and United States Department of Energy (DOE) land. In addition, four cougars would be fitted with global positioning system (GPS) satellite collars to assess their use of base property, to calculate the probability of detecting resident cougars using remote cameras, to measure predation rates on base wildlife, and to create a map of cougar