National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rate remains steady

  1. U.S. gasoline prices remain steady (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline prices remain

  2. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  3. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  4. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  5. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2008-11-17

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  6. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-10-26

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  7. STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU TA

    2007-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  8. Rating Factor Rating Factor Rating Factor $1 Federal Tax Credit disappears. $1 Federal Tax Credit is reinstated for one year and remains a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    cohesive and influential. Crude oil drops below $40 per barrel. Crude oil remains between $40 to $75 per barrel. Crude oil rises above $75 per barrel. Feedstock are prices high and availability is low is reinstated for multiple years as a Producers credit that only applies to US production. Federal RVO is lower

  9. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30

    Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail Report in the Tank Waste Information Network System, and the waste temperature data in the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) (dated July 2003). However, the release rate of methane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide is based on the input data (dated October 1999) as stated in Revision 0 of this report. Scenarios for adding waste to existing waste levels (dated July 2003) have been studied to determine the gas generation rates and the effect of smaller dome space on the flammability limits to address the issues of routine water additions and other possible waste transfer operations. In the flammability evaluation with zero ventilation, the sensitivity to waste temperature and to water addition was calculated for double-shell tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AN-102,241-AZ-101,241-AN-107,241-AY-101 and 241-AZ-101. These six have the least margin to flammable conditions among 28 double-shell tanks.

  10. U.S. gasoline prices remain steady (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,

  11. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for applying advanced experimental diagnostic techniques with increasing fidelity for the purposes of computational validation and model development. Numerical simulation of the reacting jet in crossflow is challenging because of the complex vortical structures in the flowfield and compounded by an unsteady crossflow. The resulting benchmark quality data set will include comprehensive, accurate measurements of mean and fluctuating components of velocity, pressure, and flame front location at high pressure and with crossflow conditions more representative of modern gas turbine engines. A proven means for producing combustion dynamics is used for the performing combustion instability experimental study on a reacting jet in crossflow configuration. The method used to provide an unsteady flowfield into which the transverse jet is injected is a unique and novel approach that permits elevated temperature and pressure conditions. A model dump combustor is used to generate and sustain an acoustically oscillating vitiated flow that serves as the crossflow for transverse jet injection studies. A fully optically accessible combustor test section affords full access surrounding the point of jet injection. High speed 10 kHz planar measurements OH PLIF and high frequency 180 kHz wall pressure measurements are performed on the injected reacting transverse jet and surrounding flowfield, respectively, under simulated unstable conditions. The overlay of the jet velocity flowfield and the flame front will be investigated using simultaneous 10 kHz OH PLIF and PIV in experiments to be performed in the near future.

  12. Coal remains a hot commodity for Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bram, L.

    2006-02-15

    Based largely on analyses by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics in late 2005 and early 2006, the article looks at the recent and near future export market for Australian coal. Demand in Asia is growing; European demand remains steady. Developments existing and new mines in Queensland are summarised in the article. 3 tabs.

  13. A Steady Lessening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Chloe Cooper

    2012-05-31

    . ________________________________ Chairperson Dr. Philip Barnard ________________________________ Dr. Kathryn Conrad ________________________________ Dr. Frank Farmer ________________________________ Dr. Mary Klayder...: A STEADY LESSENING ________________________________ Chairperson Dr. Philip Barnard Date approved: 11 April 2012 iii Abstract Presented here is a novella plus an academic introduction. The introduction attempts...

  14. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and PACI Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  15. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 392K) Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  16. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Washoe Project, Stampede Division FERC Order Approving Extension of Non-Firm Power Formula Rate - Rate Order No. WAPA-160 (Sept. 5, 2013) (PDF - 22K) Notice of Extension of...

  17. Quantum steady computation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castagnoli, G. )

    1991-08-10

    This paper reports that current conceptions of quantum mechanical computers inherit from conventional digital machines two apparently interacting features, machine imperfection and temporal development of the computational process. On account of machine imperfection, the process would become ideally reversible only in the limiting case of zero speed. Therefore the process is irreversible in practice and cannot be considered to be a fundamental quantum one. By giving up classical features and using a linear, reversible and non-sequential representation of the computational process - not realizable in classical machines - the process can be identified with the mathematical form of a quantum steady state. This form of steady quantum computation would seem to have an important bearing on the notion of cognition.

  18. Trimodal steady water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Erik Wahlén

    2013-10-31

    We construct three-dimensional families of small-amplitude gravity-driven rotational steady water waves on finite depth. The solutions contain counter-currents and multiple crests in each minimal period. Each such wave generically is a combination of three different Fourier modes, giving rise to a rich and complex variety of wave patterns. The bifurcation argument is based on a blow-up technique, taking advantage of three parameters associated with the vorticity distribution, the strength of the background stream, and the period of the wave.

  19. October 15, 2015 Too Many Nevadans Remain in Poverty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kachroo, Pushkin

    October 15, 2015 Too Many Nevadans Remain in Poverty Investments in Human Needs Programs Needed that poverty remains stubbornly high. In Nevada, 15.2 percent of people were poor in 2014 ­ roughly the same as in 2013 when 15.8 percent were poor. The child poverty rate also remains stuck, with 22 percent of Nevada

  20. ORISE: Study finds foreign doctorate recipients' stay rates remain high

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNewsusceptometer underIRossybelle Perales ResearchRaquel Teasley

  1. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, William C. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  2. Elk's drilling pace steadies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The production level in the Elk Hills oil field in California (normally 161,000 bpd) is expected to remain constant in 1980 with the possibility of a 2000 to 3000 bpd increase in the second 6 months. The drilling pace also is expected to follow the same pattern of increased activity in the second 6 months of the year. The field is part of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, where operation of a gas plant and construction of new production facilities also is occurring. The predicted increase in Elk Hills production would come from operations of the gas plant as it comes fully on stream. The new production facilities include a low temperature separation facility. The possibility of implementing a waterflood program in part of the reserve and the future development of fractured shale sections also are discussed.

  3. PACKAGE (Plasma Analysis, Chemical Kinetics and Generator Efficiency): a computer program for the calculation of partial chemical equilibrium/partial chemical rate controlled composition of multiphased mixtures under one dimensional steady flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.H.; Haimes, R.

    1980-02-01

    The NASA CEC Code was the starting point for PACKAGE, whose function is to evaluate the composition of a multiphase combustion product mixture under the following chemical conditions: (1) total equilibrium with pure condensed species; (2) total equilibrium with ideal liquid solution; (3) partial equilibrium/partial finite rate chemistry; and (4) fully finite rate chemistry. The last three conditions were developed to treat the evolution of complex mixtures such as coal combustion products. The thermodynamic variable pairs considered are either pressure (P) and enthalpy, P and entropy, at P and temperature. Minimization of Gibbs free energy is used. This report gives detailed discussions of formulation and input/output information used in the code. Sample problems are given. The code development, description, and current programming constraints are discussed. (DLC)

  4. Steady State Load Characterization Fact Sheet: 2012 Chevy Volt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet characterizes the steady state charging behavior of a 2012 Chevy Volt. Both level 1 charging (120 volt) and level 2 charging (208 volts) is investigated. This fact sheet contains plots of efficiency, power factor, and current harmonics as vehicle charging is curtailed. Prominent current harmonics are also displayed in a histogram for various charge rates.

  5. Armament remains from His Majesty's sloop Boscawen 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Brinnen Stiles

    1995-01-01

    His Majesty's Sloop Boscawen was built on Lake Champlain by British forces in 1759 as part of their successful campaign to drive the French Army from the Champlain Valley. This thesis describes and analyzes the armament remains found in and around...

  6. The microstructure and rheology of a model, thixotropic nanoparticle gel under steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min Kim, Jung; Kate Gurnon, A.; Wagner, Norman J., E-mail: wagnernj@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Neutron Science, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Eberle, Aaron P. R. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Porcar, Lionel [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-09-01

    The microstructure-rheology relationship for a model, thermoreversible nanoparticle gel is investigated using a new technique of time-resolved neutron scattering under steady and time-resolved large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flows. A 21 vol. % gel is tested with varying strength of interparticle attraction. Shear-induced structural anisotropy is observed as butterfly scattering patterns and quantified through an alignment factor. Measurements in the plane of flow show significant, local anisotropy develops with alignment along the compressional axis of flow, providing new insights into how gels flow. The microstructure-rheology relationship is analyzed through a new type of structure-Lissajous plot that shows how the anisotropic microstructure is responsible for the observed LAOS response, which is beyond a response expected for a purely viscous gel with constant structure. The LAOS shear viscosities are observed to follow the “Delaware-Rutgers” rule. Rheological and microstructural data are successfully compared across a broad range of conditions by scaling the shear rate by the strength of attraction, providing a method to compare behavior between steady shear and LAOS experiments. However, important differences remain between the microstructures measured at comparatively high frequency in LAOS experiments and comparable steady shear experiments that illustrate the importance of measuring the microstructure to properly interpret the nonlinear, dynamic rheological response.

  7. Geothermal developers remain optimistic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive CompensationEnergy GeothermalDemonstration2008developers remain

  8. Typical Pure Nonequilibrium Steady States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takaaki Monnai; Kazuya Yuasa

    2014-08-12

    We show that typicality holds for a class of nonequilibrium systems, i.e., nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs): almost all the pure states properly sampled from a certain Hilbert space well represent a NESS and characterize its intrinsic thermal nature. We clarify the relevant Hilbert space from which the pure states are to be sampled, and construct practically all the typical pure NESSs. The scattering approach leads us to the natural extension of the typicality for equilibrium systems. Each pure NESS correctly yields the expectation values of observables given by the standard ensemble approach. It means that we can calculate the expectation values in a NESS with only a single pure NESS. We provide an explicit construction of the typical pure NESS for a model with two reservoirs, and see that it correctly reproduces the Landauer-type formula for the current flowing steadily between the reservoirs.

  9. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: steady state and linearized dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei-Ting Yeh; Hsuan-Yi Chen

    2015-08-07

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue is assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description for tissue dynamics at long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insight for the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface could enhance small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multi-layered tissues, it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology and developing pattern.

  10. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; GROVE,E.

    2001-03-29

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed.

  11. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, W.C.

    1983-05-17

    This invention relates to the confinement of field reversed plasma rings and, more particularly, to the steady state maintainance of field reversed plasma rings produced by coaxial plasma guns.

  12. Conditional moment analysis of steady state unsaturated flow in bounded, randomly heterogeneous soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    soils Zhiming Lu and Shlomo P. Neuman Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona 26 April 2002. [1] We consider steady state unsaturated flow in bounded, randomly heterogeneous soils that the solution may remain asymptotic for values of sY 2 as large as 2. INDEX TERMS: 1866 Hydrology: Soil moisture

  13. Some Observations Regarding Steady Laminar Flows Past Bluff Bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fornberg, Bengt

    Some Observations Regarding Steady Laminar Flows Past Bluff Bodies Bengt Fornberg Department, 2013. February 4, 2014 Abstract Steady laminar flows past simple objects, such as a cylinder

  14. POLICY FLASH 2015-25 - Acquisition Letters Remaining in Effect...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5 - Acquisition Letters Remaining in Effect POLICY FLASH 2015-25 - Acquisition Letters Remaining in Effect DATE: May 12, 2015 TO: Procurement DirectorsContracting Officers FROM:...

  15. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janos, Alan C. (E. Windsor, NJ); Jardin, Stephen C. (Princeton, NJ); Yamada, Masaaki (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    The inductively formed spheromak plasma can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. Steady-state operation is obtained by forming the plasma in the linked mode, then oscillating the poloidal and toroidal fields such that they have different phases. Preferably, the poloidal and magnetic fields are 90.degree. out of phase.

  16. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Erik Wahlén

    2011-04-01

    We construct small-amplitude periodic water waves with multiple critical layers. In addition to waves with arbitrarily many critical layers and a single crest in each period, two-dimensional sets of waves with several crests and troughs in each period are found. The setting is that of steady two-dimensional finite-depth gravity water waves with vorticity.

  17. Florida consumer confidence holds steady in May

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    . Consumer confidence held steady at 68 in May after dropping for three months since Feb. 1 when gasoline prices began shooting up, according to a new survey. But Floridians' perceptions of their own finances.8 from a revised 66 in April on worries about jobs and inflation for groceries and gasoline. The survey

  18. 4, 797821, 2007 Steady state 13C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of plant litter into more persistent organic compounds (Jones and Donelly, 2004). Carbon sequestration can-term steady state 13 C labelling to investigate carbon turnover in plant soil systems K. Klumpp, J. F mesocosms, allows tracing the fate of photosynthetic carbon in plant-soil systems in natural light

  19. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Yamada, M.

    1985-02-20

    The inductively formed spheromak configuration (S-1) can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. The method described eliminates the restriction to pulsed spheromak plasmas or the use of electrodes for steady-state operation, and, therefore, is a reactor-relevant formation and sustainment method.

  20. Interfacial colloidal monolayers under steady shear: structure and flow profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivo Buttinoni; Zachary A. Zell; Todd M. Squires; Lucio Isa

    2015-09-11

    We study the coupling between the structural dynamics and rheological response of charged colloidal monolayers at water/oil interfaces, driven into steady shear by a microdisk rotating at a controlled angular velocity. The flow causes particles to layer into rotating concentric rings linked to the local, position-dependent shear rate, which triggers two distinct dynamical regimes: particles move continuously "Flowing") close to the microdisk, or exhibit intermittent "Hopping" between local energy minima farther away. The shear-rate dependent surface viscosity of a monolayer can be extracted from an interfacial stress balance, giving "macroscopic" flow curves whose behavior corresponds to the distinct microscopic regimes of particle motion. Hopping Regions correspond to a surface yield stress $\\eta \\sim \\tau_S^Y \\dot{\\gamma}^{-1}$, whereas Flowing Regions exhibit surface viscosities with power-law shear-thinning characteristics.

  1. Non-equilibrium steady states for chains of four rotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé Cuneo; Jean-Pierre Eckmann

    2015-04-20

    We study a chain of four interacting rotors (rotators) connected at both ends to stochastic heat baths at different temperatures. We show that for non-degenerate interaction potentials the system relaxes, at a stretched exponential rate, to a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). Rotors with high energy tend to decouple from their neighbors due to fast oscillation of the forces. Because of this, the energy of the central two rotors, which interact with the heat baths only through the external rotors, can take a very long time to dissipate. By appropriately averaging the oscillatory forces, we estimate the dissipation rate and construct a Lyapunov function. Compared to the chain of length three (considered previously by C. Poquet and the current authors), the new difficulty with four rotors is the apparition of resonances when both central rotors are fast. We deal with these resonances using the rapid thermalization of the two external rotors.

  2. Interfacial colloidal monolayers under steady shear: structure and flow profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivo Buttinoni; Zachary A. Zell; Todd M. Squires; Lucio Isa

    2015-04-01

    We study the coupling between the structural dynamics and rheological response of charged colloidal monolayers at water/oil interfaces, driven into steady shear by a microdisk rotating at a controlled angular velocity. The flow causes particles to layer into rotating concentric rings linked to the local, position-dependent shear rate, which triggers two distinct dynamical regimes: particles move continuously "Flowing") close to the microdisk, or exhibit intermittent "Hopping" between local energy minima farther away. The shear-rate dependent surface viscosity of a monolayer can be extracted from an interfacial stress balance, giving "macroscopic" flow curves whose behavior corresponds to the distinct microscopic regimes of particle motion. Hopping Regions correspond to a surface yield stress $\\eta \\sim \\tau_S^Y \\dot{\\gamma}^{-1}$, whereas Flowing Regions exhibit surface viscosities with power-law shear-thinning characteristics.

  3. Steady subsidence of Medicine Lake volcano, northern California, revealed by repeated leveling surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steady subsidence of Medicine Lake volcano, northern California, revealed by repeated leveling) in 1954 and 1989 show that the summit area subsided by as much as 302 ± 30 mm (À8.6 ± 0.9 mm in the earlier analysis of the same data by Dzurisin et al. [1991], who reported the subsidence rate as À11.1 ± 1

  4. ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles System-level models using...

  5. FORMULATION OF NON-STEADY-STATE DUST FORMATION PROCESS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nozawa, Takaya [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kozasa, Takashi, E-mail: takaya.nozawa@ipmu.jp [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2013-10-10

    The non-steady-state formation of small clusters and the growth of grains accompanied by chemical reactions are formulated under the consideration that the collision of key gas species (key molecule) controls the kinetics of dust formation process. The formula allows us to evaluate the size distribution and condensation efficiency of dust formed in astrophysical environments. We apply the formulation to the formation of C and MgSiO{sub 3} grains in the ejecta of supernovae, as an example, to investigate how the non-steady effect influences the formation process, condensation efficiency f{sub con,{sub ?}}, and average radius a{sub ave,{sub ?}} of newly formed grains in comparison with the results calculated with the steady-state nucleation rate. We show that the steady-state nucleation rate is a good approximation if the collision timescale of key molecule ?{sub coll} is much smaller than the timescale ?{sub sat} with which the supersaturation ratio increases; otherwise the effect of the non-steady state becomes remarkable, leading to a lower f{sub con,{sub ?}} and a larger a{sub ave,{sub ?}}. Examining the results of calculations, we reveal that the steady-state nucleation rate is applicable if the cooling gas satisfies ? ? ?{sub sat}/?{sub coll} ?> 30 during the formation of dust, and find that f{sub con,{sub ?}} and a{sub ave,{sub ?}} are uniquely determined by ?{sub on} at the onset time t{sub on} of dust formation. The approximation formulae for f{sub con,{sub ?}} and a{sub ave,{sub ?}} as a function of ?{sub on} could be useful in estimating the mass and typical size of newly formed grains from observed or model-predicted physical properties not only in supernova ejecta but also in mass-loss winds from evolved stars.

  6. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Z. L. Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.

    2014-06-30

    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20?Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5?GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80?Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5?GHz.

  7. Right-Handed New Physics Remains Strangely Beautiful

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    56620 Right-Handed New Physics Remains Strangely Beautifuland Gilad Perez 1 Theoretical Physics Group, Ernest OrlandoCA 94720 Department of Physics, University of California,

  8. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.

    1990-07-17

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.

  9. A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains to Be Done to Achieve Its Potential - Cost-Effectiveness Working Group A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What...

  10. Constraints On The Mechanism Of Long-Term, Steady Subsidence...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Constraints On The Mechanism Of Long-Term, Steady Subsidence At Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California, From Gps, Leveling, And Insar Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  11. Online Estimation of the Remaining Energy Capacity in Mobile Systems Considering System-Wide Power Consumption and Battery Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Online Estimation of the Remaining Energy Capacity in Mobile Systems Considering System-Wide Power on estimating the remaining battery energy in Android OS-based mobile systems. This paper proposes to instrument for the whole system. Next, while ac- counting for the rate-capacity effect in batteries, the total power

  12. Impedance Biosensors: Applications to Sustainability and Remaining Technical Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Impedance Biosensors: Applications to Sustainability and Remaining Technical Challenges Rajeswaran: Due to their all-electrical nature, impedance biosensors have significant potential for use as simple of 8.5 and 1.3 ng/mL for norfluoxetine and BDE-47, respectively. Although impedance biosensors have

  13. REMAINING OIL AND NATURAL GAS RESOURCES OF NEW MEXICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    REMAINING OIL AND NATURAL GAS RESOURCES OF NEW MEXICO Ronald F. Broadhead New Mexico Bureau 5.2 billion bbls of crude oil and 56 trillion cubic ft3 of natural gas since production of these resources began in the 1920's. During 2002, 67 million bbls oil and 1.6 trillion ft3 gas were produced

  14. Reply to Davies: Hydraulic fracturing remains a possible mechanism for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    LETTER Reply to Davies: Hydraulic fracturing remains a possible mechanism for observed methane mechanisms were leaky gas well casings and the possibility that hydraulic fracturing might generate new- knowledged the possibility of hydraulic fracturing playing a role. Is it possible that hydraulic fracturing

  15. Heat Transfer Modeling and Use of Distributed Temperature Measurements to Predict Rate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hashmi, Gibran Mushtaq

    2014-07-08

    in the literature. The steady-state model is used where the fluid flow is essentially steady and any change in rate is followed by a sufficiently long steady schedule. The transient model is used where the well is still flowing in the initial stages or fluctuations...

  16. EXISTENCE OF KNOTTED VORTEX TUBES IN STEADY EULER FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Alberto

    EXISTENCE OF KNOTTED VORTEX TUBES IN STEADY EULER FLOWS ALBERTO ENCISO AND DANIEL PERALTA-SALAS Abstract. We prove the existence of knotted and linked thin vortex tubes for steady solutions of vortex tubes of a Beltrami field that tends to zero at infinity. The structure of the vortex lines

  17. SLOPE DISTRIBUTIONS, THRESHOLD HILLSLOPES, AND STEADY-STATE TOPOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    SLOPE DISTRIBUTIONS, THRESHOLD HILLSLOPES, AND STEADY-STATE TOPOGRAPHY DAVID R. MONTGOMERY hillslopes, and steady-state topography. Plots of drainage area versus slope for these mountain ranges or exponential distributions in areas of active rock uplift and depositional topography, respectively. Local

  18. Steady two-layer source-sink flow Lynne Talley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    and plane steady ocean circulation models. 2. Equations The two-layer system is illustrated in Fig. 1. H1 Dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution WHOI-79-84 (advisor: Adrian Gill) August, 1979 Note Greenland Current and colder fresher water from the north. The model discussed here is a steady extension

  19. Quantifying Maintenance Requirements From the Steady-State Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    Quantifying Maintenance Requirements From the Steady-State Operation of a Two-Phase Partitioning remarkably through achievement of steady-state operation. The data conclusively show that maintenance and explicitly quantifying the maintenance energy requirements of pure cultures growing on volatile organic

  20. Steady State of Pedestrian Flow in Bottleneck Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Weichen; Seyfried, Armin; Chraibi, Mohcine; Drzycimski, Kevin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with pedestrians could depend strongly on initial conditions. Comparisons of the results of such experiments require to distinguish carefully between transient state and steady state. In this work, a feasible algorithm - Cumulative Sum Control Chart - is proposed and improved to automatically detect steady states from density and speed time series of bottleneck experiments. The threshold of the detection parameter in the algorithm is calibrated using an autoregressive model. Comparing the detected steady states with previous manually selected ones, the modified algorithm gives more reproducible results. For the applications, three groups of bottleneck experiments are analysed and the steady states are detected. The study about pedestrian flow shows that the difference between the flows in all states and in steady state mainly depends on the ratio of pedestrian number to bottleneck width. When the ratio is higher than a critical value (approximately 115 persons/m), the flow in all states is almost ...

  1. Personal Details I wish my gift to remain anonymous II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    If you are a UK taxpayer, Brasenose can claim back 25p for every £1 you give at no extra cost to you. If you are a higher rate taxpayer you can claim further tax relief in your Self-Assessment tax form

  2. Autonomous quantum thermal machine for generating steady-state entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonatan Bohr Brask; Nicolas Brunner; Géraldine Haack; Marcus Huber

    2015-04-15

    We discuss a simple quantum thermal machine for the generation of steady-state entanglement between two interacting qubits. The machine is autonomous in the sense that it uses only incoherent interactions with thermal baths, but no source of coherence or external control. By weakly coupling the qubits to thermal baths at different temperatures, inducing a heat current through the system, steady-state entanglement is generated far from thermal equilibrium. Finally, we discuss two possible implementations, using superconducting flux qubits or a semiconductor double quantum dot. Experimental prospects for steady-state entanglement are promising in both systems.

  3. The steady-state control problem for Markov decision processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    ensuring that the steady-state distribution of M under is exactly goal. We first show that station- ary MDP, and provide a PTIME algorithm using linear programming tech- niques. (2) We next lift the problem

  4. BURNER DEVELOPMENT AND OPERABILITY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH STEADY FLOWING SYNGAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Timothy C.

    mechanisms developed for hydrogen/carbon monoxide ignition overestimate the ignition delay time, indicating Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA 2 UCI Combustion Laboratory, University- back, dynamic stability, and autoignition in premixed, steady flowing combustion systems

  5. Issues in the statistical mechanics of steady sedimentation Sriram Ramaswamy*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    Issues in the statistical mechanics of steady sedimentation Sriram Ramaswamy* Centre for Condensed://www.tandf.co.uk/journals DOI: 10.1080/0001873011005061 7 * e-mail: sriram@ physics.iisc.ernet.in #12;4.5. Theories

  6. Method and apparatus for adapting steady flow with cyclic thermodynamics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Reid, Robert S. (Los Alamos, NM); Ward, William C. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Energy transfer apparatus has a resonator for supporting standing acoustic waves at a selected frequency with a steady flow process fluid thermodynamic medium and a solid medium having heat capacity. The fluid medium and the solid medium are disposed within the resonator for thermal contact therebetween and for relative motion therebetween. The relative motion is produced by a first means for producing a steady velocity component and second means for producing an oscillating velocity component at the selected frequency and concomitant wavelength of the standing acoustic wave. The oscillating velocity and associated oscillating pressure component provide energy transfer between the steady flow process fluid and the solid medium as the steady flow process fluid moves through the resonator.

  7. On the Steady Nature of Line-Driven Disk Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas A. Pereyra; Stanley P. Owocki; D. John Hillier; David A. Turnshek

    2003-11-11

    We perform an analytic investigation of the stability of line-driven disk winds, independent of hydrodynamic simulations. Our motive is to determine whether or not line-driven disk winds can account for the wide/broad UV resonance absorption lines seen in cataclysmic variables (CVs) and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). In both CVs and QSOs observations generally indicate that the absorption arising in the outflowing winds has a steady velocity structure on time scales exceeding years (for CVs) and decades (for QSOs). However, published results from hydrodynamic simulations of line-driven disk winds are mixed, with some researchers claiming that the models are inherently unsteady, while other models produce steady winds. The analytic investigation presented here shows that if the accretion disk is steady, then the line-driven disk wind emanating from it can also be steady. In particular, we show that a gravitational force initially increasing along the wind streamline, which is characteristic of disk winds, does not imply an unsteady wind. The steady nature of line-driven disk winds is consistent with the 1D streamline disk-wind models of Murray and collaborators and the 2.5D time-dependent models of Pereyra and collaborators. This paper emphasizes the underlying physics behind the steady nature of line-driven disk winds using mathematically simple models that mimic the disk environment

  8. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gin, Stephane [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoda (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps.

  9. Enhancing Android Accessibility for Users with Hand Tremor by Reducing Fine Pointing and Steady Tapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Enhancing Android Accessibility for Users with Hand Tremor by Reducing Fine Pointing and Steady; magnification; Android; disambiguation; fine pointing; steady tapping. ACM Classification Keywords H.5

  10. Effects of aging in catastrophe on the steady state and dynamics of a microtubule population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Jemseena; Manoj Gopalakrishnan

    2015-07-01

    Several independent observations have suggested that catastrophe transition in microtubules is not a first-order process, as is usually assumed. Recent {\\it in vitro} observations by Gardner et al.[ M. K. Gardner et al., Cell {\\bf147}, 1092 (2011)] showed that microtubule catastrophe takes place via multiple steps and the frequency increases with the age of the filament. Here, we investigate, via numerical simulations and mathematical calculations, some of the consequences of age dependence of catastrophe on the dynamics of microtubules as a function of the aging rate, for two different models of aging: exponential growth, but saturating asymptotically and purely linear growth. The boundary demarcating the steady state and non-steady state regimes in the dynamics is derived analytically in both cases. Numerical simulations, supported by analytical calculations in the linear model, show that aging leads to non-exponential length distributions in steady state. More importantly, oscillations ensue in microtubule length and velocity. The regularity of oscillations, as characterized by the negative dip in the autocorrelation function, is reduced by increasing the frequency of rescue events. Our study shows that age dependence of catastrophe could function as an intrinsic mechanism to generate oscillatory dynamics in a microtubule population, distinct from hitherto identified ones.

  11. Pre-Steady-State Analysis of ATP Hydrolysis by Saccharomyces cereVisiae DNA Topoisomerase II. 2. Kinetic Mechanism for the Sequential Hydrolysis of Two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Timothy

    DriVe, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, and Department of Mathematics, UniVersity of Utah, 233 John Widtsoe, and consequently identify kinetic steps following the rate-determining step. For catalytic turnover, type II DNAH-rate studies, as described below. All buffers were filtered (0.45 µm). Steady-State Product Inhibition Studies

  12. Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Lin; J. P. Gaebler; F. Reiter; T. R. Tan; R. Bowler; A. S. Sørensen; D. Leibfried; D. J. Wineland

    2013-07-16

    Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryp-tography, and quantum computation [1].To date, controlled unitary interactions applied to a quantum system, so-called "quantum gates", have been the most widely used method to deterministically create entanglement [2]. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation as well as minimizing the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here, on the contrary, we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion qubits independent of their initial state. While previous works along this line involved the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates [3] or generated entanglement of atomic ensembles dissipatively but relied on a measurement record for steady-state entanglement [4], we implement the process in a continuous time-independent fashion, analogous to optical pumping of atomic states. By continuously driving the system towards steady-state, the entanglement is stabilized even in the presence of experimental noise and decoherence. Our demonstration of an entangled steady state of two qubits represents a step towards dissipative state engineering, dissipative quantum computation, and dissipative phase transitions [5-7]. Following this approach, engineered coupling to the environment may be applied to a broad range of experimental systems to achieve desired quantum dynamics or steady states. Indeed, concurrently with this work, an entangled steady state of two superconducting qubits was demonstrated using dissipation [8].

  13. Tracer advection by steady groundwater flow in a stratified aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sposito, Garrison; Weeks, Scott W.

    1997-01-02

    The perfectly stratified aquifer has often been investigated as a simple, tractable model for exploring new theoretical issues in subsurface hydrology. Adopting this approach, we show that steady groundwater flows in the perfectly stratified aquifer are always confined to a set of nonintersecting permanent surfaces, on which both streamlines and vorticity lines lie. This foliation of the flow domain exists as well for steady groundwater flows in any isotropic, spatially heterogeneous aquifer. In the present model example it is a direct consequence of the existence of a stream function, we then demonstrate that tracer plume advection by steady groundwater flow in a perfectly stratified aquifer is never ergodic, regardless of the initial size of the tracer plume. This nonergodicity, which holds also for tracer advection in any isotropic, spatially heterogeneous aquifer, implies that stochastic theories of purely advective tracer plume movement err in assuming ergodic behavior to simplify probabilistic calculations of plume spatial concentration moments.

  14. Entropy and specific heat for open systems in steady states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. L. Huang; B. Cui; X. X. Yi

    2010-01-27

    The fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics is that the system is equally likely in any of the accessible microstates. Based on this assumption, the Boltzmann distribution is derived and the full theory of statistical thermodynamics can be built. In this paper, we show that the Boltzmann distribution in general can not describe the steady state of open system. Based on the effective Hamiltonian approach, we calculate the specific heat, the free energy and the entropy for an open system in steady states. Examples are illustrated and discussed.

  15. Existence of knotted vortex tubes in steady Euler flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberto Enciso; Daniel Peralta-Salas

    2014-10-23

    We prove the existence of knotted and linked thin vortex tubes for steady solutions to the incompressible Euler equation in R^3. More precisely, given a finite collection of (possibly linked and knotted) disjoint thin tubes in R^3, we show that they can be transformed with a C^m-small diffeomorphism into a set of vortex tubes of a Beltrami field that tends to zero at infinity. The structure of the vortex lines in the tubes is extremely rich, presenting a positive-measure set of invariant tori and infinitely many periodic vortex lines. The problem of the existence of steady knotted vortex tubes can be traced back to Lord Kelvin.

  16. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourhasan, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P = P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  17. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razieh Pourhasan

    2015-11-20

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P = P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  18. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razieh Pourhasan

    2015-09-03

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P = P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  19. Models for steady state cycles in simple cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Steven D.

    Models for steady state cycles in simple cells Steve Bennett April 19, 2004 Abstract Candidate simple cell models are explored, with emphasis on their potential to result in a stable cell cycle, and consequences and limitations of each model are discussed. 1 Introduction and Background Cell architecture

  20. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers: interior dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Gabriele Villari

    2011-04-01

    We study small-amplitude steady water waves with multiple critical layers. Those are rotational two-dimensional gravity-waves propagating over a perfect fluid of finite depth. It is found that arbitrarily many critical layers with cat's-eye vortices are possible, with different structure at different levels within the fluid. The corresponding vorticity depends linearly on the stream function.

  1. Steady detonation problem for slow and fast chemical reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceragioli, Francesca

    Steady detonation problem for slow and fast chemical reactions F. Conforto1 , M. Groppi2 , R chemical reaction are discussed. The former consists in a system of balance laws for the case of a chemical is a system of conser- vation laws for the case of short chemical relaxation time (fast reaction). After

  2. OM 14-66; Board's Interest Rate Remains 3 Percent for the Fourth Quarter, FY 14; 6/11/14

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -DepartmentAvailable forSite |n t78 I.(NationalOE'sOHAOLEDREDUCEJ

  3. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  4. Arbitrary axisymmetric steady streaming: Flow, force and propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spelman, Tamsin A

    2015-01-01

    A well-developed method to induce mixing on microscopic scales is to exploit flows generated by steady streaming. Steady streaming is a classical fluid dynamics phenomenon whereby a time-periodic forcing in the bulk or along a boundary is enhanced by inertia to induce a non-zero net flow. Building on classical work for simple geometrical forcing and motivated by the complex shape oscillations of elastic capsules and bubbles, we develop the mathematical framework to quantify the steady streaming of a spherical body with arbitrary axisymmetric time-periodic boundary conditions. We compute the flow asymptotically for small-amplitude oscillations of the boundary in the limit where the viscous penetration length scale is much smaller than the body. In that case, the flow has a boundary layer structure and the fluid motion is solved by asymptotic matching. Our results, presented in the case of no-slip boundary conditions and extended to include the motion of vibrating free surfaces, recovers classical work as parti...

  5. QUASI-STEADY CONFIGURATIONS OF CONDUCTIVE INTRACLUSTER MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voit, G. M.

    2011-10-10

    The radial distributions of temperature, density, and gas entropy among cool-core clusters tend to be quite similar, suggesting that they have entered a quasi-steady state. If that state is regulated by a combination of thermal conduction and feedback from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN), then the characteristics of those radial profiles ought to contain information about the spatial distribution of AGN heat input and the relative importance of thermal conduction. This paper addresses those topics by deriving steady-state solutions for clusters in which radiative cooling, electron thermal conduction, and thermal feedback fueled by accretion are all present, with the aim of interpreting the configurations of cool-core clusters in terms of steady-state models. It finds that the core configurations of many cool-core clusters have entropy levels just below those of conductively balanced solutions in which magnetic fields have suppressed electron thermal conduction to {approx}1/3 of the full Spitzer value, suggesting that AGN feedback is triggered when conduction can no longer compensate for radiative cooling. And even when feedback is necessary to heat the central {approx}30 kpc, conduction may still be the most important heating mechanism within a cluster's central {approx}100 kpc.

  6. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28

    Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a challenge for small water systems. They must generate enough revenue to remain solvent, but offer affordable service. This publication describes the various types of rates and explains...

  7. Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along 1D frictional interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amundsen, David Skålid; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasi-static velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a 1D spring-block model of an extended frictional interface, for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons--Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates stead...

  8. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  9. Optimization of hybrid dynamic/steady-state processes using process integration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grooms, Daniel Douglas

    2009-06-02

    PROBLEM STATEMENT................................................................ 5 III OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS AND SCHEDULING OF HYBRID DYNAMIC/STEADY-STATE MASS EXCHANGE NETWORKS..................................................................................... 23 IV OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS AND SCHEDULING OF HYBRID DYNAMIC/STEADY-STATE PROPERTY INTEGRATION NETWORKS ......................................................... 24 4.1 Introduction...

  10. Accelerated Iterative Method for Solving Steady Solutions of Linearized Atmospheric Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanabe, Masahiro

    Accelerated Iterative Method for Solving Steady Solutions of Linearized Atmospheric Models Masahiro approach, referred to as the accelerated iterative method (AIM), is developed for solving steady state, respectively. For ensuring the accelerated asymptotic convergence of iterative procedure

  11. Design and Present status of Steady-state spherical tokamak, QUEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Design and Present status of Steady-state spherical tokamak, QUEST K.Hanada, H.Zushi, K.N.Sato, K Component Interactions in Steady State Magnetic Fusion Devices at NIFS #12;Japanese Collaborators and Map knowledge QUEST #12;Why steady-state ? Time (sec) Hsupply(1020 H) wall pumping ~4 x 1017 [H/m2s] High

  12. From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy By Herman Daly A steady-state economy of negative growth, a depression such as we are entering now, is a failed-growth economy, not a steady-state economy. Halting an accelerating downward spiral is necessary but is not the same thing as resuming

  13. Steady state entanglement in the mechanical vibrations of two dielectric membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael J. Hartmann; Martin B. Plenio

    2008-09-15

    We consider two dielectric membranes suspended inside a Fabry-Perot-cavity, which are cooled to a steady state via a drive by suitable classical lasers. We show that the vibrations of the membranes can be entangled in this steady state. They thus form two mechanical, macroscopic degrees of freedom that share steady state entanglement.

  14. Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state), Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state, variably and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state, variably saturated flow'' by Kelly

  15. Surfkin: A program to solve transient and steady state heterogeneous reaction kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COLTRIN,MICHAEL E.; WIXOM,RYAN R.; DANDY,DAVID S.

    2000-05-01

    Heterogeneous chemical reactions occurring at a gas/surface interface are fundamental in a variety of important applications, such as combustion, catalysis, chemical vapor deposition and plasma processing. Detailed simulation of these processes may involve complex, coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, gas-phase chemistry, in addition to heterogeneous reaction chemistry. This report documents the Surfkin program, which simulates the kinetics of heterogeneous chemical reactions. The program is designed for use with the Chemkin and Surface Chemkin (heterogeneous chemistry) programs. It calculates time-dependent or steady state surface site fractions and bulk-species production/destruction rates. The surface temperature may be specified as a function of time to simulate a temperature-programmed desorption experiment, for example. This report serves as a user's manual for the program, explaining the required input and format of the output. Two detailed example problems are included to further illustrate the use of this program.

  16. Steady-state, high-dose neutron generation and concentration apparatus and method for deuterium atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    A steady-state source of neutrons is produced within an electrically grounded and temperature controlled chamber confining tritium or deuterium plasma at a predetermined density to effect implantation of ions in the surface of a palladium target rod coated with diffusion barrier material and immersed in such plasma. The rod is enriched with a high concentration of deuterium atoms after a prolonged plasma ion implantation. Collision of the deuterium atoms in the target by impinging ions of the plasma initiates fusion reactions causing emission of neutrons during negative voltage pulses applied to the rod through a high power modulator. The neutrons are so generated at a relatively high dose rate under optimized process conditions.

  17. Microsoft Word - AL 2010-07 Acquistion Letters Remaining in Effect...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010-07 Acquistion Letters Remaining in Effect May 2010 revision 1 June 2010 Microsoft Word - AL 2010-07 Acquistion Letters Remaining in Effect May 2010 revision 1 June 2010...

  18. Energy Department Issues Remaining $1.8 Billion in Loan Guarantees...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Remaining 1.8 Billion in Loan Guarantees for Vogtle Advanced Nuclear Energy Project Energy Department Issues Remaining 1.8 Billion in Loan Guarantees for Vogtle Advanced Nuclear...

  19. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-01-01

    for Modeling Steady, Laminar, One-Dimensional PremixedType of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-to support another kind of laminar ?ame that is steady and

  20. Effective Temperature in Steady-state Dynamics from Holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    We argue that, within the realm of gauge-gravity duality, for a large class of systems in a steady-state there exists an effective thermodynamic description. This description comes equipped with an effective temperature and a free energy, but no well-defined notion of entropy. Such systems are described by probe degrees of freedom propagating in a much larger background, e.g. $N_f$ number of ${\\cal N} =2$ hypermultiplets in ${\\cal N}=4$ $SU(N_c)$ super Yang-Mills theory, in the limit $N_f \\ll N_c$. The steady-state is induced by exciting an external electric field that couples to the hypermultiplets and drives a constant current. With various stringy examples, we demonstrate that an open string equivalence principle determines a unique effective temperature for all fluctuations in the probe-sector. We further discuss various properties of the corresponding open string metric that determines the effective geometry which the probe degrees of freedom are coupled to. We also comment on the non-Abelian generalizat...

  1. Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. D. Nation

    2015-04-25

    We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterations using the stabilized bi-conjugate gradient method outperform generalized minimal residual methods. In contrast, minimal residual methods work best for solvers based on direct LU decomposition. This work serves as a guide for solving the steady-state density matrix of an arbitrary quantum optical system, and points to several avenues of future research that will extend the applicability of these classical algorithms in absence of a quantum computer.

  2. Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Raman

    2003-10-08

    The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs.

  3. Exact equalities and thermodynamic relations for nonequilibrium steady states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teruhisa S. Komatsu; Naoko Nakagawa; Shin-ichi Sasa; Hal Tasaki

    2014-12-25

    We study thermodynamic operations which bring a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) to another NESS in physical systems under nonequilibrium conditions. We model the system by a suitable Markov jump process, and treat thermodynamic operations as protocols according to which the external agent varies parameters of the Markov process. Then we prove, among other relations, a NESS version of the Jarzynski equality and the extended Clausius relation. The latter can be a starting point of thermodynamics for NESS. We also find that the corresponding nonequilibrium entropy has a microscopic representation in terms of symmetrized Shannon entropy in systems where the microscopic description of states involves "momenta". All the results in the present paper are mathematically rigorous.

  4. Steady-State Electrical Conduction in the Periodic Lorentz Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. I. Chernov; G. L. Eyink; J. L. Lebowitz; Ya. G. Sinai

    1993-02-08

    We study nonequilibrium steady states in the Lorentz gas of periodic scatterers when an external field is applied and the particle kinetic energy is held fixed by a ``thermostat'' constructed according to Gauss' principle of least constraint (a model problem previously studied numerically by Moran and Hoover). The resulting dynamics is reversible and deterministic, but does not preserve Liouville measure. For a sufficiently small field, we prove the following results: (1) existence of a unique stationary, ergodic measure obtained by forward evolution of initial absolutely continuous distributions, for which the Pesin entropy formula and Young's expression for the fractal dimension are valid; (2) exact identity of the steady-state thermodyamic entropy production, the asymptotic decay of the Gibbs entropy for the time-evolved distribution, and minus the sum of the Lyapunov exponents; (3) an explicit expression for the full nonlinear current response (Kawasaki formula); and (4) validity of linear response theory and Ohm's transport law, including the Einstein relation between conductivity and diffusion matrices. Results (2) and (4) yield also a direct relation between Lyapunov exponents and zero-field transport (=diffusion) coefficients. Although we restrict ourselves here to dimension $d=2,$ the results carry over to higher dimensions and to some other physical situations: e.g. with additional external magnetic fields. The proofs use a well-developed theory of small perturbations of hyperbolic dynamical systems and the method of Markov sieves, an approximation of Markov partitions. In our context we discuss also the van Kampen objection to linear response theory, which, we point out, overlooks the ``structural stability'' of strongly hyperbolic flows.

  5. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  6. Microsoft Word - AL 2010-07 Acquistion Letters Remaining in Effect...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * * * * * * * * ACQUISITION LETTERS REMAINING IN EFFECT NUMBER DATE SUBJECT 93-4 04071993 Displaced Workers Benefits Program 94-19 12091994 Basic Labor Policies Fringe...

  7. Severe Weather Update: JLab Remains in HPC-2 for Nor'easter ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Severe Weather Update: JLab Remains in HPC-2 for Nor'easter & Hurricane Jefferson Lab's Emergency Management Severe Weather Team continues monitoring the forecasts and conditions...

  8. Non-equilibrium steady state and subgeometric ergodicity for a chain of three coupled rotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé Cuneo; Jean-Pierre Eckmann; Christophe Poquet

    2015-09-03

    We consider a chain of three rotors (rotators) whose ends are coupled to stochastic heat baths. The temperatures of the two baths can be different, and we allow some constant torque to be applied at each end of the chain. Under some non-degeneracy condition on the interaction potentials, we show that the process admits a unique invariant probability measure, and that it is ergodic with a stretched exponential rate. The interesting issue is to estimate the rate at which the energy of the middle rotor decreases. As it is not directly connected to the heat baths, its energy can only be dissipated through the two outer rotors. But when the middle rotor spins very rapidly, it fails to interact effectively with its neighbors due to the rapid oscillations of the forces. By averaging techniques, we obtain an effective dynamics for the middle rotor, which then enables us to find a Lyapunov function. This and an irreducibility argument give the desired result. We finally illustrate numerically some properties of the non-equilibrium steady state.

  9. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng cycle-life tends to shrink significantly. The capacities of commercial lithium-ion batteries fade by 10 prediction model to estimate the remaining capacity of a Lithium-Ion battery. The proposed analytical model

  10. Hull Remains from the Pabuç Burnu Shipwreck and Early Transition in Archaic Greek Shipbuilding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polzer, Mark Edward

    2010-10-12

    In 2002 and 2003, the Institute of Nautical Archaeology excavated the remains of an East Greek ship that sank off the coast of Pabuç Burnu, Turkey, sometime in the second quarter of the sixth century B.C. The scant remains ...

  11. EMERGENCY--CALL 911 Remain calm Give exact location Do not hang up!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, Jonathan

    EMERGENCY PROCEDURES EMERGENCY--CALL 911 · Remain calm · Give exact location · Do not hang up! · NON-EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CAMPUSPOLICE Office-enter the building when alarm stops--wait for OK from Police/Fire MEDICAL EMERGENCY · Remain calm--call 911

  12. Steady state and dynamic modeling of a packed bed reactor for the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde: experimental results compared with model predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwedock, M.J.; Windes, L.C.; Ray, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Heterogeneous and pseudohomogeneous models are compared to experimental data from a packed bed reactor for the partical oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over an iron oxide-molybdenum oxide catalyst. Heat transfer parameters which were successful in matching data from experiments without reaction were not successful in matching temperature data from experiments with reaction. This made it necessary to decrease the fluid radial heat transfer to obtain good fit. A good fit was obtained for steady state composition profiles by optimizing selected frequency factors and the activation energy for methanol. A redox rate expression for the oxidation of formaldehyde to carbon monoxide was proposed since a simple first-order rate expression did not fit the data. The pseudohomogeneous model gave results similar to the heterogeneous model for both steady state and dynamic experiments and has been recommended for future experimental state estimation and control studies. 21 refs., 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Steady state relativistic stellar dynamics around a massive black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar-Or, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the "loss-cone", which take them directly into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena: tidal heating and tidal disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, are of interest as they can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the existence of the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, probe strong gravity, and provide information on stars and gas near the MBH. The continuous loss of stars and the processes that resupply them shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss-cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady-state analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclos...

  14. Steady-state and transient thermal performance of subsea hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabaras, G.J.; Zhang, J.

    1998-06-01

    The thermal performance of subsea hardware is of ultimate importance to the economic development and reliable operation of deepwater subsea oil and gas systems because of the potential for hydrate formation. Results of numerical calculations are presented on the thermal performance of subsea equipment such as wellheads, tubing and flowline jumpers, and flowline field joints. In contrast to previous published studies on the thermal performance of insulated subsea wellbores and flowlines, this paper addresses the thermal performance of the subsea equipment that can provide weak thermal links for the subsea system. A two-dimensional (2D), general-purpose, finite-element, partial-differential equation solver was used to analyze the steady-state and transient thermal behavior at different cross sections of the subsea tree. This paper presents a new method for predicting pressure profiles in oil and gas wells. The method combines mechanistic flow-pattern transition criteria with physical models for pressure-loss and liquid-holdup calculations for each of the flow patterns considered. Past published methods relied heavily on empirical fit of limited field data. As a result, they are inaccurate when used outside the range of data upon which they are based. In contrast, the new method is universally applicable to all types of wells under all operating scenarios because it is based on fundamental physics rather than the curve-fit of field data. Its prediction performance has been demonstrated by extensive comparison to field data from a variety of wells.

  15. Acquisition LetteJ'S (AL) that remain in effect are identified...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LetteJ'S (AL) that remain in effect are identified below. All odJer previously issued ALs have been supersedcd by a formal rule-making. incorporated into other guidance, andor...

  16. A steady-state L-mode tokamak fusion reactor : large scale and minimum scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark W. (Mark Wilbert)

    2010-01-01

    We perform extensive analysis on the physics of L-mode tokamak fusion reactors to identify (1) a favorable parameter space for a large scale steady-state reactor and (2) an operating point for a minimum scale steady-state ...

  17. High-Steady-State Advanced Tokamak Regimes for ITER and FIRE D. M. Meade1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FT High- Steady-State Advanced Tokamak Regimes for ITER and FIRE D. M. Meade1 , N. R. Sauthoff1 , C Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA An attractive tokamak-based fusion power plant will require the development of high- steady- state advanced tokamak regimes to produce a high gain burning

  18. BOOTSTRAP-CURRENT-DRIVEN STEADY-STATE TOKAMAK J.C. Sprott

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    BOOTSTRAP-CURRENT-DRIVEN STEADY-STATE TOKAMAK J.C. Sprott PLP 891 January 1983 Plasma Studies of the authors and major professor. #12;BOOTSTRAP-CURRENT-DRIVEN STEADY-STATE TOKAMAK J.C. Sprott We examime here the possibility of modifying the Levitated Octupole to operate as a tokamak with a rotational transform produced

  19. APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Contraction: Multiple Steady States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Contraction: Multiple Steady States Benjamin Akers Department states, as well as a steady reservoir with a two-dimensional hydraulic jump in the contraction occur-dimensional hydraulic theory provides a comprehensive leading-order explanation, but quadratic friction is re- quired

  20. Optimization of a Steady-State Tokamak-Based Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization of a Steady-State Tokamak-Based Power Plant Farrokh Najmabadi University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA IEA Workshop 59 "Shape and aspect ratio optimization for high , steady between a physics optimization and an integrated systems optimization Identify key impact of physics

  1. Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow V. Langlois and A. Valance laminar shear flow using a process-based stability approach. The hydrodynamics of the problem is solved under steady laminar shear flow, J. Geophys. Res., 110, F04S09, doi:10.1029/2004JF000278. 1

  2. A stochastic analysis of steady state two-phase flow in heterogeneous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhiming

    and soil pore size distribution. A stochastic numerical model for steady state water-oil flow in a random these expansions of Y(x), b(x) and dependent pressures, the steady state water-oil flow equations and corresponding size distribution b(x) are assumed to be Gaussian random functions with a separable exponential

  3. Photovoltaic transistors based on a steady-state internal polarization effect in asymmetric semiconductor superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luryi, Serge

    Photovoltaic transistors based on a steady-state internal polarization effect in asymmetric that a modified structure can generate a steady-state photovoltage. We then propose a new class of photovoltaic novelty is such a photovoltaic transistor (PVT) aspect. Our idea of the PVT arises from the well known

  4. On the computation of steady hopper flows I: stress determination for Coulomb materials.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    importance for many manufacturing industries, where vast quantities of raw materials are stored and handledOn the computation of steady hopper flows I: stress determination for Coulomb materials.1 Pierre A@math.ncsu.edu,jvmatthe@eos.ncsu.edu The problem of determining the steady state flow of granular materials in silos under the action of gravity

  5. On the computation of steady hopper flows I: stress determination for Coulomb materials. 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    importance for many manufacturing industries, where vast quantities of raw materials are stored and handledOn the computation of steady hopper flows I: stress determination for Coulomb materials. 1 Pierre A@eos.ncsu.edu The problem of determining the steady state flow of granular materials in silos under the action of gravity

  6. Generalized Steady-state Analysis of Multiphase Interleaved Boost Converter with Coupled Inductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipo, Thomas

    2005-38 Generalized Steady-state Analysis of Multiphase Interleaved Boost Converter with Coupled interleaved boost converter with coupled inductors H.-B. Shin, J.-G. Park, S.-K. Chung, H.-W. Lee and T.A. Lipo Abstract: The generalised steady-state analysis of the multi-phase interleaved boost converter

  7. Groundwater dynamics along a hillslope: A test of the steady state hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    Groundwater dynamics along a hillslope: A test of the steady state hypothesis Jan Seibert,1 Kevin modeling is that the relation between groundwater levels and runoff can be described as a succession of steady state conditions. This results in a single- valued, monotonic function between the groundwater

  8. Non-equilibrium steady state of sparse systems Daniel Hurowitz and Doron Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    or weakly interacting driven systems. Such "sparse" systems reach a novel non-equilibrium steady state (NESS case the quantum NESS might differ enormously from the stochastic NESS, with saturation temperature ensemble is analyzed. The study of systems with non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) has become active

  9. Modulation of the 40-Hz Auditory Steady State Response by Attention during Acoustic Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Larry

    Modulation of the 40-Hz Auditory Steady State Response by Attention during Acoustic Training Gander modulates the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (SSR) which localizes to cortical sources in the region source waveform was enhanced in right hemisphere, implying modulation of A1 by attention

  10. Quasipatterns in steady Benard-Rayleigh Gerard Iooss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iooss, Gérard

    of pattern formation, the primary modes have zero growth rate, and there are other modes on the quasilattice in the Faraday wave experiment [3, 5], in which a layer of fluid is subjected to vertical oscillation. Since

  11. ORISE: Report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates on the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORISE report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates on the rise in 2013 Number of graduate degrees expected to remain consistent, but undergraduate degrees could see decrease...

  12. Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

  13. Material Aging and Degradation Detection and Remaining Life Assessment for Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Pitman, Stan G.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-31

    One of the major factors that may impact long term operations is structural material degradation, Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined, and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided.

  14. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ono; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; W. Blanchard; J. Boedo; C. Bourdelle; C. Bush; W. Choe; J. Chrzanowski; D.S. Darrow; S.J. Diem; R. Doerner; P.C. Efthimion; J.R. Ferron; R.J. Fonck; E.D. Fredrickson; G.D. Garstka; D.A. Gates; T. Gray; L.R. Grisham; W. Heidbrink; K.W. Hill; D. Hoffman; T.R. Jarboe; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; C. Kessel; J.H. Kim; M.W. Kissick; S. Kubota; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; K. Lee; S.G. Lee; B.T. Lewicki; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; R. Majeski; J. Manickam; R. Maqueda; T.K. Mau; E. Mazzucato; S.S. Medley; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B.A. Nelson; C. Neumeyer; N. Nishino; C.N. Ostrander; D. Pacella; F. Paoletti; H.K. Park; W. Park; S.F. Paul; Y.-K. M. Peng; C.K. Phillips; R. Pinsker; P.H. Probert; S. Ramakrishnan; R. Raman; M. Redi; A.L. Roquemore; A. Rosenberg; P.M. Ryan; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; R.J. Schooff; R. Seraydarian; C.H. Skinner; A.C. Sontag; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; T. Stevenson; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; X. Tang; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; K.L. Tritz; E.A. Unterberg; A. Von Halle; J. Wilgen; M. Williams; J.R. Wilson; X. Xu; S.J. Zweben; R. Akers; R.E. Barry; P. Beiersdorfer; J.M. Bialek; B. Blagojevic; P.T. Bonoli; M.D. Carter; W. Davis; B. Deng; L. Dudek; J. Egedal; R. Ellis; M. Finkenthal; J. Foley; E. Fredd; A. Glasser; T. Gibney; M. Gilmore; R.J. Goldston; R.E. Hatcher; R.J. Hawryluk; W. Houlberg; R. Harvey; S.C. Jardin; J.C. Hosea; H. Ji; M. Kalish; J. Lowrance; L.L. Lao; F.M. Levinton; N.C. Luhmann; R. Marsala; D. Mastravito; M.M. Menon; O. Mitarai; M. Nagata; G. Oliaro; R. Parsells; T. Peebles; B. Peneflor; D. Piglowski; G.D. Porter; A.K. Ram; M. Rensink; G. Rewoldt; P. Roney; K. Shaing; S. Shiraiwa; P. Sichta; D. Stotler; B.C. Stratton; R. Vero; W.R. Wampler; G.A. Wurden

    2003-10-02

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX to test the method up to Ip {approx} 500 kA. In parallel, start-up using radio-frequency current drive and only external poloidal field coils are being developed on NSTX. The area of power and particle handling is expected to be challenging because of the higher power density expected in the ST relative to that in conventional aspect-ratio tokamaks. Due to its promise for power and particle handling, liquid lithium is being studied in CDX-U as a potential plasma-facing surface for a fusion reactor.

  15. Fractal dimension of cohesive sediment flocs at steady state under seven shear flow conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Zhongfan; Yu, Jingshan; Wang, Hongrui; Dou, Jie; Wang, Cheng

    2015-08-12

    The morphological properties of kaolin flocs were investigated in a Couette-flow experiment at the steady state under seven shear flow conditions (shear rates of 5.36, 9.17, 14, 24, 31, 41 and 53 s-1). These properties include a one-dimensional (1-D) fractal dimension (D1), a two-dimensional (2-D) fractal dimension (D2), a perimeter-based fractal dimension (Dpf) and an aspect ratio (AR). They were calculated based on the projected area (A), equivalent size, perimeter (P) and length (L) of the major axis of the floc determined through sample observation and an image analysis system. The parameter D2, which characterizes the relationship between the projectedmore »area and the length of the major axis using a power function, A ? LD2, increased from 1.73 ± 0.03, 1.72 ± 0.03, and 1.75 ± 0.04 in the low shear rate group (G = 5.36, 9.17, and 14 s-1) to 1.92 ± 0.03, 1.82 ± 0.02, 1.85 ± 0.02, and 1.81 ± 0.02 in the high shear rate group (24, 31, 41 and 53 s-1), respectively. The parameter D1 characterizes the relationship between the perimeter and length of the major axis by the function P ? LD1 and decreased from 1.52 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02, 1.55 ± 0.02, and 1.63 ± 0.02 in the low shear group (5.36, 9.17, 14 and 24 s-1) to 1.45 ± 0.02, 1.39 ± 0.02, and 1.39 ± 0.02 in the high shear group (31, 41 and 53 s-1), respectively. The results indicate that with increasing shear rates, the flocs become less elongated and that their boundary lines become tighter and more regular, caused by more breakages and possible restructurings of the flocs. The parameter Dpf, which is related to the perimeter and the projected area through the function , decreased as the shear rate increased almost linearly. The parameter AR, which is the ratio of the length of the major axis and equivalent diameter, decreased from 1.56, 1.59, 1.53 and 1.51 in the low shear rate group to 1.43, 1.47 and 1.48 in the high shear rate group. These changes in Dpf and AR show that the flocs become less convoluted and more symmetrical and that their boundaries become smoother and more regular in the high shear rate group than in the low shear rate group due to breakage and possible restructuring processes. To assess the effects of electrolyte and sediment concentration, 0.1 mol/L calcium chloride (CaCl2) and initial sediment concentration from 7.87 × 10-5 to 1.57 × 10-5 were used in this preliminary study. The addition of electrolyte and increasing sediment concentration could produce more symmetrical flocs with less convoluted and simpler boundaries. In addition, some new information on the temporal variation of the median size of the flocs during the flocculation process is presented.« less

  16. Statistical mechanical theory for steady state systems. VI. Variational principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    production due to Prigogine Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes Interscience, New York, 1967 , the principle of maximum rate of entropy production, which is common on the internet and statistical mechanics. It continues a series1­5 on nonequilibrium theory, the culmination of which

  17. Numerical Estimation of Frictional Torques with Rate and State Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arun K. Singh; T. N. Singh

    2015-01-20

    In this paper, numerical estimation of frictional torques is carried out of a rotary elastic disc on a hard and rough surface under different rotating conditions. A one dimensional spring- mass rotary system is numerically solved under the quasistatic condition with the rate and state dependent friction model. It is established that torque of frictional strength as well as torque of steady dynamic stress increases with radius and found to be maximum at the periphery of the disc. Torque corresponding to frictional strength estimated using the analytical solution matches closely with the simulation only in the case of high stiffness of the connecting spring. In steady relaxation simulation, a steadily rotating disc is suddenly stopped and relaxational angular velocity and corresponding frictional torque decreases with both steady angular velocity and stiffness of the connecting spring in the velocity strengthening regime. In velocity weakening regime, in contrast, torque of relaxation stress deceases but relaxation velocity increases. The reason for the contradiction is explained.

  18. A STEADY-STATE FEL: PARTICLE DYNAMICS IN THE FEL PORTION OF A TWO-BEAM ACCELERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sternbach, E.

    2008-01-01

    September 8-13, 1985 A STEADY-STATE FEL: PARTICLE DYNAMICSIN THE FEL PORTION OF A TWO-BEAM ACCELERATOR E. SternbachLBL-19939 A STEADY-STATE FEL: PARTICLE DYNAMICS IN THE FEL

  19. Power Outage 1. Remain Calm; provide assistance to others if necessary.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Power Outage 1. Remain Calm; provide assistance to others if necessary. 2. Report the outage, call. Campus-wide telephone communications will continue to operate during a power outage on standard phones. If emergency assistance is required, call UC Security on Extn 6111 and state "POWEr OUTAgE" or mobile 0800 823

  20. Grantee Performance Required to Release the Hold on Remaining 50% of Obligated Recovery Act Funds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization Assistance Program Notice 10-05 deals with performance requirements for program grantees?states and U.S. territories?to receive the remaining 50% of obligated funds under the 2009 American Reinvestment and Recovery Act.

  1. October 24, 2001 1. Remaining Action Items on Dry Chamber Wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    and chamber wall design · Power to chamber wall · Coolant outlet temperature · Cycle efficiency · Thermal-hydraulic parameters · Maximum temperature of chamber wall - Chamber wall power assumed to be spread over the completeOctober 24, 2001 1 1. Remaining Action Items on Dry Chamber Wall 2. "Overlap" Design Regions 3

  2. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  3. Ancient DNA analysis of 101 cattle remains: limits and prospects Ceiridwen J. Edwardsa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.

    Ancient DNA analysis of 101 cattle remains: limits and prospects Ceiridwen J. Edwardsa , David E of 101 cattle teeth and bones from 13 archaeological sites between 1000 to 9000 years old were assessed extant data by constructing phylogenetic networks. The sequences obtained from the cattle specimens were

  4. www.geotimes.org34 Geotimes July 2007 Much of the mystery remains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Hilst, Robert Dirk

    , the slow stirring that helps cool the planet by transferring radiogenic and primordial heat from Earth dimensions, leaving us only with indirect methods if we want to "see" any deeper into the planet's interior below us remains largely mysterious. Yet Earth's dynamic interior holds keys to understanding the planet

  5. PREDICTION OF REMAINING LIFE OF POWER TRANSFORMERS BASED ON LEFT TRUNCATED AND RIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    number failing in the future. The energy company began careful archival record keeping in 1980 of the remaining life of high-voltage power transform- ers is an important issue for energy companies because of the need for planning maintenance and capital expenditures. Lifetime data for such transformers

  6. The Hull Remains of the Late Hellenistic Shipwreck at K?z?lburun, Turkey 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlefield, Johnny 1967-

    2012-11-13

    marble column drums to a more remote part of the site. The intense weight and pressure exerted by the heavy cargo on the hull remains aided the preservation by creating an environment that was unfavorable for wood consuming organisms and other biological...

  7. Pine sawlog markets remained slow. Pulp-wood and hardwood sawlog prices declined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    logging conditions and downward pressure from rising energy costs. Diesel prices soared 22 percent over by the end of April, mainly driven by higher energy and food prices. Middle East turmoil, rising demand fromPine sawlog markets remained slow. Pulp- wood and hardwood sawlog prices declined due to favorable

  8. Pine sawlog markets remained slow and prices were flat to slightly lower. Dry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pine sawlog markets remained slow and prices were flat to slightly lower. Dry weather brought price prices averaged $28.36 per ton, 5 percent lower than the last period. This was 36% higher than the price a year ago. The average pine sawlog price was $26.51 per ton for Northeast Texas and $30.23 per ton

  9. Timber prices remained sluggish during May/June 2009. Statewide average stump-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timber prices remained sluggish during May/June 2009. Statewide average stump- age prices of all on hous- ing starts and lumber prices nationally at the end of the period. Statewide pine sawlog prices. The average pine sawlog price was $20.41 per ton for Northeast Texas and $22.60 per ton for Southeast Texas

  10. `TVLSI-00029-2003.R1 An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    `TVLSI-00029-2003.R1 1 An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng Rong, Student Member, IEEE and Massoud Pedram, Fellow, IEEE Abstract -- Predicting the residual energy of the battery source that powers a portable electronic device is imperative in designing

  11. Steady-State Poisson-Nernst-Planck Systems: Asymptotic expansions and applications to ion channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abaid, Nicole Teresa

    2008-07-31

    Important properties of ion channels can be described by a steady state Poisson-Nernst-Plank system for electrodiffusion. The solution to the PNP system gives a relation between the current and electric potential of the ...

  12. Statistical Behavior of Quasi-Steady Balanced Reconnection in Earth's Magnetosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissinger, Jennifer Eileen

    2012-01-01

    slow, steady solar wind conditions, one might expect to seeejections at one AU during 1995-2004, Solar Physics, 239,and declining solar cycle phases, and that one component of

  13. IMPROVED QUASI-STEADY-STATE-APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay, Laurent O.

    IMPROVED QUASI-STEADY-STATE-APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION L. O. JAY are presented. Key words. atmospheric chemistry, stiff ordinary differential equations, quasi PII. S1064827595283033 1. Introduction. As our scientific understanding of atmospheric chemistry

  14. Quadratic voltage profiles in lead acid cells during slow, steady processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haaser, Robert Anthony

    1999-01-01

    It is standard lore that the voltage profile varies linearly in space within the electrolyte of a lead acid cell under slow, steady discharge. However, this hypothesis has never been put to the test. A recent theory predicts ...

  15. Solute transport under steady and transient conditions in biodegraded municipal solid waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bendz, David; Singh, Vijay P.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of a conservative tracer (lithium) in a large (3.5 m3) undisturbed municipal solid waste sample has been investigated under steady and fully transient conditions using a simple model. The model comprises a ...

  16. Particle Migration of Quasi-Steady Flow in Concentrated Suspension for Powder Injection Molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, X.

    A hybrid FEM/FDM algorithm for particle migration of quasi-steady flow in concentrated suspension materials is proposed in this study. This hybrid FEM/FDM algorithm in which the planar variables, such as pressure field, ...

  17. Steady-state and equilibrium vortex configurations, transitions, and evolution in a mesoscopic superconducting cylinder 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, S.; Hu, Chia-Ren; Andrews, MJ.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical scheme to study the mixed states in a mesoscopic type-II superconducting cylinder is described. Steady-state configurations and transient behavior of the magnetic vortices for various values of the applied magnetic field H are presented...

  18. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, H.-S.; Wolf, R. C.; Andreeva, T.; Cardella, A; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G; Hathiramani, D; Kasparek, W; Klinger, T.; Koenig, R; Kornejew, P; Laqua, H P; Lechte, C; Michel, G; Peacock, A.; Sunn Pedersen, T; Thumm, M; Turkin, Yu.; Wegener, Lutz; Werner, A.; Zhang, D; Beidler, C.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brown, T.; Geiger, J.; Harris, Jeffrey H; Heitzenroeder, P.; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N B; Neilson, G. H.; Otte, M; Rummel, Thomas; Spong, Donald A; Tretter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.

  19. Aspects of Steady-State Operation of the Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, J.; Wolf, R. C.; Beidler, C.; Cardella, A; Chlechowitz, E; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G; Hathiramani, D; Hirsch, M; Kasparek, W; Kisslinger, J; Kornejew, P; Laqua, H P; Lechte, C; Lore, Jeremy D; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N B; Michel, G; Otte, M; Peacock, A.; Sunn Pedersen, T; Thumm, M; Turkin, Yu.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Wendelstein 7-X is to demonstrate steady-state operation at -values of up to 5%, at ion temperatures of several keV and plasma densities of up to 2 1020 m 3. The second operational phase foresees a fully steady-state high heat flux (HHF) divertor. Preparations are underway to cope with residual bootstrap currents, either by electron cyclotron current drive or by HHF protection elements. The main steady-state heating system is an electron cyclotron resonance heating facility. Various technical improvements of the gyrotrons have been implemented recently. They enable a reliable operation at the 1MW power level. Some of the technical issues preparing plasma diagnostics for steady-state operation are exemplified. This includes the protection against non-absorbed microwave radiation.

  20. Application of variational techniques for parametric studies of steady-state controlled thermonuclear reactor blankets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, James David

    1975-01-01

    APPLICATION OF VARIATIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR PARAMETRIC STUDIES OF STEADY-STATE CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR REACTOR BLANKETS A Thesis JAMES DAVID PEARCE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE May 1975 Ma)or Subject: Nuclear Engineering APPLICATION OF VARIATIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR PARAMETRIC STUDIES OF STEADY-STATE CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR REACTOR BLANKETS A Thesis by JAMES DAVID PEARCE Approved...

  1. Characteristics of various methods for solving steady state and unsteady state distillation problems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coco, Vincent Joseph

    1965-01-01

    CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS METHODS FOR SOLVING STEADY STATE AND UNSTEADY STATE DISTILLATION PROBLEMS A Thesis By VINCENT JOSEPH COCO Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1965 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS METHODS FOR SOLVING STEADY STATE AND UNSTEADY STATE DISTILLATION PROBLEMS A Thesis By VINCENT JOSEPH COCO Approved as to style and content by...

  2. Controls on the patterns of topography and erosion rate in a critical orogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Gerard

    Controls on the patterns of topography and erosion rate in a critical orogen Drew Stolar,1,3 Gerard; published 23 October 2007. [1] We solve for the steady state patterns of erosion rate and topography in a critical wedge to understand the mutual adjustment of tectonics, erosion, and topography in the absence

  3. PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Mihir

    PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES A Thesis Submitted April 1995 #12;PERFORMANCE OF A SINGLE-ROW HEAT EXCHANGER AT LOW IN-TUBE FLOW RATES by Xiangwei Zhao Abstract The steady and time-dependentbehavior of a single-row heat exchanger with water and air in the in

  4. Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Wang, Yong; Wegeng, Robert S.; Gao, Yufei

    2003-09-09

    Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.

  5. Method and apparatus for obtaining enhanced production rate of thermal chemical reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Gao, Yufei (Kennewick, WA)

    2006-05-16

    Reactors and processes are disclosed that can utilize high heat fluxes to obtain fast, steady-state reaction rates. Porous catalysts used in conjunction with microchannel reactors to obtain high rates of heat transfer are also disclosed. Reactors and processes that utilize short contact times, high heat flux and low pressure drop are described. Improved methods of steam reforming are also provided.

  6. The Charles Cotter Collection: a study of the ceramic and faunal remains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodward, Robyn Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Feldspar inlaid Ware Miscellaneous Glazed European Ceramics . . . . Unglazed Spanish Earthenware Early Style Olive Jars Sugar Molds . Miscellaneous English Ceramics Aboriginal Ware St. Ann's Bay Ware . CHAPTER IV FAUNAL REMAINS FR(? SEVILIA IA NUEVA... and Fietersz 1919: 1). The Crown did not choose to contest Colon' s appointment of Esquivel as his Lieutenant in Jamaica when it became aware of this development in 1511, partially because there was no immediate discovery of gold and, more probably...

  7. Steady State Multiplicity in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ee-Sunn J. Chia; Jay B. Benziger; Ioannis G. Kevrekidis

    2003-06-16

    A simplified differential reactor model that embodies the essential physics controlling PEM fuel cell (PEM-FC) dynamics is presented. A remarkable analogy exists between water management in the differential PEM-FC and energy balance in the classical exothermic stirred tank reactor. Water, the reaction product in the PEM-FC autocatalytically accelerates the reaction rate by enhancing proton transport through the PEM. Established analyses of heat autocatalyticity in a CSTR are modified to present water management autocatalyticity in a stirred tank reactor PEM-FC.

  8. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greitzer, Frank L. (Richland, WA); Kangas, Lars J. (West Richland, WA); Terrones, Kristine M. (Los Alamos, NM); Maynard, Melody A. (Richland, WA); Pawlowski, Ronald A. (West Richland, WA), Ferryman; Thomas A. (Richland, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA); Wilson, Bary W. (Coconut Creek, FL)

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  9. Prognostication of LED Remaining Useful Life and Color Stability in the Presence of Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lall, Pradeep; Zang, Hao; Davis, J Lynn

    2015-06-22

    The reliability of LED products may be affected by both luminous flux drop and color shift. Previous research on the topic focuses on either luminous maintenance or color shift. However, luminous flux degradation usually takes very long time to observe in LEDs under normal operating conditions. In this paper, the impact of a VOC (volatile organic compound) contaminated luminous flux and color stability are examined. As a result, both luminous degradation and color shift had been recorded in a short time. Test samples are white, phosphorconverted, high-power LED packages. Absolute radiant flux is measured with integrating sphere system to calculate the luminous flux. Luminous flux degradation and color shift distance were plotted versus aging time to show the degradation pattern. A prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the state variables and state estimator have been proposed in this paper. In this PHM framework, unscented kalman filter (UKF) was deployed as the carrier of all states. During the estimation process, third order dynamic transfer function was used to implement the PHM framework. Both of the luminous flux and color shift distance have been used as the state variable with the same PHM framework to exam the robustness of the method. Predicted remaining useful life is calculated at every measurement point to compare with the tested remaining useful life. The result shows that state estimator can be used as the method for the PHM of LED degradation with respect to both luminous flux and color shift distance. The prediction of remaining useful life of LED package, made by the states estimator and data driven approach, falls in the acceptable errorbounds (20%) after a short training of the estimator.

  10. MCA 22-3-801 - Human Skeletal Remains and Burial Site Protection Act | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma, Arizona:Oregon:Lowell Point,Massachusetts:Kansas:M1Remains | Open

  11. The wear-out approach for predicting the remaining lifetime of materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CELINA,MATHIAS C.

    2000-05-11

    Failure models based on the Palmgren-Miner concept that material damage is cumulative have been derived and used mainly for fatigue life predictions for metals and composite materials. The authors review the principles underlying such models and suggest ways in which they may be best applied to polymeric materials in temperature environments. They first outline expectations when polymer degradation data can be rigorously time-temperature superposed over a given temperature range. For a step change in temperature after damage has occurred at an initial temperature in this range, the authors show that the remaining lifetime at the second temperature should be linearly related to the aging time prior to the step. This predicted linearity implies that it should be possible to estimate the remaining and therefore the service lifetime of polymers by completing the aging at an accelerated temperature. They refer to this generic temperature-step method as the Wear-out approach. They next outline the expectations for Wear-out experiments when time-temperature superposition is invalid. Experimental Wear-out results are then analyzed for one material where time-temperature superposition is valid and for another where evidence suggests it is invalid. In analyzing the data, they introduce a procedure that they refer to as time-degradation superposition. This procedure not only utilizes all of the experimental data instead of a single point from each data set, but also allows them to determine the importance of any interaction effects.

  12. FRN and Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  13. FRN & Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  14. Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.V. Budny

    2009-09-10

    Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.

  15. Casimir effect in the nonequilibrium steady state of a quantum spin chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, D. L.; Racz, Z.

    2010-05-15

    We present a fully microscopics-based calculation of the Casimir effect in a nonequilibrium system, namely, an energy-flux-driven quantum XX chain. The force between the walls (transverse-field impurities) is calculated in a nonequilibrium steady state which is prepared by letting the system evolve from an initial state with the two halves of the chain prepared at equilibrium at different temperatures. The steady state emerging in the large-time limit is homogeneous but carries an energy flux. The Casimir force in this nonequilibrium state is calculated analytically in the limit when the transverse fields are small. We find that the the Casimir force range is reduced compared to the equilibrium case, and suggest that the reason for this is the reduction of fluctuations in the flux-carrying steady state.

  16. Enhancing the ABAQUS Thermomechanics Code to Simulate Steady and Transient Fuel Rod Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Williamson; D. A. Knoll

    2009-09-01

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth , gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. The various modeling capabilities are demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multi-pellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional fully-coupled thermomechanics treatment. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermo-mechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  17. Enhancing the ABAQUS thermomechanics code to simulate multipellet steady and transient LWR fuel rod behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Williamson

    2011-08-01

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance analysis capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth, gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. This new capability is demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multipellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Comparisons are made between discrete and smeared-pellet simulations. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional, multipellet, fully-coupled thermomechanical approach. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermomechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  18. Measurement of entropy production rate in compressible turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. M. Bandi; W. I. Goldburg; J. R. Cressman Jr

    2006-10-22

    The rate of change of entropy $\\dot S$ is measured for a system of particles floating on the surface of a fluid maintained in a turbulent steady state. The resulting coagulation of the floaters allows one to relate $\\dot S$ to the velocity divergence and to the Lyapunov exponents characterizing the behavior of this system. The quantities measured from experiments and simulations are found to agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  19. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

  20. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  1. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  2. Neutron measurements of the fuel remaining in the TMI II once-through steam generators (OTSG'S)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Abel, K.H.

    1989-02-01

    Polypropylene tubes containing a string of 18 copper rods were inserted into the lower head region and each J-leg of the two once-through steam generators (OTSG) of the unit two reactor at Three Mile Island. The object was to measure the neutron flux present in those regions and estimate the amount of residual fuel remaining in each OTSG. The neutron flux from any residual fuel induces a radioisotope, /sup 64/Cu, in the copper coupons. The /sup 64/Cu activity is detected by coincidence counting the two 511-keV gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positron emitted in the decay of /sup 64/Cu. The copper coupons were placed between two 6-inch diameter, 6-inch long NaI(Tl) crystals and the electronics produced a coincidence count whenever the two gamma rays were uniquely detected. The net coincidence count is proportional to the amount of /sup 64/Cu activity in the coupon. This document discusses calculation methods, statistical methods, and results of this research. 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. Gravity Effects on Steady Two-Dimensional Partially Premixed MethaneAir Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    Gravity Effects on Steady Two-Dimensional Partially Premixed Methane­Air Flames ZHUANG SHU, CHUN W, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7022 Under normal-gravity conditions the flame heat is only weakly affected by gravity, the outer flame shows significant spatial differences for the two

  4. Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration Jianting Zhu September 2002. [1] Estimation of effective/average soil hydraulic properties for large land areas and guidelines for upscaling soil hydraulic properties in an areally heterogeneous field. In this study, we

  5. APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Channel Contraction: Multiple Steady States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Channel Contraction: Multiple Steady States Benjamin Akers with a complex hydraulic jump in the contraction occurring in a small section of the bc/b0 and Froude number parameter plane. One- dimensional hydraulic theory provides a comprehensive leading-order approximation

  6. Effective hydraulic parameters for steady state vertical flow in heterogeneous soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Effective hydraulic parameters for steady state vertical flow in heterogeneous soils Jianting Zhu August 2003. [1] In hydroclimate and land-atmospheric interaction models, effective hydraulic properties are needed at large grid scales. In this study, the effective soil hydraulic parameters of the areally

  7. FRC on the Path to Fusion Energy (Moderate Density Steady-State Approach)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to start from already formed FRC) Plasma measurement in RMF frame of reference so s RMF r Br T *2 22 µ1 FRC on the Path to Fusion Energy (Moderate Density Steady-State Approach) Alan Hoffman Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory University of Washington (FPA Meeting on Fusion Pathways to the Future

  8. ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS D for commercial tokamak power plants. The economic prospects of future designs are compared for several tokamak for future power plants. 1. INTRODUCTION The development path to economical and environ- mentally attractive

  9. Steady and unsteady flow within an axisymmetric tube dilatation Ch. Stamatopoulos a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papaharilaou, Yannis

    Accepted 20 February 2010 Keywords: Tube dilatation Wall shear Vortex Flow separation­reattachment a bSteady and unsteady flow within an axisymmetric tube dilatation Ch. Stamatopoulos a , Y s t r a c t The flow field in an axisymmetric tube dilatation is studied employing a 2D PIV system

  10. Axisymmetric, High-, Steady-State Plasma Torus: A "Wind-Tunnel" to Develop Whole Device Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauel, Michael E.

    Axisymmetric, High-, Steady-State Plasma Torus: A "Wind-Tunnel" to Develop Whole Device Models Mike College, Hanover, NH White Paper for the 2015 DOE Integrated Simulations Workshop (Topics: C, D) Motivation The development of experimentally-validated whole device models is a grand challenge of fusion

  11. Stability of Multiple Steady States of Catalytic Combustion , and J. BRINDLEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, Alex

    Stability of Multiple Steady States of Catalytic Combustion A. JAMES* , and J. BRINDLEY Department reaction (m s 1 ) Ag Pre-exponential factor for gas-phase reaction (m3 mol 1 s 1 ) Cox Initial [O2] (mol m mol 1 ) h Heat transfer coefficient (W m 2 K 1 ) hD Mass transfer coefficient (m s 1 ) kc Thermal

  12. Out-of-equilibrium energy flow and steady state configurations in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Megias, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    We study out-of-equilibrium energy flow in a strongly coupled system by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, we describe the appearance of a steady state connecting two asymptotic equilibrium systems. We obtain results within the linear response regime.

  13. On the Steady Nature of Line-Driven Disk Winds: Application to Cataclysmic Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas A. Pereyra; David A. Turnshek; D. John Hillier

    2005-06-01

    We apply the semi-analytical analysis of the steady nature of line-driven winds presented in two earlier papers to disk winds driven by the flux distribution of a standard Shakura & Sunyaev (1973) disk for typical cataclysmic variable (CV) parameters. We find that the wind critical point tends to be closer to the disk surface towards the inner disk regions. Our main conclusion, however, is that a line-driven wind, arising from a steady disk flux distribution of a standard Shakura-Sunyaev disk capable of locally supplying the corresponding mass flow, is steady. These results confirm the findings of an earlier paper that studied "simple" flux distributions that are more readily analyzable than those presented here. These results are consistent with the steady velocity nature of outflows observationally inferred for both CVs and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). We find good agreement with the 2.5D CV disk wind models of Pereyra and collaborators. These results suggest that the likely scenario to account for the wind outflows commonly observed in CVs is the line-driven accretion disk wind scenario, as suggested early-on by Cordova & Mason (1982). For QSOs, these results show that the line-driven accretion disk wind continues to be a promising scenario to account for the outflows detected in broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs, as suggested early-on by Turnshek (1984), and analyzed in detail by Murray et al. (1995).

  14. Sharp Uniform Bounds for Steady Potential Fluid-Poisson Systems Irene M. Gamba1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , for the potential hydrodynamic{Poisson systems, cavitation speed is a function that depends on the potential ow consider steady potential hydrodynamic-Poisson system with a dissipation term (viscosity) proportional is bounded pointwise, at points x0 in the interior of the ow domain, by cavitation speed (given by Bernoulli

  15. Infrared thermography of a pulsating heat pipe: Flow regimes and multiple steady states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    Infrared thermography of a pulsating heat pipe: Flow regimes and multiple steady states V t Understanding of the operational characteristics of a closed loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) with non- intrusive. Introduction A pulsating heat pipe/oscillating heat pipe is essentially a pas- sive two-phase heat transfer

  16. Bridging the Gap: Automated Steady Scaffoldings for 3D Printing Jrmie Dumas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lévy, Bruno

    Bridging the Gap: Automated Steady Scaffoldings for 3D Printing Jérémie Dumas Université de Figure 1: The upper leg of the Poppy robot (www.poppy-project.org) cannot be 3D printed on low cost FDM usage. Abstract Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) is the process of 3D printing ob- jects from melted

  17. EXISTENCE AND STABILITY OF STEADY-STATE SOLUTIONS WITH FINITE ENERGY FOR THE NAVIER-STOKES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schonbek, Maria

    EXISTENCE AND STABILITY OF STEADY-STATE SOLUTIONS WITH FINITE ENERGY FOR THE NAVIER to viscosity is sufficiently small in a natural norm we construct solutions which have finite energy (finite L2 norm). These solutions are unique among all solutions with finite energy and finite Dirichlet integral

  18. Stability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water-dimensional surface waves generated by an applied steadily moving localized pressure distribution over water of finite is ignored, and has applications for the modelling of waves generated by ships. The flow parameters

  19. Tracer transport in the presence of steady zonal jets in a forced and viscous barotropic model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, Jonathan Craig

    2000-01-01

    to the time since release, and in the long-time limit, to the square root of the time. Tracers released into a fluid which was anisotropic and contained steady zonal jets, exhibited an inhibition of meridional excursion. However, the length scale associated...

  20. Aircraft landing gear greased slider bearing steady-state thermo-elastohydrodynamic concept model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to take place at the lower bearing­piston sliding interface of the main landing gear (MLG) (see Fig. 1Aircraft landing gear greased slider bearing steady-state thermo-elastohydrodynamic concept model for studying the thermal behavior of a greased aircraft landing gear lower slider bearing. Structural damage

  1. ECE 331 Electromechanical Energy Conversion Catalog Description: Energy conversion principles for electric motors. Steady-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduction to drives and power electronics in control of electric machines, including switch-mode PWM (ABET Outcomes A, C, E, j, k) Learning Resources: Electric Machines and Drives: A First Course, Ned for electric motors. Steady-state characteristics and analysis of induction, synchronous and direct current

  2. Steady Improved Confinement in FTU High Field Plasmas Sustained by Deep Pellet Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlad, Gregorio

    Steady Improved Confinement in FTU High Field Plasmas Sustained by Deep Pellet Injection D at the maximum nominal toroidal field (8 T), and lower, by deep multiple pellet injection. These plasmas featured due to particle concentration in the well confined hot core. Deep pellet injection in Alcator C high

  3. Steady improved confinement in FTU high field plasmas sustained by deep pellet injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlad, Gregorio

    Steady improved confinement in FTU high field plasmas sustained by deep pellet injection D to the maximum nominal toroidal field (8 T) by deep multiple pellet injection. These plasmas also feature high to the input power due to particle concentration in the well confined hot core. Deep pellet injection (e

  4. ASHRAE Transactions: Research 3 A steady-state simulation model for a water-to-water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ASHRAE Transactions: Research 3 ABSTRACT A steady-state simulation model for a water-to-water. The model includes several unspecified parameters that are esti- mated from catalog data using a multi available from manufacturers' catalogs. Compared to equation-fit models, by retaining the physically based

  5. Stochastics and Statistics A wavelet-based spectral procedure for steady-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    q Emily K. Lada a,1 , James R. Wilson b,* a SAS Institute Inc., 100 SAS Campus Drive, R5413, Cary Box 7906, Raleigh, NC 27695-7906, USA Received 23 February 2004; accepted 21 April 2005 Available online 27 June 2005 Abstract We develop WASSP, a wavelet-based spectral method for steady

  6. Current control in ITER steady state plasmas with neutral beam steering R. V. Budnya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budny, Robert

    . The heating and current drive systems for ITER plasmas are being designed. The primary systems being for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid as the ratio of the DT fusion and the external heating powers PDT/Pext 5 for durations of up to 3000 s

  7. Nonequilibrium steady states of finite quantum systems coupled to thermal reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , at small coupling, the combined quantum system S+R 1 +R 2 has a unique non­equilibrium steady state (NESS) and that the approach to this NESS is exponentially fast. We show that the entropy production of the coupled system argument is general and deals with spectral theory of NESS. In the abstract setting of algebraic quantum

  8. Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Htotal implies a glassy NESS We can define NESS effective temperature D() exhibit LRT to SLRT crossover Quantum (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n.n. transitions d dt = -i[H, ] - 2 2 [V, [V,

  9. Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Daniel (s=0.85) Quantum (s=0.01) Stochastic (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n.n. transitions d dt = -i[H, ] - 2 2 [V, [V,

  10. The non-equilibrium steady state of sparse systems with non trivial topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    , the system will reach a Non-Equilibrium Steady State (NESS). #12;The model system System + Bath + Driving of cooling = DB TB - DB Tsystem Driving System Work (W)Heat (Q) Bath SB() SA() Hence at the NESS: Tsystem = 1 to the sparsity of the perturbation matrix, the NESS is of glassy nature [1]. 2. An extension of the Fluctuation

  11. Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Daniel + D() DB « TB Sparsity implies a glassy NESS We can define NESS effective temperature D() exhibit LRT (s=0.85) Quantum (s=0.01) Stochastic (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n

  12. Transpolar voltage and polar cap flux during the substorm cycle and steady convection events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    of the 10,216 passes is classified by its substorm phase or as a steady convection event (SCE) by inspection of the AE indices. For all phases, we detect a contribution to the transpolar voltage by reconnection is 97% certain during quiet intervals and >99% certain during substorm/SCE growth phases but falls to 75

  13. The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling Penyarat plants offer high cycle efficiencies. In this work a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power, Gas turbine, Hybrid, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell hal-00703135,version1-31May2012 Author manuscript

  14. Steady-state laboratory ow laws alone fail to explain postseismic observations Andrew M. Freed a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freed, Andrew

    dislocation creep geodesy nite element modeling We test whether laboratory derived steady-state ow laws- and stress-dependent ow laws for diffusion and dislocation creep of olivine. We primarily concentrate of a number of creep mechanisms and associated constitutive relationships that quantify how viscosity and ow

  15. Quasi-Steady Katabatic Winds on Slopes in Wide Valleys: Hydraulic Theory and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    Quasi-Steady Katabatic Winds on Slopes in Wide Valleys: Hydraulic Theory and Observations M in the presence of weak synoptic winds. Because of the lateral constraints on the flow, Coriolis effects by sloping topography (Strobach 1991), as is the terrain of most urban areas of the world. Air circulation

  16. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Cambridge, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  17. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bers, Abraham (Arlington, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  18. Prediction of Thermonuclear Reaction Rates in Astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Rauscher

    1998-10-15

    Recent improvements and remaining problems in the prediction of thermonuclear rates are reviewed. The main emphasis is on statistical model calculations, but the challenge to include direct reactions close to the driplines is also briefly addressed. Further theoretical as well as experimental investigations are motivated.

  19. Modelling flow pattern transitions for steady upward gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes. [Bubble, slug, churn and dispersed-annular; also existence regions and transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taitel, Y. (Tel-Aviv Univ., Israel); Bornea, D.; Dukler, A.E.

    1980-05-01

    Models for predicting flow patterns in steady upward gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes (such as production-well tubing) delineate the transition boundaries between each of the four basic flow patterns for gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes: bubble, slug, churn, and dispersed-annular. Model results suggest that churn flow is the development region for the slug pattern and that bubble flow can exist in small pipes only at high liquid rates, where turbulent dispersion forces are high. Each transition depends on the flow-rate pair, fluid properties, and pipe size, but the nature of the dependence is different for each transition because of differing control mechanisms. The theoretical predictions are in reasonably good agreement with a variety of published flow maps based on experimental data.

  20. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early warning of aging and degradation. Examples of such key indicators include changes in chemical structure, mechanical modulus, and dielectric permittivity. While some of these indicators are the basis of currently used technologies, there is a need to increase the volume of cable that may be inspected with a single measurement, and if possible, to develop techniques for in-situ inspection (i.e., while the cable is in operation). This is the focus of the present report.

  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report LBNL-725E 1 A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report LBNL-725E 1 A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar-air mixtures are found to support another kind of laminar flame that is steady and stable beside flat flames;Nomenclature fuel equivalence ratio 1 Introduction There is growing evidence that a new type of laminar

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2006 171 Continuation-Based Quasi-Steady-State Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2006 171 Continuation-Based Quasi-Steady-State Analysis Qin Wang, Member, IEEE, Hwachang Song, Member, IEEE, and Venkataramana Ajjarapu, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--This paper presents continuation-based quasi-steady- state (CQSS) analysis

  3. Optimal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Policies: A Steady State Analysis Author(s): Shmuel S. Oren and Shao Hong Wan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Optimal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Policies: A Steady State Analysis Author(s): Shmuel S. Oren.S.A. OPTIMAL STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE POLICIES: A STEADY STATE ANALYSIS* SHMUEL S. OREN AND SHAO HONG WAN Petroleum Reserve (SPR) under a variety of supply and demand conditions. The optimal policy variables

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 062141 (2013) Nonequilibrium steady state and induced currents of a mesoscopically glassy system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    2013-01-01

    an explicit solution for the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of a ring that is coupled to a thermal bath intensities where the NESS is like that of a random walker in a biased Brownian landscape. We investigate nonequilibrium steady state (NESS). Considering the NESS of a mesoscopically glassy system, our working

  5. Absence of a steady-state space charge limited regime for a sheath in a weakly collisional plasma bounded by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Absence of a steady-state space charge limited regime for a sheath in a weakly collisional plasma average kinetic energy in the direction normal to the walls. Electrons are stratified into several groups leads to absence of a steady-state space charge limited regime for a sheath even in presence of a high

  6. Steady-State Impurity Control, Heat Removal and Tritium Recovery by Moving-Belt Plasma-Facing Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    1 Steady-State Impurity Control, Heat Removal and Tritium Recovery by Moving-Belt Plasma-Z getter materials, heat removal and tritium recovery. In order to minimize MHD effects as well as induced is the application of "Moving-Belt Plasma-Facing Components" for steady-state impurity gettering, heat removal

  7. Feasibility and utility of microsatellite markers in archaeological cattle remains from a Viking Age settlement in Dublin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.

    Feasibility and utility of microsatellite markers in archaeological cattle remains from a Viking, Ireland Summary Nineteen cattle bones from the Viking 10th and early 11th century levels in Dublin were markers in 11 extant British, Irish and Nordic cattle breeds. Although the medieval remains displayed

  8. Quantitative broadband absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady state methodologies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tromberg, Bruce J. (Irvine, CA); Berger, Andrew J. (Rochester, NY); Cerussi, Albert E. (Lake Forest, CA); Bevilacqua, Frederic (Costa Mesa, CA); Jakubowski, Dorota (Irvine, CA)

    2008-09-23

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.

  9. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  10. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    points established by contract, in accordance with approved policies and procedures. Formula Rate: The formula rate for CPP includes three components: Component 1: The customer...

  11. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin, E-mail: oakarsu@ku.edu.tr, E-mail: tdereli@ku.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Koç University, 34450 Sariyer, ?stanbul (Turkey)

    2013-02-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.

  12. Study on the steady operating state of a micro-pulse electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kui, Zhou; Xing, Luo; Xiangyang, Lu; Shengwen, Quan; Jifei, Zhao; Ziqin, Yang

    2014-09-15

    Micro-pulse electron gun (MPG) employs the basic concept of multipacting to produce high-current and short-pulse electron beams from a radio-frequency (RF) cavity. The concept of MPG has been proposed for more than two decades. However, the unstable operating state of MPG vastly obstructs its practical applications. This paper presents a study on the steady operating state of a micro-pulse electron gun with theory and experiments. The requirements for the steady operating state are proposed through the analysis of the interaction between the RF cavity and the beam load. Accordingly, a MPG cavity with the frequency of 2856?MHz has been designed, constructed, and tested. Some primary experiments have been finished. Both the unstable and stable operating states of the MPG have been observed. The stable output beam current has been detected at about 3.8 mA. Further experimental study is under way now.

  13. Particle-based simulations of steady-state mass transport at high P\\'eclet numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Thomas; Rajah, Luke; Cohen, Samuel I A; Yates, Emma V; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chrisopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional approaches for simulating steady-state distributions of particles under diffusive and advective transport at high P\\'eclet numbers involve solving the diffusion and advection equations in at least two dimensions. Here, we present an alternative computational strategy by combining a particle-based rather than a field-based approach with the initialisation of particles in proportion to their flux. This method allows accurate prediction of the steady state and is applicable even at high P\\'eclet numbers where traditional particle-based Monte-Carlo methods starting from randomly initialised particle distributions fail. We demonstrate that generating a flux of particles according to a predetermined density and velocity distribution at a single fixed time and initial location allows for accurate simulation of mass transport under flow. Specifically, upon initialisation in proportion to their flux, these particles are propagated individually and detected by summing up their Monte-Carlo trajectories in p...

  14. The bridge permeameter; An alternative method for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1994-03-01

    Laboratory measurements of single-phase, steady-state permeability of porous rock are important for a number of different applications. The oil and gas industry uses permeability data as a key indicator of the producability of a hydrocarbon reservoir; effective containment of large volumes of oil in underground salt caverns is directly dependent upon the permeability of the adjacent cavern walls; and safe, long term underground isolation of radioactive and hazardous waste is contingent upon the flow and transport characteristics of the surrounding geologic formations. An alternative method for measuring single-phase, steady-state permeability of porous rock is presented. The use of troublesome and expensive mass flow meters is eliminated and replaced with a bridge configuration of flow resistors. Permeability values can be determined directly from differential pressures across the bridge network, resulting in potentially significant cost savings and simplification for conducting these types of measurements. Results from the bridge permeameter are compared with results obtained using conventional methods.

  15. Non-equilibrium steady states in the Klein-Gordon theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Doyon; Andrew Lucas; Koenraad Schalm; M. J. Bhaseen

    2014-09-23

    We construct non-equilibrium steady states in the Klein-Gordon theory in arbitrary space dimension $d$ following a local quench. We consider the approach where two independently thermalized semi-infinite systems, with temperatures $T_{\\rm L}$ and $T_{\\rm R}$, are connected along a $d-1$-dimensional hypersurface. A current-carrying steady state, described by thermally distributed modes with temperatures $T_{\\rm L}$ and $T_{\\rm R}$ for left and right-moving modes, respectively, emerges at late times. The non-equilibrium density matrix is the exponential of a non-local conserved charge. We obtain exact results for the average energy current and the complete distribution of energy current fluctuations. The latter shows that the long-time energy transfer can be described by a continuum of independent Poisson processes, for which we provide the exact weights. We further describe the full time evolution of local observables following the quench. Averages of generic local observables, including the stress-energy tensor, approach the steady state with a power-law in time, where the exponent depends on the initial conditions at the connection hypersurface. We describe boundary conditions and special operators for which the steady state is reached instantaneously on the connection hypersurface. A semiclassical analysis of freely propagating modes yields the average energy current at large distances and late times. We conclude by comparing and contrasting our findings with results for interacting theories and provide an estimate for the timescale governing the crossover to hydrodynamics. As a modification of our Klein-Gordon analysis we also include exact results for free Dirac fermions.

  16. An All-Sky Search for Steady VHE Gamma-Ray Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01

    The Milagrito water Cherenkov detector in the Jemez Mountains near Los Alamos, New Mexico took data from February 1997 to April 1998. Milagrito served as a prototype for the larger Milagro detector, which has just begun operations. Milagrito was the first large-aperture gamma-ray detector with sensitivity to gamma rays below 1 TeV. We report here on a search for steady emission from point sources over most of the northern sky using data from Milagrito.

  17. An All-Sky Search for Steady VHE Gamma-Ray Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Atkins; W. Benbow; D. Berley; M. -L. Chen; D. G. Coyne; R. S. Delay; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; D. Evans; A. Falcone; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; G. Gisler; J. A. Goodman; T. J. Haines; C. M. Hoffman; S. Hugenberger; L. A. Kelley; I. Leonor; J. Macri; M. McConnell; J. F. McCullough; J. E. McEnery; R. S. Miller; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; J. M. Ryan; M. Schneider; B. Shen; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; T. N. Thompson; O. T. Tumer; K. Wang; M. O. Wascko; S. Westerhoff; D. A. Williams; T. Yang; G. B. Yodh

    1999-06-23

    The Milagrito water Cherenkov detector in the Jemez Mountains near Los Alamos, New Mexico took data from February 1997 to April 1998. Milagrito served as a prototype for the larger Milagro detector, which has just begun operations. Milagrito was the first large-aperture gamma-ray detector with sensitivity to gamma rays below 1 TeV. We report here on a search for steady emission from point sources over most of the northern sky using data from Milagrito.

  18. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk ; Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A. Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I.; Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

  19. On the energy-minimizing steady states of a thin film equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almut Burchard; Marina Chugunova; Benjamin K. Stephens

    2010-09-21

    Steady states of the thin film equation $u_t+[u^3 (u_xxx + \\alpha^2 u_x -\\sin(x) )]_x=0$ are considered on the periodic domain $\\Omega = (-\\pi,\\pi)$. The equation defines a generalized gradient flow for an energy functional that controls the $H^1$-norm. The main result establishes that there exists for each given mass a unique nonnegative function of minimal energy. This minimizer is symmetric decreasing about $x=0$. For $\\alpha<1$ there is a critical value for the mass at which the minimizer has a touchdown zero. If the mass exceeds this value, the minimizer is strictly positive. Otherwise, it is supported on a proper subinterval of the domain and meets the dry region at zero contact angle. A second result explores the relation between strict positivity and exponential convergence for steady states. It is shown that positive minimizers are locally exponentially attractive, while the distance from a steady state with a dry region cannot decay faster than a power law.

  20. Medical Examiner/Coroner on the Handling of a Body/Human Remains that are Potentially Radiologically Contaminated

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this Model Procedure is to identify precautions and provide guidance to Medical Examiners/Coroners on the handling of a body or human remains that are potentially contaminated with...

  1. Heating Rate Profiles in Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward C. D. Pope; Georgi Pavlovski; Christian R. Kaiser; Hans Fangohr

    2006-01-05

    In recent years evidence has accumulated suggesting that the gas in galaxy clusters is heated by non-gravitational processes. Here we calculate the heating rates required to maintain a physically motived mass flow rate, in a sample of seven galaxy clusters. We employ the spectroscopic mass deposition rates as an observational input along with temperature and density data for each cluster. On energetic grounds we find that thermal conduction could provide the necessary heating for A2199, Perseus, A1795 and A478. However, the suppression factor, of the clasical Spitzer value, is a different function of radius for each cluster. Based on the observations of plasma bubbles we also calculate the duty cycles for each AGN, in the absence of thermal conduction, which can provide the required energy input. With the exception of Hydra-A it appears that each of the other AGNs in our sample require duty cycles of roughly $10^{6}-10^{7}$ yrs to provide their steady-state heating requirements. If these duty cycles are unrealistic, this may imply that many galaxy clusters must be heated by very powerful Hydra-A type events interspersed between more frequent smaller-scale outbursts. The suppression factors for the thermal conductivity required for combined heating by AGN and thermal conduction are generally acceptable. However, these suppression factors still require `fine-tuning` of the thermal conductivity as a function of radius. As a consequence of this work we present the AGN duty cycle as a cooling flow diagnostic.

  2. Lesson 22 Related Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-10-11

    Oct 11, 2013 ... A spherical weather balloon is being inflated with helium at a rate of 82 cubic meters per minute. Find the rate at which its radius is increasing.

  3. Naughton's related rates problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dominic

    2013-02-25

    Related rates (1). (1) Oil spills from a rupture container in a circular pattern whose radius increases at a rate of 2 ft/s. How fast is the area of the oil spill increasing ...

  4. A numerical study of steady-state vortex configurations and vortex pinning in type-II superconductors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sangbum

    2006-04-12

    In part I, a numerical study of the mixed states in a mesoscopic type-II superconducting cylinder is described. Steady-state configurations and transient behavior of the magnetic vortices for various values of the applied ...

  5. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-12-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of themore »CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely captured the variability of the HWSD SOC across the different dominant plant functional types (PFTs) at global scale. The numerical correlation between the calculated and HWSD SOC was, however, weak at both point and global scales, suggesting that the models used in describing biogeochemical processes in CLM needs improvements and/or HWSD needs updating as suggested by other studies. Besides SOC, the steady state solution also includes all other state variables simulated by a spin-up run, such as NPP, GPP, total vegetation C etc., which makes the developed approach a promising tool to efficiently estimate global SOC distribution and evaluate and compare different aspects simulated by different CN mechanisms in the model.« less

  6. Apparatus for determining past-service conditions and remaining life of thermal barrier coatings and components having such coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Devitt, John William (Clifton Park, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Brewer, Luke Nathaniel (Rexford, NY)

    2004-05-04

    An apparatus for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC to excite a photoluminescent ("PL") material contained therein, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of an emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of a crystalline phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component or the TBC.

  7. Remaining Challenges: Flicker

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancialReliability Considerations from theNaomi J.

  8. Nonequilibrium steady state transport of collective-qubit system in strong coupling regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen Wang; Ke-Wei Sun

    2015-08-10

    We investigate the steady state photon transport in a nonequilibrium collective-qubit model. By adopting the noninteracting blip approximation, which is applicable in the strong photon-qubit coupling regime, we describe the essential contribution of indirect qubit-qubit interaction to the population distribution, mediated by the photonic baths. The linear relations of both the optimal flux and noise power with the qubits system size are obtained. Moreover, the inversed power-law style for the finite-size scaling of the optimal photon-qubit coupling strength is exhibited, which is proposed to be universal.

  9. Interaction stabilized steady states in the driven O(N) model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anushya Chandran; Shivaji. L. Sondhi

    2015-06-29

    We study periodically driven bosonic scalar field theories in the infinite N limit. It is well-known that the free theory can undergo parametric resonance under monochromatic modulation of the mass term and thereby absorb energy indefinitely. Interactions in the infinite N limit terminate this increase for any choice of the UV cutoff and driving frequency. The steady state has non-trivial correlations and is synchronized with the drive. The O(N) model at infinite N provides the first example of a clean interacting quantum system that does not heat to infinite temperature at any drive frequency.

  10. U-Tube Steam Generator experiments: steady state and transients analysis using RELAP5/MOD2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanasundaram, Mathangi

    1989-01-01

    by the code. RELAP. The floii. regime sv transitions and heat transfer correlations based on a two phase flow over tube bundles have improved the heat transfer prediction at steady state and transient accident in s. U-tube steam generator. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT... two-phase flow and the void distribution in the steam generator to accurately predict PIVR plant response. The 'Alodel Boiler Xo22 (kIB-'2) steani generator is oue such experimental facihty to provide comprehensive data on the behavior of steam...

  11. Predicting the Remaining Useful Lifetime of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell using an Echo State Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Predicting the Remaining Useful Lifetime of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell using an Echo industrial Fuel Cell (FC) application resides in the system limited useful lifetime. Consequently, it Membrane Fuel Cell using an iterative predictive structure, which is the most common approach performing

  12. of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal needed cars," says Holdcroft. The new research network will determine if the amount of platinum can be reduced for hydrogen-powered cars in mass production facilities," says SFU chemistry professor Steve Holdcroft, who

  13. SUPPORT FUSION ENERGY SCIENCES IN FY 2013 HELP THE UNITED STATES REMAIN A WORLD LEADER IN FUSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ON THE U.S. FUSION PROGRAM Fusion energy is the power source of our sun and the stars. ItsSUPPORT FUSION ENERGY SCIENCES IN FY 2013 HELP THE UNITED STATES REMAIN A WORLD LEADER IN FUSION fusion researchers, and prepare for the commercialization of fusion energy, the U.S. must have its own

  14. Integrating studies of locomotor mechanics, neural control and isolated muscle function remains a challenge. By using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jindrich, Devin L.

    study, we selected an emergency behavior, righting or over-turning, that we speculated was complex within which arthropod leg performance can be compared with that of other species. We chose to studyIntegrating studies of locomotor mechanics, neural control and isolated muscle function remains

  15. Particle-based simulations of steady-state mass transport at high Péclet numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Müller; Paolo Arosio; Luke Rajah; Samuel I. A. Cohen; Emma V. Yates; Michele Vendruscolo; Chrisopher M. Dobson; Tuomas P. J. Knowles

    2015-10-17

    Conventional approaches for simulating steady-state distributions of particles under diffusive and advective transport at high P\\'eclet numbers involve solving the diffusion and advection equations in at least two dimensions. Here, we present an alternative computational strategy by combining a particle-based rather than a field-based approach with the initialisation of particles in proportion to their flux. This method allows accurate prediction of the steady state and is applicable even at high P\\'eclet numbers where traditional particle-based Monte-Carlo methods starting from randomly initialised particle distributions fail. We demonstrate that generating a flux of particles according to a predetermined density and velocity distribution at a single fixed time and initial location allows for accurate simulation of mass transport under flow. Specifically, upon initialisation in proportion to their flux, these particles are propagated individually and detected by summing up their Monte-Carlo trajectories in predefined detection regions. We demonstrate quantitative agreement of the predicted concentration profiles with the results of experiments performed with fluorescent particles in microfluidic channels under continuous flow. This approach is computationally advantageous and readily allows non-trivial initial distributions to be considered. In particular, this method is highly suitable for simulating advective and diffusive transport in microfluidic devices.

  16. Natural equilibria in steady-state neutron diffusion with temperature feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pounders, J. M.; Ingram, R. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122-0079 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The critical diffusion equation with feedback is investigated within the context of steady-state multiphysics. It is proposed that for critical configurations there is no need to include the multiplication factor k in the formulation of the diffusion equation. This is notable because exclusion of k from the coupled system of equations precludes the mathematically tenuous notion of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. On the other hand, it is shown that if the factor k is retained in the diffusion equation, as is currently common practice, then the resulting problem is equivalent to the constrained minimization of a functional representing the critical equilibrium of neutron and temperature distributions. The unconstrained solution corresponding to k = 1 represents the natural equilibrium of a critical system at steady-state. Computational methods for solving the constrained problem (with k) are briefly reviewed from the literature and a method for the unconstrained problem (without k) is outlined. A numerical example is studied to examine the effects of the constraint in the nonlinear system. (authors)

  17. Development of steady-state operation using ICH in the LHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasahara, H.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Seki, R.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tokitani, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Shoji, M.; Kamio, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tanaka, H.; Yoshimura, S.; Tamura, N.; Yamada, I.; Suzuki, C.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); and others

    2014-02-12

    Long-pulse discharge with the electron density n{sub e0} of 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}, electron temperature T{sub e0} of 2.5 keV, discharge length t{sub dis} of 19 minutes and heating power P{sub inject} of 1MW, is demonstrated using the HAS antenna and the PA antenna for ion cyclotron heating (ICH) and increasing in the power of electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The HAS antenna is designed to phase dipole and excite ideal fast wave with parallel electric field kept small, and low impurity generation and accumulation are achieved on the steady-state discharge by weak parasitic heating around antennas. On the long-pulse discharge, the radiation measured by bolometer is kept smaller than 20% for injection power, and the heat load to divertor is approximately 60 % with low energetic particle losses. The heat load ratio to divertor is not as a function of injection power around 1MW, and energy confinement has been kept during the steady-state discharge.

  18. Steady state in a gas of inelastic rough spheres heated by a uniform stochastic force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco Vega Reyes; Andrés Santos

    2015-11-04

    We study here the steady state attained in a granular gas of inelastic rough spheres that is subject to a spatially uniform random volume force. The stochastic force has the form of the so-called white noise and acts by adding impulse to the particle translational velocities. We work out an analytical solution of the corresponding velocity distribution function from a Sonine polynomial expansion that displays energy non-equipartition between the translational and rotational modes, translational and rotational kurtoses, and translational-rotational velocity correlations. By comparison with a numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (by means of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method) we show that our analytical solution provides a good description that is quantitatively very accurate in certain ranges of inelasticity and roughness. We also find three important features that make the forced granular gas steady state very different from the homogeneous cooling state (attained by an unforced granular gas). First, the marginal velocity distributions are always close to a Maxwellian. Second, there is a continuous transition to the purely smooth limit (where the effects of particle rotations are ignored). And third, the angular translational-rotational velocity correlations show a preference for a quasiperpendicular mutual orientation (which is called "lifted-tennis-ball" behavior).

  19. The Role of Gas In Maintaining Quasi-Steady Spiral Structure In Stellar Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanya Chakrabarti

    2008-12-03

    We study the dynamical evolution of spiral structure in the stellar disks of isolated galaxies using high resolution Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations that treat the evolution of gas, stars, and dark matter self-consistently. We focus this study on the question of self-excited spiral structure in the stellar disk and investigate the dynamical coupling between the cold, dissipative gaseous component and the stellar component. We find that angular momentum transport from the gas to the stars inside of corotation leads to a roughly time-steady spiral structure in the stellar disk. To make this point clear, we contrast these results with otherwise identical simulations that do not include a cold gaseous component that is able to cool radiatively and dissipate energy, and find that spiral structure, when it is incipient, dies out more rapidly in simulations that do not include gas. We also employ a standard star formation prescription to convert gas into stars and find that our results hold for typical gas consumption time scales that are in accord with the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We therefore attribute the long-lived roughly time steady spiral structure in the stellar disk to the dynamical coupling between the gas and the stars and the resultant torques that the self-gravitating gaseous disk is able to exert on the stars due to an azimuthal phase shift between the collisionless and dissipative components.

  20. Heating and current drive requirements towards steady state operation in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Gorelenkova, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bonoli, P. T. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Batchelor, D. B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Harvey, B.; Petrov, Y. [CompX, Box 2672, Del Mar, CA 92014 (United States)

    2014-02-12

    Steady state scenarios envisaged for ITER aim at optimizing the bootstrap current, while maintaining sufficient confinement and stability to provide the necessary fusion yield. Non-inductive scenarios will need to operate with Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. However, the large pressure gradients associated with ITBs in regions of weak or negative magnetic shear can be conducive to ideal MHD instabilities, reducing the no-wall limit. The E × B flow shear from toroidal plasma rotation is expected to be low in ITER, with a major role in the ITB dynamics being played by magnetic geometry. Combinations of H/CD sources that maintain weakly reversed magnetic shear profiles throughout the discharge are the focus of this work. Time-dependent transport simulations indicate that, with a trade-off of the EC equatorial and upper launcher, the formation and sustainment of quasi-steady state ITBs could be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating configuration. However, with proper constraints from peeling-ballooning theory on the pedestal width and height, the fusion gain and the maximum non-inductive current are below the ITER target. Upgrades of the heating and current drive system in ITER, like the use of Lower Hybrid current drive, could overcome these limitations, sustaining higher non-inductive current and confinement, more expanded ITBs which are ideal MHD stable.

  1. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  2. LCC Guidance Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-DR-1, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-035

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-09-22

    Radiological characterization, decommissioning and demolition of the 132-DR-1 site, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1987. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  4. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  5. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  6. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | FY

  7. Previous Power Rates (rates/current)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal PlumesPress1,Previous EventsRates

  8. Steady-state entanglement of cavity arrays in finite-bandwidth squeezed reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zippilli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    When two chains of quantum systems are driven at their ends by a two-mode squeezed reservoir, they approach a steady state characterized by the formation of many entangled pairs. Each pair is made of one element of the first and one of the second chain. This effect has been already predicted under the assumption of broadband squeezing. Here we investigate the situation of finite-bandwidth reservoirs. This is done by modeling the driving bath as the output field of a non-degenerate parametric oscillator. The resulting non-Markovian dynamics is studied within the theoretical framework of cascade open quantum systems. It is shown that the formation of pair-entangled structures occurs as long as the normal-mode splitting of the arrays does not overcome the squeezing bandwidth of the reservoir.

  9. Einstein's unified field theory predicts the equilibrium positions of n wires run by steady electric currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvatore Antoci

    2008-03-25

    A particular exact solution of Einstein's Hermitian theory of relativity is examined, after recalling that there is merit in adding phenomenological sources to the theory, and in choosing the metric like it was done long ago by Kursunoglu and Hely. It is shown by intrinsic arguments, relying on the properties of the chosen metric manifold, that the solution describes in Einstein's theory the field of n thin parallel wires at rest, run by steady electric currents, and predicts their equilibrium positions through the injunction that the metric must display cylindrical symmetry in the infinitesimal neighbourhood of each wire. In the weak field limit the equilibrium positions coincide with the ones prescribed by Maxwell's electrodynamics.

  10. Status of steady-state irradiation testing of mixed-carbide fuel designs. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The steady-state irradiation program of mixed-carbide fuels has demonstrated clearly the ability of carbide fuel pins to attain peak burnup greater than 12 at.% and peak fluences of 1.4 x 10/sup 23/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). Helium-bonded fuel pins in 316SS cladding have achieved peak burnups of 20.7 at.% (192 MWd/kg), and no breaches have occurred in pins of this design. Sodium-bonded fuel pins in 316SS cladding have achieved peak burnups of 15.8 at.% (146 MWd/kg). Breaches have occurred in helium-bonded fuel pins in PE-16 cladding (approx. 5 at.% burnup) and in D21 cladding (approx. 4 at.% burnup). Sodium-bonded fuel pins achieved burnups over 11 at.% in PE-16 cladding and over 6 at.% in D9 and D21 cladding.

  11. Analytical and numerical solution of one- and two-dimensional steady heat transfer in a coldplate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Bennett, G.A.; Bultman, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We develop analytical models for steady-state, one- and two-dimensional heat transfer in a single-material, flat-plate coldplate. Discrete heat sources are mounted on one side of the plate and heat transfer to a flowing fluid occurs on the other. The models are validated numerically using finite differences. We propose a simple procedure for estimating maximum coldplate temperature at the location of each heat source which includes thermal interaction among the sources. Results from one model are compared with data obtained for a composite coldplate operated in the laboratory. We demonstrate the utility of the models as diagnostic tools to be used for predicting the existence and extent of void volumes and delaminations in the composite material that can occur with coldplates of this type. Based on our findings, recommendations for effective coldplate design are given.

  12. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Pak Yuen

    2007-01-01

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match well the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations, and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recent...

  13. Advanced fueling system for steady-state operation of a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, R. [Univ. of Washington, AERB 352250, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Steady-state Advanced Tokamak scenarios rely on optimized density and pressure profiles to maximize the bootstrap current fraction. Under this mode of operation, the fuelling system must deposit small amounts of fuel where it is needed, and as often as needed, so as to compensate for fuel losses, but not to adversely alter the established density and pressure profiles. A precision fuelling system has the capability for controlling the fusion burn by maintaining the required pressure profile to maximize the bootstrap current fraction. An advanced fuelling system based on Compact Toroid (CT) injection has the potential to meet these needs while simultaneously simplifying the requirements of the tritium handling systems. Simpler engineering systems would reduce reactor construction and maintenance cost through increased reliability. A CT fueling system is described together with the associated tritium handling requirements. (authors)

  14. Steady-State Dynamics of the Forest Fire Model on Complex Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Many sociological networks, as well as biological and technological ones, can be represented in terms of complex networks with a heterogeneous connectivity pattern. Dynamical processes taking place on top of them can be very much influenced by this topological fact. In this paper we consider a paradigmatic model of non-equilibrium dynamics, namely the forest fire model, whose relevance lies in its capacity to represent several epidemic processes in a general parametrization. We study the behavior of this model in complex networks by developing the corresponding heterogeneous mean-field theory and solving it in its steady state. We provide exact and approximate expressions for homogeneous networks and several instances of heterogeneous networks. A comparison of our analytical results with extensive numerical simulations allows to draw the region of the parameter space in which heterogeneous mean-field theory provides an accurate description of the dynamics, and enlights the limits of validity of the mean-field...

  15. Delayed feedback control of unstable steady states with high-frequency modulation of the delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksandar Gjurchinovski; Thomas Jüngling; Viktor Urumov; Eckehard Schöll

    2013-08-21

    We analyze the stabilization of unstable steady states by delayed feedback control with a periodic time-varying delay in the regime of a high-frequency modulation of the delay. The average effect of the delayed feedback term in the control force is equivalent to a distributed delay in the interval of the modulation, and the obtained distribution depends on the type of the modulation. In our analysis we use a simple generic normal form of an unstable focus, and investigate the effects of phase-dependent coupling and the influence of the control loop latency on the controllability. In addition, we have explored the influence of the modulation of the delays in multiple delay feedback schemes consisting of two independent delay lines of Pyragas type. A main advantage of the variable delay is the considerably larger domain of stabilization in parameter space.

  16. Nonequilibrium density matrix for simultaneous heat and charge steady-state transport in quantum open systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Ness

    2014-12-02

    We suggest a generalisation of the expression of the nonequilibrium density matrix obtained by Hershfield's method for the cases where both heat and charge steady state currents are present in a quantum open system. The finite-size quantum system, connected to two temperature and particle reservoirs, is driven out of equilibrium by the presence of both a temperature gradient and a chemical potential gradient between the two reservoirs. We show that the NE density matrix is given by a generalised Gibbs-like ensemble, and is in full agreement with the general results of the McLennan-Zubarev nonequilibrium ensembles. The extra non-equilibrium terms are related to the entropy production in the system and characterise the fluxes of heat and particle.An explicit example, for the lowest order expansion, is provide for a model system of non-interacting fermions.

  17. Magnetic nozzle and plasma detachment model for a steady-state flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breizman, B. N.; Tushentsov, M. R.; Arefiev, A. V. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Plasma propulsion concepts that employ a guiding magnetic field raise the question of how the magnetically controlled plasma can detach from the spacecraft. This paper presents a detachment scenario relevant to high-power thrusters in which the plasma can stretch the magnetic field lines to infinity, similar to the solar wind. In previous work, the corresponding ideal magnetohydrodynamics equations have been solved analytically for a plasma flow in a slowly diverging nozzle. That solution indicates that efficient detachment is feasible if the nozzle is sufficiently long. In order to extend the previous model beyond the idealizations of analytical theory, a Lagrangian code is developed in this work to simulate steady-state kinetic plasma flows and to evaluate nozzle efficiency. The code is benchmarked against the analytical results and then used to examine situations that are not analytically tractable, including plasma behavior in the recent Detachment Demonstration Experiment at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  19. Ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy with atomic or molecular dark resonances: Exact steady-state line shapes and asymptotic profiles in the adiabatic pulsed regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Clercq, Emeric de; Arimondo, Ennio [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7092, LPMAA, 4 place Jussieu, case 76, F-75005 Paris, France, and CNRS, UMR 7092, LPMAA, 4 place Jussieu, case 76, F-75005 Paris (France); LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Dipartimento di Fisica ''E. Fermi,'' Universita di Pisa, Lgo. B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56122 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Exact and asymptotic line shape expressions are derived from the semiclassical density matrix representation describing a set of closed three-level {Lambda} atomic or molecular states including decoherences, relaxation rates, and light shifts. An accurate analysis of the exact steady-state dark-resonance profile describing the Autler-Townes doublet, the electromagnetically induced transparency or coherent population trapping resonance, and the Fano-Feshbach line shape leads to the linewidth expression of the two-photon Raman transition and frequency shifts associated to the clock transition. From an adiabatic analysis of the dynamical optical Bloch equations in the weak field limit, a pumping time required to efficiently trap a large number of atoms into a coherent superposition of long-lived states is established. For a highly asymmetrical configuration with different decay channels, a strong two-photon resonance based on a lower states population inversion is established when the driving continuous-wave laser fields are greatly unbalanced. When time separated resonant two-photon pulses are applied in the adiabatic pulsed regime for atomic or molecular clock engineering, where the first pulse is long enough to reach a coherent steady-state preparation and the second pulse is very short to avoid repumping into a new dark state, dark-resonance fringes mixing continuous-wave line shape properties and coherent Ramsey oscillations are created. Those fringes allow interrogation schemes bypassing the power broadening effect. Frequency shifts affecting the central clock fringe computed from asymptotic profiles and related to the Raman decoherence process exhibit nonlinear shapes with the three-level observable used for quantum measurement. We point out that different observables experience different shifts on the lower-state clock transition.

  20. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  1. Transitions between strongly correlated and random steady-states for catalytic CO-oxidation on surfaces at high-pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-02

    We explore simple lattice-gas reaction models for CO-oxidation on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of surface adsorption sites. The models are motivated by studies of CO-oxidation on RuO2(110) at high-pressures. Although adspecies interactions are neglected, the effective absence of adspecies diffusion results in kinetically-induced spatial correlations. A transition occurs from a random mainly CO-populated steady-state at high CO-partial pressure pCO, to a strongly-correlated near-O-covered steady-state for low pCO as noted. In addition, we identify a second transition to a random near-O-covered steady-state at very low pCO.

  2. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of New Mexico. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, New Mexico oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of New Mexico and the nation as a whole.

  3. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Oklahoma: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Oklahoma. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Oklahoma`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Oklahoma oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  4. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, domestic oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the nation as a whole.

  5. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  6. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico and Wyoming. Volume 4, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of New Mexico and Wyoming. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the states of New Mexico and Wyoming and the nation as a whole.

  7. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  8. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  9. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  10. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.17 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  11. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for HLH and LLH. 2. OTHER RATE PROVISIONS a. BPA Incremental Cost BPA's incremental cost will be based on an hourly energy index in the Pacific Northwest. If no adequate...

  12. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  13. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  14. The determination of neutron flux in the Texas A & M triga reactor during pulse and steady-state operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, John Joseph

    1983-01-01

    THE DETERMINATION OF NEUTRON FLUX IN THE TEXAS A & M TRIGA REACTOR DURING PULSE AND STEADY-STATE OPERATIONS A Thesis by JOHN JOSEPH O'DONNELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 6 M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for t'ne degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Ma3 or Sub] ect: Nuclear Engineering THE DETERMINATION OF NEUTRON FLUX IN THE TEXAS A & M TRIGA REACTOR DURING PULSE AND STEADY-STATE OPERATIONS A Thesis by JOHN JOSEPH O'DONNELL Approved...

  15. Materials design from non-equilibrium steady states: driven graphene as a tunable semiconductor with topological properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iadecola, Thomas; Chamon, Claudio; Hou, Chang-Yu; Jackiw, Roman; Pi, So-Young; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the properties of materials by driving them out of equilibrium is an exciting prospect that has only recently begun to be explored. In this paper we give a striking theoretical example of such materials design: a tunable gap in monolayer graphene is generated by exciting a particular optical phonon. We show that the system reaches a steady state whose transport properties are the same as if the system had a static electronic gap, controllable by the driving amplitude. Moreover, the steady state displays topological phenomena: there are chiral edge currents, which circulate a fractional charge e/2 per rotation cycle, with frequency set by the optical phonon frequency.

  16. Materials design from non-equilibrium steady states: driven graphene as a tunable semiconductor with topological properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Iadecola; David Campbell; Claudio Chamon; Chang-Yu Hou; Roman Jackiw; So-Young Pi; Silvia Viola Kusminskiy

    2013-04-26

    Controlling the properties of materials by driving them out of equilibrium is an exciting prospect that has only recently begun to be explored. In this paper we give a striking theoretical example of such materials design: a tunable gap in monolayer graphene is generated by exciting a particular optical phonon. We show that the system reaches a steady state whose transport properties are the same as if the system had a static electronic gap, controllable by the driving amplitude. Moreover, the steady state displays topological phenomena: there are chiral edge currents, which circulate a fractional charge e/2 per rotation cycle, with frequency set by the optical phonon frequency.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-24 Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-051

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-18

    The 100-B-24 Spillway is a spillway that was designed to serve as an emergency discharge point for the 116-B-7 outfall in the event that the 100-B-15 river effluent pipelines were blocked, damaged, or undergoing maintenance. The site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Circumnuclear Media and Accretion Rates of Quiescent Supermassive Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generozov, Aleksey; Metzger, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    We calculate steady-state, one-dimensional hydrodynamic profiles of hot gas in slowly accreting ("quiescent") galactic nuclei for a range of central black hole masses, parameterized gas heating rates, and observationally-motivated stellar density profiles. Mass is supplied to the circumnuclear medium by stellar winds, while energy is injected primarily by stellar winds, supernovae, and black hole feedback. Analytic estimates are derived for the stagnation radius (where the radial velocity of the gas passes through zero) and the black hole accretion rate, as a function of the black hole mass and the gas heating efficiency, the latter being related to the star-formation history. We assess the conditions under which radiative instabilities develop in the hydrostatic region near the stagnation radius, both in the case of a single burst of star formation and for the average star formation history predicted by cosmological simulations. By combining a sample of measured nuclear X-ray luminosities from nearby quiesce...

  19. Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed wet, turbidite sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands and were evaluated for water-wet and mixed wet states. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The remaining oil saturation of the mixed wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern: (1) the vertical {open_quotes}film surface drainage{close_quotes} of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the cap rock, (3) updip migration of the oil that accumulated under the cap rock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the cap rock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the end point mobility ratio.

  20. Sensitivity of transport and stability to the current profile in steady-state scenario plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turco, F.; Hanson, J. M. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Holcomb, C. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); White, A. E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Brennan, D. P. [University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton 08543, New Jersey (United States); In, Y. [Far-Tech, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have provided the first systematic data on the impact of the current profile on the transport and stability properties of high-performance, steady-state scenario plasmas. In a future tokamak, to achieve 100% noninductive conditions and produce net power, the current profile J must be sustained by a large fraction of bootstrap current J{sub BS}, which is nonlinearly coupled with the kinetic profiles. Systematic scans of q{sub min} and q{sub 95} were performed to determine empirically the best alignment of the noninductive currents with J and the variation of the transport properties with q. Transport analysis indicates that {chi}{sub e} and {chi}{sub i} are sensitive to the details of J in a way that makes the pressure profile peaking and J{sub BS} scale nonlinearly with both q and {beta} in the experiment. Drift wave stability analysis yields linear growth rates that do not reproduce experimental trends in {chi} with q{sub min} and q{sub 95}. At high beta, necessary to maximize f{sub BS}, the plasma duration is often limited by n=1 tearing modes, whose stability also depends on the J profile. Broadly deposited electron cyclotron (EC) current at mid-radius was found to supply part of the required noninductive current and to positively affect the tearing stability. The modes appear when J{sub EC} is turned off for stable cases and always appear when the EC deposition is shifted outwards. The variation in the EC scan results is consistent with PEST3 calculations, showing that the tearing stability becomes extremely sensitive to small perturbations of the equilibrium in wall-stabilized plasmas run close to the ideal MHD limit. These modeling results are being used to design new experiments with higher ideal and tearing limits. A new capability for off-axis neutral beam injection system will be used to explore higher q{sub min} scenarios and different current alignments.

  1. Although the widespread proliferation of introns in eukaryotic protein-coding genes remains one of the most poorly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Michael

    of the most poorly understood aspects of genomic architecture, major advances have emerged recently from large-scale genome sequencing projects and functional analyses of mRNA-processing events. Evidence supports the idea classes very early in eukaryotic evolution. Some rough estimates of intron turnover rates are provided

  2. Bifurcations from steady sliding to stick slip in boundary lubrication A. A. Batista and J. M. Carlson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    Bifurcations from steady sliding to stick slip in boundary lubrication A. A. Batista and J. M in models for boundary lubrication introduced in J. M. Carlson and A. A. Batista, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4153 1996 distinguishing features associated with surfaces separated by a few molecular layers of lubricant. Here we find

  3. Wind-Driven Currents The first, and simplest, theory of steady wind-driven flow is due to Ekman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griesel, Alexa

    Wind-Driven Currents The first, and simplest, theory of steady wind-driven flow is due to Ekman gradients are negligible. The goal of this project is to isolate the wind-driven flow using the FASINEX moored measurements of velocity and wind stress. 1. Writing u Uei t = , and assuming a parameterization

  4. Statistical mechanical theory for steady-state systems. III. Heat flow in a Lennard-Jones fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Statistical mechanical theory for steady-state systems. III. Heat flow in a Lennard-Jones fluid March 2005; accepted 4 May 2005; published online 28 June 2005 A statistical mechanical theory for heat distribution for heat flow down an imposed thermal gradient is tested with simulations of a Lennard-Jones fluid

  5. Control Engineering Practice 15 (2007) 12221237 Application of plantwide control to the HDA process. I--steady-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    process. I--steady-state optimization and self-optimizing control Antonio C.B. de Arau´ jo, Marius of the series. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: HDA process; Self-optimizing control proposed control structures for the HDA process. Section 3 shortly introduces the self-optimizing control

  6. Internet-scale storage systems under churn --A study of the steady-state using Markov models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aberer, Karl

    and a specific maintenance strategy, the system operates in a corresponding steady-state (dynamic equilib- rium the required operational maintenance cost. We also propose a new randomized vari- ant of a lazy-maintenance redundancy, since it ignores the crucial interplay between churn and main- tenance operations, and looks only

  7. A Steady-State Impedance Model for a PEMFC Cathode Qingzhi Guo* and Ralph E. White**,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carolina 29208, USA A model for the simulation of the steady-state impedance response of a polymer to consist of many flooded spherical agglomerate particles surrounded by a small volume fraction of gas pores to take place in the flooded agglomerate particles. Newman's porous electrode theory is applied

  8. Cross polar cap potentials measured with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network during quasi-steady solar wind and interplanetary magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Simon

    Cross polar cap potentials measured with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network during quasi-steady solar, or cross polar cap potential, ÈPC. Periods are chosen to satisfy the criteria that (1) the solar wind-based radars to functional forms of the electrostatic potential [Ruohoniemi and Baker, 1998]; and global mag

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-54 Animal Farm Pastures, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-17

    The 100-F-54 waste site, part of the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, is the soil associated with the former pastures for holding domestic farm animals used in experimental toxicology studies. Evaluation of historical information resulted in identification of the experimental animal farm pastures as having potential residual soil contamination due to excrement from experimental animals. The 100-F-54 animal farm pastures confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Stripped-envelope supernova rates and host-galaxy properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graur, Or; Modjaz, Maryam; Maoz, Dan; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    The progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe Ibc) remain to be conclsuively identified, but correlations between SN rates and host-galaxy properties can constrain progenitor models. Here, we present one result from a re-analysis of the rates from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Galaxies with stellar masses less than $\\sim 10^{10}~{\\rm M_\\odot}$ are less efficient at producing SNe Ibc than more massive galaxies. Any progenitor scenario must seek to explain this new observation.

  11. New methods for predicting lifetimes. Part 2 -- The Wear-out approach for predicting the remaining lifetime of materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CELINA,MATHIAS C.

    2000-04-20

    The so-called Palmgren-Miner concept that degradation is cumulative, and that failure is therefore considered to be the direct result of the accumulation of damage with time, has been known for decades. Cumulative damage models based on this concept have been derived and used mainly for fatigue life predictions for metals and composite materials. The authors review the principles underlying such models and suggest ways in which they may be best applied to polymeric materials in temperature environments. The authors first consider cases where polymer degradation data can be rigorously time-temperature superposed over a given temperature range. For a step change in temperature after damage has occurred at an initial temperature in this range, they show that the remaining lifetime at the second temperature should be linearly related to the aging time prior to the step. This predicted linearity implies that it may be possible to estimate the remaining lifetime of polymeric materials aging under application ambient conditions by completing the aging at an accelerated temperature. They refer to this generic temperature-step method as the Wear-out approach. They then outline the expectations for Wear-out experiments when time-temperature superposition is invalid, specifically describing the two cases where so-called interaction effects are absent and are present. Finally, they present some preliminary results outlining the application of the Wear-out approach to polymers. In analyzing the experimental Wear-out results, they introduce a procedure that they refer to as time-damage superposition. This procedure not only utilizes all of the experimental data instead of a single point from each data set, but also allows them to determine the importance of any interaction effects.

  12. Binary Capture Rates for Massive Protostars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nickolas Moeckel; John Bally

    2007-04-09

    The high multiplicity of massive stars in dense, young clusters is established early in their evolution. The mechanism behind this remains unresolved. Recent results suggest that massive protostars may capture companions through disk interactions with much higher efficiency than their solar mass counterparts. However, this conclusion is based on analytic determinations of capture rates and estimates of the robustness of the resulting binaries. We present the results of coupled n-body and SPH simulations of star-disk encounters to further test the idea that disk-captured binaries contribute to the observed multiplicity of massive stars.

  13. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pak Yuen Chan; Nigel Goldenfeld

    2007-08-22

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match well the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations, and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recently proposed for stalactite growth, and calculate the linear stability spectrum of both travertine domes and stalactites. Lastly, we apply the theory to the problem of precipitation pattern formation arising from turbulent flow down an inclined plane, and identify a linear instability that underlies scale-invariant travertine terrace formation at geothermal hot springs.

  14. Characterization of the TRIGA Mark II reactor full-power steady state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Cammi; Matteo Zanetti; Davide Chiesa; Massimiliano Clemenza; Stefano Pozzi; Ezio Previtali; Monica Sisti; Giovanni Magrotti; Michele Prata; Andrea Salvini

    2015-03-03

    In this work, the characterization of the full-power steady state of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor of the University of Pavia is performed by coupling Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for neutronics with "Multiphysics" model for thermal-hydraulics. Neutronic analyses have been performed starting from a MC model of the entire reactor system, based on the MCNP5 code, that was already validated in fresh fuel and zero-power configuration (in which thermal effects are negligible) using the available experimental data as benchmark. In order to describe the full-power reactor configuration, the temperature distribution in the core is necessary. To evaluate it, a thermal-hydraulic model has been developed, using the power distribution results from MC simulation as input. The thermal-hydraulic model is focused on the core active region and takes into account sub-cooled boiling effects present at full reactor power. The obtained temperature distribution is then introduced in the MC model and a benchmark analysis is carried out to validate the model in fresh fuel and full-power configuration. The good agreement between experimental data and simulation results concerning full-power reactor criticality, proves the reliability of the adopted methodology of analysis, both from neutronics and thermal-hydraulics perspective.

  15. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  16. Steady-State Thermal Performance Evaluation of Steel-Framed Wall Assembly with Local Foam Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL] [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    During January and May, 2009, two configurations of steel-framed walls constructed with conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with R-19 ~14cm. (5.5-in. thick) and R-13 ~9cm. (3.5-in. thick) fiberglass insulation batts were tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) guarded hot-box using ASTM C1363 test procedure. The first test wall used conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with 2.5-cm. (1-in.) thick foam profiles, called stud snugglers. These stud snugglers converted the 2 4 wall assembly into a 2 6 assembly allowing application of R-19 fiberglass insulation. The second wall tested for comparison was a conventional 2 4 steel stud wall using R-13 insulation batts. Further, numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the steady-state thermal performance of various wood- and steel-framed wall assemblies. The effects of adding the stud-snugglers to the wood and steel studs were also investigated numerically. Different combinations of insulation and framing factor were used in the simulations.

  17. Modelling of Quench Limit for Steady State Heat Deposits in LHC Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bocian, D; Siemko, A

    2008-01-01

    A quench, the transition of a conductor from the superconducting to the normal conducting state, occurs irreversibly in the accelerator magnets if one of the three parameters: temperature, magnetic field or current density exceeds a critical value. Energy deposited in the superconductor by the particle beams provokes quenches detrimental for the accelerator operation. In particular if particles impacting on the vacuum chamber and their secondary showers depose energy in the magnet coils. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) nominal beam intensity is 3.2 ldr 10^14 protons. A quench occurs if a fraction of the order of 10^7 protons per second is lost locally. A network model is used to simulate the thermodynamic behaviour of the magnets. The heat flow in the network model was validated with measurements performed in the CERN magnet test facility. A steady state heat flow was introduced in the coil by using the quench heaters implemented in the LHC magnets. The value of the heat source current is determined by the ne...

  18. Quantum Entanglement at High Temperatures? II. Bosonic Systems in Nonequilibrium Steady State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures $T_1 > T_2$. For \\textit{constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling} studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting [1]. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal bath...

  19. Effect of the composition of the hot product stream in the quasi-steady extinction of strained premixed flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coriton, Bruno; Smooke, Mitchell D.; Gomez, Alessandro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale Center for Combustion Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8286 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The extinction of premixed CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flames counterflowing against a jet of combustion products in chemical equilibrium was investigated numerically using detailed chemistry and transport mechanisms. Such a problem is of relevance to combustion systems with non-homogeneous air/fuel mixtures or recirculation of the burnt gases. Contrary to similar studies that were focused on heat loss/gain, depending on the degree of non-adiabaticity of the system, the emphasis here was on the yet unexplored role of the composition of counterflowing burnt gases in the extinction of lean-to-stoichiometric premixed flames. For a given temperature of the counterflowing products of combustion, it was found that the decrease of heat release with increase in strain rate could be either monotonic or non-monotonic, depending on the equivalence ratio {phi}{sub b} of the flame feeding the hot combustion product stream. Two distinct extinction modes were observed: an abrupt one, when the hot counterflowing stream consists of either inert gas or equilibrium products of a stoichiometric premixed flame, and a smooth extinction, when there is an excess of oxidizing species in the combustion product stream. In the latter case four burning regimes can be distinguished as the strain rate is progressively increased while the heat release decreases smoothly: an adiabatic propagating flame regime, a non-adiabatic propagating flame regime, the so-called partially-extinguished flame regime, in which the location of the peak of heat release crosses the stagnation plane, and a frozen flow regime. The flame structure was analyzed in detail in the different burning regimes. Abrupt extinction was attributed to the quenching of the oxidation layer with the entire H-OH-O radical pool being comparably reduced. Under conditions of smooth extinction, the behavior is different and the concentration of the H radical decreases the most with increasing strain rate, whereas OH and O remain comparatively abundant in the oxidation layer. As the profile of the heat release rate thickens, the oxidation layer is quenched and the attack of the fuel relies more heavily on the OH radicals. (author)

  20. D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks, San Diego, February 2005 PLASMA SHAPE, PROFILES AND FLUX CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks, San JET-EFDA Contributors D. Moreau #12;D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High · Conclusion #12;D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks

  1. J.E. Menard -IEA Workshop 59 -Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks 1 Ideal MHD stability scaling with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J.E. Menard - IEA Workshop 59 - Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady Physics Laboratory IEA Workshop 59 February 14, 2005 General Atomics - San Diego, CA #12;J.E. Menard - IEA, February 2003 #12;J.E. Menard - IEA Workshop 59 - Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady

  2. Non-equilibrium steady state and induced currents of a mesoscopically-glassy system: interplay of resistor-network theory and Sinai physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    -equilibrium steady state (NESS) of a ring that is coupled to a thermal bath, and is driven by an external hot source to glassy systems. Conse- quently there is a wide range of driving intensities where the NESS is like- equilibrium steady state (NESS). Considering the NESS of a mesoscopically glassy sys- tem, our working

  3. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  4. Calculation of Steady-State Evaporation for an Arbitrary Matric Potential at Ground Surface 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xin

    2014-12-15

    . .................... 6 Figure 2: The different contours of Ep/Ks value for N and –a/L in Eq. (9). ..................... 15 Figure 3: Influence of water table depth and matric potential on estimated evaporation rate for the Chino Clay... potential head (-cm) for the Chino Clay. ......................................................................... 29 Figure 7: Influence of water table depth and matric potential on estimated evaporation rate for the clay loam...

  5. Report for Westinghouse Hanford Company: Makeup procedures and characterization data for modified DSSF and modified remaining inventory simulated tank waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokken, R.O.

    1996-03-01

    The majority of defense wastes generated from reprocessing spent reactor fuel at Hanford are stored in underground Double-Shell Tanks (DST) and in older Single-Shell Tanks (SST). The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program has the responsibility of safely managing and immobilizing these tank wastes for disposal. A reference process flowsheet is being developed that includes waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification. Melter technologies for vitrifying low-level tank wastes are being evaluated by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Chemical simulants are being used in the technology testing. For the first phase of low-level waste (LLW) vitrification simulant development, two waste stream compositions were investigated. The first waste simulant was based on the analyses of six tanks of double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste and on the projected composition of the wastes exiting the pretreatment operations. A simulant normalized to 6 M sodium was based on the anticipated chemical concentrations after ion exchange and initial separations. The same simulant concentrated to 10 M sodium would represent a waste that had been concentrated by evaporation to reduce the overall volume. The second LLW simulant, referred to as the remaining inventory (RI), included wastes not included in the DSSF tanks and the projected LLW fraction of single-shell tank wastes.

  6. Quantifying Holocene lithospheric subsidence rates underneath the Mississippi Delta Shi-Yong Yu a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.

    Quantifying Holocene lithospheric subsidence rates underneath the Mississippi Delta Shi-Yong Yu: Mississippi Delta relative sea level glacial isostatic adjustment flexural subsidence Holocene The pattern), and lithospheric flexural subsidence associated with Mississippi Delta sediment loading remains unre- solved. Here

  7. Development of microbial-enzyme-mediated decomposition model parameters through steady-state and dynamic analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Gangsheng; Post, Wilfred M; Mayes, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    We developed a Microbial-ENzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model, based on the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that describes the dynamics of physically defined pools of soil organic matter (SOC). These include particulate, mineral-associated, dissolved organic matter (POC, MOC, and DOC, respectively), microbial biomass, and associated exoenzymes. The ranges and/or distributions of parameters were determined by both analytical steady-state and dynamic analyses with SOC data from the literature. We used an improved multi-objective parameter sensitivity analysis (MOPSA) to identify the most important parameters for the full model: maintenance of microbial biomass, turnover and synthesis of enzymes, and carbon use efficiency (CUE). The model predicted an increase of 2 C (baseline temperature =12 C) caused the pools of POC-Cellulose, MOC, and total SOC to increase with dynamic CUE and decrease with constant CUE, as indicated by the 50% confidence intervals. Regardless of dynamic or constant CUE, the pool sizes of POC, MOC, and total SOC varied from 8% to 8% under +2 C. The scenario analysis using a single parameter set indicates that higher temperature with dynamic CUE might result in greater net increases in both POC-Cellulose and MOC pools. Different dynamics of various SOC pools reflected the catalytic functions of specific enzymes targeting specific substrates and the interactions between microbes, enzymes, and SOC. With the feasible parameter values estimated in this study, models incorporating fundamental principles of microbial-enzyme dynamics can lead to simulation results qualitatively different from traditional models with fast/slow/passive pools.

  8. Decomposition of toluene in a steady-state atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trushkin, A. N.; Grushin, M. E.; Kochetov, I. V.; Trushkin, N. I.; Akishev, Yu. S.

    2013-02-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of decomposition of toluene (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}) in a polluted air flow by means of a steady-state atmospheric pressure glow discharge at different water vapor contents in the working gas. The experimental results on the degree of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} removal are compared with the results of computer simulations conducted in the framework of the developed kinetic model of plasma chemical decomposition of toluene in the N{sub 2}: O{sub 2}: H{sub 2}O gas mixture. A substantial influence of the gas flow humidity on toluene decomposition in the atmospheric pressure glow discharge is demonstrated. The main mechanisms of the influence of humidity on C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} decomposition are determined. The existence of two stages in the process of toluene removal, which differ in their duration and the intensity of plasma chemical decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} is established. Based on the results of computer simulations, the composition of the products of plasma chemical reactions at the output of the reactor is analyzed as a function of the specific energy deposition and gas flow humidity. The existence of a catalytic cycle in which hydroxyl radical OH acts a catalyst and which substantially accelerates the recombination of oxygen atoms and suppression of ozone generation when the plasma-forming gas contains water vapor is established.

  9. Quantum Entanglement at High Temperatures? II. Bosonic Systems in Nonequilibrium Steady State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jen-Tsung Hsiang; B. L. Hu

    2015-03-12

    This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures $T_1 > T_2$. For \\textit{constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling} studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting [1]. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature $T_c$. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on $T_{1}$, $T_{2}$ , the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature $T_c$ is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, `hot entanglement' is largely a fiction. In Paper III we will examine the case (C2) of \\textit{time-dependent driven coupling } which contains the parametric pumping type described in [2] wherein entanglement was first shown to sustain at high temperatures.

  10. CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgartner, S.; Bieli, R.; Bergmann, U. C.

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

  11. Countermemory and the (Turkish-)German Theatrical Archive: Reading the Documentary Remains of Emine Sevgi Özdamar’s Karagöz in Alamania (1986)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Lizzie

    2013-01-01

    digging, the private and public traces of productions such as Özdamar’s may provide an overlooked set of remains well

  12. INVESTIGATION OF A DYNAMIC POWER LINE RATING CONCEPT FOR IMPROVED WIND ENERGY INTEGRATION OVER COMPLEX TERRAIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S Myers; Tyler B Phillips; Inanc Senocak; Phil Anderson

    2014-08-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of power line to be based on real-time conductor temperature dependent on local weather conditions. In current practice overhead power lines are generally given a conservative rating based on worst case weather conditions. Using historical weather data collected over a test bed area, we demonstrate there is often additional transmission capacity not being utilized with the current static rating practice. We investigate a new dynamic line rating methodology using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine wind conditions along transmission lines at dense intervals. Simulated results are used to determine conductor temperature by calculating the transient thermal response of the conductor under variable environmental conditions. In calculating the conductor temperature, we use both a calculation with steady-state assumption and a transient calculation. Under low wind conditions, steady-state assumption predicts higher conductor temperatures that could lead to curtailments, whereas transient calculations produce conductor temperatures that are significantly lower, implying the availability of additional transmission capacity.

  13. Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed-wet turbidite sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, G.J.

    1996-05-01

    The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands. The water-wet case is based on the assumption that the system is water-wet and measurements were made with refined oil. The mixed-wet case assumed that the system is mixed-wet and restored-state measurements were made with crude oil. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation (ROS) in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The ROS of the mixed-wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern (1) the vertical film surface drainage of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the caprock, and (3) up-dip migration of the oil that accumulated under the caprock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the caprock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the endpoint mobility ratio.

  14. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding in ActinideRail betweenProtectionCurrentJobPower-Rates

  15. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers |

  16. Rate Design and Renewables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers

  17. No steady water waves of small amplitude are supported by a shear flow with still free surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Kozlov; Nikolay Kuznetsov

    2012-09-17

    The two-dimensional free-boundary problem describing steady gravity waves with vorticity on water of finite depth is considered. It is proved that no small-amplitude waves are supported by a horizontal shear flow whose free surface is still in a coordinate frame such that the flow is time-independent in it. The class of vorticity distributions for which such flows exist includes all positive constant distributions, as well as linear and quadric ones with arbitrary positive coefficients.

  18. The effects of intrinsic noise on the behaviour of bistable cell regulatory systems under quasi-steady state conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto de la Cruz; Pilar Guerrero; Fabian Spill; Tomás Alarcón

    2015-08-12

    We analyse the effect of intrinsic fluctuations on the properties of bistable stochastic systems with time scale separation operating under1 quasi-steady state conditions. We first formulate a stochastic generalisation of the quasi-steady state approximation based on the semi-classical approximation of the partial differential equation for the generating function associated with the Chemical Master Equation. Such approximation proceeds by optimising an action functional whose associated set of Euler-Lagrange (Hamilton) equations provide the most likely fluctuation path. We show that, under appropriate conditions granting time scale separation, the Hamiltonian can be re-scaled so that the set of Hamilton equations splits up into slow and fast variables, whereby the quasi-steady state approximation can be applied. We analyse two particular examples of systems whose mean-field limit has been shown to exhibit bi-stability: an enzyme-catalysed system of two mutually-inhibitory proteins and a gene regulatory circuit with self-activation. Our theory establishes that the number of molecules of the conserved species are order parameters whose variation regulates bistable behaviour in the associated systems beyond the predictions of the mean-field theory. This prediction is fully confirmed by direct numerical simulations using the stochastic simulation algorithm. This result allows us to propose strategies whereby, by varying the number of molecules of the three conserved chemical species, cell properties associated to bistable behaviour (phenotype, cell-cycle status, etc.) can be controlled.

  19. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  20. EnginEEring by thE numbErsBy Michael T. GiBBons ngineering bachelor's degrees remained virtually

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EnginEEring by thE numbErsBy Michael T. GiBBons E ngineering bachelor's degrees remained virtually since 2005. Degrees in electrical/ computer engineering and computer science continued to fall, although and materials engineering degrees remained flat last year, the aerospace, biomedical, chemical, civil

  1. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  2. Aalborg Universitet Comparison of Steady-State SVC Models in Load Flow Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    that the electrical distance between the generators and the load centers is controlled. The shunt- connected FACTS-state models of static var compensator (SVC), i.e. the generator-fixed susceptance model, the total susceptance bus, equivalent SVC susceptance at the fundamental frequency and the load flow convergence rate when

  3. Modeling the Inhomogeneous Response and Formation of Shear Bands in Steady and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of these models, the `flow curve' of stress and apparent shear rate resulting from an assumption of homogeneous de of Machanical Engineering, MIT 1 #12;1 Introduction A central assumption behind rheometry is that the velocity shampoos and body gels; in the petroleum industry they are used in fracturing operations and enhanced oil

  4. Insensitivity of Ion Motional Heating Rate to Trap Material over a Large Temperature Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Chiaverini; J. M. Sage

    2013-10-30

    We present measurements of trapped-ion motional-state heating rates in niobium and gold surface-electrode ion traps over a range of trap-electrode temperatures from approximately 4 K to room temperature (295 K) in a single apparatus. Using the sideband-ratio technique after resolved-sideband cooling of single ions to the motional ground state, we find low-temperature heating rates more than two orders of magnitude below the room-temperature values and approximately equal to the lowest measured heating rates in similarly-sized cryogenic traps. We find similar behavior in the two very different electrode materials, suggesting that the anomalous heating process is dominated by non-material-specific surface contaminants. Through precise control of the temperature of cryopumping surfaces, we also identify conditions under which elastic collisions with the background gas can lead to an apparent steady heating rate, despite rare collisions.

  5. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  6. Bubble growth rates in boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1956-01-01

    The conditions determining the growth rate of a bubble on a surface in boiling are considered and a mathematical model framed in the light of these conditions. The growth rate is then calculated for bubbles growing under ...

  7. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  8. Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

  9. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  10. Independent Signs of Lower Mass-Loss Rates for O-Type Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2007-10-18

    I discuss observational evidence -- independent of the direct spectral diagnostics of stellar winds themselves -- suggesting that mass-loss rates for O stars need to be revised downward by roughly a factor of three or more, in line with recent observed mass-loss rates for clumped winds. These independent constraints include the large observed mass-loss rates in LBV eruptions, the large masses of evolved massive stars like LBVs and WNH stars, WR stars in lower metallicity environments, observed rotation rates of massive stars at different metallicity, supernovae that seem to defy expectations of high mass-loss rates in stellar evolution, and other clues. I pay particular attention to the role of feedback that would result from higher mass-loss rates, driving the star to the Eddington limit too particular attention to the role of feedback that would result from higher mass-loss rates, driving the star to the Eddington limit too soon, and therefore making higher rates appear highly implausible. Some of these arguments by themselves may have more than one interpretation, but together they paint a consistent picture that steady line-driven winds of O-type stars have lower mass-loss rates and are significantly clumped.

  11. Steady-State Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Spool Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lugowski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A high-speed jet flowing inside of a partially-open hydraulic valve is accompanied by a reaction force, also referred to as flow force. The nature of this force has remained a mystery despite an extensive research effort spanning many decades. The momentum theory on the flow force by Lee and Blackburn (1952) explains the origin of the flow force and offers a design solution to shape the valve spool as a turbine bucket. It provides a model to calculate the compensated flow force as well. This paper shows that the model applies to a different flow case due to incorrect assumptions made. A corrected equation is presented based on a detailed analysis of the static-pressure distribution in the valve cavity as well as on a literature review of pressure loss in diffusers and nozzles. The new equation is based on the compensation taking place upstream of the valve orifice, not downstream as assumed by the momentum theory. The new model can be applied to chamfers or notches on the valve spool without the need to machi...

  12. Steady-State Neutronic Analysis of Converting the UK CONSORT Reactor for ADS Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owen, Hywel; Chambers, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    CONSORT is the UK's last remaining civilian research reactor, and its present core is soon to be removed. This study examines the feasibility of re-using the reactor facility for accelerator-driven systems research by replacing the fuel and installing a spallation neutron target driven by an external proton accelerator. MCNP5/MCNPX were used to model alternative, high-density fuels and their coupling to the neutrons generated by 230 MeV protons from a cyclotron striking a solid tungsten spallation target side-on to the core. Low-enriched U3Si2 and U-9Mo were considered as candidates, with only U-9Mo found to be feasible in the compact core; fuel element size and arrangement were kept the same as the original core layout to minimise thermal hydraulic and other changes. Reactor thermal power up to 2.5 kW is predicted for a keff of 0.995, large enough to carry out reactor kinetic experiments.

  13. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System:...

  14. Effects of inertia on the steady-shear rheology of disordered solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandre Nicolas; Jean-Louis Barrat; Jörg Rottler

    2015-11-02

    We study the finite-shear-rate rheology of disordered solids by means of molecular dynamics simulations in two dimensions. By systematically varying the damping magnitude $\\zeta$ in the low-temperature limit, we identify two well defined flow regimes, separated by a thin (temperature-dependent) crossover region. In the overdamped regime, the athermal rheology is governed by the competition between elastic forces and viscous forces, whose ratio gives the Weissenberg number $Wi= \\zeta \\dot\\gamma$ (up to elastic parameters), the macroscopic stress $\\Sigma$ follows the frequently encountered Herschel-Bulkley law $\\Sigma= \\Sigma\\_0 + k \\sqrt{Wi}$, with yield stress $\\Sigma\\_0\\textgreater{}0$. In the underdamped (inertial) regime, dramatic changes in the rheology are observed for low damping: the flow curve becomes non-monotonic. This change is not caused by longer-lived correlations in the particle dynamics at lower damping, instead, for weak dissipation, the sample heats up considerably due to, and in proportion to, the driving. By suitably thermostatting more or less underdamped systems, we show that their rheology only depends on their kinetic temperature and the shear rate, rescaled with Einstein's vibration frequency.

  15. Nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relations for one- and two-particle correlation functions in steady-state quantum transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, H., E-mail: herve.ness@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, School of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Liege (Belgium); Dash, L. K. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Liege (Belgium) [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Liege (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14

    We study the non-equilibrium (NE) fluctuation-dissipation (FD) relations in the context of quantum thermoelectric transport through a two-terminal nanodevice in the steady-state. The FD relations for the one- and two-particle correlation functions are derived for a model of the central region consisting of a single electron level. Explicit expressions for the FD relations of the Green's functions (one-particle correlations) are provided. The FD relations for the current-current and charge-charge (two-particle) correlations are calculated numerically. We use self-consistent NE Green's functions calculations to treat the system in the absence and in the presence of interaction (electron-phonon) in the central region. We show that, for this model, there is no single universal FD theorem for the NE steady state. There are different FD relations for each different class of problems. We find that the FD relations for the one-particle correlation function are strongly dependent on both the NE conditions and the interactions, while the FD relations of the current-current correlation function are much less dependent on the interaction. The latter property suggests interesting applications for single-molecule and other nanoscale transport experiments.

  16. SAFE: A computer code for the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of LMR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, S.L.

    1993-12-01

    SAFE is a computer code developed for both the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of single LMR fuel elements. The code employs a two-dimensional control-volume based finite difference methodology with fully implicit time marching to calculate the temperatures throughout a fuel element and its associated coolant channel for both the steady-state and transient events. The code makes no structural calculations or predictions whatsoever. It does, however, accept as input structural parameters within the fuel such as the distributions of porosity and fuel composition, as well as heat generation, to allow a thermal analysis to be performed on a user-specified fuel structure. The code was developed with ease of use in mind. An interactive input file generator and material property correlations internal to the code are available to expedite analyses using SAFE. This report serves as a complete design description of the code as well as a user`s manual. A sample calculation made with SAFE is included to highlight some of the code`s features. Complete input and output files for the sample problem are provided.

  17. MAGNETIC BRAKING FORMULATION FOR SUN-LIKE STARS: DEPENDENCE ON DIPOLE FIELD STRENGTH AND ROTATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matt, Sean P.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Greene, Thomas P. E-mail: kmac@ucar.edu E-mail: thomas.p.greene@nasa.gov

    2012-08-01

    We use two-dimensional axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations to compute steady-state solutions for solar-like stellar winds from rotating stars with dipolar magnetic fields. Our parameter study includes 50 simulations covering a wide range of relative magnetic field strengths and rotation rates, extending from the slow- and approaching the fast-magnetic-rotator regimes. Using the simulations to compute the angular momentum loss, we derive a semi-analytic formulation for the external torque on the star that fits all of the simulations to a precision of a few percent. This formula provides a simple method for computing the magnetic braking of Sun-like stars due to magnetized stellar winds, which properly includes the dependence on the strength of the magnetic field, mass loss rate, stellar radius, surface gravity, and spin rate, and which is valid for both slow and fast rotators.

  18. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  19. LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2014/15 SUBSCRIPTION RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2014/15 SUBSCRIPTION RATES LMS membership subscription: £ US.00 Associate membership 16.00 32.00 Free membership (see note 2) Print only Online only Print & online* LMS, or are unemployed or otherwise in hardship. Contact membership@lms.ac.uk to enquire further. #12;LMS PUBLICATIONS 4

  20. LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2013/14 SUBSCRIPTION RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2013/14 SUBSCRIPTION RATES LMS membership subscription: £ US.00 Associate membership 15.00 30.00 Free membership (see note 2) Print only Online only Print & online* LMS, or are unemployed or otherwise in hardship. Contact membership@lms.ac.uk to enquire further. #12;LMS PUBLICATIONS 4

  1. Upper Great Plains Rates information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2014 (112 KB .pdf) FRN Notice of Proposed Transmission and Ancillary Services Formula Rates November 3, 2014 (93 KB .pdf) SPP Membership Information Integrated System (IS)...

  2. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-07-11

    The 100-C-9:2 sanitary sewer pipelines include the feeder pipelines associated with the 1607-B8, the 1607-B9, the 1607-B10 and the 1607-B11 septic systems. Contaminated soil and piping from the feeder lines to the septic systems were removed and disposed of. The remaining soil in the excavations has been shown to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Diesel prices remain fairly stable

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural Gas UsageDiesel prices increase nationally

  5. Steady-state pressure losses for Multirod Burst Test (MRBT) bundle B-5. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, R.T.

    1982-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has undertaken the Multirod Burst Test (MRBT) program for the purpose of characterizing the deformation behavior of unirradiated fuel cladding. As part of this program, ORNL contracted with the Babcock and Wilcox company (B and W) to obtain experimental hydraulic data for one of the MRBT bundles. This report presents the data that describe the pressure loss characteristics of Multirod Burst Test Bundle B-5 and a reference or pre-burst geometry bundle. The 8 x 8-rod bundles were flow tested at Reynolds numbers between 17,700 nd 177,000. For each of the five test flow rates, the static pressures at 480 points on the perimeter of the bundles were measured. The total pressure loss for the B-5 bundle showed about a fourfold increase over that for the reference geometry bundle. The shape of the axial pressure loss profile for the B-5 bundle agreed with the observed distribution of the clad deformations. The experimental data presented in this report will be used as one of essential inputs to the continuing analytical work at ORNL.

  6. A steady state thermal duct model derived by fin-theory approach and applied on an unglazed solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stojanovic, B.; Hallberg, D.; Akander, J.

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (1D) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler 1D analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the 1D isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer course of events adopts a 1D heat flow that reassembles the conditions of the 1D simple model (for the assessed USC duct geometry); 1D heat flow through the top and bottom fins/sheets as the duct wall reassembles a state of adiabatic condition. (author)

  7. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-21

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  8. The Relationship of Work Engagement, Work-life Balance, and Occupational Commitment on the Decisions of Agricultural Educators to Remain in the Teaching Profession. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crutchfield, Nina R.

    2010-07-14

    , and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for this study was defined as experienced agricultural educators who had completed a minimum of four years of teaching experience, who were...

  9. DEWEK Wind Energy Conference 2012 Category: 4. Simulation models BACKWARD EXTRAPOLATION OF SHORT-TIME MEASUREMENT DATA FOR A REMAINING SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION OF WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    DEWEK Wind Energy Conference 2012 Category: 4. Simulation models 1 BACKWARD EXTRAPOLATION OF SHORT-TIME MEASUREMENT DATA FOR A REMAINING SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION OF WIND TURBINES Dipl.-Ing. René Kamieth, Prof. Dr, Germany, Tel.: +49-(0)30-314-23603, Fax: +49-(0)30-314-26131 Summary Wind turbines built in the last

  10. Contraction and stability analysis of steady-states for open quantum systems described by Lindblad differential equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Rouchon; Alain Sarlette

    2013-02-27

    For discrete-time systems, governed by Kraus maps, the work of D. Petz has characterized the set of universal contraction metrics. In the present paper, we use this characterization to derive a set of quadratic Lyapunov functions for continuous-time systems, governed by Lindblad differential equations, that have a steady-state with full rank. An extremity of this set is given by the Bures metric, for which the quadratic Lyapunov function is obtained by inverting a Sylvester equation. We illustrate the method by providing a strict Lyapunov function for a Lindblad equation designed to stabilize a quantum electrodynamic "cat" state by reservoir engineering. In fact we prove that any Lindblad equation on the Hilbert space of the (truncated) harmonic oscillator, which has a full-rank equilibrium and which has, among its decoherence channels, a channel corresponding to the photon loss operator, globally converges to that equilibrium.

  11. Non-Markovian dynamics and steady-state entanglement of cavity arrays in finite-bandwidth squeezed reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Zippilli; Fabrizio Illuminati

    2014-02-16

    When two chains of quantum systems are driven at their ends by a two-mode squeezed reservoir, they approach a steady state characterized by the formation of many entangled pairs. Each pair is made of one element of the first and one of the second chain. This effect has been already predicted under the assumption of broadband squeezing. Here we investigate the situation of finite-bandwidth reservoirs. This is done by modeling the driving bath as the output field of a non-degenerate parametric oscillator. The resulting non-Markovian dynamics is studied within the theoretical framework of cascade open quantum systems. It is shown that the formation of pair-entangled structures occurs as long as the normal-mode splitting of the arrays does not overcome the squeezing bandwidth of the reservoir.

  12. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grcar, Joseph F; Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-06-30

    Ultra-lean, hydrogen-air mixtures are found to support another kind of laminar flame that is steady and stable beside flat flames and flame balls. Direct numerical simulations are performed of flames that develop into steadily and stably propagating cells. These cells were the original meaning of the word"flamelet'' when they were observed in lean flammability studies conducted early in the development of combustion science. Several aspects of these two-dimensional flame cells are identified and are contrasted with the properties of one-dimensional flame balls and flat flames. Although lean hydrogen-air flames are subject to thermo-diffusive effects, in this case the result is to stabilize the flame rather than to render it unstable. The flame cells may be useful as basic components of engineering models for premixed combustion when the other types of idealized flames are inapplicable.

  13. Steady-state domain wall motion driven by adiabatic spin-transfer torque with assistance of microwave field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Tang, Wei; Wang, D.; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2013-12-23

    We have studied the current-induced displacement of a 180° Bloch wall by means of micromagnetic simulation and analytical approach. It is found that the adiabatic spin-transfer torque can sustain a steady-state domain wall (DW) motion in the direction opposite to that of the electron flow without Walker Breakdown when a transverse microwave field is applied. This kind of motion is very sensitive to the microwave frequency and can be resonantly enhanced by exciting the domain wall thickness oscillation mode. A one-dimensional analytical model was established to account for the microwave-assisted wall motion. These findings may be helpful for reducing the critical spin-polarized current density and designing DW-based spintronic devices.

  14. Compact steady-state and high-flux Falcon ion source for tests of plasma-facing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girka, O.; Bizyukov, I.; Sereda, K.; Bizyukov, A. [School of Physics and Technologies, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, 61022 (Ukraine); Gutkin, M. [Micron Surface Technologies, 5033 Dantes View Dr., Calabasas, California 91301 (United States); Sleptsov, V. [Moscow State Aviation Technological University, Moscow 121552 (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-15

    This paper describes the design and operation of the Falcon ion source. It is based on conventional design of anode layer thrusters. This ion source is a versatile, compact, affordable, and highly functional in the research field of the fusion materials. The reversed magnetic field configuration of the source allows precise focusing of the ion beam into small spot of Almost-Equal-To 3 mm and also provides the limited capabilities for impurity mass-separation. As the result, the source generates steady-state ion beam, which irradiates surface with high heat (0.3 - 21 MW m{sup -2}) and particle fluxes (4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21}- 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} m{sup -2}s{sup -1}), which approaches the upper limit for the flux range expected in ITER.

  15. Debye-Hueckel solution for steady electro-osmotic flow of a micropolar fluid in a cylindrical microcapillary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Abuzar A

    2011-01-01

    Analytic expressions for the speed, flux, microrotation, stress, and couple stress in a micropolar fluid exhibiting steady, symmetric and one-dimensional electro-osmotic flow in a uniform cylindrical microcapillary were derived under the constraint of the Debye-Hueckel approximation, which is applicable when the cross-sectional radius of the microcapillary exceeds the Debye length, provided that the zeta potential is sufficiently small in magnitude. As the aciculate particles in a micropolar fluid can rotate without translation, micropolarity influences fluid speed, fluid flux, and one of the two non-zero components of the stress tensor. The axial speed in a micropolar fluid intensifies as the radius increases. The stress tensor is confined to the region near the wall of the microcapillary but the couple stress tensor is uniform across the cross-section.

  16. Steady State Sputtering Yields and Surface Compositions of Depleted Uranium and Uranium Carbide bombarded by 30 keV Gallium or 16 keV Cesium Ions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekhaus, W. J.; Teslich, N. E.; Weber, P. K.

    2014-10-23

    Depleted uranium that included carbide inclusions was sputtered with 30-keV gallium ions or 16-kev cesium ions to depths much greater than the ions’ range, i.e. using steady-state sputtering. The recession of both the uranium’s and uranium carbide’s surfaces and the ion corresponding fluences were used to determine the steady-state target sputtering yields of both uranium and uranium carbide, i.e. 6.3 atoms of uranium and 2.4 units of uranium carbide eroded per gallium ion, and 9.9 uranium atoms and 3.65 units of uranium carbide eroded by cesium ions. The steady state surface composition resulting from the simultaneous gallium or cesium implantation and sputter-erosion of uranium and uranium carbide were calculated to be U??Ga??, (UC)??Ga?? and U??Cs?, (UC)??Cs??, respectively.

  17. Biological Electric Fields and Rate Equations for Biophotons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Alvermann; Y. N. Srivastava; J. Swain; A. Widom

    2014-04-13

    Ultraweak bioluminescence - the emission of biophotons - remains an experimentally well-established, but theoretically poorly understood phenomenon. This paper presents several related investigations into the physical process of both spontaneous biophoton emission and delayed luminescence. Since light intensities depend upon the modulus squared of their corresponding electric fields we first make some general estimates about the inherent electric fields within various biological systems. Since photon emission from living matter following an initial excitation ("delayed luminescence") typically does not follow a simple exponential decay law after excitation we discuss such non-exponential decays from a general theoretical perspective and argue that they are often to be expected and why. We then discuss the dynamics behind some nonlinear rate equations, connecting them both to biological growth rates and biophoton emission rates, noting a possible connection with cancer. We then return to non-exponential decay laws seen for delayed luminescence in an experimental context and again note a possible connection with cancer.

  18. Dispersed-flow film boiling in rod-bundle geometry: steady-state heat-transfer data and correlation comparisons. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, G. L.; Morris, D. G.; Mullins, C. B.; Ott, L. J.; Reed, D. A.

    1982-03-01

    Assessment of six film boiling correlations and one single-phase vapor correlation has been made using data from 22 steady state upflow rod bundle tests (series 3.07.9). Bundle fluid conditions were calculated using energy and mass conservation considerations. Results of the steady state film boiling tests support the conclusions reached in the analysis of prior transient tests 3.03.6AR, 3.06.6B, and 3.08.6C. Comparisons between experimentally determined and correlation-predicted heat transfer coefficients, are presented.

  19. Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Letter to South Texas Electric Coop., Inc requesting an extension of the existing rate formula FalconAmistad WAPA-143 FERC Approval FalconAmistad Published WAPA-143 Falcon...

  20. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    period FY2015 through 2028. Customers have a diversification right to limit the amount of power they purchase at the Load Growth rate in future years with notice provided by...

  1. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2003-08-01

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that ...

  2. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2004-11-30

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that stock market prices are correlated ...

  3. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  4. High compression rate text summarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

  5. Upscaling Calcite Growth Rates From the Mesoscale to the Macroscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative prediction of mineral reaction rates in the subsurface remains a daunting task partly because a key parameter for macroscopic models, the reactive site density, is poorly constrained. Here we report atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements on the calcite surface of monomolecular step densities, treated as equivalent to the reactive site density, as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index. Data for the obtuse step orientation are combined with existing step velocity measurements to generate a model that predicts overall macroscopic calcite growth rates. The model is quantitatively consistent with several published macroscopic rates under a range of alkaline solution conditions, particularly for two of the most comprehensive data sets without the need for additional fit parameters. The model reproduces peak growth rates and its functional form is simple enough to be incorporated into reactive transport or other macroscopic models designed for predictions in porous media. However, it currently cannot model equilibrium, pH effects, and may overestimate rates at high aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratios. The discrepancies in rates at high calcium-to-carbonate ratios may be due to differences in pre-treatment, such as exposing the seed material to SI 1.0 to generate/develop growth hillocks, or other factors.

  6. How are mortality rates affected by population density?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lei; Di, Zengru; Roehner, Bertrand M

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have found that the death rate of cells in culture depends upon their spatial density. Permanent "Stay alive" signals from their neighbours seem to prevent them from dying. In a previous paper (Wang et al. 2013) we gave evidence for a density effect for ants. In this paper we examine whether there is a similar effect in human demography. We find that although there is no observable relationship between population density and overall death rates, there is a clear relationship between density and the death rates of young age-groups. Basically their death rates decrease with increasing density. However, this relationship breaks down around 300 inhabitants per square kilometre. Above this threshold the death rates remains fairly constant. The same density effect is observed in Canada, France, Japan and the United States. We also observe a striking parallel between the density effect and the so-called marital status effect in the sense that they both lead to higher suicide rates and are both enhanced fo...

  7. The economic importance of vertebrate faunal remains from the Nan Ruin (LA 15049), a classic Mimbres site, Grant County, New Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaffer, Brian Sawyer

    1991-01-01

    THE ECONOMIC IMPORTANCB OF VERTEBRATE FAUNAL REMAINS FROM THE NAN RUIN (LA 15049), A CLASSIC MIMBRES SITE, GRANT COUNTY, NEW MEXICO A Thesis by BRIAN SAWYER SHAFFER Subaitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... Thesis by BRIAN SAWYER SHAFFER Approved as to style and content by: D. Gentry teele (Chair of Coaaittee) Jaaes R Dix ( aber) Har J. Sha r caber) Vaughn M. Bryant (Head of Departaent August 1991 ABSTRACT The Economic Importance of Vertebrate...

  8. Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsten Knappenberger; Markus Flury; Earl D. Mattson; James B. Harsh

    2014-03-01

    Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (? – ?r)/(?s – ?r)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se < 0.1), colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

  9. Phased Construction Completion Report for Bldg. K-1401 of the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2008-10-01

    This Phased Construction Completion Report documents the demolition of Bldg. K-1401, Maintenance Building, addressed in the Action Memorandum for the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2003a) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 non-time-critical removal action. The objectives of the removal action (DOE 2003a) - to eliminate the source of potential contamination, to eliminate the threat of potential future releases, and/or to eliminate the threats to the general public and the environment - were met. The end state of this action is for the slab to remain with all penetrations sealed and grouted or backfilled. The basement and pits remain open. There is residual radiological and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination on the slab and basement. A fixative was applied to the area on the pad contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Interim land-use controls will be maintained until final remediation decisions are made under the Zone 2 Record of Decision (DOE 2005a).

  10. Phased Construction Completion Report for Building K-1401 of the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at the East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garland S.

    2008-03-01

    This Phased Construction Completion Report documents the demolition of Bldg. K-1401, Maintenance Building, addressed in the Action Memorandum for the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2003a) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 non-time-critical removal action. The objectives of the removal action (DOE 2003a) - to eliminate the source of potential contamination, to eliminate the threat of potential future releases, and/or to eliminate the threats to the general public and the environment - were met. The end state of this action is for the slab to remain with all penetrations sealed and grouted or backfilled. The basement and pits remain open. There is residual radiological and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination on the slab and basement. A fixative was applied to the area on the pad contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Interim land-use controls will be maintained until final remediation decisions are made under the Zone 2 Record of Decision (DOE 2005a).

  11. Maximizing the Value of Photovoltaic Installations on Schools in California: Choosing the Best Electricity Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; Denholm, P.

    2011-07-01

    Schools in California often have a choice between multiple electricity rate options. For schools with photovoltaic (PV) installations, choosing the right rate is essential to maximize the value of PV generation. The rate option that minimizes a school?s electricity expenses often does not remain the most economical choice after the school installs a PV system. The complex interaction between PV generation, building load, and rate structure makes determining the best rate a challenging task. This report evaluates 22 rate structures across three of California?s largest electric utilities--Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E)--in order to identify common rate structure attributes that are favorable to PV installations.

  12. Influence of temperature and strain rate on the compressive behavior of PMMA and polycarbonate polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cady, C. M. (Carl McElhinney); Lopez, M. F. (Mike F.); Gray, G. T. (George T.), III; Idar, D. J. (Deanne J.); Blumenthal, W. R. (William R.)

    2001-01-01

    Compression stress-strain measurements have been made on commercial polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC) polymers as a function of tcmperature (-197 C to 220 C) and strain rate. A split-Hopkinson-pressure bar (SJIPU) was used to achieve strain rates of about 2500 s-' and a servohydraulic tester was used for lower strain rate testing (0.001 to 5 s-'). The mechanical response of these transparent polymers is quite different. The strength of PC is weakly dependent on strain rate, only moderately dependent on temperature, and remains ductile to -197OC. In contrast, the strength of PMMA is linearly dependent on temperature and strongly dependent on strain rate. Significantly, PMMA develops cracking and fails in compression with little ductility ( 7 4 % total strain) at either low strain rates and very low temperatures (-197OC) or at high strain rates and temperatures very near ambient.

  13. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  14. The Dynamics of Steady, Partial-Depth Intrusive Gravity M. R. Flynn1,*, T. Boubarne2 and P. F. Linden2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, Morris R.

    The Dynamics of Steady, Partial-Depth Intrusive Gravity Currents M. R. Flynn1,*, T. Boubarne2 and P] ABSTRACT Experiments of intrusive gravity currents generated by lock exchange offer insights into atmospher- ic and oceanic flows. However, whereas many previous investigations have considered the `full

  15. Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Alcohols as gasoline blending agent at up to 85 vol-% levels were evaluated in a 2.2L direct injection SI engine for combustion, engine efficiency, and engine-out emissions effects at steady-state and transient test conditions

  16. Statistical mechanical theory for the structure of steady state systems: Application to a Lennard-Jones fluid with applied temperature gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Statistical mechanical theory for the structure of steady state systems: Application to a Lennard-Jones fluid with applied temperature gradient Phil Attard School of Chemistry F11, University of Sydney, New statistical mechanics for inhomogeneous systems may now be applied to determining the structure

  17. Transient competitive complexation in biological kinetic isotope fractionation explains non-steady isotopic effects: Theory and application to denitrification in soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggi, F.M.; Riley, W.J.

    2009-06-01

    The theoretical formulation of biological kinetic reactions in isotopic applications often assume first-order or Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics under the quasi-steady-state assumption to simplify the system kinetics. However, isotopic e ects have the same order of magnitude as the potential error introduced by these simpli cations. Both formulations lead to a constant fractionation factor which may yield incorrect estimations of the isotopic effect and a misleading interpretation of the isotopic signature of a reaction. We have analyzed the isotopic signature of denitri cation in biogeochemical soil systems by Menyailo and Hungate [2006], where high {sup 15}N{sub 2}O enrichment during N{sub 2}O production and inverse isotope fractionation during N{sub 2}O consumption could not be explained with first-order kinetics and the Rayleigh equation, or with the quasi-steady-state Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics. When the quasi-steady-state assumption was relaxed, transient Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics accurately reproduced the observations and aided in interpretation of experimental isotopic signatures. These results may imply a substantial revision in using the Rayleigh equation for interpretation of isotopic signatures and in modeling biological kinetic isotope fractionation with first-order kinetics or quasi-steady-state Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics.

  18. EPS Conf. on Contr. Fusion and Plasma Physics, 2001, P3.11 Energy Confinement in Steady State ELMy H-modes in JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    28 th EPS Conf. on Contr. Fusion and Plasma Physics, 2001, P3.11 Energy Confinement in Steady State Association, D-85748 Garching, GERMANY; 3Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM/KMS, Trilateral Euregio Cluster Jülich, Germany; 5EFDA-CSU, D-85748 Garching, Germany; 6PPPL, Princeton, Univ, NJ, USA. 1. INTRODUCTION

  19. Wind accretion in binary stars II. Accretion rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Theuns; Henri Boffin; Alain Jorissen

    1996-02-18

    Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is used to estimate accretion rates of mass, linear and angular momentum in a binary system where one component undergoes mass loss through a wind. Physical parameters are chosen such as to model the alleged binary precursors of barium stars, whose chemical peculiarities are believed to result from the accretion of the wind from a companion formerly on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). The binary system modelled consists of a 3 solar masses AGB star on the main sequence, in a 3AU circular orbit. Three-dimensional simulations are performed for gases with polytropic indices gamma=1, 1.1 and 1.5, to bracket more realistic situations that would include radiative cooling. Mass accretion rates are found to depend on resolution and we estimate typical values of 1-2% for the gamma=1.5 case and 8% for the other models. The highest resolution obtained (with 400k particles) corresponds to an accretor of linear size 16 solar radii. Despite being (in the gamma = 1.5 case) about ten times smaller than theoretical estimates based on the Bondi-Hoyle prescription, the SPH accretion rates remain large enough to explain the pollution of barium stars. Uncertainties in the current SPH rates remain however, due to the simplified treatment of the wind acceleration mechanism, as well as to the absence of any cooling prescription and to the limited numerical resolution. Angular momentum transfer leads to significant spin up of the accretor and can account for the rapid rotation of HD165141, a barium star with a young white dwarf companion and a rotation rate unusually large among K giants.

  20. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  1. The Production Rate and Employment of Ph.D. Astronomers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travis S. Metcalfe

    2007-12-19

    In an effort to encourage self-regulation of the astronomy job market, I examine the supply of, and demand for, astronomers over time. On the supply side, I document the production rate of Ph.D. astronomers from 1970 to 2006 using the UMI Dissertation Abstracts database, along with data from other independent sources. I compare the long-term trends in Ph.D. production with federal astronomy research funding over the same time period, and I demonstrate that additional funding is correlated with higher subsequent Ph.D. production. On the demand side, I monitor the changing patterns of employment using statistics about the number and types of jobs advertised in the AAS Job Register from 1984 to 2006. Finally, I assess the sustainability of the job market by normalizing this demand by the annual Ph.D. production. The most recent data suggest that there are now annual advertisements for about one postdoctoral job, half a faculty job, and half a research/support position for every new domestic Ph.D. recipient in astronomy and astrophysics. The average new astronomer might expect to hold up to 3 jobs before finding a steady position.

  2. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael

    2004-08-16

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for analyzing the true sensitivity of a multi-epoch supernova search and finds a Type Ia supernova rate from z {approx} 0.01-0.1 of r{sub V} = 4.26{sub -1.93 -0.10}{sup +1.39 +0.10} h{sup 3} x 10{sup -4} SNe Ia/yr/Mpc{sup 3} from a preliminary analysis of a subsample of the SNfactory prototype search. Several unusual supernovae were found in the course of the SNfactory prototype search. One in particular, SN 2002ic, was the first SN Ia to exhibit convincing evidence for a circumstellar medium and offers valuable insight into the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

  3. A generalized framework for in-line energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo radiation transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griesheimer, D. P. [Bertis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122 (United States); Stedry, M. H. [Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 1072, Schenectady, NY 12301 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A rigorous treatment of energy deposition in a Monte Carlo transport calculation, including coupled transport of all secondary and tertiary radiations, increases the computational cost of a simulation dramatically, making fully-coupled heating impractical for many large calculations, such as 3-D analysis of nuclear reactor cores. However, in some cases, the added benefit from a full-fidelity energy-deposition treatment is negligible, especially considering the increased simulation run time. In this paper we present a generalized framework for the in-line calculation of energy deposition during steady-state Monte Carlo transport simulations. This framework gives users the ability to select among several energy-deposition approximations with varying levels of fidelity. The paper describes the computational framework, along with derivations of four energy-deposition treatments. Each treatment uses a unique set of self-consistent approximations, which ensure that energy balance is preserved over the entire problem. By providing several energy-deposition treatments, each with different approximations for neglecting the energy transport of certain secondary radiations, the proposed framework provides users the flexibility to choose between accuracy and computational efficiency. Numerical results are presented, comparing heating results among the four energy-deposition treatments for a simple reactor/compound shielding problem. The results illustrate the limitations and computational expense of each of the four energy-deposition treatments. (authors)

  4. Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, R.D.

    1998-09-08

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators. 6 figs.

  5. Method and apparatus for steady-state magnetic measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, Robert D. (Hillsborough, NJ)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the steady-state measurement of poloidal magnetic field near a tokamak plasma, where the tokamak is configured with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system having z, phi (toroidal), and r axes. The method is based on combining the two magnetic field principles of induction and torque. The apparatus includes a rotor assembly having a pair of inductive magnetic field pickup coils which are concentrically mounted, orthogonally oriented in the r and z directions, and coupled to remotely located electronics which include electronic integrators for determining magnetic field changes. The rotor assembly includes an axle oriented in the toroidal direction, with the axle mounted on pivot support brackets which in turn are mounted on a baseplate. First and second springs are located between the baseplate and the rotor assembly restricting rotation of the rotor assembly about its axle, the second spring providing a constant tensile preload in the first spring. A strain gauge is mounted on the first spring, and electronic means to continually monitor strain gauge resistance variations is provided. Electronic means for providing a known current pulse waveform to be periodically injected into each coil to create a time-varying torque on the rotor assembly in the toroidal direction causes mechanical strain variations proportional to the torque in the mounting means and springs so that strain gauge measurement of the variation provides periodic magnetic field measurements independent of the magnetic field measured by the electronic integrators.

  6. FRAPCON-2: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady State Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berna, G. A; Bohn, M. P.; Rausch, W. N.; Williford, R. E.; Lanning, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light Mater reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and tai lure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e} fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code Is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version 2.

  7. Adaptive Finite element approximation of steady flows of incompressible fluids with implicit power-law-like rheology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Kreuzer; Endre Süli

    2015-03-18

    We develop the a posteriori error analysis of finite element approximations of implicit power-law-like models for viscous incompressible fluids. The Cauchy stress and the symmetric part of the velocity gradient in the class of models under consideration are related by a, possibly multi--valued, maximal monotone $r$-graph, with $\\frac{2d}{d+1}finite element residual, as well as the local stability of the error bound. We then consider an adaptive finite element approximation of the problem, and, under suitable assumptions, we show the weak convergence of the adaptive algorithm to a weak solution of the boundary-value problem. The argument is based on a variety of weak compactness techniques, including Chacon's biting lemma and a finite element counterpart of the Acerbi--Fusco Lipschitz truncation of Sobolev functions, introduced by L. Diening, C. Kreuzer and E. S\\"uli [Finite element approximation of steady flows of incompressible fluids with implicit power-law-like rheology. SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 51(2), 984--1015].

  8. Theory of gyroresonance and free-free emissions from non-Maxwellian quasi-steady-state electron distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.

    2014-02-01

    Currently there is a concern about the ability of the classical thermal (Maxwellian) distribution to describe quasi-steady-state plasma in the solar atmosphere, including active regions. In particular, other distributions have been proposed to better fit observations, for example, kappa- and n-distributions. If present, these distributions will generate radio emissions with different observable properties compared with the classical gyroresonance (GR) or free-free emission, which implies a way of remotely detecting these non-Maxwellian distributions in the radio observations. Here we present analytically derived GR and free-free emissivities and absorption coefficients for the kappa- and n-distributions, and discuss their properties, which are in fact remarkably different from each other and from the classical Maxwellian plasma. In particular, the radio brightness temperature from a gyrolayer increases with the optical depth ? for kappa-distribution, but decreases with ? for n-distribution. This property has a remarkable consequence allowing a straightforward observational test: the GR radio emission from the non-Maxwellian distributions is supposed to be noticeably polarized even in the optically thick case, where the emission would have strictly zero polarization in the case of Maxwellian plasma. This offers a way of remote probing the plasma distribution in astrophysical sources, including solar active regions as a vivid example.

  9. A Numerical Model Without Truncation Error for a Steady-State Analysis of a Once-Through Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Eui Kwang; Eoh, Jae Hyuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To overcome the drawbacks of conventional schemes for a numerical analysis of a steam generator (SG), an efficient numerical model has been developed to analyze the steady state of a once-through-type SG where the feedwater is heated to superheated steam. In the developed model, the temperature and enthalpy are defined at the boundary of a calculation cell, and the exact solutions for the temperature distribution in a calculation cell are utilized. This feature of the developed model frees calculation from the undesirable effects of numerical diffusion, and only a small number of nodes are required. Also, the developed model removes the ambiguity from the parameter values at the inlet and exit of a calculation.The BoSupSG-SS computer code was developed by using the analysis model, and it performed well with only three calculation nodes to analyze a superheated SG. The developed model can be effectively used for the cases where a fast one-dimensional calculation is required such as an SG or system design analysis.

  10. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  11. MEDICAL RATES for Active Employees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    -time, your base salary is calculated on the full-time equivalent. For example, if you are at an appointment percentage of 50% and earn $12,000 per year, your base salary is $24,000 and UNM would contribute 40%. UNM Health-Bi-Weekly Rates Annualized Salary $34,999 and below Annualized Salary $35,000 - $49,999 Annualized

  12. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul (Stony Brook, NY)

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  13. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study RRL3.2 Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Tucker, Joseph C.

    2014-12-01

    The lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen) was monitored in the automated long-term test apparatus (ALTA) for more than 7,500 hours. Ten samples of each lamp model were tested, with measurements recorded on a weekly basis. The lamps were operated continuously at an ambient temperature of 45°C (-1°C). Importantly, the steady-state test conditions were not optimized for inducing catastrophic failure for any of the lamp technologies—to which thermal cycling is a strong contributor— and are not typical of normal use patterns—which usually include off periods where the lamp cools down. Further, the test conditions differ from those used in standardized long-term test methods (i.e., IES LM-80, IES LM-84), so the results should not be directly compared. On the other hand, the test conditions are similar to those used by ENERGY STAR (when elevated temperature testing is called for). Likewise, the conditions and assumptions used by manufacturers to generated lifetime claims may vary; the CALiPER long-term data is informative, but cannot necessarily be used to discredit manufacturer claims. The test method used for this investigation should be interpreted as one more focused on the long-term effects of elevated temperature operation, at an ambient temperature that is not uncommon in luminaires. On average, the lumen maintenance of the LED lamps monitored in the ALTA was better than benchmark lamps, but there was considerable variation from lamp model to lamp model. While three lamp models had average lumen maintenance above 99% at the end of the study period, two products had average lumen maintenance below 65%, constituting a parametric failure. These two products, along with a third, also exhibited substantial color shift, another form of parametric failure. While none of the LED lamps exhibited catastrophic failure—and all of the benchmarks did—the early degradation of performance is concerning, especially with a new technology trying to build a reputation with consumers. Beyond the observed parametric failures nearly half of the products failed to meet early-life thresholds for lumen maintenance, which were borrowed from ENERGY STAR specifications. That is, the lumen maintenance was sufficiently low at 6,000 hours that seven of the products are unlikely to have lumen maintenance above 70% at their rated lifetime (which was usually 25,000 hours). Given the methods used for this investigation—most notably continuous operation—the results should not be interpreted as indicative of a lamp’s performance in a typical environment. Likewise, these results are not directly relatable to manufacturer lifetime claims. This report is best used to understand the variation in LED product performance, compare the robustness of LED lamps and benchmark conventional lamps, and understand the characteristics of lumen and chromaticity change. A key takeaway is that the long-term performance of LED lamps can vary greatly from model to model (i.e., the technology is not homogenous), although the lamp-to-lamp consistency within a given model is relatively good. Further, operation of LED lamps in an enclosed luminaire (or otherwise in high ambient temperatures), can induce parametric failure of LEDs much earlier than their rated lifetime; manufacturer warnings about such conditions should be followed if performance degradation is unacceptable.

  14. Model Reduction of Turbulent Fluid Flows Using the Supply Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, A S

    2013-01-01

    A method for finding reduced-order approximations of turbulent flow models is presented. The method preserves bounds on the production of turbulent energy in the sense of the $\\curly{L}_2$ norm of perturbations from a notional laminar profile. This is achieved by decomposing the Navier-Stokes system into a feedback arrangement between the linearised system and the remaining, normally neglected, nonlinear part. The linear system is reduced using a method similar to balanced truncation, but preserving bounds on the supply rate. The method involves balancing two algebraic Riccati equations. The bounds are then used to derive bounds on the turbulent energy production. An example of the application of the procedure to flow through a long straight pipe is presented. Comparison shows that the new method approximates the supply rate at least as well as, or better than, canonical balanced truncation.

  15. Securing Circuits Against Constant-Rate Tampering Dana Dachman-Soled and Yael Tauman Kalai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Securing Circuits Against Constant-Rate Tampering Dana Dachman-Soled and Yael Tauman Kalai that remains secure even if a constant fraction of its wires are tampered with. Following the seminal work that such adversaries, who continuously tamper with the circuit, can learn at most logarithmically many bits of secret

  16. Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    ALTERNATIVES TO COGENERATION" K. R. SANDBERG, JR. INDUSTRIAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER - TEXAS GULF STATES UTILITIES COMPANY BEAUMONT, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper discusses electric rate slternatives to cogeneration for the industrisl customer and attempts... electricity to municipalities and rural electric cooperatives in both Texas and Louisiana. In Baton Rouge. GSU supplies steam and electricity to a large industrial customer through a cogeneration facility that the company has had in operation since...

  17. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhedong Zhang; Jin Wang

    2015-12-25

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy dissipation, heat and electric currents observed in the experiments. We observed a perfect transfer efficiency in chemical reactions at high voltage (chemical potential difference). Our theoretical predicted behavior of the electric current with respect to the voltage is in good agreements with the recent experiments on electron transfer in single molecules.

  18. Cooling rate, heating rate and aging effects in glassy water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Giovambattista; H. Eugene Stanley; Francesco Sciortino

    2004-03-03

    We report a molecular dynamics simulation study of the properties of the potential energy landscape sampled by a system of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process of regenerating the equilibrium liquid by heating the glass. We study the dependence of these processes on the cooling/heating rates as well as on the role of aging (the time elapsed in the glass state). We compare the properties of the potential energy landscape sampled during these processes with the corresponding properties sampled in the liquid equilibrium state to elucidate under which conditions glass configurations can be associated with equilibrium liquid configurations.

  19. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos and Videos Videos Re-EntryApproval OMB No.:Rates

  20. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power are

  1. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power

  2. October 2001 - September 2006 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power1 -

  3. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power1

  4. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power13 -

  5. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power13

  6. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power135

  7. WP-07 Rate Case Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02) nerg *415,Rates > Meetings &

  8. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Brenchley, David L.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hashemian, Hash; Konnik, Robert; Ray, Sheila

    2012-09-14

    The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), NDE instrumentation development, universities, commercial NDE services and cable manufacturers, and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The motivation for the R&D roadmap comes from the need to address the aging management of in-containment cables at nuclear power plants (NPPs).

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, K.L.; Ramuhali, P.; Brenchley, D.L.; Coble, J.B.; Hashemian, H.M.; Konnick, R.; Ray, S.

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary [partial] The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. A workshop was held to gather subject matter experts to develop the NDE R&D Roadmap for Cables. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, and NDE instrumentation development from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), universities, commercial NDE service vendors and cable manufacturers, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-44:2, Discovery Pipeline Near 108-F Building, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-05-30

    The 100-F-44:2 waste site is a steel pipeline that was discovered in a junction box during confirmatory sampling of the 100-F-26:4 pipeline from December 2004 through January 2005. The 100-F-44:2 pipeline feeds into the 100-F-26:4 subsite vitrified clay pipe (VCP) process sewer pipeline from the 108-F Biology Laboratory at the junction box. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-10

    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Phosphorus-31 NMR magnetization-transfer measurements of ATP turnover during steady-state isometric muscle contraction in the rat hind limb in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brindle, K.M.; Blackledge, M.J.; Challiss, R.A.J.; Radda, G.K. )

    1989-05-30

    Phosphorus-31 NMR magnetization-transfer measurement have been used to measure the flux between ATP and inorganic phosphate during steady-state isometric muscle contraction in the rat hind limb in vivo. Steady-state contraction was obtained by supramaximal sciatic nerve stimulation. Increasing the stimulation pulse width from 10 to 90 ms, at a pulse frequency of 1 Hz, or increasing the frequency of a 10-ms pulse from 0.5 to 2 Hz resulted in an increase in the flux which was an approximately linear function of the increase in the tension-time integral. The flux showed an approximately linear dependence on the calculated free cytosolic ADP concentration up to an ADP concentration of about 90 {mu}M. The data are consistent with control of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by the cytosolic ADP concentration and indicate that the apparent K{sub m} of the mitochondria for ADP is at least 30 {mu}M.

  14. Rate Schedule CV-SPR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that is available immediately to serve load and is synchronized with the power system. Formula Rate: The formula rate for spinning reserve includes three components: Component 1:...

  15. Rate Schedule CV-SUR4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    within the first 10 minutes to take load and is synchronized with the power system. Formula Rate: The formula rate for supplemental reserve service includes three components:...

  16. Rate Schedule COTP-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for COTP firm and non-firm PTP transmission service includes...

  17. Rate Schedule CV-NWT5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for CVP NITS includes three components: Component 1: The NITS...

  18. Rate Schedule PACI-T3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and system control and dispatch service needed to support the transmission service. Formula Rate: The formula rate for PACI firm and non-firm transmission includes three...

  19. Rate Schedule CV-RFS4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    load and for maintaining scheduled interconnection frequency at 60-cycles per second. Formula Rate: The formula rate for regulation includes three components: Component 1: Annual...

  20. Rate Schedule CV-EID4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that is established in the service agreement or Interconnected Operations Agreements. Formula Rate: The formula rate for EI service includes three components: Component 1: EI...

  1. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.2: Lumen and Chromaticity Maintenance of LED A Lamps Operated in Steady-State Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines lumen depreciation and color shift of 17 different A lamps in steady-state conditions (15 LED, 1 CFL, 1 halogen). The goal of this investigation was to examine the long-term performance of complete LED lamps relative to benchmark halogen and CFL lamps—in this case, A lamps emitting approximately 800 lumens operated continuously at a relatively high ambient temperature of 45°C.

  2. Thermal neutron steady-state spectra in light water reactor fuel assemblies poisoned with various non-1/v absorbers of different concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, K.; Chandra, S.; Jha, R.C.; Tewari, S.P. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the thermal neutron scattering kernel that explicitly incorporates the presence of chemical binding energy and the collective oscillations in the dynamics of water, the steady-state thermal neutron spectra in light water reactor fuel assemblies poisoned with non-1/v absorbers, such as cadmium, samarium, erbium, and gadolinium, in various concentrations have been computed at 298 K. The calculated spectra are in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental spectra for realistic source terms.

  3. Power Rates Study Final Proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >5

  4. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnow Your PowerWeatherize »Rain orRate

  5. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right...

  6. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this problem is to develop a burner, which can operate at two firing rates, with the lower rate being significantly lower than 0.5 gallons per hour. This paper describes the initial results of adopting this approach through a pulsed flow nozzle. It has been shown that the concept of flow modulation with a small solenoid valve is feasible. Especially in the second configuration tested, where the Lee valve was integrated with the nozzle, reasonable modulation in flow of the order of 1.7 could be achieved. For this first prototype, the combustion performance is still not quite satisfactory. Improvements in operation, for example by providing a sharp and positive shut-off so that there is no flow under low pressures with consequent poor atomization could lead to better combustion performance. This could be achieved by using nozzles that have shut off or check valves for example. It is recommended that more work in cooperation with the valve manufacturer could produce a technically viable system. Marketability is of course a far more complex problem to be addressed once a technically viable product is available.

  7. 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Vilamoura, Portugal, 1 -6, November 2004 Overview of Steady-State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    surface temperatures on PFCs. Under such conditions, toroidal distribution of heat load and recycling flux on PFCs are measured. In connection with wall pumping rate, in situ measurement of Mo dep is carried out surface temperatures on PFCs. Under such conditions, toroidal distribution of heat load and recycling flux

  8. Abstract--This research creates a steady headwind at a user position in the scaled Treadport Active Wind Tunnel (TPAWT).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollerbach, John M.

    Active Wind Tunnel (TPAWT). The TPAWT adds a wind display system to the previously developed Treadport gain theorem with a dynamic extension is then modified to provide wind angle feedback control. A conditional angular rate-switching controller is added to reduce wind angle oscillations at the user

  9. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  10. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  11. Effect of the helicity injection rate and the Lundquist number on spheromak sustainment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    García-Martínez, Pablo Luis; Lampugnani, Leandro Gabriel; Farengo, Ricardo

    2014-12-15

    The dynamics of the magnetic relaxation process during the sustainment of spheromak configurations at different helicity injection rates is studied. The three-dimensional activity is recovered using time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A cylindrical flux conserver with concentric electrodes is used to model configurations driven by a magnetized coaxial gun. Magnetic helicity is injected by tangential boundary flows. Different regimes of sustainment are identified and characterized in terms of the safety factor profile. The spatial and temporal behavior of fluctuations is described. The dynamo action is shown to be in close agreement with existing experimental data. These results are relevant to the design and operation of helicity injected devices, as well as to basic understanding of the plasma relaxation mechanism in quasi-steady state.

  12. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy`s Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total.

  13. The mapping and differentiation of biological and environmental elemental signatures in the fossil remains of a 50 million year old bird

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Egerton, Victoria M.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Norell, Mark A.; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Sellers, William I.; Bergmann, Uwe; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Ignatyev, Konstantin; van Veelen, Arjen; et al

    2015-01-22

    The preservation of fossils reflects the interplay of inorganic and organic chemical processes, which should be clearly differentiated to make interpretations about the biology of extinct organisms. A new coliiformes bird (mouse bird) from the ~50 million year old Green River Formation (Wyoming, USA) has here been analysed using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and environmental scanning electron microscopy with an attached X-ray energy dispersive system (ESEM-EDS). The concentration and distribution of 16 elements (Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mg, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Ba, Hg) has been mapped for individual points on the sample. S, Cu andmore »Zn map distinctly within visibly preserved feathers and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) shows that S and Cu within the feathers are organically bound in a similar manner to modern feathers. The morphological preservation of the feathers, on both macro- and microscopic scales, is variable throughout the fossil and the differences in the lateral microfacies have resulted in a morphological preservation gradient. This study clearly differentiates endogenous organic remains from those representing exogenous overprinted geochemical precipitates and illustrates the chemical complexity of the overall taphonomic process.« less

  14. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo,AltFuelVehicle2 JumpPublicationDate Jump to:InformationEnergyInformation Rate Jump

  15. Supernova rates from the SUDARE VST-Omegacam search. I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappellaro, E; Pignata, G; Grado, L; Greggio, L; Limatola, L; Vaccari, M; Baruffolo, A; Benetti, S; Bufano, F; Capaccioli, M; Cascone, E; Covone, G; De Cicco, D; Falocco, S; Della Valle, M; Jarvis, M; Marchetti, L; Napolitano, N R; Paolillo, M; Pastorello, A; Radovich, M; Schipani, P; Spiro, S; Tomasella, L; Turatto, M

    2015-01-01

    We describe the observing strategy, data reduction tools and early results of a supernova (SN) search project, named SUDARE, conducted with the ESO VST telescope aimed at measuring the rate of the different types of SNe in the redshift range 0.2remaining core collapse events of which 44% type II, 22% type IIn and 34% type Ib/c. In order to link the transients, we built a catalog of ~1.3x10^5 galaxies in the redshift range 0rate per unit volume for SN Ia and core collapse SNe in different bin of redshifts. The values are consistent with other measurements from the literature. The dispersion of the rate measurements for SNe Ia is comparable with the scatter of the t...

  16. Graybox and adaptative dynamic neural network identification models to infer the steady state efficiency of solar thermal collectors starting from the transient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, Baccoli; Ubaldo, Carlini; Stefano, Mariotti; Roberto, Innamorati; Elisa, Solinas; Paolo, Mura

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of methods for non steady state test of solar thermal collectors. Our goal is to infer performances in steady-state conditions in terms of the efficiency curve when measures in transient conditions are the only ones available. We take into consideration the method of identification of a system in dynamic conditions by applying a Graybox Identification Model and a Dynamic Adaptative Linear Neural Network (ALNN) model. The study targets the solar collector with evacuated pipes, such as Dewar pipes. The mathematical description that supervises the functioning of the solar collector in transient conditions is developed using the equation of the energy balance, with the aim of determining the order and architecture of the two models. The input and output vectors of the two models are constructed, considering the measures of 4 days of solar radiation, flow mass, environment and heat-transfer fluid temperature in the inlet and outlet from the thermal solar collector. The efficiency curves derived from the two models are detected in correspondence to the test and validation points. The two synthetic simulated efficiency curves are compared with the actual efficiency curve certified by the Swiss Institute Solartechnik Puffung Forschung which tested the solar collector performance in steady-state conditions according to the UNI-EN 12975 standard. An acquisition set of measurements of only 4 days in the transient condition was enough to trace through a Graybox State Space Model the efficiency curve of the tested solar thermal collector, with a relative error of synthetic values with respect to efficiency certified by SPF, lower than 0.5%, while with the ALNN model the error is lower than 2.2% with respect to certified one. (author)

  17. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson

  18. Rate Schedule CV-TPT7

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or receipt, adjusted for losses, and delivered to points as agreed to by the parties. Formula Rate: The formula rate for transmission of Western's power by others includes three...

  19. Fluorescence Assay for Polymerase Arrival Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin

    2003-08-31

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  20. Fluorescence assay for polymerase arrival rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Austin, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    To engineer complex synthetic biological systems will require modular design, assembly, and characterization strategies. The RNA polymerase arrival rate (PAR) is defined to be the rate that RNA polymerases arrive at a ...

  1. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For new and existing home purchases that are rated 6 Star or 5 Star Plus, applicants are eligible for an interest rate reduction for the first $200,000 of the loan amount, with a blended interest...

  2. Home Energy Ratings and Building Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    climate as they affect the rating score of a proposed or completed structure. The rating is used to determine the most cost effective mechanical systems, building envelope design including window and door types, effect of various roofing materials...

  3. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  4. Steady-state axial pressure losses along the exterior of deformed fuel cladding: Multirod Burst Test (MRBT) bundles B-1 and B-2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincey, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental and COBRA-IV computational data presented in this report confirm that increased pressure losses, induced by the steady-state axial flow of water exterior to deformed Multirod Burst Test (MRBT) bundles B-1 and B-2, may be closely predicted using a bundle-averaged approach for describing flow channel restrictions. One anomaly that was encountered using this technique occurred while modeling the B-2 flow test data near a severe channel restriction: the COBRA-IV results tended to underestimate experimental pressure losses.

  5. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

  6. Impact of Declining Proposal Success Rates on Scientific Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cushman, Priscilla; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Lowenthal, James; Peterson, Bradley; Stassun, Keivan G; von Hippel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade proposal success rates in the fundamental sciences have dropped significantly. Astronomy and related fields funded by NASA and NSF are no exception. Data across agencies show that this is not principally the result of a decline in proposal merit (the proportion of proposals receiving high rankings is largely unchanged), nor of a shift in proposer demographics (seniority, gender, and institutional affiliation have all remained unchanged), nor of an increase (beyond inflation) in the average requested funding per proposal, nor of an increase in the number of proposals per investigator in any one year. Rather, the statistics are consistent with a scenario in which agency budgets for competed research are flat or decreasing in inflation-adjusted dollars, the overall population of investigators has grown, and a larger proportion of these investigators are resubmitting meritorious but unfunded proposals. This White Paper presents statistics which support this conclusion, as well as recent resea...

  7. Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    Kiwifruitsize influences softening rate during storage Carlos H. Crisosto o David Garner D Katia)at 32*F for 16 weeks. Un- der both storage conditions,large fruit had a slower rate of softening than fruit size and the rate of softening under air and CA conditions will help cold storage managerssafely

  8. An analysis of international grain freight rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonnala, Sneha Latha

    1999-01-01

    decreasing rate as shipment quantity increases. Highest rates were associated with the berth term followed by the free discharge and free-in-and-out terms. The ships with U.S. flags were found to charge higher rates when compared to ships with foreign flags...

  9. The evolution of the cosmic SN rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrico Cappellaro; Maria Teresa Botticella; Laura Greggio

    2007-06-09

    We briefly review the contribution of SN rate measurements to the debate on SN progenitor scenarios. We find that core collapse rates confirms the rapid evolution of the star formation rate with redshift. After accounting for the dispersion of SN Ia measurements and uncertainty of the star formation history, the standard scenarios for SN Ia progenitors appear consistent with all observational constraints.

  10. Effect of mono- and dichromatic light quality on growth rates and photosynthetic performance of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Konopka, Allan; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Zhang, Shuyi; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2014-09-19

    Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was grown to steady state in optically thin turbidostat cultures under conditions for which light quantity and quality was systematically varied by modulating the output of narrow-band LEDs. Cells were provided photons absorbed primarily by chlorophyll (680 nm) or phycocyanin (630 nm) as the organism was subjected to four distinct mono- and dichromatic regimes. During cultivation with dichromatic light, growth rates displayed by Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 were generally proportional to the total incident irradiance at values < 275 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and were not affected by the ratio of 630:680 nm wavelengths. Notably, under monochromatic light conditions, cultures exhibited similar growth rates only when they were irradiated with 630 nm light; cultures irradiated with only 680 nm light grew at rates that were 60 – 70% of those under other light quality regimes at equivalent irradiances. The functionality of photosystem II and associated processes such as maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, rate of cyclic electron flow, and rate of dark respiration generally increased as a function of growth rate. Nonetheless, some of the photophysiological parameters measured here displayed distinct patterns with respect to growth rate of cultures adapted to a single wavelength including phycobiliprotein content, which increased under severely light-limited growth conditions. Additionally, the ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I increased approximately 40% over the range of growth rates, although cells grown with 680 nm light only had the highest ratios. These results suggest the presence of effective mechanisms which allow acclimation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 acclimation to different irradiance conditions.

  11. Effect of transpiration rate on internal plant resistance to water flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hailey, James Lester

    1971-01-01

    transpiration rate, and the other plants were used for leaf water potential measurements ~ 15 G I 0 3 0 OOOOPOG 0 O0 0 I I Jl & I 4I I I r I I i 01 I IJI I C D ~E o D LI 1 ~ 0 m A. Plant compartment 6 ~ Root compartment CD Cooling coil... transpiration causes a cooling effect on the plant leaves ~ The stem diameter remained relatively...

  12. Experimental study of the influence of collector height on the steady state performance of a passive solar air heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, D.; Burek, S.A.M.

    2010-09-15

    Passive solar air heaters, such as solar chimneys and Trombe Walls, rely on solar-induced buoyancy-driven (natural) convection to produce the flow of air. Although buoyancy-driven convection is well understood for a single vertical plate, buoyancy-driven convection in an asymmetrically-heated channel is more problematic, and in particular, the effects of the channel height on the flow rate and heat transfer. This paper reports on experiments on test rigs resembling lightweight passive solar air-heating collectors. The test rigs were of heights 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m, with adjustable channel depths (20-150 mm) and heat inputs (up to 1000 W/m{sup 2}). Measurements were made of the air, plate and cover temperatures, and air velocities. Results are presented as dimensionless correlations of mass flow (as Reynolds number) and efficiency against heat input (as Rayleigh number), channel depth and height. Thermal efficiency is shown to be a function of the heat input and the system height, but not of the channel depth; mass flow is shown to be a dependent on all three parameters. (author)

  13. CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Availability:This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency (hereinafter...

  14. Rating the energy performance of buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olofsson, Thomas; Meier, Alan; Lamberts, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    T. , (1998), Building Energy Measurement and PerformanceRating a building’s energy performance is becoming anrating of energy performance of buildings. Modern existing

  15. BPA proposes rate increase to bolster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the proposed wholesale power rate increase is reduced revenue expectations from surplus power sales. Market prices have been, and are forecast to continue to be, suppressed...

  16. Confronting the Graduation Rate Crisis in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Losen, Daniel; Orfield, Gary; Balfanz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    of minority students in Texas attend these schools, comparedfourths of the high schools in Texas where graduation is notthe Graduation Rate Crisis in Texas By Daniel Losen, Gary

  17. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  18. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

    1983-05-09

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

  19. Feedback Regulated Turbulence, Magnetic Fields, and Star Formation Rates in Galactic Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chang-Goo

    2015-01-01

    We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the quasi-equilibrium states of galactic disks regulated by star formation feedback. We incorporate effects from massive-star feedback via time-varying heating rates and supernova (SN) explosions. We find that the disks in our simulations rapidly approach a quasi-steady state that satisfies vertical dynamical equilibrium. The star formation rate (SFR) surface density self-adjusts to provide the total momentum flux (pressure) in the vertical direction that matches the weight of the gas. We quantify feedback efficiency by measuring feedback yields, \\eta_c\\equiv P_c/\\Sigma_SFR (in suitable units), for each pressure component. The turbulent and thermal feedback yields are the same for HD and MHD simulations, \\eta_th~1 and \\eta_ turb~4, consistent with the theoretical expectations. In MHD simulations, turbulent magnetic fields are rapidly generated by turbulence, and saturate at a level corresponding to \\eta_mag,t~1. The presence of magn...

  20. Free energy of cluster formation and a new scaling relation for the nucleation rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Diemand, Jürg; Angélil, Raymond

    2014-05-21

    Recent very large molecular dynamics simulations of homogeneous nucleation with (1 ? 8) ×?10{sup 9} Lennard-Jones atoms [J. Diemand, R. Angélil, K. K. Tanaka, and H. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 074309 (2013)] allow us to accurately determine the formation free energy of clusters over a wide range of cluster sizes. This is now possible because such large simulations allow for very precise measurements of the cluster size distribution in the steady state nucleation regime. The peaks of the free energy curves give critical cluster sizes, which agree well with independent estimates based on the nucleation theorem. Using these results, we derive an analytical formula and a new scaling relation for nucleation rates: ln?J{sup ?}/? is scaled by ln?S/?, where the supersaturation ratio is S, ? is the dimensionless surface energy, and J{sup ?} is a dimensionless nucleation rate. This relation can be derived using the free energy of cluster formation at equilibrium which corresponds to the surface energy required to form the vapor-liquid interface. At low temperatures (below the triple point), we find that the surface energy divided by that of the classical nucleation theory does not depend on temperature, which leads to the scaling relation and implies a constant, positive Tolman length equal to half of the mean inter-particle separation in the liquid phase.

  1. New opportunities for quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering at steady-state sources using mechanical selection of the incident and final neutron energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamantov, Eugene

    2015-06-12

    We propose a modification of the neutron wide-angle velocity selector (WAVES) device that enables inelastic (in particular, quasielastic) scattering measurements not relying on the neutron time-of-flight. The proposed device is highly suitable for a steady-state neutron source, somewhat similar to a triple-axis spectrometer, but with simultaneous selection of the incident and final neutron energy over a broad range of scattering momentum transfer. Both the incident and final neutron velocities are defined by the WAVES geometry and rotation frequency. The variable energy transfer is achieved through the natural variation of the velocity of the transmitted neutrons as a function of themore »scattering angle component out of the equatorial plane.« less

  2. Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Optimal Rate Allocation in Overlay Content Distribution Chuan Wu and Baochun Li Department. This paper addresses the optimal rate allocation problem in overlay content distribution for efficient, these scenarios reflect the contrast between elastic and streaming content distribution, with either per

  3. China's High Savings Rates Rick Harbaugh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martins, Emília

    the highest in the world. That savings would grow in a country emerging from poverty is not necessarilyChina's High Savings Rates Rick Harbaugh Prepared for conference on "The Rise of China Revisited Abstract Since the early 1980s China has witnessed a rapid increase in its national savings rate to one

  4. Heat release rate markers for premixed combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaou, Zacharias M.; Swaminathan, Nedunchezhian

    2014-06-16

    The validity of the commonly used flame marker for heat release rate (HRR) visualization, namely the rate of the reaction OH + CH2O ? HCO + H2O is re-examined. This is done both for methane–air and multi-component fuel–air mixtures for lean...

  5. Variable word rate N-grams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gotoh, Yoshihiko; Renals, Steve

    The rate of occurrence of words is not uniform but varies from document to document. Despite this observation, parameters for conventional N-gram language models are usually derived using the assumption of a constant word rate. In this paper we...

  6. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  7. Resonances and the thermonuclear reaction rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Hussein; M. Ueda; A. J. Sargeant; M. P. Pato

    2003-07-21

    We present an approximate analytic expression for thermonuclear reaction rate of charged particles when the cross section contains a single narrow or wide resonance described by a Breit-Wigner shape. The resulting expression is uniformly valid as the effective energy and resonance energy coalesce. We use our expressions to calculate the reaction rate for $^{12}$C(p,$\\gamma$)$^{13}$N.

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Rates: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation Rates: A Structure-Based Study K R I S T I N E H . W structure in determining the biodegradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Laboratory. Introduction Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic pollutants that are commonly found

  9. Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption

  10. An atomistic methodology of energy release rate for graphene at nanoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lee, James D., E-mail: jdlee@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, the George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Wang, Xianqiao [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb architecture, serving as a fundamental building block for electric devices. Understanding the fracture mechanism of graphene under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of graphene-based devices at atomic scale. Although most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable in molecular dynamics simulation, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at nanoscale. This work introduces an atomistic simulation methodology, based on the energy release rate, as a tool to unveil the fracture mechanism of graphene at nanoscale. This methodology can be easily extended to any atomistic material system. We have investigated both opening mode and mixed mode at different temperatures. Simulation results show that the critical energy release rate of graphene is independent of initial crack length at low temperature. Graphene with inclined pre-crack possesses higher fracture strength and fracture deformation but smaller critical energy release rate compared with the graphene with vertical pre-crack. Owing to its anisotropy, graphene with armchair chirality always has greater critical energy release rate than graphene with zigzag chirality. The increase of temperature leads to the reduction of fracture strength, fracture deformation, and the critical energy release rate of graphene. Also, higher temperature brings higher randomness of energy release rate of graphene under a variety of predefined crack lengths. The energy release rate is independent of the strain rate as long as the strain rate is small enough.

  11. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  12. Considerations for How to Rate CPV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.

    2011-02-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.

  13. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtility RateUtility Rate

  14. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnited States:UserLaborUtility RateUtilityRateUtility Rate

  15. Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process on the cooling/heating rates as well as on the role of aging (the time elapsed in the glass state). We compare

  16. Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    primarily of greater metabolic inten- sities of heat-generating tissues. The maximum temperature gradient500 Does Growth Rate Determine the Rate of Metabolism in Shorebird Chicks Living in the Arctic/22/2007; Electronically Published 7/13/2007 ABSTRACT We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR

  17. Dependence of Up-scaled Reaction Rate on Flow Rate in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    to inherent heterogeneities in structure, mineral placement and fluid velocity in rock, bulk reaction rates1 Dependence of Up-scaled Reaction Rate on Flow Rate in Porous Media D. Kim · W. B. Lindquist model simulations of anorthite and kaolinite reactions in two sandstone pore networks under acidic

  18. Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rating and Feedback Systems Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Better Buildings Residential Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating and...

  19. Animal representations and animal remains at Çatalhöyük

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Nerissa; Meece, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    (Level VII). Volcano above town plan, leopard skin above geometric design, or other representations? Level VI paintings lack fully convinc­ ing animal depictions. A patch of painting on the east wall of building VIA.66 includes a number of geomet­ ric... the centrepieces of the north walls of two rather similar buildings. In a sense they parallel the situation in the faunal assemblage, where cattle are not terribly common, but figure prominently in cer­ emonial consumption (see Russell & Martin, Volume 4...

  20. How long will Earth remain habitable?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winglee, Robert M.

    's 60 Greatest Mysteries robert Naeye In the far future, the Sun's increasing energy output will turn no longer photosynthesize. This process might wipe out plants and the animals that depend on them. Perhaps biosphere will even- tually experience sweltering heat and di- minishing amounts of water on Earth's surface