National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rate change propagation

  1. Utility rate change propagation is now much faster | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company) JumpGTZUtility Rates API Version 2 is Live! Home

  2. Multilayer network modeling of change propagation for engineering change management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasqual, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Engineering change management is a critical and challenging process within product development. One pervasive source of difficulty for this process is the phenomenon of change propagation, by which a change to one part or ...

  3. Multilayer Network Model for Analysis and Management of Change Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    1 Multilayer Network Model for Analysis and Management of Change Propagation Michael C. Pasqual · Olivier L. de Weck Abstract A pervasive problem for engineering change management is the phenomenon and management of change propagation using the model. The repository includes a few novel tools and metrics, most

  4. Pressure dependence on the reaction propagation rate of PETN at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, M.F.

    1993-04-01

    The reaction propagation rate (RPR) of the sensitive high explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) was measured in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) over the pressure range of 2--20 GPa. The experimental technique used is the same as that previously reported. The RPR data shows that it burns one to two orders of magnitude faster in the DAC than 1,3,5,-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and nitromethane (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}) respectively. The PETN RPR curve did not show sample pressure-dependent behavior like that of nitromethane, but instead varied abruptly like the RPR curve of TATB. In order to interpret these changes, static-pressure DAC mid-IR FTIR spectra were taken of micro-pellets of PETN embedded in KBr. The relationship between changes in the spectra, the RPR curve, and published single crystal PETN wedge test data are discussed.

  5. Effects of Shear Rate on Propagation of Blood Clotting Determined Using Microfluidics and Numerical Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Effects of Shear Rate on Propagation of Blood Clotting Determined Using Microfluidics and Numerical-ismagilov@uchicago.edu Abstract: This paper describes microfluidic experiments with human blood plasma and numerical simulations removed. In addition, these results demonstrate the utility of simplified mechanisms and microfluidics

  6. Anderson transition at 2 dimensional growth rate on antitrees and spectral theory for operators with one propagating channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Sadel

    2015-06-15

    We show that the Anderson model has a transition from localization to delocalization at exactly 2 dimensional growth rate on antitrees with normalized edge weights which are certain discrete graphs. The kinetic part has a one-dimensional structure allowing a description through transfer matrices which involve some Schur complement. For such operators we introduce the notion of having one propagating channel and extend theorems from the theory of one-dimensional Jacobi operators that relate the behavior of transfer matrices with the spectrum. These theorems are then applied to the considered model. In essence, in a certain energy region the kinetic part averages the random potentials along shells and the transfer matrices behave similar as for a one-dimensional operator with random potential of decaying variance. At $d$ dimensional growth for $d>2$ this effective decay is strong enough to obtain absolutely continuous spectrum, whereas for some uniform $d$ dimensional growth with $denergy region. At exactly uniform $2$ dimensional growth also some singular continuous spectrum appears, at least at small disorder. As a corollary we also obtain a change from singular spectrum ($d\\leq 2$) to absolutely continuous spectrum ($d\\geq 3)$ for random operators of the type $\\mathcal{P}_r \\Delta_d \\mathcal{P}_r+\\lambda \\mathcal{V}$ on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$, where $\\mathcal{P}_r$ is an orthogonal radial projection, $\\Delta_d$ the discrete adjacency operator (Laplacian) on $\\mathbb{Z}^d$ and $\\lambda \\mathcal{V}$ a random potential.

  7. Future global environmental changes: Comparison with past and present rates of change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, K.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Quantification of past and present rates of vegetation change provides a yardstick for the evaluation of future rates of change. Holocene and post-settlement rates of vegetation change were measured at Channel Islands and Capitol Reef National Parks, and at Indiana Dunes and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshores, using various paleoecological proxy data. Vegetation changes were quantified using several multivariate ordination techniques. Comparison of past vegetation changes due to climatic shifts, plant succession, and plant migration, with ongoing changes due to grazing, logging, exotic species invasions, and modified fire regimes, demonstrates that plant communities are presently suffering rates of change which are unprecedented in their severity for the Last 5000 years. The climatic warming projected for the next 50 years will exacerbate these ongoing changes, but win only be one of many variables operating in the unplanned experimental redesign our natural ecosystems.

  8. Rate of environmental change determines stress response specificity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elowitz, Michael

    as to salt (13), calcium (14), heat, and other stresses (15). Bacteria also contain general stress responseRate of environmental change determines stress response specificity Jonathan W. Younga,1 , James C (received for review August 2, 2012) Cells use general stress response pathways to activate diverse tar- get

  9. Field propagation in a stochastic background space: The rate of light incoherence in stellar interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Maziashvili

    2012-11-23

    We present Hilbert space representation for a relatively broad class of minimum-length deformed quantum mechanical models obtained by incorporating a space-time uncertainty relation into quantum mechanics. The correspondingly modified field theory is used for estimating the deviation of the light incoherence rate from distant astrophysical sources from the standard case.

  10. Leakage Rate and Hydraulic Head Change Evaluation through Conduits in Deep Storage Aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, Jinia

    2015-04-13

    mathematical model for estimating leakage rate by hydraulic head change evaluation through different conduits or leakage pathways coupled with an injection well. The leakage rate is estimated using Darcy’s law by evaluating hydraulic head change between...

  11. Fracture Propagation and Permeability Change under Poro-thermoelastic Loads & Silica Reactivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2009-10-01

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Therefore, knowledge of the conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fractures are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have developed advanced poro-thermo-chemo-mechanical fracture models for rock fracture research in support of EGS design. The fracture propagation models are based on a regular displacement discontinuity formulation. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two-dimensional solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and reservoir pressure. Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is applied to study quartz precipitation/dissolution, as well as the variation in fracture aperture and pressure. Also, a three-dimensional model of injection/extraction has been developed to consider the impact poro- and thermoelastic stresses on fracture slip and injection pressure. These investigations shed light on the processes involved in the observed phenomenon of injection pressure variation (e.g., in Coso), and allow the assessment of the potential of thermal and chemical stimulation strategies.

  12. Patterned vegetation, tipping points, and the rate of climate change Yuxin Chen , Theodore Kolokolnikov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    to sudden irreversible changes (such as desertification) as the resource level dips below a tipping point in [11], where it was noted in §4.2 that "at high rates of change, desertification can take place

  13. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012 Carlos structural changes in the composition of Mexico's trade and the parameters that affect it across five-of-payments constraint may account for the post-liberalization slowdown in Mexico's growth only during certain subperiods

  14. Quantitative law describing market dynamics before and after interest-rate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Wang Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-06-15

    We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)approx(t-T){sup -O}MEGA, with OMEGA positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n{sup '}(|t-T|) of 'preshocks' before the interest-rate change at time T. This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the 'sign effect', in which 'bad news' has a larger impact than 'good news'. Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a 'market under-reaction' that lasts at least one trading day.

  15. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and PACI Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  16. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 392K) Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-139 - Notice of Order Temporarily Extending Formula Rates for Power, Transmission and Ancillary Services (PDF - 49K) Final FRN for Rate...

  17. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlini, David

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments in Mexico, 1960-2012 Carlos in Mexico's growth only during certain subperiods of the post-liberalization era, and that the impact the recent crisis), Mexico stands out for having fully embraced trade liberalization and undergoing deep

  18. Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments Constraint in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Structural Change, the Real Exchange Rate, and the Balance of Payments Constraint in Mexico Carlos of a model of balance-of-payments-constrained growth for Mexico, with disaggregated exports (manufactured for the slowdown in Mexico's actual growth during the early phase of trade liberalization and macro stabilization

  19. Can Desert Dwellers Continue To Afford Lush Lawns: Analyzing Consumer Response to Rate Changes in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Can Desert Dwellers Continue To Afford Lush Lawns: Analyzing Consumer Response to Rate Changes of price and weather on wa- ter demand is important for Arizona. If the effect of weather is not well. In part, this is because few other studies use household data, and instead use data aggregated

  20. Changes in the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Rate of Avicel Cellulose With Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Changes in the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Rate of Avicel Cellulose With Conversion Bin Yang, Deidre M: 10.1002/bit.20942 Abstract: The slow down in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose with conversion has reaction of the nearly pure cellulose in Avicel was interrupted over the course of nearly complete

  1. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

  2. DRAFT 5/5/2008: Estimation of Web Page Change Rates Carrie Grimes1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    DRAFT 5/5/2008: Estimation of Web Page Change Rates Carrie Grimes1 , Daniel Ford2 Google1 Google2 Abstract Search engines strive to maintain a "current" repository of all pages on the web to index for user. Introduction Search engines crawl the web to download a corpus of web pages to index for user queries. Since

  3. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Washoe Project, Stampede Division FERC Order Approving Extension of Non-Firm Power Formula Rate - Rate Order No. WAPA-160 (Sept. 5, 2013) (PDF - 22K) Notice of Extension of...

  4. BEAM PROPAGATOR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003691MLTPL00 Beam Propagator for Weather Radars, Modules 1 and 2  http://www.exelisvis.com/ProductsServices/IDL.aspx 

  5. Changes in exchange rates and oil prices for Saudi Arabia and other OPEC members

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    When the U.S. dollar weakens significantly against currencies of other major trading nations, oil-exporting countries often become concerned about both loss of purchasing power for their imports as well as capital losses on dollar-denominated assets. This paper addresses these issues by (1) examining previous studies, (2) reviewing the historical oil price movements of oil denominated in different G-7 currencies, (3) performing a causality test between changes in exchange rates and the price of oil, (4) using an analytical model to relate changes in exchange rates and the price of oil through the world oil market; and (5) evaluating the gains and losses in terms of purchasing power of Saudi Arabia and other members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries for selected historical periods.

  6. Upper limit on the cross section for reactor antineutrinos changing 22Na decay rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. de Meijer; S. W. Steyn

    2014-09-23

    In this paper we present results of a long-term observation of the decay of 22Na in the presence of a nuclear fission reactor. The measurements were made outside the containment wall of and underneath the Koeberg nuclear power plant near Cape Town, South Africa. Antineutrino fluxes ranged from ~5*10^11 to 1.6*10^13 cm^-2 s^-1 during this period. We show that the coincidence summing technique provides a sensitive tool to measure a change in the total decay constant as well as the branching ratio between EC and beta+ decay of 22Na to the first excited state in 22Ne. We observe a relative change in count rate between reactor-ON and reactor-OFF equal to (-0.51+/-0.11)*10^-4. After evaluating possible systematic uncertainties we conclude that the effect is either due to a hidden instrumental cause or due to an interaction between antineutrinos and the 22Na nucleus. An upper limit of ~0.03 barn has been deduced for observing any change in the decay rate of 22Na due to antineutrino interactions.

  7. MNC Industrial Access and Equipment Rates valid 8/1/14 to 7/31/15 RATES SUBJECT TO CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    /USE UNITS RATE MONTHLY MAX ACCESS FEE PAN cleanroom, Keller cleanroom, Keller Areas 1-3 monthly fee $95.00 $95.00 LAB USAGE FEE PAN cleanroom, Keller cleanroom, Keller Areas 1-3 per lab session $70.00 $560

  8. MNC Academic Access and Equipment Rates valid 8/1/14 to 7/31/15 RATES SUBJECT TO CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    /USE Locations UNITS RATE MONTHLY MAX ACCESS FEE PAN cleanroom, Keller cleanroom, Keller Areas 1-3 monthly fee $30.00 $30.00 LAB USAGE FEE PAN cleanroom, Keller cleanroom, Keller Areas 1-3 per lab session $26

  9. The University of Texas at Austin ITS Rate Change Policies Office of the Chief Information Officer Written By: David Bistline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    The University of Texas at Austin ITS Rate Change Policies Office of the Chief Information Officer: Draft/Community Input/Endorsed/Approved 2 The University of Texas at Austin 1.1. Direct labor costs

  10. A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Reconstructing Sea Levels: From Raw Data to Rates of Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, Niamh; Horton, Benjamin P; Parnell, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    We present a holistic Bayesian hierarchical model for reconstructing the continuous and dynamic evolution of relative sea-level (RSL) change with fully quantified uncertainty. The reconstruction is produced from biological (foraminifera) and geochemical ({\\delta}13C) sea-level indicators preserved in dated cores of salt-marsh sediment. Our model is comprised of three modules: (1) A Bayesian transfer function for the calibration of foraminifera into tidal elevation, which is flexible enough to formally accommodate additional proxies (in this case bulk-sediment {\\delta}13C values); (2) A chronology developed from an existing Bchron age-depth model, and (3) An existing errors-in-variables integrated Gaussian process (EIV-IGP) model for estimating rates of sea-level change. We illustrate our approach using a case study of Common Era sea-level variability from New Jersey, U.S.A. We develop a new Bayesian transfer function (B-TF), with and without the {\\delta}13C proxy and compare our results to those from a widely...

  11. A scenario for impacts of water availability loss due to climate change on riverine fish extinction rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grenouillet, Gael

    rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris cedex, France; 2 Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Korringaweg 7 future active drainage basin area losses and combine them with the extinction rate­area curve to estimate the future change in extinc- tion rate for each river basin. We then project the number of extinct species

  12. Changes in the halo formation rates due to features in the primordial spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar, E-mail: dhiraj@apctp.org [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India)

    2013-03-01

    Features in the primordial scalar power spectrum provide a possible roadway to describe the outliers at the low multipoles in the WMAP data. Apart from the CMB angular power spectrum, these features can also alter the matter power spectrum and, thereby, the formation of the large scale structure. Carrying out a complete numerical analysis, we investigate the effects of primordial features on the formation rates of the halos. We consider a few different inflationary models that lead to features in the scalar power spectrum and an improved fit to the CMB data, and analyze the corresponding imprints on the formation of halos. Performing a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis with the WMAP seven year data and the SDSS halo power spectrum from LRG DR7 for the models of our interest, we arrive at the parameter space of the models allowed by the data. We illustrate that, inflationary potentials, such as the quadratic potential with sinusoidal modulations and the axion monodromy model, which generate certain repeated, oscillatory features in the inflationary perturbation spectrum, do not induce a substantial difference in the number density of halos at their best fit values, when compared with, say, a nearly scale invariant spectrum as is generated by the standard quadratic potential. However, we find that the number density and the formation rates of halos change by about 13–22% for halo masses ranging over 10{sup 4}–10{sup 14} M{sub s}un, for potential parameters that lie within 2-? around the best fit values arrived at from the aforesaid joint constraints. We briefly discuss the implications of our results.

  13. WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? #12;Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming: most CO2 stays in the air over a century, though individual molecules come and go. Global warming. But we need to research it -- starting now. If global warming gets bad, public opinion may suddently flip

  14. Abrupt changes in the rate of Andean Plateau uplift from reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion of river profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuster, David L.

    Abrupt changes in the rate of Andean Plateau uplift from reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo form 19 February 2015 Accepted 21 February 2015 Available online 1 March 2015 Keywords: Andean uplift of surface uplift of the central Andean Plateau provides important boundary conditions for regional

  15. Paleolimnological investigations of anthropogenic environmental change in Lake Tanganyika: II. Geochronologies and mass sedimentation rates based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Geochronologies and mass sedimentation rates based on 14 C and 210 Pb data Brent A. McKee1, *, Andrew S. Cohen2 accumulation rates, Soil erosion Abstract We established sediment geochronologies for cores from eight deltaic with pre-20th century conditions. In this study we provide geochronological data from cores collected

  16. Experimental study of turbulent flame kernel propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansour, Mohy [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Peters, Norbert; Schrader, Lars-Uve [Institute of Combustion Technology, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    Flame kernels in spark ignited combustion systems dominate the flame propagation and combustion stability and performance. They are likely controlled by the spark energy, flow field and mixing field. The aim of the present work is to experimentally investigate the structure and propagation of the flame kernel in turbulent premixed methane flow using advanced laser-based techniques. The spark is generated using pulsed Nd:YAG laser with 20 mJ pulse energy in order to avoid the effect of the electrodes on the flame kernel structure and the variation of spark energy from shot-to-shot. Four flames have been investigated at equivalence ratios, {phi}{sub j}, of 0.8 and 1.0 and jet velocities, U{sub j}, of 6 and 12 m/s. A combined two-dimensional Rayleigh and LIPF-OH technique has been applied. The flame kernel structure has been collected at several time intervals from the laser ignition between 10 {mu}s and 2 ms. The data show that the flame kernel structure starts with spherical shape and changes gradually to peanut-like, then to mushroom-like and finally disturbed by the turbulence. The mushroom-like structure lasts longer in the stoichiometric and slower jet velocity. The growth rate of the average flame kernel radius is divided into two linear relations; the first one during the first 100 {mu}s is almost three times faster than that at the later stage between 100 and 2000 {mu}s. The flame propagation is slightly faster in leaner flames. The trends of the flame propagation, flame radius, flame cross-sectional area and mean flame temperature are related to the jet velocity and equivalence ratio. The relations obtained in the present work allow the prediction of any of these parameters at different conditions. (author)

  17. Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roldán, É.; Martínez, I. A.; Rica, R. A.; Dinis, L.

    2014-06-09

    We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.

  18. Wave Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation Jesse Roberts 1 , Grace Chang *2 , Craig Jones *3 Sandia National Laboratories 1515 Eubank SE, Albuquerque, NM 87123 USA 1...

  19. Changing ventilation rates in U.S. offices: Implications for health, work performance, energy, and associated economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Black, Douglas; Brunner, Gregory

    2011-07-01

    This paper provides quantitative estimates of benefits and costs of providing different amounts of outdoor air ventilation in U.S. offices. For four scenarios that modify ventilation rates, we estimated changes in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, work performance, short-term absence, and building energy consumption. The estimated annual economic benefits were $13 billion from increasing minimum ventilation rates (VRs) from 8 to 10 L/s per person, $38 billion from increasing minimum VRs from 8 to 15 L/s per person, and $33 billion from increasing VRs by adding outdoor air economizers for the 50% of the office floor area that currently lacks economizers. The estimated $0.04 billion in annual energy-related benefits of decreasing minimum VRs from 8 to 6.5 L/s per person are very small compared to the projected annual costs of $12 billion. Benefits of increasing minimum VRs far exceeded energy costs while adding economizers yielded health, performance, and absence benefits with energy savings.

  20. Propagation of Camptotheca acuminata 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Douglas Wayne

    2004-09-30

    commercial production facilities that may lack the capability to propagate the species under sterile conditions. The application of the auxin indole-3-butyric acid potassium salt (K-IBA) has been reported to enhance rooting success in a wide variety... production facility, which lacks the requirements for in vitro propagation. Experiment 2 ? Micropropagation of Camptotheca acuminata Explants were cultured on the various media treatments for 10 weeks until they were harvested and the data recorded...

  1. On Anyonic Propagators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington da Cruz

    2000-06-02

    We consider a simple action for a fractional spin particle and a path integral representation for the propagator is obtained in a gauge such that the constraint embodied in the Lagrangian is not an obstacle. We obtain a propagator for the particle in a constant electromagnetic field via the path integral representation over velocities, which is characterized by arbitrary boundary conditions and the absence of time derivatives following integration over bosonic variables.

  2. Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Participating Investigators of ICD-HRV Italian Study Group.heart rate variability (HRV) in a population of researchersthe association between HRV parameters (standard deviation

  3. Response of Pinus flexilis James seedlings to simulated climate change through gas exchange rates, phenology and morphology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Jennifer Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    2008). Both net photosynthesis and dark respiration arecan acclimate. When net photosynthesis or dark respirationhigher rates of net photosynthesis and dark respiration than

  4. Use of the slide positivity rate to estimate changes in malaria incidence in a cohort of Ugandan children

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    within 14 days were given quinine. Participants with severewere also treated with quinine. If, upon any presentation,given ‡ AQ + SP AQ + AS AL Quinine Slide positivity rate (

  5. Shock wave propagation in composites and active Vinamra Agrawal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Shock wave propagation in composites and active Vinamra Agrawal California Institute of Technology Under the application of high strain rate loading, like impact of a projectile on a target, shock waves travel through a material. These waves are characterized as a discontinuity propagating through

  6. Part 6. Propagation Propagation and Planting of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and chlorine- rinsed in a commercial dishwasher with a water-saving system at a rate of 8000 tubes per hour. A more automated dishwasher could increase the rate. The rooting medium--a 2:1 by volume mix of sphagnum

  7. Behavior Propagation in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Social Network Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Robert Caiming

    cliques when the spectrum occupancies change. The behavior dynamics have significant impacts on the perfor1 Behavior Propagation in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Social Network Approach Husheng Li, Ju Bin differential equation are used to explicitly describe the dynamics of behavior propagation. The analytic

  8. Generation of multi-photon entanglement by propagation and detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Hossein-Nejad; R. Stock; D. F. V. James

    2009-03-02

    We investigate the change of entanglement of photons due to propagation. We find that post-selected entanglement in general varies by propagation and, as a consequence, states with maximum bi- and tri-partite entanglement can be generated from propagation of unentangled photons. We generalize the results to n photons and show that entangled states with permutation symmetry can be generated from propagation of unentangled states. Generation of n-photon GHZ states is discussed as an example of a class of states with the desired symmetry.

  9. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

    2014-03-15

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  10. Image Compression by Back Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cottrell, Garrison W.

    CHAPTER 9 Image Compression by Back Propagation: An Example of Extensional Programming* GARRISON W the case with the computatiolls associated with basic cognitive pro- cesses such as vision and audition techniques. The technique we employ is known as back propagation. developed by l1umelhart, Hinton

  11. On the propagation of a coupled saturation and pressure front

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Using an asymptotic technique, valid for a medium with smoothly varying heterogeneity, I derive an expression for the velocity of a propagating, coupled saturation and pressure front. Due to the nonlinearity of the governing equations, the velocity of the propagating front depends upon the magnitude of the saturation and pressure changes across the front in addition to the properties of the medium. Thus, the expression must be evaluated in conjunction with numerical reservoir simulation. The propagation of the two-phase front is governed by the background saturation distribution, the saturation-dependent component of the fluid mobility, the porosity, the permeability, the capillary pressure function, the medium compressibility, and the ratio of the slopes of the relative permeability curves. Numerical simulation of water injection into a porous layer saturated with a nonaqueous phase liquid indicates that two modes of propagation are important. The fastest mode of propagation is a pressure-dominated disturbance that travels through the saturated layer. This is followed, much later, by a coupled mode with a large saturation change. These two modes are also observed in a simulation using a heterogeneous porous layer. A comparison between the propagation times estimated from the results of the numerical simulation and predictions from the asymptotic expression indicates overall agreement.

  12. Higher order light propagation volumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy Ly; Martin, Timothy Ly

    2012-01-01

    1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Light Propagation4.1.1 Injection of Virtual Point Lights and Geometryof the Stanford bunny, lit by an area light, rendered using

  13. Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie

    2013-04-23

    Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.

  14. Sound propagation around underwater seamounts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sikora, Joseph J., III

    2009-01-01

    In the ocean, low frequency acoustic waves propagate with low attenuation and cylindrical spreading loss over long-ranges, making them an effective tool for underwater source localization, tomography, and communications. ...

  15. Third Annual Report: 2006 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Southard, Susan S.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Anderson, Michael G.; Vavrinec, John

    2007-02-01

    King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate for these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementation of a multi-year eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements are a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating and stockpiling of local plantstock, and post-construction planting, and c) post-construction monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2006 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. Approximately 1500 additional shoots were harvested from the marine outfall corridor in August 2006 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory in Sequim, Washington, bringing the total number of shoots to 4732. Eelgrass densities were monitored in the five experimental harvest plots established in the marine outfall corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. Net eelgrass density decreased from 2004 post-harvest to 2006 in all plots, despite density increases observed in 2005 in some plots and at some harvest rates. Eelgrass densities within individual subplots were highly variable from year to year, and the change in density in any interannual period did not correlate to the initial 2004 harvest rate. Continued monitoring should help project managers determine an optimum harvest rate that supports rapid recovery of donor eelgrass beds.

  16. Semiclassical propagation of Wigner functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dittrich, T.; Gomez, E. A.; Pachon, L. A.

    2010-06-07

    We present a comprehensive study of semiclassical phase-space propagation in the Wigner representation, emphasizing numerical applications, in particular as an initial-value representation. Two semiclassical approximation schemes are discussed. The propagator of the Wigner function based on van Vleck's approximation replaces the Liouville propagator by a quantum spot with an oscillatory pattern reflecting the interference between pairs of classical trajectories. Employing phase-space path integration instead, caustics in the quantum spot are resolved in terms of Airy functions. We apply both to two benchmark models of nonlinear molecular potentials, the Morse oscillator and the quartic double well, to test them in standard tasks such as computing autocorrelation functions and propagating coherent states. The performance of semiclassical Wigner propagation is very good even in the presence of marked quantum effects, e.g., in coherent tunneling and in propagating Schroedinger cat states, and of classical chaos in four-dimensional phase space. We suggest options for an effective numerical implementation of our method and for integrating it in Monte-Carlo-Metropolis algorithms suitable for high-dimensional systems.

  17. The effect of changing patterns of obstetric care in Scotland (1980-2004) on rates of preterm birth and its neonatal consequences: perinatal database study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norman, J. E.; Morris, C.; Chalmers, J.

    BACKGROUND: Rates of preterm birth are rising worldwide. Studies from the United States and Latin America suggest that much of this rise relates to increased rates of medically indicated preterm birth. In contrast, European and Australian data...

  18. Subluminal to superluminal propagation of an optical pulse in an f-deformed Bose- Einstein condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Haghshenasfard; M. H. Naderi; M. Soltanolkotabi

    2008-01-16

    In this paper, we investigate the propagation of a weak optical probe pulse in an f-deformed Bose- Einstein condensate (BEC) of a gas with the -type three- level atoms in the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) regime. We use an f- deformed generalization of an effective two- level quantum model of the three- level configuration in which the Gardiner phonon operators for BEC are deformed by an operator- valued function, f(n), of the particle- number operator n. With making use of the quantum approach of the angular momentum theory we obtain the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the system up to first order approximation. We consider the collisions between the atoms as a special kind of f- deformation. The collision rate k is regarded as the deformation parameter and light propagation in the deformed BEC is analyzed. In particular, we show that the absorptive and dispersive properties of the deformed condensate can be controlled effectively by changing the deformation parameter k and the total number of atoms. We find that by increasing the value of k the group velocity of the probe pulse changes, through deformed condensate, from subluminal to superluminal.

  19. Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation via incoherent pump field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mahmoudi; S. Worya Rabiei; L. Safari; M. Sahrai

    2008-08-03

    We investigate the dispersion and the absorption properties of a weak probe field in a three-level Lambda-type atomic system. We use just an incoherent field for controlling the group velocity of light. It is shown that the slope of dispersion changes from positive to negative just with changing the intensity of the indirect incoherent pumping field. Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation appears in this system. No laser field is used in the pumping processes.

  20. The Propagation of Ornamental Plants. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWerth, A. F.

    1970-01-01

    Mist Propagation ............................................................................................................... 28 Mist Systems... equal to twice the size of the seed which will result in the seed being covered at about the depth of the seed. Water the seedbed thoroughly with water applied with a mist nozzle so the seed will not be washed out of the soil. When the seedlings...

  1. Fourth Annual Report: 2007 Pre-Construction Eelgrass Monitoring and Propagation for King County Outfall Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Southard, Susan S.; Vavrinec, John

    2007-10-04

    King County proposes to build a new sewer outfall discharging to Puget Sound near Point Wells, Washington. Construction is scheduled for 2008. The Point Wells site was selected to minimize effects on the nearshore marine environment, but unavoidable impacts to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds are anticipated during construction. To mitigate these impacts and prepare for post-construction restoration, King County began implementing a multiyear eelgrass monitoring and restoration program in 2004, with the primary goal of returning intertidal and shallow subtidal habitat and eelgrass to pre-construction conditions. Major program elements related to eelgrass are (a) pre-construction monitoring, i.e., documenting initial eelgrass conditions and degree of fluctuation over 5 years prior to construction, (b) eelgrass transplanting, including harvesting, offsite propagating, and stockpiling of local plants for post-construction planting, and (c) post-construction planting and subsequent monitoring. The program is detailed in the Eelgrass Restoration and Biological Resources Implementation Workplan (King County 2006). This report describes calendar year 2007 pre-construction activities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for King County. Activities included continued propagation of eelgrass shoots at the PNNL Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) in Sequim, Washington, and monitoring of the experimental harvest plots in the marine outfall corridor area to evaluate recovery rates relative to harvest rates. In addition, 490 eelgrass shoots were also harvested from the Marine Outfall Corridor in July 2007 to supplement the plants in the propagation tank at the MSL, bringing the total number of shoots to 1464. Eelgrass densities were monitored in four of five experimental harvest plots established in the Marine Outfall Corridor. Changes in eelgrass density were evaluated in year-to-year comparisons with initial harvest rates. A net increase in eelgrass density from 2004 post-harvest to 2007 was observed in all plots, despite density decreases observed in 2006 in all plots and at most harvest rates. Eelgrass densities within individual subplots were highly variable from year to year, and the change in density in any interannual period was not related to initial 2004 harvest rate. Harvest rates of neighboring subplots did not appear to affect subplot eelgrass density (Woodruff et al. 2007). Three years post-harvest, eelgrass shoot densities were not significantly different from pre-harvest shoot densities at any harvest level. Additional plans are being discussed with King County to harvest all eelgrass from the construction corridor and hold in the propagation tanks at the MSL for post-construction planting. Under this plan, plants that would have been lost to construction will be held offsite until construction is completed. This strategy reduces and possibly eliminates the need to harvest eelgrass from donor beds located south of the construction area, allowing them to remain undisturbed. However, if eelgrass is harvested from donor beds, the monitoring of eelgrass growth at different harvest rates should help determine an optimum harvest rate that supports rapid recovery of donor eelgrass beds.

  2. Thermo-Poroelastic Fracture Propagation Modeling with Displacement Discontinuity Boundary Element Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Kwang Hee

    2013-08-01

    . The influence of pore pressure and temperature changes on the fracture propagation length and path, as well as on stress and pore pressure distribution near wellbores and fractures, was considered in isotropic and homogeneous rock formations. The BEM used...

  3. Accelerated Learning in BackPropagation Nets In R. Pfeifer, Z. Schreter, Z. Fogelman, and L. Steels, editors, Connectionism in Perspective, pages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Accelerated Learning in Back­Propagation Nets In R. Pfeifer, Z. Schreter, Z. Fogelman, and L with back­propagation (bp) (Werbos, 1974)(Parker, 1985)(Rumelhart et al., 1986)(Almeida, 1987 be significantly faster than conventional bp. Keywords: Back­propagation, sparse coding, speed, learning rate

  4. BUDVYTIS et al.: LABEL PROPAGATION 1 Label propagation in complex video

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tae-Kyun

    Propagation (PGP) Proposed Hybrid Model (PHM) Occlusion-aware labelling (Classifier injection off ) ProlongedBUDVYTIS et al.: LABEL PROPAGATION 1 Label propagation in complex video sequences using semi graphical model for label propagation in lengthy and complex video sequences. Given hand-labelled start

  5. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  6. Plate damage identification using wave propagation and impedance methods.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wait, J. R. (Jeannette R.); Park, G. H. (Gyu Hae); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates an integrated approach for identifying structural damage in an aluminum plate. Piezoelectric (PZT) materials are used to actuatehense the dynamic response of the structure. Two damage identification techniques are integrated in this study, including Lamb wave propagations and impedance methods. In Lamb wave propagations, one PZT launches an elastic wave through the structure, and responses are measured by an array of PZT sensors. The changes in both wave attenuation and reflection are used to detect and locate the damage. The impedance method monitors the variations in structural mechanical impedance, which is coupled with the electrical impedance of the PZT. Both methods operate in high frequency ranges at which there are measurable changes in structural responses even for incipient damage such as small cracks or loose connections. This paper summarizes two methods used for damage identification, experimental procedures, and additional issues that can be used as a guideline for future investigations.

  7. On the extraction of laminar flame speed and Markstein length from outwardly propagating spherical flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Large discrepancies among the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths of methane/air mixtures measured by different researchers using the same constant-pressure spherical flame method are observed. As an effort to reduce these discrepancies, one linear model (LM, the stretched flame speed changes linearly with the stretch rate) and two non-linear models (NM I and NM II, the stretched flame speed changes non-linearly with the stretch rate) for extracting the laminar flame speed and Markstein length from propagating spherical flames are investigated. The accuracy and performance of the LM, NM I, and NM II are found to strongly depend on the Lewis number. It is demonstrated that NM I is the most accurate for mixtures with large Lewis number (positive Markstein length) while NM II is the most accurate for mixtures with small Lewis number (negative Markstein length). Therefore, in order to get accurate laminar flame speed and Markstein length from spherical flame experiments, different non-linear models should be used for different mixtures. The validity of the theoretical results is further demonstrated by numerical and experimental studies. The results of this study can be used directly in spherical flame experiments measuring the laminar flame speed and Markstein length. (author)

  8. Universal scaling of forest fire propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, Porterie; Pierre, Clerc Jean; Nouredine, Zekri; Zekri, Lotfi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we use a variant of the Watts-Strogatz small-world model to predict wildfire behavior near the critical propagation/nonpropagation threshold. We find that forest fire patterns are fractal and that critical exponents are universal, which suggests that the propagation/nonpropagation transition is a second-order transition. Universality tells us that the characteristic critical behaviour of propagation in real (amorphous) forest landscapes can be extracted from the simplest network model.

  9. Simulated effects of changes in the infiltration rate and the hydraulic conductivity structure on the location and configuration of the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasek, Noreen Ann

    1991-01-01

    dh/dl is the hydraulic gradient where h is the hydraulic head and 1 is the length of the flow path over which the head change is measured. Because both h and 1 have units of length, dh/dl itself is unitless. The deterministic flow equation used... of the steep gradients causing the step- like configuration have been related to two mechanisms: ground water barriers or gradual permeability variations. This study was designed to determine if either or both of the mechanisms could produce the observed...

  10. An Estimator of Propagation of Cascading Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian; Wierzbicki, Kevin; Carreras, Benjamin A; Lynch, Vickie E; Newman, David E

    2006-01-01

    The authors suggest a statistical estimator to measure the extent to which failures propagate in cascading failures such as large blackouts.

  11. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  12. Light propagation and Imaging in Indefinite Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jie

    2010-01-01

    photolithography by polarized light,” Applied PhysicsZhang, “Imaging visible light using anisotropic metamaterialcross-sectional review of the light propagation of TE mode (

  13. Wave Propagation in Fractured Poroelastic Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    robiel

    instance, tectonic stresses and natural or artificial hydraulic fracturing caused ... Seismic wave propagation through fractures and cracks is an important subject ...

  14. Topological Invariants and Anyonic Propagators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington da Cruz

    1998-03-05

    We obtain the Hausdorff dimension, $h=2-2s$, for particles with fractional spins in the interval, $0\\leq s \\leq 0.5$, such that the manifold is characterized by a topological invariant given by, ${\\cal W}=h+2s-2p$. This object is related to fractal properties of the path swept out by fractional spin particles, the spin of these particles, and the genus (number of anyons) of the manifold. We prove that the anyonic propagator can be put into a path integral representation which gives us a continuous family of Lagrangians in a convenient gauge. The formulas for, $h$ and ${\\cal W}$, were obtained taking into account the anyon model as a particle-flux system and by a qualitative inference of the topology.

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS--PART B: CYBERNETICS, VOL. 34, NO. 2, APRIL 2004 823 The Impact of Countermeasure Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Li-Chiou

    that computer viruses and countermeasures spread through two separate but interlinked complex networks--the virus-spreading network and the counter- measure-propagation network, in which a countermeasure acts, or when the countermeasure-propagation rate is higher than the virus-spreading rate. In addition, our work

  16. Radiation damage and associated phase change effect on photodesorption rates from ices—Ly? studies of the surface behavior of CO{sub 2}(ice)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Photodesorption from a crystalline film of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K has been studied using Ly? (10.2 eV) radiation. We combine quantitative mass spectrometric studies of gases evolved and transmission IR studies of species trapped in the ice. Direct CO desorption is observed from the primary CO{sub 2} photodissociation process, which occurs promptly for CO{sub 2} molecules located on the outermost surface of the ice (Process I). As the fluence of Ly? radiation increases to ?5.5 × 10{sup 17} photons cm{sup –2}, extensive damage to the crystalline ice occurs and photo-produced CO molecules from deeper regions (Process II) are found to desorb at a rapidly increasing rate, which becomes two orders of magnitude greater than Process I. It is postulated that deep radiation damage to produce an extensive amorphous phase of CO{sub 2} occurs in the 50 nm ice film and that CO (and CO{sub 2}) diffusive transport is strongly enhanced in the amorphous phase. Photodesorption in Process II is a combination of electronic and thermally activated processes. Radiation damage in crystalline CO{sub 2} ice has been monitored by its effects on the vibrational line shapes of CO{sub 2}(ice). Here the crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition has been correlated with the occurrence of efficient molecular transport over long distances through the amorphous phase of CO{sub 2}(ice). Future studies of the composition of the interstellar region, generated by photodesorption from ice layers on grains, will have to consider the significant effects of radiation damage on photodesorption rates.

  17. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  18. Effect of Resolution on Propagating Detonation Wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-07-10

    Simulations of the cylinder test are used to illustrate the effect of mesh resolution on a propagating detonation wave. For this study we use the xRage code with the SURF burn model for PBX 9501. The adaptive mesh capability of xRage is used to vary the resolution of the reaction zone. We focus on two key properties: the detonation speed and the cylinder wall velocity. The latter is related to the release isentrope behind the detonation wave. As the reaction zone is refined (2 to 15 cells for cell size of 62 to 8?m), both the detonation speed and final wall velocity change by a small amount; less than 1 per cent. The detonation speed decreases with coarser resolution. Even when the reaction zone is grossly under-resolved (cell size twice the reaction-zone width of the burn model) the wall velocity is within a per cent and the detonation speed is low by only 2 per cent.

  19. Fatigue and Creep Crack Propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 in the Annealed and Aged Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julian K. Benz; Richard N. Wright

    2013-10-01

    The crack propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 was studied under various conditions. Elevated temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted at 650 and 800 degrees C under constant stress intensity (triangle K) conditions and triangular or trapezoidal waveforms at various frequencies on as-received, aged, and carburized material. Environmental conditions included both laboratory air and characteristic VHTR impure helium. As-received Alloy 617 displayed an increase in the crack growth rate (da/dN) as the frequency was decreased in air which indicated a time-dependent contribution component in fatigue crack propagation. Material aged at 650°C did not display any influence on the fatigue crack growth rates nor the increasing trend of crack growth rate with decreasing frequency even though significant microstructural evolution, including y’ (Ni3Al) after short times, occurred during aging. In contrast, carburized Alloy 617 showed an increase in crack growth rates at all frequencies tested compared to the material in the standard annealed condition. Crack growth studies under quasi-constant K (i.e. creep) conditions were also completed at 650 degrees C and a stress intensity of K = 40 MPa9 (square root)m. The results indicate that crack growth is primarily intergranular and increased creep crack growth rates exist in the impure helium environment when compared to the results in laboratory air. Furthermore, the propagation rates (da/dt) continually increased for the duration of the creep crack growth either due to material aging or evolution of a crack tip creep zone. Finally, fatigue crack propagation tests at 800 degrees C on annealed Alloy 617 indicated that crack propagation rates were higher in air than impure helium at the largest frequencies and lowest stress intensities. The rates in helium, however, eventually surpass the rates in air as the frequency is reduced and the stress intensity is decreased which was not observed at 650 degrees C.

  20. Dilepton production spectrum above Tc with a lattice quark propagator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taekwang Kim; Masayuki Asakawa; Masakiyo Kitazawa

    2015-05-27

    The dilepton production rate from the deconfined medium is analyzed with the photon self-energies constructed from quark propagators obtained by lattice numerical simulation for two values of temperature $T=1.5T_{\\rm c}$ and $3T_{\\rm c}$ above the critical temperature $T_{\\rm c}$. The photon self-energy is calculated by the Schwinger-Dyson equation with the lattice quark propagtor and a vertex function determined so as to satisfy the Ward-Takahashi identity. The obtained dilepton production rate at zero momentum exhibits divergences reflecting van Hove singularity, and is significantly enhanced around $\\omega\\simeq T$ compared with the rate obtained by the perturbative analysis.

  1. Laser-induced acoustic wave generation/propagation/interaction in water in various internal channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    induced plane acoustic wave generation, propagation andinduced acoustic wave generation/propagation/interaction insingle acoustic wave generation, propagation, interaction

  2. Numerical investigation of spontaneous flame propagation under RCCI conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhagatwala, Ankit V; Sankaran, Ramanan; Kokjohn, Sage; Chen, Jacqueline H

    2015-06-30

    This paper presents results from one and two-dimensional direct numerical simulations under Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) conditions of a primary reference fuel (PRF) mixture consisting of n-heptane and iso-octane. RCCI uses in-cylinder blending of two fuels with different autoignition characteristics to control combustion phasing and the rate of heat release. These simulations employ an improved model of compression heating through mass source/sink terms developed in a previous work by Bhagatwala et al. (2014), which incorporates feedback from the flow to follow a predetermined experimental pressure trace. Two-dimensional simulations explored parametric variations with respect to temperature stratification, pressure profiles andmore »n-heptane concentration. Furthermore, statistics derived from analysis of diffusion/reaction balances locally normal to the flame surface were used to elucidate combustion characteristics for the different cases. Both deflagration and spontaneous ignition fronts were observed to co-exist, however it was found that higher n-heptane concentration provided a greater degree of flame propagation, whereas lower n-heptane concentration (higher fraction of iso-octane) resulted in more spontaneous ignition fronts. A significant finding was that simulations initialized with a uniform initial temperature and a stratified n-heptane concentration field, resulted in a large fraction of combustion occurring through flame propagation. The proportion of spontaneous ignition fronts increased at higher pressures due to shorter ignition delay when other factors were held constant. For the same pressure and fuel concentration, the contribution of flame propagation to the overall combustion was found to depend on the level of thermal stratification, with higher initial temperature gradients resulting in more deflagration and lower gradients generating more ignition fronts. Statistics of ignition delay are computed to assess the Zel’dovich (1980) theory for the mode of combustion propagation based on ignition delay gradients.« less

  3. Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense Plasma for Efficient X-Ray Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in...

  4. Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in...

  5. ULTRASHORT LASER PULSE PROPAGATION IN WATER 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byeon, Joong-Hyeok

    2010-01-16

    We simulate ultrashort pulse propagation through water by numerical methods, which is a kind of optical communication research. Ultrashort pulses have been known to have non Beer-Lambert behavior, whereas continuous waves ...

  6. Ultrashort Pulse Propagation in the Linear Regime 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jieyu

    2010-07-14

    First, we investigate the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer (BLB) law as applied to the transmission of ultrashort pulses through water in the linear absorption regime. We present a linear theory for propagation of ultrashort laser ...

  7. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; de Gouvêa, André; Hernández, Daniel; Oliveira, Roberto L.N.

    2015-03-01

    Neutrino propagation in space–time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature.

  8. Ultrashort pulse propagation and the Anderson localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvia Gentilini; Andrea Fratalocchi; Luca Angelani; Giancarlo Ruocco; Claudio Conti

    2008-10-09

    We investigate the dynamics of a 10 fs light pulse propagating in a random medium by the direct solution of the 3D Maxwell equations. Our approach employs molecular dynamics to generate a distribution of spherical scatterers and a parallel finite-difference time-domain code for the vectorial wave propagation. We calculate the disorder-averaged energy velocity and the decay time of the transmitted pulse Versus the localization length for an increasing refractive index.

  9. Shock wave propagation in vibrofluidized granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai Huang; Guoqing Miao; Peng Zhang; Yi Yun; Rongjue Wei

    2005-11-29

    Shock wave formation and propagation in two-dimensional granular materials under vertical vibration are studied by digital high speed photography. The steepen density and temperature wave fronts form near the plate as granular layer collides with vibrating plate and propagate upward through the layer. The temperature front is always in the transition region between the upward and downward granular flows. The effects of driving parameters and particle number on the shock are also explored.

  10. Making and Propagating Elastic Waves: Overview of the new wave propagation code WPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCandless, K P; Petersson, N A; Nilsson, S; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Blair, S C

    2006-05-09

    We are developing a new parallel 3D wave propagation code at LLNL called WPP (Wave Propagation Program). WPP is being designed to incorporate the latest developments in embedded boundary and mesh refinement technology for finite difference methods, as well as having an efficient portable implementation to run on the latest supercomputers at LLNL. We are currently exploring seismic wave applications, including a recent effort to compute ground motions for the 1906 Great San Francisco Earthquake. This paper will briefly describe the wave propagation problem, features of our numerical method to model it, implementation of the wave propagation code, and results from the 1906 Great San Francisco Earthquake simulation.

  11. The various manifestations of collisionless dissipation in wave propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benisti, Didier; Morice, Olivier; Gremillet, Laurent

    2012-06-15

    The propagation of an electrostatic wave packet inside a collisionless and initially Maxwellian plasma is always dissipative because of the irreversible acceleration of the electrons by the wave. Then, in the linear regime, the wave packet is Landau damped, so that in the reference frame moving at the group velocity, the wave amplitude decays exponentially with time. In the nonlinear regime, once phase mixing has occurred and when the electron motion is nearly adiabatic, the damping rate is strongly reduced compared to the Landau one, so that the wave amplitude remains nearly constant along the characteristics. Yet, we show here that the electrons are still globally accelerated by the wave packet, and in one dimension, this leads to a non local amplitude dependence of the group velocity. As a result, a freely propagating wave packet would shrink, and therefore, so would its total energy. In more than one dimension, not only does the magnitude of the group velocity nonlinearly vary, but also its direction. In the weakly nonlinear regime, when the collisionless damping rate is still significant compared to its linear value, the group velocity is directed towards the outside of the wave packet and tends to increase its transverse extent, while the opposite is true once the wave is essentially undamped. The impact of the nonlinear variation of the group velocity on the transverse size of the wave packet is quantified, and compared to that induced by the self-focussing due to wave front bowing.

  12. Quantum Computers: Noise Propagation and Adversarial Noise Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gil Kalai

    2009-04-21

    In this paper we consider adversarial noise models that will fail quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. We describe known results regarding high-rate noise, sequential computation, and reversible noisy computation. We continue by discussing highly correlated noise and the "boundary," in terms of correlation of errors, of the "threshold theorem." Next, we draw a picture of adversarial forms of noise called (collectively) "detrimental noise." Detrimental noise is modeled after familiar properties of noise propagation. However, it can have various causes. We start by pointing out the difference between detrimental noise and standard noise models for two qubits and proceed to a discussion of highly entangled states, the rate of noise, and general noisy quantum systems.

  13. Electromagnetic wave propagation in random waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Alonso; Liliana Borcea

    2013-10-18

    We study long range propagation of electromagnetic waves in random waveguides with rectangular cross-section and perfectly conducting boundaries. The waveguide is filled with an isotropic linear dielectric material, with randomly fluctuating electric permittivity. The fluctuations are weak, but they cause significant cumulative scattering over long distances of propagation of the waves. We decompose the wave field in propagating and evanescent transverse electric and magnetic modes with random amplitudes that encode the cumulative scattering effects. They satisfy a coupled system of stochastic differential equations driven by the random fluctuations of the electric permittivity. We analyze the solution of this system with the diffusion approximation theorem, under the assumption that the fluctuations decorrelate rapidly in the range direction. The result is a detailed characterization of the transport of energy in the waveguide, the loss of coherence of the modes and the depolarization of the waves due to cumulative scattering.

  14. Dynamical Event during Slow Crack Propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma {sup o}loy, Knut Jorgen; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2001-09-03

    We address the role of material heterogeneities on the propagation of a slow rupture at laboratory scale. With a high speed camera, we follow an in-plane crack front during its propagation through a transparent heterogeneous Plexiglas block. We obtain two major results. First, the slip along the interface is strongly correlated over scales much larger than the asperity sizes. Second, the dynamics is scale dependent. Locally, mechanical instabilities are triggered during asperity depinning and propagate along the front. The intermittent behavior at the asperity scale is in contrast with the large scale smooth creeping evolution of the average crack position. The dynamics is described on the basis of a Family-Vicsek scaling.

  15. Absorption free superluminal light propagation in a three level pump-probe system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Mahmoudi; S. Worya Rabiei; L. Ebrahimi Zohravi; M. Sahrai

    2007-11-21

    We investigate the dispersion and the absorption properties of a weak probe field in a three-level pump-probe atomic system. It is shown that the slope of dispersion changes from positive to negative just with the intensity of the coherent or indirect incoherent pumping fields. It is demonstrated that the absorption free superluminal light propagation is appeared in this system.

  16. Pulse propagation in decorated random chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upendra Harbola; Alexandre Rosas; Aldo H. Romero; Katja Lindenberg

    2010-05-05

    We study pulse propagation in one-dimensional chains of spherical granules decorated with small randomly-sized granules placed between bigger monodisperse ones. Such "designer chains" are of interest in efforts to control the behavior of the pulse so as to optimize its propagation or attenuation, depending on the desired application. We show that a recently proposed effective description of simple decorated chains can be extended to predict pulse properties in chains decorated with small granules of randomly chosen radii. Furthermore, we also show that the binary collision approximation can again be used to provide analytic results for this system.

  17. Light propagation in the South Pole ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dawn; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is located in the ice near the geographic South Pole. Particle showers from neutrino interactions in the ice produce light which is detected by IceCube modules, and the amount and pattern of deposited light are used to reconstruct the properties of the incident neutrino. Since light is scattered and absorbed by ice between the neutrino interaction vertex and the sensor, IceCube event reconstruction depends on understanding the propagation of light through the ice. This paper presents the current status of modeling light propagation in South Pole ice, including the recent observation of an azimuthal anisotropy in the scattering.

  18. Laser propagation in underdense plasmas: Scaling arguments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    The propagation of an intense laser beam in the underdense plasma is modelled by treating the plasma as a relativistic, zero temperature, charged fluid. For paraxial propagation and a sufficiently underdense plasma ({omega}p/{omega} {much_lt} 1), a multiple-scales technique is used to expand the exact equations in powers of the small parameter {theta} {equivalent_to} {omega}p/{omega}. The zeroth order equations are used in a critical examination of previous work on this problem, and to derive a scaling law for the threshold power required for cavitation.

  19. Acoustic wave propagation through a supercooled liquid: A normal mode analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuki Matsuoka; Hideyuki Mizuno; Ryoichi Yamamoto

    2012-10-17

    The mechanism of acoustic wave propagation in supercooled liquids is not yet fully understood since the vibrational dynamics of supercooled liquids are strongly affected by their amorphous inherent structures. In this paper, the acoustic wave propagation in a supercooled model liquid is studied by using normal mode analysis. Due to the highly disordered inherent structure, a single acoustic wave is decomposed into many normal modes in broad frequency range. This causes the rapid decay of the acoustic wave and results in anomalous wavenumber dependency of the dispersion relation and the rate of attenuation.

  20. Heat pulse propagation in chaotic 3-dimensional magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. del-Castillo-Negrete; D. Blazevski

    2014-09-10

    Heat pulse propagation in $3$-D chaotic magnetic fields is studied by solving the parallel heat transport equation using a Lagrangian-Green's function (LG) method. The LG method provides an efficient and accurate technique that circumvents limitations of finite elements and finite difference methods. The main two problems addressed are: (i) The dependence of the radial transport on the magnetic field stochasticity (controlled by the amplitude of the perturbation, $\\epsilon$); and (ii) The role of reversed shear configurations on pulse propagation. In all the cases considered there are no magnetic flux surfaces. However, radial transport is observed to depend strongly on $\\epsilon$ due to the presence of high-order magnetic islands and Cantori that act as quasi-transport barriers that preclude the radial penetration of heat pulses within physically relevant time scale. The dependence of the magnetic field connection length, $\\ell_B$, on $\\epsilon$ is studied in detail. The decay rate of the temperature maximum, $\\langle T \\rangle_{max}(t)$, the time delay of the temperature response as function of the radius, $\\tau$, and the radial heat flux $\\langle {{\\bf q}\\cdot {\\hat e}_\\psi} \\rangle$, are also studied as functions of the magnetic field stochasticity and $\\ell_B$. In all cases, the scaling of $\\langle T \\rangle_{max}$ with $t$ transitions from sub-diffusive, $\\langle T \\rangle_{max} \\sim t^{-1/4}$, at short times ($\\chi_\\parallel t 10^5$). A strong dependence on $\\epsilon$ is also observed on $\\tau$ and $\\langle {{\\bf q}\\cdot {\\hat e}_\\psi} \\rangle$. The radial propagation of pulses in fully chaotic fields considerably slows down in the shear reversal region and, as a result, $\\tau$, in reversed shear configurations is an order of magnitude longer than the one in monotonic $q$-profiles.

  1. On the Vacuum Propagation of Gravitational Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao Liu

    2007-06-05

    We show that, for any local, causal quantum field theory which couples covariantly to gravity, and which admits Minkowski spacetime vacuum(a) invariant under the inhomogeneous proper orthochronous Lorentz group, plane gravitational waves propagating in such Minkowski vacuum(a) do not dissipate energy or momentum via quantum field theoretic effects.

  2. November 2012 Wave propagation in complex media,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    of the novel multi-component marine seismic data which have recently been available for offshore exploration to seismic imaging Advisor: Prof. Roel Snieder Committee Members: Prof. Thomas Furtak Prof. Yaoguo Li Prof on September 5, 2012 #12;#12;WAVE PROPAGATION IN COMPLEX MEDIA, SCATTERING THEORY, AND APPLICATION TO SEISMIC

  3. Optical Method for Detecting Shock Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    , and in detonation and combustion research. A new optical technique is developed which is able to resolve the shock light ray and the line normal to shock front = density = time interval between light pulses - Subscripts. Similarly, in detonation and combustion research, the speed of the propagating detonation wave or flame

  4. Wave propagation in the magnetic sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Hartlep; M. S. Miesch; N. N. Mansour

    2008-05-03

    This paper reports on efforts to simulate wave propagation in the solar interior. Presented is work on extending a numerical code for constant entropy acoustic waves in the absence of magnetic fields to the case where magnetic fields are present. A set of linearized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) perturbation equations has been derived and implemented.

  5. PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hart F.

    PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH Abstract. We use a wave packet the Simons Foundation (# 266371 to Hart Smith). 1 #12;2 HART F. SMITH H¨ormander's theorem [9] on propagation

  6. General Properties and Termination Conditions for Soft Constraint Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossi, Francesca

    General Properties and Termination Conditions for Soft Constraint Propagation S. Bistarelli (bista for its termination. 1. Introduction Soft constraints allow to model faithfully many real­life problems [14], probabilistic [10] and partial [11] constraints. The constraint propagation techniques usually

  7. Identifying and Understanding Environment-Induced Crack propagation Behavior in Ni-based Superalloy INCONEL 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Longzhou

    2012-11-30

    The nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 617 is a candidate material for heat exchanger applications in the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) system. This project will study the crack propagation process of alloy 617 at temperatures of 650°C-950°C in air under static/cyclic loading conditions. The goal is to identify the environmental and mechanical damage components and to understand in-depth the failure mechanism. Researchers will measure the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate (da/dn) under cyclic and hold-time fatigue conditions, and sustained crack growth rates (da/dt) at elevated temperatures. The independent FCP process will be identified and the rate-controlled sustained loading crack process will be correlated with the thermal activation equation to estimate the oxygen thermal activation energy. The FCP-dependent model indicates that if the sustained loading crack growth rate, da/dt, can be correlated with the FCP rate, da/dn, at the full time dependent stage, researchers can confirm stress-accelerated grain-boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) as a predominate effect. Following the crack propagation tests, the research team will examine the fracture surface of materials in various cracking stages using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical microscope. In particular, the microstructure of the crack tip region will be analyzed in depth using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) mapping techniques to identify oxygen penetration along the grain boundary and to examine the diffused oxygen distribution profile around the crack tip. The cracked sample will be prepared by focused ion beam nanofabrication technology, allowing researchers to accurately fabricate the TEM samples from the crack tip while minimizing artifacts. Researchers will use these microscopic and spectroscopic results to interpret the crack propagation process, as well as distinguish and understand the environment or SAGBOE damage process under hold-time fatigue and sustained loading conditions

  8. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1996-11-26

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator includes an evacuated chamber having a gun for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam or ion beam. The beam is discharged through a beam exit in the chamber into a higher pressure region. A plasma interface is disposed at the beam exit and includes a plasma channel for bounding a plasma maintainable between a cathode and an anode disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel is coaxially aligned with the beam exit for propagating the beam from the chamber, through the plasma, and into the higher pressure region. The plasma is effective for pumping down the beam exit for preventing pressure increase in the chamber and provides magnetic focusing of the beam discharged into the higher pressure region 24. 7 figs.

  9. Light propagation in inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleury, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The standard model of cosmology is based on the hypothesis that the Universe is spatially homogeneous and isotropic. When interpreting most observations, this cosmological principle is applied stricto sensu: the light emitted by distant sources is assumed to propagate through a Friedmann-Lema\\^itre spacetime. The main goal of the present thesis was to evaluate how reliable this assumption is, especially when small scales are at stake. After having reviewed the laws of geometric optics in curved spacetime, and the standard interpretation of cosmological observables, the dissertation reports a comprehensive analysis of light propagation in Swiss-cheese models, designed to capture the clumpy character of the Universe. The resulting impact on the interpretation of the Hubble diagram is quantified, and shown to be relatively small, thanks to the cosmological constant. When applied to current supernova data, the associated corrections tend however to improve the agreement between the cosmological parameters inferre...

  10. Information Propagation in Clustered Multilayer Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In today's world, individuals interact with each other in more complicated patterns than ever. Some individuals engage through online social networks (e.g., Facebook, Twitter), while some communicate only through conventional ways (e.g., face-to-face). Therefore, understanding the dynamics of information propagation among humans calls for a multi-layer network model where an online social network is conjoined with a physical network. In this work, we initiate a study of information diffusion in a clustered multi-layer network model, where all constituent layers are random networks with high clustering. We assume that information propagates according to the SIR model and with different information transmissibility across the networks. We give results for the conditions, probability, and size of information epidemics, i.e., cases where information starts from a single individual and reaches a positive fraction of the population. We show that increasing the level of clustering in either one of the layers increas...

  11. Quark Propagator and Chiral Symmetry with String Tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anishetty, R; Anishetty, Ramesh; Kudtarkar, Santosh Kumar

    2003-01-01

    General properties of the light and heavy quark propagators have been investigated in the context of string tension interaction. Confinement, chiral symmetry breaking, spectral properties of the propagator are analytically studied and numerically validated. We show that the propagator is analytic in the infrared region even for massless quarks with a non zero radius of convergence. Emergence of more than one mass scale is exemplified. Massless limit of the quark propagator does exhibit critical behaviour.

  12. Pulse Areas in Multi-Soliton Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elizabeth Groves; B. D. Clader; J. H. Eberly

    2008-11-12

    The prospect of self-consistent propagation of more than two pulses contemporaneously through multi-resonant media raises open questions: whether soliton solutions exist, and whether a useful generalization of two-level pulse Area can be found. We answer these questions positively for the case of four pulses interacting in combined V and Lambda fashion with an idealized pair of atomic D-lines.

  13. Western-UGP Transmission and Ancillary Services Rates Customer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Updated December 16, 2014, with changes noted in the following sections: Proposed Formula Rate for Scheduling, System Control and Dispatch Service, Proposed Rate for...

  14. Handwritten Digit Recognition with a Back-Propagation Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Gary B.

    Handwritten Digit Recognition with a Back-Propagation Network Y. Le Cun, B. Boser, J. S. Denker, D We present an application of back-propagation networks to hand- written digit recognition. Minimal. 1 INTRODUCTION The main point of this paper is to show that large back-propagation (BP) net- works

  15. Handwritten Digit Recognition with a BackPropagation Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeCun, Yann

    Handwritten Digit Recognition with a Back­Propagation Network Y. Le Cun, B. Boser, J. S. Denker, D We present an application of back­propagation networks to hand­ written digit recognition. Minimal. 1 INTRODUCTION The main point of this paper is to show that large back­propagation (BP) net­ works

  16. Radio Wave Propagation in Potato Fields John Thelen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Radio Wave Propagation in Potato Fields John Thelen Wageningen University Email: John has an important effect on the propagation of radio waves. The influence of the growth stage from 23 m to 10 m. Another important result is that radio waves propagate better in conditions

  17. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  18. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY)

    1996-11-26

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator 14,14b includes an evacuated chamber 16a,b having a gun 18,18b for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam 12 or ion beam 12b. The beam 12,12b is discharged through a beam exit 22 in the chamber 16a,b into a higher pressure region 24. A plasma interface 34 is disposed at the beam exit 22 and includes a plasma channel 38 for bounding a plasma 40 maintainable between a cathode 42 and an anode 44 disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel 38 is coaxially aligned with the beam exit 22 for propagating the beam 12,12b from the chamber 16a,b, through the plasma 40, and into the higher pressure region 24. The plasma 40 is effective for pumping down the beam exit 22 for preventing pressure increase in the chamber 16a,b, and provides magnetic focusing of the beam 12,12b discharged into the higher pressure region 24.

  19. Nonlinear Biochemical Signal Processing via Noise Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyung Hyuk Kim; Hong Qian; Herbert M. Sauro

    2013-09-10

    Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced bimodality. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.

  20. Neutrino emission in the jet propagation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, D.; Dai, Z. G.

    2014-07-20

    Relativistic jets are universal in long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) models. Before breaking out, they must propagate in the progenitor envelope along with a forward shock and a reverse shock forming at the jet head. Both electrons and protons will be accelerated by the shocks. High-energy neutrinos could be produced by these protons interacting with stellar materials and electron-radiating photons. The jet will probably be collimated, which may have a strong effect on the final neutrino flux. Under the assumption of a power-law stellar-envelope density profile ??r {sup –?} with index ?, we calculate the neutrino emission flux by these shocks for low-luminosity GRBs (LL-GRBs) and ultra-long GRBs (UL-GRBs) in different collimation regimes, using the jet propagation framework developed by Bromberg et al. We find that LL-GRBs and UL-GRBs are capable of producing detectable high-energy neutrinos up to ?PeV, from which the final neutrino spectrum can be obtained. Further, we conclude that a larger ? corresponds to greater neutrino flux at the high-energy end (?PeV) and to higher maximum neutrino energy as well. However, such differences are so small that it is not promising for us to be able to distinguish these in observations, given the energy resolution we have now.

  1. Corner defects in almost planar interface propagation Defauts faibles en propagation d'interfaces planes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheel, Arnd

    fronts in solid and gaseous combustion have stimulated a variety of different approaches to interface on the interface, to seemingly chaotic motion of the interface. In a slightly different context, front and pulse-Zhabotinsky reaction. Propagation and reflective or annihilation collision of 2-dimensional pulse trains has also been

  2. Stimulated Raman scattering of laser in a plasma in the presence of a co-propagating electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parashar, J. [Department of Physics, Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh 464001 (India)] [Department of Physics, Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh 464001 (India)

    2013-12-15

    A relativistic electron beam co-propagating with a high power laser in plasma is shown to add to the growth of the stimulated Raman back scattering of the laser. The growth rate is sensitive to phase matching of electron beam with the plasma wave. In the case of phase mismatch, the growth rate drops by an order. The energy spread of the electron beam significantly reduces the effectiveness of the beam on the stimulated Raman process.

  3. FRN and Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  4. FRN & Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doing Business Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-16 Rate Case OS-14 Rate Case FRN...

  5. Plasma control by modification of helicon wave propagation in low magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lafleur, T.; Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    By making use of nonuniform magnetic fields, it is shown experimentally that control of helicon wave propagation can be achieved in a low pressure (0.08 Pa) expanding plasma. The m=1 helicon waves are formed during a direct capacitive to wave mode transition that occurs in a low diverging magnetic field (B{sub 0}<3 mT). In this initial configuration, waves are prevented from reaching the downstream region, but slight modifications to the magnetic field allows the axial distance over which waves can propagate to be controlled. By changing the effective propagation distance in this way, significant modification of the density and plasma potential profiles can be achieved, showing that the rf power deposition can be spatially controlled as well. Critical to the modification of the wave propagation behavior is the magnetic field strength (and geometry) near the exit of the plasma source region, which gives electron cyclotron frequencies close to the wave frequency of 13.56 MHz.

  6. Commitment Institutional Change Principle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commitment can be a crucial element that helps federal agencies inject and emphasize sustainability in their organizational culture. Institutions and people change when they have made definite commitments to change, especially when those commitments relate to future conditions. Research shows that explicit commitments improve the rate at which people adopt energy-efficient behaviors.

  7. Electromagnetic Nature of Thermo-Mechanical Mass-Energy Transfer Due to Photon Diffusive Re-Emission and Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    (parabolic differential equation), allowing infinite speed of thermal energy propagation (i.e., a change mass-energy equivalence with `thermon' quasi-particle leading to inertia of heat transfer. Thermal research and applications, related to the conclusions deduced and open questions posed. www.kostic.niu.edu/Nature_of_Thermal_and_Mechanical_Energy

  8. Distributed Computation of Wave Propagation Models Using PVM R. E. Ewing D. Mitchum and P. O'Leary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    will be the acoustic and elastic wave equations. The acoustic wave equation is used to simulate pres­ sure changes the propagation of seismic waves in the earth. The equations used to model seismic wave propaga­ tion and the elastic wave equation is used to simulate particle displacement. We present results for large­scale two

  9. The Propagation of Photons in the Dilute Ionized Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yijia Zheng

    2013-05-02

    The dilute ionized gas is very popular in the Universe. Usually only the Compton interactions, the "Sunyaev-Zel'dovich" effect, were considered while photons propagated in this medium. In this paper the "soft-photon process" is considered. Due to the soft photons emitted during the propagation of a photon in the dilute ionized gas, the main photon (propagating in the original direction) will be redshifted. The formula to calculate this redshift is derived.

  10. Estimating Failure Propagation in Models of Cascading Blackouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Nkei, Bertrand [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska

    2005-09-01

    We compare and test statistical estimates of failure propagation in data from versions of a probabilistic model of loading-dependent cascading failure and a power systems blackout model of cascading transmission line overloads. The comparisons suggest mechanisms affecting failure propagation and are an initial step towards monitoring failure propagation from practical system data. Approximations to the probabilistic model describe the forms of probability distributions of cascade sizes.

  11. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation through coupled elastic-acoustic media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-order discontinuous...

  12. Modeling broadband poroelastic propagation using an asymptotic approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasco, Donald W.

    2010-01-01

    propagation, the frequency dependence of a disturbance in alower frequencies the scale length of the disturbance willthe frequency dependence of an elas- tic disturbance (109)

  13. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  14. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  15. Mode propagation and attenuation in lined ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BI, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Optimal impedance for each mode is an important concept in an infinitely long duct lined with uniform absorption material. However it is not valid for finite length linings. This is because that the modes in lined ducts are not power-orthogonal; the total sound power is not equal to the sum of the sound power of each mode; cross-power terms may play important roles. In this paper, we study sound propagation and attenuation in an infinite rigid duct lined with a finite length of lining impedance. The lining impedance may be axial segments and circumferentially non-uniform. We propose two new physical quantities Kp and S to describe the self-overlap of the left eigenfunction and right eigenfunction of one mode and the normalized overlap between modes, respectively. The two new physical quantities describe totally the mode behaviors in lined ducts.

  16. Pulse propagation in a hyper-lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph W. Dickey

    2009-07-21

    The classical dynamics and pulse propagation are presented for a series of lattice-like structures whose spatial dimensionality ranges from one to four: four representing a hyper lattice. The lattices are connected one-dimensional wave bearing systems of varying lengths and can illuminate some aspects of higher dimension structures. Short pulses are launched at an arbitrary point, reverberate throughout the entire structure, and detected at another point. Some aspects of increasing dimensionality are illustrated with particular emphasis on the transition from three to four spatial dimensions. In a hypothetical four dimension world where only three are observable, the classical conservation laws and causality do not hold. The lack of causality is illustrated at each step in dimensionality by showing the unexpected pulse returns from the next higher dimension.

  17. Epidemic Propagation In Overlaid Wireless Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanmaz, Evsen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Witb tbe emergence of computer worms tbat can spread over air interfaces, wireless ad boc and sensor networks can be vulnerable to node compromises even if the deployed network is not connected to the backbone. Depending on the physical topology of the wireless network, even a single infected node can compromise the whole network. In this work, epidemic (e.g., worm) propagation in a static wireless network is studied, where a number of inCected mobile nodes are injected over the existing network. It is shown that the epidemic spread threshold and size depend on the physical topology of the underlying static wireless network as well as the mobility model employed by the infected mobile nodes. More specifically, results show that in a Cully-connected static wirelessnctwork targeted attacks are more effective, wbereas Cor a random topology random attacks can be sufficient to compromise the whole network.

  18. The Landau gauge gluon propagator at zero and finite temperature: accounting for the combined finite lattice spacing and finite volume effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Oliveira; P. J. Silva

    2012-10-30

    In the past years a good comprehension of the infrared gluon propagator has been achieved, with a good qualitative agreement between lattice results and Dyson-Schwinger equations. However, lattice simulations have been performed at physical volumes which are close to 20 fm but using a large lattice spacing. The interplay between volume effects and lattice spacing effects has not been investigated. Here we aim to fill this gap and address how the two effects change the gluon propagator in the infrared region. Furthermore, we provide infinite volume extrapolations which take into account the finite volume and finite lattice spacing. We also report on preliminary results for the gluon propagator at finite temperature.

  19. Propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum magnetized collisional plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R.; Taheri Boroujeni, S.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M.

    2013-12-15

    The propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum plasma in the presence of the external magnetic field and collisional effects is investigated by using quantum magnetohydrodynamics model. A general analytical expression for the dispersion relation of surface waves is obtained by considering the boundary conditions. It is shown that, in some special cases, the obtained dispersion relation reduces to the results reported in previous works. It is also indicated that the quantum, external magnetic field and collisional effects can facilitate the propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded plasma. In addition, it is found that the growth rate of the surface wave instability is enhanced by increasing the collision frequency and plasmonic parameter.

  20. Variational Structure of Inverse Problems in Wave Propagation and Vibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Variational Structure of Inverse Problems in Wave Propagation and Vibration James G. Berryman in wave propagation (traveltime tomography) and two examples in vibration (the plucked string and free.'' For vibrating systems, the apparently very complex behavior of an excited string, drumhead, or the Earth can

  1. ON THE PROPAGATION PROPERTIES OF SURFACE V. JAK SI '

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the radio waves around the earth surface. These are the electromagnetic waves that propagate alongON THE PROPAGATION PROPERTIES OF SURFACE WAVES V. JAK Ÿ SI ' C \\Lambda , S. MOLCHANOV y AND L. PASTUR z 1. Introduction. Surface waves were discovered by Rayleigh at the end of the last century [1

  2. DIRECTIONAL PROPAGATION CANCELLATION FOR ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION ALONG THE DRILL STRING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIRECTIONAL PROPAGATION CANCELLATION FOR ACOUSTIC COMMUNICATION ALONG THE DRILL STRING Sinan along the drill string to the surface. Normal drilling operations produce in-band acoustic noise at intensities comparable to the transducer output while lossy propagation through the drill string and surface

  3. Gravity waves excited by jets: Propagation versus generation R. Plougonven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plougonven, Riwal

    Gravity waves excited by jets: Propagation versus generation R. Plougonven School of Mathematics imposed by the generation mechanism. In proceeding so, effects due to the propagation of the waves through in consequence that the gravity waves are generated in the jet-exit region. [4] To date, such arguments have

  4. Computer Virus Propagation Models Giuseppe Serazzi and Stefano Zanero

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zanero, Stefano

    Computer Virus Propagation Models Giuseppe Serazzi and Stefano Zanero Dipartimento di Elettronica e.zanero@polimi.it Abstract. The availability of reliable models of computer virus propa- gation would prove useful. In this pa- per, we review the most popular models of virus propagation, analyzing the underlying assumptions

  5. Clonal Propagation of Eucalyptus by Cuttings in France1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clonal Propagation of Eucalyptus by Cuttings in France1 H. Chaperone2 Genus Eucalyptus is so broad with Eucalyptus but also with other species. The advantage of the propagation by cuttings depends, for Eucalyptus on Eucalyptus in California, June 14-16, 1983, Sacramento, California. 2Director of Association Forêt Cellulose

  6. COURSE SYLLABUS ECE 5010 Wireless Propagation and Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of electromagnetic wave propagation in the troposphere and ionosphere, and also investigate the fundamentals are prepared for the remaining subjects. All students should be familiar with basic electromagnetic theory, Introduction to Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Artech House, 1991 Elachi and Van Zyl, Introduction

  7. Quantum Computers: Noise Propagation and Adversarial Noise Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalai, Gil

    Quantum Computers: Noise Propagation and Adversarial Noise Models Gil Kalai Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Yale University April 21, 2009 Abstract In this paper we consider adversarial noise models." Detrimental noise is modeled after familiar properties of noise propagation. However, it can have various

  8. On the uniqueness of loopy belief propagation fixed points

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heskes, Tom

    those for convexity of the Bethe free energy. We compare them with (a strength­ ened version of algorithms as well as for other approximate free energies. 1 Introduction Loopy belief propagation is Pearl belief propagation correspond to extrema of the so­called Bethe free energy (Yedidia, 1 #12; Freeman

  9. Apparent superluminal behavior in wave propagation A. D. Jackson,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautrup, Benny

    of energy propagation, Sommerfeld and Brillouin understand- ably found the question of superluminal the efforts of Sommerfeld and Brillouin would seem to have settled the issue of true super- luminal propagation definitively, the situation is somewhat more subtle. Their work conclusively demonstrated

  10. Acoustic wave propagation in two-phase heterogeneous porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Osypik; N. I. Pushkina; Ya. M. Zhileikin

    2015-03-19

    The propagation of an acoustic wave through two-phase porous media with spatial variation in porosity is studied. The evolutionary wave equation is derived, and the propagation of an acoustic wave is numerically analyzed in application to marine sediments with various physical parameters.

  11. User's guide for ALEX: uncertainty propagation from raw data to final results for ORELA transmission measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, N.M.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes a computer code (ALEX) developed to assist in AnaLysis of EXperimental data at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Reduction of data from raw numbers (counts per channel) to physically meaningful quantities (such as cross sections) is in itself a complicated procedure; propagation of experimental uncertainties through that reduction procedure has in the past been viewed as even more difficult - if not impossible. The purpose of the code ALEX is to correctly propagate all experimental uncertainties through the entire reduction procedure, yielding the complete covariance matrix for the reduced data, while requiring little additional input from the eperimentalist beyond that which is required for the data reduction itself. This report describes ALEX in detail, with special attention given to the case of transmission measurements (the code itself is applicable, with few changes, to any type of data). Application to the natural iron measurements of D.C. Larson et al. is described in some detail.

  12. Mechanical Surface Waves Accompany Action Potential Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed El Hady; Benjamin B. Machta

    2014-10-05

    Many studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane accompanies the electrical pulse defining the Action Potential (AP). Despite a large and diverse body of experimental evidence, there is no theoretical consensus either for the physical basis of this mechanical wave nor its interdependence with the electrical signal. In this manuscript we present a model for these mechanical displacements as arising from the driving of surface wave modes in which potential energy is stored in elastic properties of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is carried by the axoplasmic fluid. In our model these surface waves are driven by the traveling wave of electrical depolarization that characterizes the AP, altering the compressive electrostatic forces across the membrane as it passes. This driving leads to co-propagating mechanical displacements, which we term Action Waves (AWs). Our model for these AWs allows us to predict, in terms of elastic constants, axon radius and axoplasmic density and viscosity, the shape of the AW that should accompany any traveling wave of voltage, including the AP predicted by the Hodgkin and Huxley (HH) equations. We show that our model makes predictions that are in agreement with results in experimental systems including the garfish olfactory nerve and the squid giant axon. We expect our model to serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs in neurobiology.

  13. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  14. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    points established by contract, in accordance with approved policies and procedures. Formula Rate: The formula rate for CPP includes three components: Component 1: The customer...

  15. The effects of calcitic and dolomitic limestone rates and particle sizes on soil chemical changes, plant nutrient concentration, and yields of corn and Coastal bermudagrass on two acid Texas soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haby, Vincent A

    1969-01-01

    significantly increased Ca to 18 inches, while only the 6-ton/acre rate of fine dolomitic lime- stone increased Ca into the same depth. All dolomitic treatments increased Mg to 18-inch depths. Sampling deeper than 18 inches in the 6 ton/acre dolomitic fine... formed soluble salts with the NO and were leached down as Ca(ND ) Limestone treatments did not produce significant increases in yield of corn or Coastal bermudagrass. The no-lime plots produced 70 bushels of corn and 9. 2 tons of oven-dry Coastal...

  16. The Influence of Spatial Discreteness on the Thermo-Diffusive Instability of Flame Propagation with Infinite Lewis Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, XiaoCheng; Goroshin, Samuel; Bergthorson, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of flame propagation in systems with infinite Lewis number and spatially discretized sources of heat release is examined, which is applicable to the combustion of suspensions of fuel particles in air. The system is analyzed numerically using a one-dimensional heat equation with a source term for the reaction progress variable, which is specified to have zero diffusivity, and the model reveals a spectrum of flame-propagation regimes. For the case of a switch-type reaction rate and homogeneous media (continuous regime), the flame propagates steadily at a velocity in agreement with analytical solutions. As the sources are spatially concentrated into {\\delta}-function-like sources, propagation approaches the discrete regime with a fixed period between ignition of the sources, for which an analytic solution is also available for validation. When the source term is governed by an Arrhenius rate and the activation energy is increased beyond the stability boundary, the flame begins to exhibit a long-wave...

  17. Stimulated Raman scattering of beat wave of two counter-propagating X-mode lasers in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Kanika; Sajal, Vivek Varshney, Prateek; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K.

    2014-02-15

    Effects of transverse static magnetic field on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of the beat wave excited by two counter-propagating lasers are studied. Two counter-propagating lasers with frequency difference, ?{sub 1}??{sub 2}?2?{sub p}, drive a non resonant space charge beat mode at wave number k{sup ?}{sub 0}?k{sup ?}{sub 1}+k{sup ?}{sub 2} in a plasma, where k{sup ?}{sub 1} and k{sup ?}{sub 2} are wave vectors of lasers having frequencies ?{sub 1} and ?{sub 2}, respectively. The driven beat wave acts as a pump for SRS and excites parametrically a pair of plasma wave (?,k{sup ?}) and side band electromagnetic wave (?{sub 3},k{sup ?}{sub 3}) propagating in the sideward direction in such a way that momentum remains conserved. The growth rate of Raman process is maximum for side scattering at ?{sub s}=?/2 for lower values of applied magnetic field (?1?kG), which can be three fold by applying magnetic field ?5.0?kG. Thus, optimum value of magnetic field can be utilized to achieve maximum electron acceleration in counter propagating geometry of beat wave acceleration by reducing the growth rate of Raman process.

  18. Photon propagation in noncommutative QED with constant external field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Fresneda; D. M. Gitman; A. E. Shabad

    2015-01-20

    We find dispersion laws for the photon propagating in the presence of mutually orthogonal constant external electric and magnetic fields in the context of the $\\theta $-expanded noncommutative QED. We show that there is no birefringence to the first order in the noncommutativity parameter $% \\theta .$ By analyzing the group velocities of the photon eigenmodes we show that there occurs superluminal propagation for any direction. This phenomenon depends on the mutual orientation of the external electromagnetic fields and the noncommutativity vector. We argue that the propagation of signals with superluminal group velocity violates causality in spite of the fact that the noncommutative theory is not Lorentz-invariant and speculate about possible workarounds.

  19. Ocean acoustic wave propagation and ray method correspondence: Internal wave fine structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomsovic, Steve

    Ocean acoustic wave propagation and ray method correspondence: Internal wave fine structure 2004 Acoustic wave fields propagating long ranges through the ocean are refracted As acoustic waves propagate long ranges through the deep ocean, they are refracted by inhomogeneities

  20. Initiation propagation and termination of elastodynamic ruptures associated with segmentation of faults and shaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bruce E.

    Initiation propagation and termination of elastodynamic ruptures associated with segmentation the initiation, propagation, and termination of ruptures and their relationship to fault geometry and shaking of terminations near fault ends; and persistent propagation directivity effects. Taking advantage of long

  1. Material contrast does not predict earthquake rupture propagation Ruth A. Harris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Steven M.

    Material contrast does not predict earthquake rupture propagation direction Ruth A. Harris U) earthquake rupture propagation direction can be predicted from the material contrast, and 2) earthquake (2005), Material contrast does not predict earthquake rupture propagation direction, Geophys. Res. Lett

  2. Propagating and reflecting of spin wave in permalloy nanostrip with 360° domain wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Senfu; Mu, Congpu; Zhu, Qiyuan; Zheng, Qi; Liu, Xianyin; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2014-01-07

    By micromagnetic simulation, we investigated the interaction between propagating spin wave (or magnonic) and a 360° domain wall in a nanostrip. It is found that propagating spin wave can drive a 360° domain wall motion, and the velocity and direction are closely related to the transmission coefficient of the spin wave of the domain wall. When the spin wave passes through the domain wall completely, the 360° domain wall moves toward the spin wave source. When the spin wave is reflected by the domain wall, the 360° domain wall moves along the spin wave propagation direction. Moreover, when the frequency of the spin wave is coincident with that of the 360° domain wall normal mode, the 360° domain wall velocity will be resonantly enhanced no matter which direction the 360 DW moves along. On the other hand, when the spin wave is reflected from the moving 360° domain wall, we observed the Doppler effect clearly. After passing through a 360° domain wall, the phase of the spin wave is changed, and the phase shift is related to the frequency. Nevertheless, phase shift could be manipulated by the number of 360° domain walls that spin wave passing through.

  3. Climate Change and Conceptual Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, David Joseph

    2013-01-01

    1.1.2 The Stark Reality of Climate Change . . . . . . . .1.2 Climate Change as a BehavioralEducation for Climate Change . . . . 1.4.1 The Numerically

  4. LARGE-SCALE CORONAL PROPAGATING FRONTS IN SOLAR ERUPTIONS AS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LARGE-SCALE CORONAL PROPAGATING FRONTS IN SOLAR ERUPTIONS AS OBSERVED BY THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY-AN ENSEMBLE STUDY Re-direct...

  5. Modelling the Propagation of Forward and Opposed Smouldering Combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo; Torero, Jose L; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos

    A computational study has been carried out to investigate smouldering ignition and propagation in polyurethane foam. The one-dimensional, transient, governing equations for smouldering combustion in a porous fuel are ...

  6. Inter-sensor propagation delay estimation using sources of opportunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Rémy; Michel, Olivier; Lacoume, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Propagation delays are intensively used for Structural Health Monitoring or Sensor Network Localization. In this paper, we study the performances of acoustic propagation delay estimation between two sensors, using sources of opportunity only. Such sources are defined as being uncontrolled by the user (activation time, location, spectral content in time and space), thus preventing the direct estimation with classical active approaches, such as TDOA, RSSI and AOA. Observation models are extended from the literature to account for the spectral characteristics of the sources in this passive context and we show how time-filtered sources of opportunity impact the retrieval of the propagation delay between two sensors. A geometrical analogy is then proposed that leads to a lower bound on the variance of the propagation delay estimation that accounts for both the temporal and the spatial properties of the sources field.

  7. X-Ray Propagation in Tapered Waveguides: Simulation and Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    [1,2]. X-ray waveguides (WG) have been designed and fabricated as planar layered systems (1D-WG) [3. The propagation in the stuctures is studied by numerical solution of the parabolic wave equation (PWE), as used

  8. Acoustical wave propagation in buried water filled pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondis, Antonios, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a comprehensive way of dealing with the problem of acoustical wave propagation in cylindrically layered media with a specific application in water-filled underground pipes. The problem is studied in ...

  9. Modeling of crack initiation, propagation and coalescence in rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonçalves da Silva, Bruno Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Natural or artificial fracturing of rock plays a very important role in geologic processes and for engineered structures in and on rock. Fracturing is associated with crack initiation, propagation and coalescence, which ...

  10. Femto-photography: capturing and visualizing the propagation of light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velten, Andreas

    We present femto-photography, a novel imaging technique to capture and visualize the propagation of light. With an effective exposure time of 1.85 picoseconds (ps) per frame, we reconstruct movies of ultrafast events at ...

  11. Elastic wave propagation in an irregularly layered medium Rossana Vaia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komatitsch, Dimitri

    Sismologie (URA 195), Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 -Paris Cedex 05, France by basin-induced surface waves (Kawase [1]). Analytical solutions of elastic wave propagation problems

  12. Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-06-07

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

  13. Special generalized densities and propagators: a geometric account

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Canarutto

    2015-09-03

    Starting from a short review of spaces of generalized sections of vector bundles, we give a concise systematic description, in precise geometric terms, of Leray densities, principal value densities, propagators and elementary solutions of field equations in flat spacetime. We then sketch a partly original geometric presentation of free quantum fields and show how propagators arise from their graded commutators in the boson and fermion cases.

  14. Circular polarization of obliquely propagating whistler wave magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellan, P. M.

    2013-08-15

    The circular polarization of the magnetic field of obliquely propagating whistler waves is derived using a basis set associated with the wave partial differential equation. The wave energy is mainly magnetic and the wave propagation consists of this magnetic energy sloshing back and forth between two orthogonal components of magnetic field in quadrature. The wave electric field energy is small compared to the magnetic field energy.

  15. Excitation and propagation of electromagnetic fluctuations with ion-cyclotron range of frequency in magnetic reconnection laboratory experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inomoto, Michiaki; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasushi [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Kuwahata, Akihiro [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Collaboration: TS Group

    2013-06-15

    Large-amplitude electromagnetic fluctuations of ion-cyclotron-frequency range are detected in a laboratory experiment inside the diffusion region of a magnetic reconnection with a guide field. The fluctuations have properties similar to kinetic Alfvén waves propagating obliquely to the guide field. Temporary enhancement of the reconnection rate is observed during the occurrence of the fluctuations, suggesting a relationship between the modification in the local magnetic structure given by these fluctuations and the intermittent fast magnetic reconnection.

  16. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  17. Lesson 22 Related Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-10-11

    Oct 11, 2013 ... A spherical weather balloon is being inflated with helium at a rate of 82 cubic meters per minute. Find the rate at which its radius is increasing.

  18. Naughton's related rates problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dominic

    2013-02-25

    Related rates (1). (1) Oil spills from a rupture container in a circular pattern whose radius increases at a rate of 2 ft/s. How fast is the area of the oil spill increasing ...

  19. Fourier Analysis of Sawtooth Heat Pulse Propagation and Comparison with Other Methods Using JET Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fourier Analysis of Sawtooth Heat Pulse Propagation and Comparison with Other Methods Using JET Data

  20. An Empirical Study of Learning Speed in BackPropagation Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlman, Scott E.

    the basic ideas of connectionism or back­propagation learning. See [3] for a brief overview of this areaAn Empirical Study of Learning Speed in Back­Propagation Networks Scott E. Fahlman September 1988 of the back­propagation algorithm. However, back­propagation learning is too slow for many applications

  1. Thermoacoustic wave propagation modeling using a dynamically adaptive wavelet collocation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilyev, O.V.; Paolucci, S.

    1996-12-31

    When a localized region of a solid wall surrounding a compressible medium is subjected to a sudden temperature change, the medium in the immediate neighborhood of that region expands. This expansion generates pressure waves. These thermally-generated waves are referred to as thermoacoustic (TAC) waves. The main interest in thermoacoustic waves is motivated by their property to enhance heat transfer by inducing convective motion away from the heated area. Thermoacoustic wave propagation in a two-dimensional rectangular cavity is studied numerically. The thermoacoustic waves are generated by raising the temperature locally at the walls. The waves, which decay at large time due to thermal and viscous diffusion, propagate and reflect from the walls creating complicated two-dimensional patterns. The accuracy of numerical simulation is ensured by using a highly accurate, dynamically adaptive, multilevel wavelet collocation method, which allows local refinements to adapt to local changes in solution scales. Subsequently, high resolution computations are performed only in regions of large gradients. The computational cost of the method is independent of the dimensionality of the problem and is O(N), where N is the total number of collation points.

  2. Topographic Effects on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates from Radiocesium Fallout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Land topography can affect air radiation dose rates by locating radiation sources closer to, or further, from detector locations when compared to perfectly flat terrain. Hills and slopes can also shield against the propagation of gamma rays. To understand the possible magnitude of topographic effects on air dose rates, this study presents calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates at a range of heights above the ground for varying land topographies. The geometries considered were angled ground at the intersection of two planar surfaces, which is a model for slopes neighboring flat land, and a simple conical geometry, representing settings from hilltops to valley bottoms. In each case the radiation source was radioactive cesium fallout, and the slope angle was varied systematically to determine the effect of topography on the air dose rate. Under the assumption of homogeneous fallout across the land surface, and for these geometries and detector locations, the dose rates at high altitudes are more strongly...

  3. Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitzman, Jerry; Lieuwen, Timothy

    2014-09-30

    This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These results provide evidence that the leading points model can provide useful predictions of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of operating conditions and flow geometries.

  4. A Study of Detonation Propagation and Diffraction with Compliant Confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, J; Schwendeman, D; Kapila, A; Henshaw, W

    2007-08-13

    A previous computational study of diffracting detonations with the ignition-and-growth model demonstrated that contrary to experimental observations, the computed solution did not exhibit dead zones. For a rigidly confined explosive it was found that while diffraction past a sharp corner did lead to a temporary separation of the lead shock from the reaction zone, the detonation re-established itself in due course and no pockets of unreacted material were left behind. The present investigation continues to focus on the potential for detonation failure within the ignition-and-growth (IG) model, but now for a compliant confinement of the explosive. The aim of the present paper is two fold. First, in order to compute solutions of the governing equations for multi-material reactive flow, a numerical method of solution is developed and discussed. The method is a Godunov-type, fractional-step scheme which incorporates an energy correction to suppress numerical oscillations that would occur near the material interface separating the reactive material and the inert confiner for standard conservative schemes. The numerical method uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on overlapping grids, and the accuracy of solutions is well tested using a two-dimensional rate-stick problem for both strong and weak inert confinements. The second aim of the paper is to extend the previous computational study of the IG model by considering two related problems. In the first problem, the corner-turning configuration is re-examined, and it is shown that in the matter of detonation failure, the absence of rigid confinement does not affect the outcome in a material way; sustained dead zones continue to elude the model. In the second problem, detonations propagating down a compliantly confined pencil-shaped configuration are computed for a variety of cone angles of the tapered section. It is found, in accord with experimental observation, that if the cone angle is small enough, the detonation fails prior to reaching the cone tip. For both the corner-turning and the pencil-shaped configurations, mechanisms underlying the behavior of the computed solutions are identified. It is concluded that disagreement between computation and experiment in the corner-turning case lies in the absence, in the model, of a mechanism that allows the explosive to undergo desensitization when subjected to a weak shock.

  5. Nonlinear propagation and control of acoustic waves in phononic superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiménez, Noé; Picó, Rubén; García-Raffi, Lluís M; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of intense acoustic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal is studied. The medium consists in a structured fluid, formed by a periodic array of fluid layers with alternating linear acoustic properties and quadratic nonlinearity coefficient. The spacing between layers is of the order of the wavelength, therefore Bragg effects such as band-gaps appear. We show that the interplay between strong dispersion and nonlinearity leads to new scenarios of wave propagation. The classical waveform distortion process typical of intense acoustic waves in homogeneous media can be strongly altered when nonlinearly generated harmonics lie inside or close to band gaps. This allows the possibility of engineer a medium in order to get a particular waveform. Examples of this include the design of media with effective (e.g. cubic) nonlinearities, or extremely linear media (where distortion can be cancelled). The presented ideas open a way towards the control of acoustic wave propagation in nonlinear regime.

  6. Relativistic conformal symmetry of neural field propagation in the brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan M. Romero; Carlos Trenado; Berenice Aguilar; Miriam Tirradentro

    2013-08-25

    In this paper, we address a neural field equation that characterizes spatio-temporal propagation of a neural population pulse. Due that the human brain is a complex system whose constituents interaction give rise to fundamental states of consciousness and behavior, it is crucial to gain insight into its functioning even at relativistic scales. To this end, we study the action of the relativistic conformal group on the accounted neural field propagation equation. In particular, we obtain an exact solution for the field propagation equation when the space-time is 3 or 4 dimensional. Furthermore, in the 4 dimensional case and the large distance limit, it is shown that the neural population pulse becomes a Yukawa potential.

  7. Positron Propagation and Fluxes from Neutralino Annihilation in the Halo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward A. Baltz; Joakim Edsjo

    1998-08-21

    Supersymmetric neutralinos are one of the most promising candidates for the dark matter in the Universe. If they exist, they should make up some fraction of the Milky Way halo. We investigate the fluxes of positrons expected at the Earth from neutralino annihilation in the halo. Positron propagation is treated in a diffusion model including energy loss. The positron source function includes contributions from both continuum and monochromatic positrons. We find that, for a "canonical" halo model and propagation parameters, the fluxes are generally too low to be visible. Given the large uncertainties in both propagation and halo structure, it is however possible to obtain observable fluxes. We also investigate the shapes of the positron spectra, including fits to a feature indicated by the results of the HEAT experiment.

  8. Propagation of High Frequency Waves in the Quiet Solar Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksandra Andi?

    2008-10-13

    High-frequency waves (5 mHz to 20mHz) have previously been suggested as a source of energy accounting partial heating of the quiet solar atmosphere. The dynamics of previously detected high-frequency waves is analysed here. Image sequences are taken using the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Observatorio del Teide, Izana, Tenerife, with a Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The data were speckle reduced and analyzed with wavelets. Wavelet phase-difference analysis is performed to determine whether the waves propagate. We observe the propagation of waves in the frequency range 10mHz to 13mHz. We also observe propagation of low-frequency waves in the ranges where they are thought to be evanescent in regions where magnetic structures are present.

  9. How much laser power can propagate through fusion plasma?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel M. Lushnikov; Harvey A. Rose

    2006-03-28

    Propagation of intense laser beams is crucial for inertial confinement fusion, which requires precise beam control to achieve the compression and heating necessary to ignite the fusion reaction. The National Ignition Facility (NIF), where fusion will be attempted, is now under construction. Control of intense beam propagation may be ruined by laser beam self-focusing. We have identified the maximum laser beam power that can propagate through fusion plasma without significant self-focusing and have found excellent agreement with recent experimental data, and suggest a way to increase that maximum by appropriate choice of plasma composition with implication for NIF designs. Our theory also leads to the prediction of anti-correlation between beam spray and backscatter and suggests the indirect control of backscatter through manipulation of plasma ionization state or acoustic damping.

  10. Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued longitudinal wavenumber $k$ at given real angular frequencies $\\omega$. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of $\\omega_{\\rm c}$, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for $\\omega$ much lower than $\\omega_{\\rm c}$. However, while able to direct their energy upwards, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping ...

  11. Reply to comment by T. Kikuchi and T. Araki on ``Propagation of the preliminary reverse impulse of sudden commencements to low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    , represents the arrival of wave energy coming from all possible propagation paths. In the MHD waves model wave energy varies more significantly as the location of ground station changes, and therefore Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, California, USA. 5 Space Science Laboratory, University

  12. Propagation velocities of gas rings in collisional ring galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. I. Vorobyov; D. Bizyaev

    2003-01-27

    The propagation velocity of the first gas ring in collisional ring galaxies, i.e. the velocity at which the maximum in the radial gas density profile propagates radially in the galactic disk, is usually inferred from the radial expansion velocity of gas in the first ring. Our numerical hydrodynamics modeling of ring galaxy formation however shows that the maximum radial expansion velocity of gas in the first ring ($v_{gas}$) is invariably below the propagation velocity of the first gas ring itself ($v_{ring}$). Modeling of the Cartwheel galaxy indicates that the outer ring is currently propagating at $v_{ring} \\approx$ 100 km/s, while the maximum radial expansion velocity of gas in the outer ring is currently $v_{gas} \\approx$ 65 km/s. Modeling of the radial B-V/V-K color gradients of the Cartwheel ring galaxy also indicates that the outer ring is propagating at $v_{ring} \\ge $ 90 km/s. We show that a combined effect of inclination, finite thickness, and warping of the Cartwheel's disk might be responsible for the lack of angular difference in the peak positions found for the azimuthally averaged $H\\alpha$, K and B surface brightness profiles of the Cartwheel's outer ring. Indeed, the radial $H\\alpha$ surface brightness profiles obtained along the Cartwheel's major axis, where effects of inclination and finite thickness are minimized, do peak exterior to those at K- and B-bands. The angular difference in peak positions implies $v_{ring}$ = 110 km/s, which is in agreement with the model predictions. We briefly discuss the utility of radio continuum emission and spectral line equivalent widths for determining the propagation velocity of gas rings in collisional ring galaxies.

  13. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  14. LCC Guidance Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  15. Theory of Sound Propagation in Superfluid Solutions Filled Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sh. E. Kekutia; N. D. Chkhaidze

    2005-02-10

    A theory of the propagation of acoustic waves in a porous medium filled with superfluid solution is developed. The elastic coefficients in the system of equations are expressed in terms of physically measurable quantities. The equations obtained describe all volume modes that can propagate in a porous medium saturated with superfluid solution. Finally, derived equations are applied to the most important particular case when the normal fluid component is locked inside a highly porous media (aerogel) by viscous forces and the velocities of two longitudinal sound modes are calculated.

  16. Pulse propagation in decorated granular chains: An analytical approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upendra Harbola; Alexandre Rosas; Aldo H. Romero; Massimiliano Esposito; Katja Lindenberg

    2009-09-14

    We study pulse propagation in one-dimensional chains of spherical granules decorated with small grains placed between large granules. The effect of the small granules can be captured by replacing the decorated chains by undecorated chains of large granules of appropriately renormalized mass and effective interaction between the large granules. This allows us to obtain simple analytic expressions for the pulse propagation properties using a generalization of the binary collision approximation introduced in our earlier work [Phys. Rev. E in print (2009); Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 69}, 037601 (2004)

  17. The importance of covariance in nuclear data uncertainty propagation studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benstead, J. [AWE Plc, Aldermaston, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    A study has been undertaken to investigate what proportion of the uncertainty propagated through plutonium critical assembly calculations is due to the covariances between the fission cross section in different neutron energy groups. The uncertainties on k{sub eff} calculated show that the presence of covariances between the cross section in different neutron energy groups accounts for approximately 27-37% of the propagated uncertainty due to the plutonium fission cross section. This study also confirmed the validity of employing the sandwich equation, with associated sensitivity and covariance data, instead of a Monte Carlo sampling approach to calculating uncertainties for linearly varying systems. (authors)

  18. Heat pulse propagation in chaotic three-dimensional magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blazevski, Daniel [Institute for Mechanical Systems, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-06-01

    Heat pulse propagation in three-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields is studied by numerically solving the parallel heat transport equation using a Lagrangian Green's function (LG) method. The main two problems addressed are: the dependence of the radial transport of heat pulses on the level of magnetic field stochasticity (controlled by the amplitude of the magnetic field perturbation, ?), and the role of reversed shear magnetic field configurations on heat pulse propagation. The role of separatrix reconnection of resonant modes in the shear reversal region, and the role of shearless Cantori in the observed phenomena are also discussed.

  19. Light propagation and fluorescence quantum yields in liquid scintillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buck, C; Wagner, S

    2015-01-01

    For the simulation of the scintillation and Cherenkov light propagation in large liquid scintillator detectors a detailed knowledge about the absorption and emission spectra of the scintillator molecules is mandatory. Furthermore reemission probabilities and quantum yields of the scintillator components influence the light propagation inside the liquid. Absorption and emission properties are presented for liquid scintillators using 2,5-Diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 4-bis-(2-Methylstyryl)benzene (bis-MSB) as primary and secondary wavelength shifter. New measurements of the quantum yields for various aromatic molecules are shown.

  20. The fundamental solution of the unidirectional pulse propagation equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babushkin, I.; Bergé, L.

    2014-03-15

    The fundamental solution of a variant of the three-dimensional wave equation known as “unidirectional pulse propagation equation” (UPPE) and its paraxial approximation is obtained. It is shown that the fundamental solution can be presented as a projection of a fundamental solution of the wave equation to some functional subspace. We discuss the degree of equivalence of the UPPE and the wave equation in this respect. In particular, we show that the UPPE, in contrast to the common belief, describes wave propagation in both longitudinal and temporal directions, and, thereby, its fundamental solution possesses a non-causal character.

  1. Light propagation in generally covariant electrodynamics and the Fresnel equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedrich W. Hehl; Yuri N. Obukhov; Guillermo F. Rubilar

    2002-03-28

    Within the framework of generally covariant (pre-metric) electrodynamics, we specify a local vacuum spacetime relation between the excitation $H=({\\cal D},{\\cal H})$ and the field strength $F=(E,B)$. We study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in such a spacetime by Hadamard's method and arrive, with the constitutive tensor density $\\kappa\\sim\\partial H/\\partial F$, at a Fresnel equation which is algebraic of 4th order in the wave covector. We determine how the different pieces of $\\kappa$, in particular the axion and the skewon pieces, affect the propagation of light.

  2. Spherical Wave Propagation in a Nonlinear Elastic Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2009-07-01

    Nonlinear propagation of spherical waves generated by a point-pressure source is considered for the cases of monochromatic and impulse primary waveforms. The nonlinear five-constant elastic theory advanced by Murnaghan is used where general equations of motion are put in the form of vector operators, which are independent of the coordinate system choice. The ratio of the nonlinear field component to the primary wave in the far field is proportional to ln(r) where r is a propagation distance. Near-field components of the primary field do not contribute to the far field of nonlinear component.

  3. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Log NERSC-8 Trinity Benchmarks Change Log 09032013 Correction applied to MiniDFT web-page (to remove inconsistency with MiniDFT README). Capability Improvement...

  4. Ligand Binding Induces a Conformational Change in ifnar1 that Is Propagated to Its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enderlein, Jörg

    , Germany 2 Institute of Neurosciences and Biophysics 1, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany 3 and Theoretical Chemistry, Eberhard-Karls-University, Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany Received 4 October 2007 infections. Here, we show by intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer spectroscopy that ligand

  5. Intraclass Price Elasticity & Electric Rate Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gresham, K. E.

    1987-01-01

    beyond this becomes more elastic as usage increases. In the book "Innovative Electric, Rates," John Chamberlin and Charles Dickson utilize an economic model to test conservation programs. This model utilizes intrac1ass price elasticities and has a.... Utilities must rely on customer data and intuition to estimate customer response to rate changes. These methods have several downfalls. First, the customer data may not reflect customer behavior in an economic downturn. Second, the data may not exactly...

  6. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  7. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w w w.pv - te ch.orgPower PlantRates >

  8. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | FY

  9. Previous Power Rates (rates/current)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal PlumesPress1,Previous EventsRates

  10. Effects of swirl-flow on flame propagation in a constant-volume vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, P.; Watanabe, Kazunori; Obara, Tetsuro; Yoshihashi, Teruo; Ohyagi, Shigeharu

    1999-07-01

    Flame propagation in a closed vessel is one of the fundamental topics in the combustion science and technology. This problem has been studied mostly for application to engine combustion because the combustion processes in a premixed spark ignition engine are well simulated by those processes in a constant-volume combustion chamber. One of the most important objective to study this phenomena is to elucidate the combustion phenomena to increase the thermal efficiency of engine by enhancing the combustion process. In real engines, a number of technical methods such as swirl, tumble, squish and jet flows ere developed to shorten a burning time. All of these methods make use of flows in the combustion chamber. The fundamental problem is then to elucidate a mechanism of reduction of the burning time by the flows and their turbulence. In the present work, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of swirl-flow on the flame propagation in a disc-shaped constant-volume vessel of 100 mm in diameter and 30 mm in depth. Figure A-1 shows a schematic of the apparatus. Gaseous mixtures used were methane diluted with air at an atmospheric pressure, and their equivalence ratios were varied as a parameter. Ignition timing was varied to change the velocity of swirling flow before the flame propagation. As results, a burning time was found to be decreased as the swirling flow increased and a maximum pressure was increased as the velocity increased as a total heat loss decreased. Flame front structures were clearly observed by the instantaneous schlieren photography.

  11. Tissue tectonics: morphogenetic strain rates, cell shape change and intercalation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    such a kinematic framework, bridging cell and tissue behaviors at an intermediate, mesoscopic, level of cell spatiotemporally in three models of tissue morphogenesis, gaining insight into morphogenetic mechanisms. Our analysis and continuum field theories11 and extended these methods for tissues composed of discrete cells

  12. The Influence of Spatial Discreteness on the Thermo-Diffusive Instability of Flame Propagation with Infinite Lewis Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    XiaoCheng Mi; Andrew J. Higgins; Samuel Goroshin; Jeffrey M. Bergthorson

    2015-12-04

    The dynamics of flame propagation in systems with infinite Lewis number and spatially discretized sources of heat release is examined, which is applicable to the combustion of suspensions of fuel particles in air. The system is analyzed numerically using a one-dimensional heat equation with a source term for the reaction progress variable, which is specified to have zero diffusivity, and the model reveals a spectrum of flame-propagation regimes. For the case of a switch-type reaction rate and homogeneous media (continuous regime), the flame propagates steadily at a velocity in agreement with analytical solutions. As the sources are spatially concentrated into {\\delta}-function-like sources, propagation approaches the discrete regime with a fixed period between ignition of the sources, for which an analytic solution is also available for validation. When the source term is governed by an Arrhenius rate and the activation energy is increased beyond the stability boundary, the flame begins to exhibit a long-wavelength (4-5 times the thermal flame thickness) oscillation characteristic of the thermo-diffusive instability, in good agreement with prior stability analysis. When spatial discreteness is introduced, a competition is observed between the long-period oscillations of the thermo-diffusive instability and the pulsations associated with the rapid heat release of the concentrated sources. Interestingly, the presence of spatial discreteness is able to excite higher modes (period doubling and chaotic solutions) of the thermo-diffusive instability, suggesting that the introduction of discreteness may have an influence qualitatively similar to that of increasing activation energy. Relevance of the model parameters to experimental systems is then discussed.

  13. Nash Propagation for Loopy Graphical Games Luis E. Ortiz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearns, Michael

    Nash Propagation for Loopy Graphical Games Luis E. Ortiz Michael Kearns Department of Computer and Information Science University of Pennsylvania fleortiz,mkearnsg@cis.upenn.edu Abstract We introduce NashProp, an iterative and local message­passing algo­ rithm for computing Nash equilibria in multi­player games

  14. Nash Propagation for Loopy Graphical Games Luis E. Ortiz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ives, Zachary G.

    Nash Propagation for Loopy Graphical Games Luis E. Ortiz Michael Kearns Department of Computer and Information Science University of Pennsylvania leortiz,mkearns @cis.upenn.edu Abstract We introduce NashProp, an iterative and local message-passing algo- rithm for computing Nash equilibria in multi-player games

  15. SOUND PROPAGATION IN SLOWLY VARYING LINED FLOW DUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    SOUND PROPAGATION IN SLOWLY VARYING LINED FLOW DUCTS OF ARBITRARY CROSS SECTION S.W. Rienstra.w.rienstra@tue.nl November 20, 2002 Abstract Sound transmission through ducts of constant cross section with a uniform expansion, where the modes are eigenfunctions of the corresponding Laplace eigenvalue problem along a duct

  16. A Content Propagation Metric for Efficient Content Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    A Content Propagation Metric for Efficient Content Distribution Ryan S. Peterson Cornell University@cs.cornell.edu ABSTRACT Efficient content distribution in large networks comprising data- centers, end hosts, and distributed in-network caches is a diffi- cult problem. Existing systems rely on mechanisms and metrics

  17. Self-Propagating Assembly of a Molecular-Based Multilayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motiei,L.; Altman, M.; Gupta, T.; Lupo, F.; Gulino, A.; Evmenenko, G.; Dutta, P.; van der Boom, M.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated growth of a molecular-based material that is an active participant in its continuing self-propagated assembly has been demonstrated. This nonlinear growth process involves diffusion of palladium into a network consisting of metal-based chromophores linked via palladium.

  18. CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION IN KIMMO SYSTEMS G. Edward Barton, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION IN KIMMO SYSTEMS G. Edward Barton, Jr. M.I.T. Artificial Intelligence into place step-by-step through a chain of limited and local inferences, but it is insuffi- ciently powerful for Kimmo generation works for English, Turkish, and Warlpiri. When applied to a Kimmo system that en- codes

  19. ROOF CHARACTERISATION RELATED TO FIRE PROPAGATION RISK BY A NUMERICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ROOF CHARACTERISATION RELATED TO FIRE PROPAGATION RISK BY A NUMERICAL APPROACH L. Fournier1 , A by thé roof: - one is thé use of intumescent strips on thé roof, - thé other consists of extending thé fire walls (typically 70 cm or 1 m) above thé roof levé1 in order to prevent thé flame from being blown

  20. Corrigendum and addendum. Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Christov, Ivan; Christov, C. I.; Jordan, P. M.

    2014-12-18

    This article presents errors, corrections, and additions to the research outlined in the following citation: Christov, I., Christov, C. I., & Jordan, P. M. (2007). Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 60(4), 473-495.

  1. On flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisazadeh-Far, Kian; Metghalchi, Hameed [Northeastern University, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Parsinejad, Farzan [Chevron Oronite Company LLC, Richmond, CA 94801 (United States); Keck, James C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments have been carried out at constant pressure and temperature in a constant volume vessel located in a high speed shadowgraph system. The formation and propagation of the hot plasma kernel has been simulated for inert gas mixtures using a thermodynamic model. The effects of various parameters including the discharge energy, radiation losses, initial temperature and initial volume of the plasma have been studied in detail. The experiments have been extended to flame kernel formation and propagation of methane/air mixtures. The effect of energy terms including spark energy, chemical energy and energy losses on flame kernel formation and propagation have been investigated. The inputs for this model are the initial conditions of the mixture and experimental data for flame radii. It is concluded that these are the most important parameters effecting plasma kernel growth. The results of laminar burning speeds have been compared with previously published results and are in good agreement. (author)

  2. Low energy neutron propagation in MCNPX and GEANT4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Lemrani; M. Robinson; V. A. Kudryavtsev; M. De Jesus; G. Gerbier; N. J. C. Spooner

    2006-01-17

    Simulations of neutron background from rock for underground experiments are presented. Neutron propagation through two types of rock, lead and hydrocarbon material is discussed. The results show a reasonably good agreement between GEANT4, MCNPX and GEANT3 in transporting low-energy neutrons.

  3. Hamiltonian formulation for light propagation in waveguide-microresonator structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sipe,J. E.

    QTuL6 Hamiltonian formulation for light propagation in waveguide-microresonator structures Philip the Hamiltonian we extract highly accurate formulaefor the dispersionrelationof the structures. 02000 Optical microresonator structures have emphasized their interesting behavior in both the linear and nonlinear regime [1

  4. Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Propagation of Signals in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Galen H.

    1 Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Propagation of Signals in Optical Fiber Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 2 Outline · Geometric approach · Wave theory approach · Loss and Bandwidth Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 3 Outline · Geometric approach · Wave theory approach · Loss and Bandwidth Galen Sasaki

  5. Late Time Tail of Wave Propagation on Curved Spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. S. C. Ching; P. T. Leung; W. M. Suen; K. Young

    1994-10-30

    The late time behavior of waves propagating on a general curved spacetime is studied. The late time tail is not necessarily an inverse power of time. Our work extends, places in context, and provides understanding for the known results for the Schwarzschild spacetime. Analytic and numerical results are in excellent agreement.

  6. STABILITY PROPERTIES OF LIGHT PROPAGATING IN FIBER OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    STABILITY PROPERTIES OF LIGHT PROPAGATING IN FIBER OPTICS ST´EPHANE LAFORTUNE Summary The study is crucial in applications such as lasers and optical fibers. In this proposal I will focus on a model of fiber optics: the Manakov system. This system consists of two differential equations, that is two

  7. Pulse propagation in tapered granular chains: An analytic study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upendra Harbola; Alexandre Rosas; Massimiliano Esposito; Katja Lindenberg

    2009-05-27

    We study pulse propagation in one-dimensional tapered chains of spherical granules. Analytic results for the pulse velocity and other pulse features are obtained using a binary collision approximation. Comparisons with numerical results show that the binary collision approximation provides quantitatively accurate analytic results for these chains.

  8. Propagation of gravitons in the shock wave geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Ruitian

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, I study propagation of gravitons in the shock wave geometry in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, with the goal to uncover some constraint on the supergravity action in the AdS space. In studying ...

  9. Propagating versus Nonpropagating MaddenJulian Oscillation Events DAEHYUN KIM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobel, Adam

    and reaches the WP when the dry anomaly is stronger. Analysis of the column-integrated moist static energy contribution is from free-tropospheric meridional advection by the intraseasonal time scale wind anomalies. 2009), but understanding of the dynamics of its initiation, maintenance, and propagation is still

  10. Manipulation of Electron Beam Propagation by Hetero-Dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    . It consists of a HDGJ made of 1D graphene nanoribbon (GNR) and 2D graphene sheet with zigzag *AddressManipulation of Electron Beam Propagation by Hetero-Dimensional Graphene Junctions Zhengfei Wang-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) created in semiconductor hetero- structures, and many optical behaviors

  11. Wave Propagation Theory 2.1 The Wave Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2 Wave Propagation Theory 2.1 The Wave Equation The wave equation in an ideal fluid can be derived from hydrodynamics and the adia- batic relation between pressure and density. The equation for conservation of mass, Euler's equation (Newton's 2nd Law), and the adiabatic equation of state are respec

  12. Monte Carlo methods for light propagation in biological tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... must be developped to better control and understand PDT responses. In this ... The light propagation phenomenon involves three processes: ... However, this method is time consuming in 3D and the associated softwares lie ... the simple absorption coefficient µa > 0. ..... To see this, it suffices to integrate the.

  13. Bethe free energy, Kikuchi approximations and belief propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bethe free energy, Kikuchi approximations and belief propagation algorithms Jonathan S. Yedidia to a stationary point of an approximate free energy, known as the Bethe free energy in statis- tical physics- curate free energy approximations, of which Bethe's approximation is the simplest. Exploiting

  14. Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Dam-Breach Flood Wave Propagation Using Dimensionless Parameters Victor M. Ponce, M.ASCE1 ; Ahmad to study the sensitivity of dam-breach flood waves to breach-outflow hydrograph volume, peak discharge the channel. A dam-breach Froude number is defined to enable analysis through a wide range of site and flow

  15. Propagation and Re ection of Internal Waves B. R. Sutherland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    the frequency spectrum of the waves. I INTRODUCTION An internal wave is a disturbance propagating under the e a level where the Doppler-shifted frequency of the waves is comparable with the background buoyancy frequency. Although linear theory predicts that the waves should re ect if the Doppler-shifted frequency

  16. Numerical Simulations Concerning the Propagation of Protostellar Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Numerical Simulations Concerning the Propagation of Protostellar Jets A thesis submitted, Miruna, Natalie, Olena, Pat, Prakash, Ram, Rhona, Shane, Simon, Sri, Timur, Toby, Tolis, Tony, Tom;#12;Summary A protostellar jet is a highly supersonic stream of material which heralds the birth of a star

  17. Volumetric Layer Segmentation Using Coupled Surfaces Propagation Xiaolan Zengy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, James S.

    Volumetric Layer Segmentation Using Coupled Surfaces Propagation Xiaolan Zengy , Lawrence H. Staiby: xiaolan.zeng@yale.edu Abstract The problem of segmenting a volumetric layer of - nite thickness. In the analysis of such data, we of- ten encounter the problem of segmenting a volumetric layer of nite thickness

  18. Three-dimensional wave propagation through single crystal solidliquid interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Three-dimensional wave propagation through single crystal solid­liquid interfaces Yichi Lua solid­ liquid interfaces during single crystal growth. A previously developed two-dimensional ray across solid­liquid interfaces in cylindrical bodies where the receiver is located at an arbitrary

  19. Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ecause it takes time to establish institutional change, federal agencies need multiyear plans that continuously work to achieve, reinforce, and improve significant and persistent sustainability goals.

  20. Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along 1D frictional interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amundsen, David Skålid; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasi-static velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a 1D spring-block model of an extended frictional interface, for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons--Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates stead...

  1. ON SUN-TO-EARTH PROPAGATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ying D.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Moestl, Christian; Bale, Stuart D.; Lin, Robert P.; Lugaz, Noe; Davies, Jackie A.

    2013-05-20

    We investigate how coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagate through, and interact with, the inner heliosphere between the Sun and Earth, a key question in CME research and space weather forecasting. CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics are constrained by combining wide-angle heliospheric imaging observations, interplanetary radio type II bursts, and in situ measurements from multiple vantage points. We select three events for this study, the 2012 January 19, 23, and March 7 CMEs. Different from previous event studies, this work attempts to create a general picture for CME Sun-to-Earth propagation and compare different techniques for determining CME interplanetary kinematics. Key results are obtained concerning CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast CMEs can be approximately formulated into three phases: an impulsive acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed propagation (or gradual deceleration); (2) the CMEs studied here are still accelerating even after the flare maximum, so energy must be continuously fed into the CME even after the time of the maximum heating and radiation has elapsed in the corona; (3) the rapid deceleration, presumably due to interactions with the ambient medium, mainly occurs over a relatively short timescale following the acceleration phase; and (4) CME-CME interactions seem a common phenomenon close to solar maximum. Our comparison between different techniques (and data sets) has important implications for CME observations and their interpretations: (1) for the current cases, triangulation assuming a compact CME geometry is more reliable than triangulation assuming a spherical front attached to the Sun for distances below 50-70 solar radii from the Sun, but beyond about 100 solar radii we would trust the latter more; (2) a proper treatment of CME geometry must be performed in determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, especially when the CME propagation direction is far away from the observer; and (3) our approach to comparing wide-angle heliospheric imaging observations with interplanetary radio type II bursts provides a novel tool in investigating CME propagation characteristics. Future CME observations and space weather forecasting are discussed based on these results.

  2. Nature ofNature of Light is a self-propagatingLight is a self-propagating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Yancy

    within 10% ! Ole Christensen Rømer #12;Aberration of LightAberration of Light James Bradley DeterminedTheThe Nature ofNature of LightLight #12;Light is a self-propagatingLight is a selfWavelength & Frequency = c #12;Speed of lightSpeed of light Timing the occultations of Io from Earth in 1676 : got

  3. Fracture behavior of ceramic laminates in bending-I. Modeling of crack propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillipps, A.J.; Clegg, W.J.; Clyne, T.W. . Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy)

    1993-03-01

    This paper concerns the fracture behavior of specimens made up of ceramic sheets, separated by thin interlayers, which act to deflect cracks and thus to prevent catastrophic failure of the specimen. The treatment is divided into two parts. In this paper, the behavior of this type of material during bending is quantitatively modeled. The model is based on through-thickness cracks propagating when a critical stress is reached and interfacial cracks then advancing a distance dictated by the available energy. The variation in laminae strengths is modeled using a Monte Carlo method to determine the strength of successive laminae for a given Weibull modulus. The model is used to predict load/displacement plots and to explore the effects of changes in loading geometry and specimen variables, including Young's modulus, lamina strength, loading span, interfacial toughness, as well as lamina and sample thickness. A distinction is drawn between the energy actually absorbed in causing complete failure of the specimen as measured from the area under the load/displacement curve, and the amount of energy necessary to cause the crack propagation which occurred. These differ if the energy available to drive the interfacial cracks is more than sufficient for them to reach the ends of the specimen or if energy is dissipated elsewhere in the system. A criterion is derived by which specimens can be designed so as to minimize the difference between these two quantities. The significance of this concept in optimizing the toughness of these laminated materials is briefly discussed.

  4. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  5. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  6. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.17 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  7. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for HLH and LLH. 2. OTHER RATE PROVISIONS a. BPA Incremental Cost BPA's incremental cost will be based on an hourly energy index in the Pacific Northwest. If no adequate...

  8. Propagation of $L^{1}$ and $L^{\\infty}$ Maxwellian weighted bounds for derivatives of solutions to the homogeneous elastic Boltzmann Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo J. Alonso; Irene M. Gamba

    2007-10-27

    We consider the $n$-dimensional space homogeneous Boltzmann equation for elastic collisions for variable hard potentials with Grad (angular) cutoff. We prove sharp moment inequalities, the propagation of $L^1$-Maxwellian weighted estimates, and consequently, the propagation $L^\\infty$-Maxwellian weighted estimates to all derivatives of the initial value problem associated to the afore mentioned problem. More specifically, we extend to all derivatives of the initial value problem associated to this class of Boltzmann equations corresponding sharp moment (Povzner) inequalities and time propagation of $L^1$-Maxwellian weighted estimates as originally developed A.V. Bobylev in the case of hard spheres in 3 dimensions; an improved sharp moments inequalities to a larger class of angular cross sections and $L^1$-exponential bounds in the case of stationary states to Boltzmann equations for inelastic interaction problems with `heating' sources, by A.V. Bobylev, I.M. Gamba and V.Panferov, where high energy tail decay rates depend on the inelasticity coefficient and the the type of `heating' source; and more recently, extended to variable hard potentials with angular cutoff by I.M. Gamba, V. Panferov and C. Villani in the elastic case collision case and so $L^1$-Maxwellian weighted estimated were shown to propagate if initial states have such property. In addition, we also extend to all derivatives the propagation of $L^\\infty$-Maxwellian weighted estimates to solutions of the initial value problem to the Boltzmann equations for elastic collisions for variable hard potentials with Grad (angular) cutoff.

  9. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  10. Three-wave interactions of dispersive plasma waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Spanier; R. Vainio

    2008-10-31

    Three-wave interactions of plasma waves propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field at frequencies below the electron cyclotron frequency are considered. We consider Alfv\\'en--ion-cyclotron waves, fast-magnetosonic--whistler waves, and ion-sound waves. Especially the weakly turbulent low-beta plasmas like the solar corona are studied, using the cold-plasma dispersion relation for the transverse waves and the fluid-description of the warm plasma for the longitudinal waves. We analyse the resonance conditions for the wave frequencies $\\omega$ and wavenumbers $k$, and the interaction rates of the waves for all possible combinations of the three wave modes, and list those reactions that are not forbidden.

  11. 978-1-4244-1674-5/08 /$25.00 2008 IEEE CIS 2008 Propagation Modeling of Passive Worms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokarchuk, Laurissa

    978-1-4244-1674-5/08 /$25.00 ©2008 IEEE CIS 2008 Propagation Modeling of Passive Worms in P2P with the study of active worm propagation, passive worm propagation has been less highlighted. Passive worms propagate slowly in Internet, but P2P system can be a potential vehicle to fast the propagation of passive

  12. Problems with propagation and time evolution inf(T)gravity (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Problems with propagation and time evolution inf(T)gravity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Problems with propagation and time evolution inf(T)gravity Authors: Ong, Yen...

  13. Laser-induced acoustic wave generation/propagation/interaction in water in various internal channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    induced short plane acoustic wave focusing in water. Appl.Laser induced plane acoustic wave generation, propagationAT I O N Laser-induced acoustic wave generation/propagation/

  14. Guided Wave Propagation in Tubular Section with Multi-Layered Viscoelastic Coating 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuo, Chi-Wei 1982-

    2012-11-16

    Three kinds of propagating waves physically admissible in a tubular section are derived to establish their dispersion characteristics in response to the presence of multi-layered viscoelastic coatings. One is the longitudinal wave that propagates...

  15. Effects of internal waves on low frequency, long range, acoustic propagation in the deep ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jinshan

    2007-01-01

    This thesis covers a comprehensive analysis of long-range, deep-ocean, low-frequency, sound propagation experimental results obtained from the North Pacific Ocean. The statistics of acoustic fields after propagation through ...

  16. Propagating Structure Of A Microwave Driven Shock wave Inside A Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, Yutaka; Shibata, Teppei; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya [Department of Advanced Energy, the University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8561 (Japan); Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki, 311-0193 (Japan); Arakawa, Yoshihiro [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2010-05-06

    The thrust generation process of a microwave rocket is similar to a pulse detonation engine, and understanding the interactions between microwave plasma and shock waves is important. Shadowgraph images of the microwave plasma generated in a tube under atmospheric air were taken. The observed plasma and shock wave were propagating one-dimensionally at constant velocity inside the tube. In order to understand the flow field inside the rocket, one-dimensional CFD analysis was conducted. With the change of microwave power density, the structure of the flow field was classified into two regimes: Microwave Supported Combustion (MSC), and Microwave Supported Detonation (MSD). The structure of the MSD was different from the structure of a chemical detonation, which implied the existence of a preheating in front of the shock wave. Furthermore, the flight performance was estimated by calculating the momentum coupling coefficient. It was confirmed that the efficiency was nearly constant in the MSD regime, with the increase of microwave power density.

  17. Influence of the radiation absorbed by micro particles on the flame propagation and combustion regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanov, M F; Liberman, M A

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiation of the hot combustion products usually does not influence noticeably the flame propagating through gaseous mixture. the situation is changed drastically in the presence even small concentration of particles, which absorb radiation, transfer the heat to the surrounding unburned gaseous mixture by means of heat conduction, so that the gas phase temperature in front of the advancing flame lags that of the particles. It is shown that radiative preheating of unreacted mixture ahead of the flame results in a modest increase of the advancing flame velocity for a highly reactive gaseous fuel, or to considerable increase of the flame velocity in the case of a slow reactive mixture. The effects of radiation preheating as stronger as smaller the normal flame velocity. The radiation heat transfer can become a dominant mechanism compared with molecular heat conduction, determining the structure and the speed of combustion wave in the case of a small enough velocity of the advancing flame. It is shown tha...

  18. Pinpointing Cosmic Ray Propagation With The AMS-02 Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pato, Miguel; Simet, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), which is scheduled to be deployed onboard the International Space Station later this year, will be capable of measuring the composition and spectra of GeV-TeV cosmic rays with unprecedented precision. In this paper, we study how the projected measurements from AMS-02 of stable secondary-to-primary and unstable ratios (such as boron-to-carbon and beryllium-10-to-beryllium-9) can constrain the models used to describe the propagation of cosmic rays throughout the Milky Way. We find that within the context of fairly simple propagation models, all of the model parameters can be determined with high precision from the projected AMS-02 data. Such measurements are less constraining in more complex scenarios, however, which allow for departures from a power-law form for the diffusion coefficient, for example, or for inhomogeneity or stochasticity in the distribution and chemical abundances of cosmic ray sources.

  19. Pinpointing cosmic ray propagation with the AMS-02 experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pato, Miguel [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Hooper, Dan [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Simet, Melanie, E-mail: pato@iap.fr, E-mail: dhooper@fnal.gov, E-mail: msimet@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), which is scheduled to be deployed onboard the International Space Station later this year, will be capable of measuring the composition and spectra of GeV-TeV cosmic rays with unprecedented precision. In this paper, we study how the projected measurements from AMS-02 of stable secondary-to-primary and unstable ratios (such as boron-to-carbon and beryllium-10-to-beryllium-9) can constrain the models used to describe the propagation of cosmic rays throughout the Milky Way. We find that within the context of fairly simple propagation models, all of the model parameters can be determined with high precision from the projected AMS-02 data. Such measurements are less constraining in more complex scenarios, however, which allow for departures from a power-law form for the diffusion coefficient, for example, or for inhomogeneity or stochasticity in the distribution and chemical abundances of cosmic ray sources.

  20. Dynamic characteristic of intense short microwave propagation in an atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, J.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Mayhall, D.J.; Madsen, N.K.; Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of an intense microwave pulse which propagates through the atmosphere will be presented. Our theoretical results are obtained by solving Maxwell's equations, together with the electron fluid equations. Our calculations show that although large portions of the initial energy are absorbed by the electrons that are created through the avalanche process, a significant amount of energy is still able to reach the earth's surface. The amount of energy that reaches the earth's surface as a function of initial energy and wave shape after having propagated through 100 km in the atmosphere are investigated. Results for the air breakdown threshold intensity as a function of the pressure for different pulse widths and different frequencies will also be presented. In addition, we will present a comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results for the pulse shape of a short microwave pulse after it has traveled through a rectangular wave guide which contains a section of air. 23 references, 9 figures.

  1. PROPAGATION AND STABILITY OF SUPERLUMINAL WAVES IN PULSAR WINDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mochol, Iwona; Kirk, John G., E-mail: iwona.mochol@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: john.kirk@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 10 39 80, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Nonlinear electromagnetic waves with superluminal phase velocity can propagate in the winds around isolated pulsars, and around some pulsars in binary systems. Using a short-wavelength approximation, we find and analyze an integrable system of equations that govern their evolution in spherical geometry. A confined mode is identified that stagnates to finite pressure at large radius and can form a precursor to the termination shock. Using a simplified criterion, we find this mode is stable for most isolated pulsars, but may be unstable if the external pressure is high, such as in the pulsar wind nebulae in starburst galaxies and in W44. Pulsar winds in eccentric binary systems, such as PSR 1259-63, may go through phases with stable and unstable electromagnetic precursors, as well as phases in which the density is too high for these modes to propagate.

  2. Fully Coupled Electromechanical Elastodynamic Model for Guided Wave Propagation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    Physics-based computational models play a key role in the study of wave propagation for structural health monitoring (SHM) and the development of improved damage detection methodologies. Due to the complex nature of guided waves, accurate and efficient computation tools are necessary to investigate the mechanisms responsible for dispersion, coupling, and interaction with damage. In this paper, a fully coupled electromechanical elastodynamic model for wave propagation in a heterogeneous, anisotropic material system is developed. The final framework provides the full three dimensional displacement and electrical potential fields for arbitrary plate and transducer geometries and excitation waveform and frequency. The model is validated theoretically and proven computationally efficient. Studies are performed with surface bonded piezoelectric sensors to gain insight into the physics of experimental techniques used for SHM. Collocated actuation of the fundamental Lamb wave modes is modeled over a range of frequenc...

  3. Obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves in magnetized kappa plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaelzer, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Velocity distribution functions (VDFs) that exhibit a power-law dependence on the high-energy tail have been the subject of intense research by the plasma physics community. Such functions, known as kappa or superthermal distributions, have been found to provide a better fitting to the VDFs measured by spacecraft in the solar wind. One of the problems that is being addressed on this new light is the temperature anisotropy of solar wind protons and electrons. In the literature, the general treatment for waves excited by (bi-)Maxwellian plasmas is well-established. However, for kappa distributions, the wave characteristics have been studied mostly for the limiting cases of purely parallel or perpendicular propagation, relative to the ambient magnetic field. Contributions to the general case of obliquely-propagating electromagnetic waves have been scarcely reported so far. The absence of a general treatment prevents a complete analysis of the wave-particle interaction in kappa plasmas, since some instabilities c...

  4. Fast computation of Lyot-style coronagraph propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remi Soummer; Laurent Pueyo; Anand Sivaramakrishnan; Robert J. Vanderbei

    2007-11-02

    We present a new method for numerical propagation through Lyot-style coronagraphs using finite occulting masks. Standard methods for coronagraphic simulations involve Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) of very large arrays, and computing power is an issue for the design and tolerancing of coronagraphs on segmented Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) in order to handle both the speed and memory requirements. Our method combines a semi-analytical approach with non-FFT based Fourier transform algorithms. It enables both fast and memory-efficient computations without introducing any additional approximations. Typical speed improvements based on computation costs are of about ten to fifty for propagations from pupil to Lyot plane, with thirty to sixty times less memory needed. Our method makes it possible to perform numerical coronagraphic studies even in the case of ELTs using a contemporary commercial laptop computer, or any standard commercial workstation computer.

  5. Fresnel analysis of the wave propagation in nonlinear electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri N. Obukhov; Guillermo F. Rubilar

    2002-04-05

    We study the wave propagation in nonlinear electrodynamical models. Particular attention is paid to the derivation and the analysis of the Fresnel equation for the wave covectors. For the class of general nonlinear Lagrangian models, we demonstrate how the originally quartic Fresnel equation factorizes, yielding the generic birefringence effect. We show that the closure of the effective constitutive (or jump) tensor is necessary and sufficient for the absence of birefringence, i.e., for the existence of a unique light cone structure. As another application of the Fresnel approach, we analyze the light propagation in a moving isotropic nonlinear medium. The corresponding effective constitutive tensor contains non-trivial skewon and axion pieces. For nonmagnetic matter, we find that birefringence is induced by the nonlinearity, and derive the corresponding optical metrics.

  6. Propagation of ultra-short solitons in stochastic Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt, Levent; Schäfer, Tobias

    2014-01-15

    We study the propagation of ultra-short short solitons in a cubic nonlinear medium modeled by nonlinear Maxwell's equations with stochastic variations of media. We consider three cases: variations of (a) the dispersion, (b) the phase velocity, (c) the nonlinear coefficient. Using a modified multi-scale expansion for stochastic systems, we derive new stochastic generalizations of the short pulse equation that approximate the solutions of stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations. Numerical simulations show that soliton solutions of the short pulse equation propagate stably in stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations and that the generalized stochastic short pulse equations approximate the solutions to the stochastic Maxwell's equations over the distances under consideration. This holds for both a pathwise comparison of the stochastic equations as well as for a comparison of the resulting probability densities.

  7. Propagating spectroscopy of backward volume spin waves in a metallic FeNi film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, N.; Ishida, N.; Kawakami, T.; Sekiguchi, K.

    2014-01-20

    We report a propagating spin wave spectroscopy for a magnetostatic backward volume spin wave in a metallic Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81} film. We show that the mutual-inductance between two independent antennas detects a small but clear propagation signal of backward volume spin waves. All experimental data are consistent with the time-domain propagating spin-wave spectroscopy. The control of propagating backward spin wave enables to realize the miniaturize spin-wave circuit.

  8. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Wenyuan (Oakdale, MN); Huizinga, John S. (Dellwood, MN)

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  9. Ultraslow Propagation of Squeezed Vacuum Pulses with Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisuke Akamatsu; Yoshihiko Yokoi; Manabu Arikawa; Satoshi Nagatsuka; Takahito Tanimura; Akira Furusawa; Mikio Kozuma

    2008-01-27

    We have succeeded in observing ultraslow propagation of squeezed vacuum pulses with electromagnetically induced transparency. Squeezed vacuum pulses (probe lights) were incident on a laser cooled 87Rb gas together with an intense coherent light (control light). A homodyne method sensitive to the vacuum state was employed for detecting the probe pulse passing through the gas. A delay of 3.1us was observed for the probe pulse having a temporal width of 10 us.

  10. Propagation of uncertainties in the nuclear DFT models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Kortelainen

    2014-09-04

    Parameters of the nuclear density functional theory (DFT) models are usually adjusted to experimental data. As a result they carry certain theoretical error, which, as a consequence, carries out to the predicted quantities. In this work we address the propagation of theoretical error, within the nuclear DFT models, from the model parameters to the predicted observables. In particularly, the focus is set on the Skyrme energy density functional models.

  11. Analysis of Acoustic Wave Propagation in a Thin Moving Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick Joly; Ricardo Weder

    2009-07-31

    We study the propagation of acoustic waves in a fluid that is contained in a thin two-dimensional tube, and that it is moving with a velocity profile that only depends on the transversal coordinate of the tube. The governing equations are the Galbrun equations, or, equivalently, the linearized Euler equations. We analyze the approximate model that was recently derived by Bonnet-Bendhia, Durufl\\'e and Joly to describe the propagation of the acoustic waves in the limit when the width of the tube goes to zero. We study this model for strictly monotonic stable velocity profiles. We prove that the equations of the model of Bonnet-Bendhia, Durufl\\'e and Joly are well posed, i.e., that there is a unique global solution, and that the solution depends continuously on the initial data. Moreover, we prove that for smooth profiles the solution grows at most as $t^3$ as $t \\to \\infty$, and that for piecewise linear profiles it grows at most as $t^4$. This establishes the stability of the model in a weak sense. These results are obtained constructing a quasi-explicit representation of the solution. Our quasi-explicit representation gives a physical interpretation of the propagation of acoustic waves in the fluid and it provides an efficient way to compute numerically the solution.

  12. Galactic propagation of positrons from particle dark-matter annihilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. V. Moskalenko; A. W. Strong

    1999-06-14

    We have made a calculation of the propagation of positrons from dark-matter particle annihilation in the Galactic halo for different models of the dark matter halo distribution using our 3D code. We show that the Green's functions are not very sensitive to the dark matter distribution for the same local dark matter energy density. We compare our predictions with computed cosmic ray positron spectra ("background") for the "conventional" cosmic-ray nucleon spectrum which matches the local measurements, and a modified spectrum which respects the limits imposed by measurements of diffuse Galactic gamma-rays, antiprotons, and positrons. We conclude that significant detection of a dark matter signal requires favourable conditions and precise measurements unless the dark matter is clumpy which would produce a stronger signal. Although our conclusion qualitatively agrees with that of previous authors, it is based on a more realistic model of particle propagation and thus reduces the scope for future speculations. Reliable background evaluation requires new accurate positron measurements and further developments in modelling production and propagation of cosmic ray species in the Galaxy.

  13. Chiral asymmetry in propagation of soliton defects in crystalline backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian Arancibia; Mikhail S. Plyushchay

    2015-08-03

    By applying Darboux-Crum transformations to the Lax pair formulation of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, we construct new sets of multi-soliton solutions to it as well as to the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. The obtained solutions exhibit a chiral asymmetry in propagation of different types defects in crystalline backgrounds. We show that the KdV solitons of pulse and compression modulation types, which support bound states in semi-infinite and finite forbidden bands in the spectrum of the perturbed quantum one-gap Lame system, propagate in opposite directions with respect to the asymptotically periodic background. A similar but more complicated picture also appears for the multi-kink-antikink mKdV solitons that propagate with a privileged direction over topologically trivial or topologically nontrivial crystalline background in dependence on position of energy levels of the trapped bound states in spectral gaps of the associated Dirac system. Exotic N=4 nonlinear supersymmetric structure incorporating Lax-Novikov integrals of a pair of perturbed Lame systems is shown to underlie the Miura-Darboux-Crum construction. It unifies the KdV and mKdV solutions, detects the defects and distinguishes their types, and identifies the types of crystalline backgrounds.

  14. Chiral asymmetry in propagation of soliton defects in crystalline backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arancibia, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    By applying Darboux-Crum transformations to the Lax pair formulation of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, we construct new sets of multi-soliton solutions to it as well as to the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. The obtained solutions exhibit a chiral asymmetry in propagation of different types defects in crystalline backgrounds. We show that the KdV solitons of pulse and compression modulation types, which support bound states in semi-infinite and finite forbidden bands in the spectrum of the perturbed quantum one-gap Lame system, propagate in opposite directions with respect to the asymptotically periodic background. A similar but more complicated picture also appears for the multi-kink-antikink mKdV solitons that propagate with a privileged direction over topologically trivial or topologically nontrivial crystalline background in dependence on position of energy levels of the trapped bound states in spectral gaps of the associated Dirac system. Exotic N=4 nonlinear supersymmetric structure i...

  15. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1,CenterJohnCeremony TheChallenges andChange LogChange

  16. Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy balance within a coupled soilvegetationatmosphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy balance within a coupled propagation of the harmonics in order to differentiate between the response of the system to forcing, P., J. Polcher, and D. Entekhabi (2011), Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy

  17. Nonlinear surface acoustic wave pulses in solids: Laser excitation, propagation, interactions ,,invited...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuessler, Hans

    Nonlinear surface acoustic wave pulses in solids: Laser excitation, propagation, interactions techniques enabled generation of very high amplitude pulses with acoustic Mach numbers about 0.01. Such waves their propagation. As an intense surface acoustic wave SAW propagates, the temporal evolution of the wave shape

  18. Propagation failures, breathing pulses, and backfiring in an excitable reaction-diffusion system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinbock, Oliver

    Propagation failures, breathing pulses, and backfiring in an excitable reaction-diffusion system pulses and pulse trains that can undergo complex sequences of propagation failures. Moreover, we present that near their back repeatedly generate new pulses propagating in opposite direction. © 2006 American

  19. Three-dimensional simulation of tsunami generation and propagation: Application to intraplate events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furumura, Takashi

    Three-dimensional simulation of tsunami generation and propagation: Application to intraplate simulation program based on the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations is developed for simulating 3-D tsunami generation and propagation. We can simulate tsunami propagation over more than 1000 km using this program

  20. EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE the evolution of change management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Michael

    page 1 EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE the evolution of change management by Jeroen van der Zon University, evolutionary change is studied by describing the evolution of Change Manage- ment (CM). CM is one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3 Modelling Change Management

  1. Non-linear numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in small-scale flux tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Khomenko; M. Collados; T. Felipe

    2008-01-25

    We present results of non-linear, 2D, numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in the photosphere and chromosphere of small-scale flux tubes with internal structure. Waves with realistic periods of three to five minutes are studied, after applying horizontal and vertical oscillatory perturbations to the equilibrium model. Spurious reflections of shock waves from the upper boundary are minimized thanks to a special boundary condition. This has allowed us to increase the duration of the simulations and to make it long enough to perform a statistical analysis of oscillations. The simulations show that deep horizontal motions of the flux tube generate a slow (magnetic) mode and a surface mode. These modes are efficiently transformed into a slow (acoustic) mode in the vA acoustic) mode propagates vertically along the field lines, forms shocks and remains always within the flux tube. It might deposit effectively the energy of the driver into the chromosphere. When the driver oscillates with a high frequency, above the cut-off, non-linear wave propagation occurs with the same dominant driver period at all heights. At low frequencies, below the cut-off, the dominant period of oscillations changes with height from that of the driver in the photosphere to its first harmonic (half period) in the chromosphere. Depending on the period and on the type of the driver, different shock patterns are observed.

  2. Effects of radiation and compression on propagating spherical flames of methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Large discrepancies between the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths measured in experiments and those predicted by simulations for ultra-lean methane/air mixtures bring a great concern for kinetic mechanism validation. In order to quantitatively explain these discrepancies, a computational study is performed for propagating spherical flames of lean methane/air mixtures in different spherical chambers using different radiation models. The emphasis is focused on the effects of radiation and compression. It is found that the spherical flame propagation speed is greatly reduced by the coupling between thermal effect (change of flame temperature or unburned gas temperature) and flow effect (inward flow of burned gas) induced by radiation and/or compression. As a result, for methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit, the radiation and compression cause large amounts of under-prediction of the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths extracted from propagating spherical flames. Since radiation and compression both exist in the experiments on ultra-lean methane/air mixtures reported in the literature, the measured laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths are much lower than results from simulation and thus cannot be used for kinetic mechanism validation. (author)

  3. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  4. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  5. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Zecchin, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Full report. WorkingIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change www.webcda.it LaIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change”. Il Rapporto

  6. Quantum gravitational corrections to propagator in arbitrary spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Padmanabhan

    1997-03-18

    The action for a relativistic free particle of mass m receives a contribution $-m R(x,y)$ from a path of length R(x,y) connecting the events $x^i$ and $y^i$. Using this action in a path integral, one can obtain the Feynman propagator for a spinless particle of mass m in any background spacetime. If one of the effects of quantizing gravity is to introduce a minimum length scale $L_P$ in the spacetime, then one would expect the segments of paths with lengths less than $L_P$ to be suppressed in the path integral. Assuming that the path integral amplitude is invariant under the `duality' transformation ${\\cal R}\\to L_P^2/R$, one can calculate the modified Feynman propagator in an arbitrary background spacetime. It turns out that the key feature of this modification is the following: The proper distance $(\\Delta x)^2$ between two events, which are infinitesimally separated, is replaced by $\\Delta x^2 + L_P^2$; that is the spacetime behaves as though it has a `zero-point length' of $L_P$. This equivalence suggests a deep relationship between introducing a `zero-point-length' to the spacetime and postulating invariance of path integral amplitudes under duality transformations. In the Schwinger's proper time description of the propagator, the weightage for a path with proper time s becomes $m(s+L_P^2/s)$ rather than as ms. As to be expected, the ultraviolet behavior of the theory is improved significantly and divergences will disappear if this modification is taken into account. Implications of this result are discussed.

  7. Characteristics of spot-market rate indexes for truckload transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bignell, Andrew (Andrew Souglas)

    2013-01-01

    In the truckload transportation industry in the United States, a number of indexes are published that attempt to measure changes in rates, but no single index has emerged as an industry standard. Industry participants, ...

  8. DEFORMATION OF SUPERPLASTIC ALLOYS AT RELATIVELY LOW STRAIN RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grivas, Dionysios

    2011-01-01

    load change test during a creep test or a strain rate changethe desired microstructures. Creep tests were performed on a5. The strains in the creep test were Because the measured

  9. Plane-Wave Propagation in Electromagnetic PQ Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2015-01-01

    Two basic classes of electromagnetic media, recently defined and labeled as those of P media and Q media, are generalized to define the class of PQ media. Plane wave propagation in the general PQ medium is studied and the quartic dispersion equation is derived in analytic form applying four-dimensional dyadic formalism. The result is verified by considering various special cases of PQ media for which the dispersion equation is known to decompose to two quadratic equations or be identically satisfied (media with no dispersion equation). As a numerical example, the dispersion surface of a PQ medium with non-decomposable dispersion equation is considered.

  10. Jet propagation within a Linearized Boltzmann Transport Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Tan; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A Linear Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model has been developed for the study of jet propagation inside a quark-gluon plasma. Both leading and thermal recoiled partons are transported according to the Boltzmann equations to account for jet-induced medium excitations. In this talk, we present our study within the LBT model in which we implement the complete set of elastic parton scattering processes. We investigate elastic parton energy loss and their energy and length dependence. We further investigate elastic energy loss and transverse shape of reconstructed jets. Contributions from the recoiled thermal partons are found to have significant influences on the jet energy loss and transverse profile.

  11. Jet propagation within a Linearized Boltzmann Transport Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan Luo; Yayun He; Xin-Nian Wang; Yan Zhu

    2015-06-12

    A Linear Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model has been developed for the study of jet propagation inside a quark-gluon plasma. Both leading and thermal recoiled partons are transported according to the Boltzmann equations to account for jet-induced medium excitations. In this talk, we present our study within the LBT model in which we implement the complete set of elastic parton scattering processes. We investigate elastic parton energy loss and their energy and length dependence. We further investigate elastic energy loss and transverse shape of reconstructed jets. Contributions from the recoiled thermal partons are found to have significant influences on the jet energy loss and transverse profile.

  12. Excitation of two atoms by a propagating single photon pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navneeth Ramakrishnan; Yimin Wang; Valerio Scarani

    2014-11-13

    We describe the interaction of two two-level atoms in free space with propagating modes of the quantized electromagnetic field, using the time-dependent Heisenberg-Langevin method. For single- photon pulses, we consider the effect of the pulse's spatial and temporal profiles on the atomic excitation. In particular, we find the ideal shape for a pulse to put exactly one excitation in any desired state of the bi-atomic system. Furthermore, we analyze the differences in the atomic dynamics between the cases of Fock state pulses and coherent state pulses.

  13. Classical Propagation of Light in Spatio-Temporal Periodic Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrov, B S; Findikoglu, A T; Bishop, A R; Kostadinov, I Z

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the propagation of electromagnetic waves in media where the dielectric constants undergo rapid temporal periodic modulation. Both spatially homogeneous and periodic media are studied. Fast periodic temporal modulation of the dielectric constant of a homogeneous medium leads to existence of photonic band-gap like phenomena. In the presence of both spatial and tem- poral periodicity the electromagnetic spectrum is described in a four-dimensional cube, defining an effective Brillouin zone. In the case of incommensurability between space and time periodicities, completely dispersed point spectra exist.

  14. Propagation of Nd-laser pulses through crystalline silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirichenko, N A; Kuzmin, P G; Shcherbina, M E [Wave Research Center, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-31

    Propagation of pulses from an Nd:YAG laser (wavelength, 1.064 {mu}m; pulse duration, 270 ns; pulse energy, 225 {mu}J) through crystalline silicon wafers is studied experimentally. Mathematical modelling of the process is performed: the heat conduction equation is solved numerically, the temperature dependences of the absorption and refraction of a substance, as well as generation of nonequilibrium carriers by radiation are taken into account. The constructed model satisfactorily explains the experimentally observed intensity oscillations of transmitted radiation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  15. Energy dissipation in wave propagation in general relativistic plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajanta Das; S. Chatterjee

    2009-11-03

    Based on a recent communication by the present authors the question of energy dissipation in magneto hydrodynamical waves in an inflating background in general relativity is examined. It is found that the expanding background introduces a sort of dragging force on the propagating wave such that unlike the Newtonnian case energy gets dissipated as it progresses. This loss in energy having no special relativistic analogue is, however, not mechanical in nature as in elastic wave. It is also found that the energy loss is model dependent and also depends on the number of dimensions.

  16. Energy Loss at Propagating Jamming Fronts in Granular Gas Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justin C. Burton; Peter Y. Lu; Sidney R. Nagel

    2013-10-15

    We explore the initial moments of impact between two dense granular clusters in a two-dimensional geometry. The particles are composed of solid CO$_{2}$ and are levitated on a hot surface. Upon collision, the propagation of a dynamic "jamming front" produces a distinct regime for energy dissipation in a granular gas in which the translational kinetic energy decreases by over 90%. Experiments and associated simulations show that the initial loss of kinetic energy obeys a power law in time, $\\Delta E=-Kt^{3/2}$, a form that can be predicted from kinetic arguments.

  17. Wave propagation and dispersion in a nonlinear microstructured materials.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonfor DirectSciTech ConnectConnect Wave Propagation

  18. Application of Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis to the Fabrication of Actinide Bearing Nitride and Other Ceramic Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John J. Moore, Douglas E. Burkes, Collin D. Donohoue, Marissa M. Reigel, J. Rory Kennedy

    2009-05-18

    The high vapor pressures of americium (Am) and americium nitride (AmN) are cause for concern in producing nitride ceramic nuclear fuel that contains Am. Along with the problem of Am retention during the sintering phases of current processing methods, are additional concerns of producing a consistent product of desirable homogeneity, density and porosity. Similar difficulties have been experienced during the laboratory scale process development stage of producing metal alloys containing Am wherein compact powder sintering methods had to be abandoned. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a low-temperature or low–heat fuel fabrication process for the synthesis of Am-containing ceramic fuels. Self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), also called combustion synthesis, offers such an alternative process for the synthesis of Am nitride fuels. Although SHS takes thermodynamic advantage of the high combustion temperatures of these exothermic SHS reactions to synthesize the required compounds, the very fast heating, reaction and cooling rates can kinetically generate extremely fast reaction rates and facilitate the retention of volatile species within the rapidly propagating SHS reaction front. The initial objective of the research program is to use Mn as the surrogate for Am to synthesize a reproducible, dense, high quality Zr-Mn-N ceramic compound. Having determined the fundamental SHS reaction parameters and optimized SHS processing steps using Mn as the surrogate for Am, the technology will be transferred to Idaho National Laboratory to successfully synthesize a high quality Zr-Am-N ceramic fuel.

  19. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network ShapingDate: M-16-04-04 Federal FacilityChange Number

  20. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network ShapingDate: M-16-04-04 Federal FacilityChange

  1. CS Chang

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1, 2013, 4:15pmEnergyNovemberCompute 1CS Chang CS

  2. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1,CenterJohnCeremony TheChallenges andChange Log

  3. Self-Assembling Sup-porosity: The Effect On Fluid Flow And Seismic Wave Propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

    2013-04-27

    Fractures and joints in the field often contain debris within the void spaces. Debris originates from many different mechanisms: organic and/or inorganic chemical reactions/mineralization, sediment transport, formation of a fracture, mechanical weathering or combinations of these processes. In many cases, the presence of debris forms a â??sub-porosityâ? within the fracture void space. This sub-porosity often is composed of material that differs from the fracture walls in mineralogy and morphology. The â??sub-porosityâ? may partially fill voids that are on the order of hundreds of microns and thereby reduce the local porosity to lengths scales on the order of sub-microns to tens of microns. It is quite clear that a sub-porosity affects fracture porosity, permeability and storativity. What is not known is how the existence/formation of a sub-porosity affects seismic wave propagation and consequently our ability to probe changes in the subsurface caused by the formation or alteration of a sub-porosity. If seismic techniques are to be developed to monitor the injection and containment of phases in sequestration reservoirs or the propping of hydraulically induced fracture to enhance oil & gas production, it is important to understand how a sub-porosity within a fracture affects macroscopic seismic and hydraulic measurements. A sub-porosity will directly affect the interrelationship between the seismic and hydraulic properties of a fracture. This reports contains the results of the three main topics of research that were performed (1) to determine the effect of a sub-porosity composed of spherical grains on seismic wave propagation across fractures, (2) to determine the effect of biofilm growth in pores and between grains on seismic wave propagation in sediment, and (3) to determine the effect of the scale of observation (field-of-view) on monitoring alteration the pore space within a fracture caused by reactive flow. A brief summary of the results for each topic is contained in the report and the full details of the research and approach are contained in the publications found in the Attachment section of this report. A list of presentation and publications of all work associated with this grant is also provided.

  4. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding in ActinideRail betweenProtectionCurrentJobPower-Rates

  5. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers |

  6. Rate Design and Renewables

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements Sign In About | Careers

  7. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: IV. Comparison to Previous Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Iliadis; Richard Longland; Art Champagne; Alain Coc

    2010-04-23

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this series) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions considered here. The changes are caused by (i) our new Monte Carlo method of computing reaction rates (see Paper I of this series), and (ii) newly available nuclear physics information (see Paper III of this series).

  8. Effective normal stress alteration due to pore pressure changes induced by dynamic slip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effective normal stress alteration due to pore pressure changes induced by dynamic slip propagation and permeabilities causes a change in pore pressure there. Because slip causes compression on one side of the fault wall and extension on the other, the pore pressure on the fault increases substantially when

  9. Double porosity modeling in elastic wave propagation for reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J. G., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    Phenomenological equations for the poroelastic behavior of a double porosity medium have been formulated and the coefficients in these linear equations identified. The generalization from a single porosity model increases the number of independent coefficients from three to six for an isotropic applied stress. In a quasistatic analysis, the physical interpretations are based upon considerations of extremes in both spatial and temporal scales. The limit of very short times is the one most relevant for wave propagation, and in this case both matrix porosity and fractures behave in an undrained fashion. For the very long times more relevant for reservoir drawdown,the double porosity medium behaves as an equivalent single porosity medium At the macroscopic spatial level, the pertinent parameters (such as the total compressibility) may be determined by appropriate field tests. At the mesoscopic scale pertinent parameters of the rock matrix can be determined directly through laboratory measurements on core, and the compressibility can be measured for a single fracture. We show explicitly how to generalize the quasistatic results to incorporate wave propagation effects and how effects that are usually attributed to squirt flow under partially saturated conditions can be explained alternatively in terms of the double-porosity model. The result is therefore a theory that generalizes, but is completely consistent with, Biot`s theory of poroelasticity and is valid for analysis of elastic wave data from highly fractured reservoirs.

  10. A turnstile mechanism for fronts propagating in fluid flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John R. Mahoney; Kevin A. Mitchell

    2013-05-22

    We consider the propagation of fronts in a periodically driven flowing medium. It is shown that the progress of fronts in these systems may be mediated by a turnstile mechanism akin to that found in chaotic advection. We first define the modified ("active") turnstile lobes according to the evolution of point sources across a transport boundary. We then show that the lobe boundaries may be constructed from stable and unstable \\emph{burning invariant manifolds}---one-way barriers to front propagation analogous to traditional invariant manifolds for passive advection. Because the burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) are one-dimensional curves in a three-dimensional ($xy\\theta$) phase space, their projection into $xy$-space exhibits several key differences from their advective counterparts: (lobe) areas are not preserved, BIMs may self-intersect, and an intersection between stable and unstable BIMs does not map to another such intersection. These differences must be accommodated in the correct construction of the new turnstile. As an application, we consider a lobe-based treatment protocol for protecting an ocean bay from an invading algae bloom.

  11. Propagating Waves in a Monolayer of Gas-Fluidized Rods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. J. Daniels; D. J. Durian

    2010-11-12

    We report on an observation of propagating compression waves in a quasi-two-dimensional monolayer of apolar granular rods fluidized by an upflow of air. The collective wave speed is an order of magnitude faster than the speed of the particles. This gives rise to anomalously large number fluctuations dN ~ $N^{0.72 \\pm 0.04}$, which are greater than ordinary number fluctuations of N^{1/2}. We characterize the waves by calculating the spatiotemporal power spectrum of the density. The position of observed peaks, as a function of frequency w and wavevector k, yields a linear dispersion relationship in the long-time, long-wavelength limit and a wavespeed c = w/k. Repeating this analysis for systems at different densities and air speeds, we observe a linear increase in the wavespeed with increasing packing fraction with no dependence on the airflow. Although air-fluidized rods self-propel individually or in dilute collections, the parallel and perpendicular root-mean-square speeds of the rods indicate that they no longer self-propel when propagating waves are present. Based on this mutual exclusivity, we map out the phase behavior for the existence of waves vs self-propulsion as a function of density and fluidizing airflow.

  12. The propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinzano, Pierantonio

    2012-01-01

    Methods to map artificial night sky brightness and stellar visibility across large territories or their distribution over the entire sky at any site are based on the computation of the propagation of light pollution with Garstang models, a simplified solution of the radiative transfer problem in the atmosphere which allows a fast computation by reducing it to a ray-tracing approach. We present here up-to-date Extended Garstang Models (EGM) which provide a more general numerical solution for the radiative transfer problem applied to the propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere. We also present the LPTRAN software package, an application of EGM to high-resolution DMSP-OLS satellite measurements of artificial light emissions and to GTOPO30 digital elevation data, which provides an up-to-date method to predict the artificial brightness distribution of the night sky at any site in the World at any visible wavelength for a broad range of atmospheric situations and the artificial radiation density in the atm...

  13. MHD Wave Propagation in the Neighbourhood of Two Null Points

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. McLaughlin; A. W. Hood

    2007-12-11

    The nature of fast magnetoacoustic and Alfv\\'en waves is investigated in a zero $\\beta$ plasma in the neighbourhood of a pair of two-dimensional null points. This gives an indication of wave propagation in the low $\\beta$ solar corona, for a more complicated magnetic configuration than that looked at by McLaughlin & Hood (2004). It is found that the fast wave is attracted to the null points and that the front of the wave slows down as it approaches the null point pair, with the wave splitting and part of the wave accumulating at one null and the rest at the other. Current density will then accumulate at these points and ohmic dissipation will then extract the energy in the wave at these points. This suggests locations where wave heating will occur in the corona. The Alfv\\'en wave behaves in a different manner in that the wave accumulates along the separatrices. Hence, the current density will accumulate at this part of the topology and this is where wave heating will occur. However, the phenomenon of wave accumulation at a specific place is a feature of both wave types, and illustrates the importance of studying the topology of the corona when considering MHD wave propagation.

  14. Electromagnetic wave propagation through an overdense magnetized collisional plasma layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, C.; Rose, D. V.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Hughes, T. P. [Voss Scientific LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The results of investigations into the feasibility of using a magnetic window to propagate electromagnetic waves through a finite-sized overdense plasma slab are described. We theoretically calculate the transmission coefficients for right- and left-handed circularly polarized plane waves through a uniform magnetized plasma slab. Using reasonable estimates for the plasma properties expected to be found in the ionized shock layer surrounding a hypersonic aircraft traveling in the earth's upper atmosphere (radio blackout conditions), and assuming a 1 GHz carrier frequency for the radio communications channel, we find that the required magnetic field for propagation of right-handed circularly polarized, or whistler, waves is on the order of a few hundred gauss. Transmission coefficients are calculated as a function of sheath thickness and are shown to be quite sensitive to the electron collision frequency. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the theory. These simulations also demonstrate that Ohmic heating of the electrons can be considerable. Two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using a simplified waveguide and antenna model illustrate the same general transmission behavior as the theory and one-dimensional simulations. In addition, a net focusing effect due to the plasma is also observed in two and three dimensions. These simulations can be extended to design and analyze more realistic waveguide and antenna models.

  15. Development of the T+M coupled flow-geomechanical simulator to describe fracture propagation and coupled flow-thermal-geomechanical processes in tight/shale gas systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George

    2013-05-22

    We developed a hydraulic fracturing simulator by coupling a flow simulator to a geomechanics code, namely T+M simulator. Modeling of the vertical fracture development involves continuous updating of the boundary conditions and of the data connectivity, based on the finite element method for geomechanics. The T+M simulator can model the initial fracture development during the hydraulic fracturing operations, after which the domain description changes from single continuum to double or multiple continua in order to rigorously model both flow and geomechanics for fracture-rock matrix systems. The T+H simulator provides two-way coupling between fluid-heat flow and geomechanics, accounting for thermoporomechanics, treats nonlinear permeability and geomechanical moduli explicitly, and dynamically tracks changes in the fracture(s) and in the pore volume. We also fully accounts for leak-off in all directions during hydraulic fracturing. We first validate the T+M simulator, matching numerical solutions with the analytical solutions for poromechanical effects, static fractures, and fracture propagations. Then, from numerical simulation of various cases of the planar fracture propagation, shear failure can limit the vertical fracture propagation of tensile failure, because of leak-off into the reservoirs. Slow injection causes more leak-off, compared with fast injection, when the same amount of fluid is injected. Changes in initial total stress and contributions of shear effective stress to tensile failure can also affect formation of the fractured areas, and the geomechanical responses are still well-posed.

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 21, NO. 3. JUNE 1993 27 1 Electron Cyclotron Wave Propagation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharer, John E.

    propagation and absorption Ehave been and continue to be an intriguing plasma physics research area. Mc

  17. GTA TRIP GENERATION RATES, 1986 -1996 Eric J. Miller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    GTA TRIP GENERATION RATES, 1986 - 1996 by Eric J. Miller Department of Civil Engineering University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. CHANGES IN GTA TRIP GENERATION RATES, 1986-96 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3. DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS AFFECTING WORK TRIP GENERATION . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.1 Observed Trends

  18. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  19. Temperature dependent nucleation, propagation, and annihilation of domain walls in all-perpendicular spin-valve nanopillars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopman, D. B. Kent, A. D.; Bedau, D.; Mangin, S.; Fullerton, E. E.; Katine, J. A.

    2014-03-21

    We present a study of the temperature dependence of the switching fields in Co/Ni-based perpendicularly magnetized spin-valves. While magnetization reversal of all-perpendicular Co/Ni spin valves at ambient temperatures is typically marked by a single sharp step change in resistance, low temperature measurements can reveal a series of resistance steps, consistent with non-uniform magnetization configurations. We propose a model that consists of domain nucleation, propagation, and annihilation to explain the temperature dependence of the switching fields. Interestingly, low temperature (<30?K) step changes in resistance that we associate with domain nucleation have a bimodal switching field and resistance step distribution, attributable to two competing nucleation pathways.

  20. Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317­328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in land-use and soil management. We review literature, and indicates the relative importance of some factors that influence the rates of organic carbon sequestration

  1. Source and Listener Directivity for Interactive Wave-based Sound Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    integrated our sound propagation system in Valve's Source game engine and use it to demonstrate realistic acoustic effects such as sound amplification, diffraction low-passing, scattering, localization

  2. Higher-order differencing for phase-front propagation in geothermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Pruess, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    FRONT PROPAGATION IN GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS Curtis M. Oldenburgreinjection in geothermal systems. The numerical simulationcases that can arise in geothermal systems where saturation

  3. Nonlinear pulse propagation and phase velocity of laser-driven plasma waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    2011-01-01

    of California. Nonlinear pulse propagation and phasea relativistically-intense short-pulse laser in un- derdenseinvestigated in the broad pulse limit, including the e?ects

  4. Impact of Industrial Electric Rate Structure on Energy Conservation - A Utility Viewpiont 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    As the price of energy rises, changes in industrial electric rates will have an impact on energy usage and conservation. Utilities interested in reducing system peak demands may reflect this need in the rate structure as an incentive...

  5. High power and high repetition rate pulse generation using self injection-locking in Fabry-Perot Laser diode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    , but the output power is not very high. High repetition pulse generation based on nonlinear propagation of a dual1 High power and high repetition rate pulse generation using self injection-locking in Fabry-doped fiber ring lasers (ED-FRL) [2-3] are attractive methods to generate high speed pulse trains

  6. Neutrino Propagation and Oscillations in a Strong Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efrain J. Ferrer; Vivian de la Incera

    2004-08-08

    We review the results on neutrino propagation in neutral and charged media under strong magnetic fields $M_{W}^{2}\\gg B\\gg m_{e}^{2}$. It is shown that the neutrino energy density gets a magnetic contribution in both charged and neutral media, which is linear in the magnetic field, of first order in $G_{F}$, and independent of the charge density. This new term enters as a correction to the neutrino kinetic energy and produces an anisotropic contribution to the neutrino index of refraction. As a consequence, in a neutral medium a highly anisotropic resonant level-crossing condition takes place for the oscillation between electron-neutrinos and the other neutrino species. Possible cosmological applications are presented.

  7. The propagation of kinetic energy across scales in turbulent flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardesa, José I; Dong, Siwei; Jiménez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A temporal study of energy transfer across length scales is performed in 3D numerical simulations of homogeneous shear flow and isotropic turbulence, at Reynolds numbers in the range $Re_{\\lambda}=107-384$. The average time taken by perturbations in the energy flux to travel between scales is measured and shown to be additive, as inferred from the agreement between the total travel time from a given scale to the smallest dissipative motions, and the time estimated from successive jumps through intermediate scales. Our data suggests that the propagation of disturbances in the energy flux is independent of the forcing and that it defines a `velocity' that determines the energy flux itself. These results support that the cascade is, on average, a scale-local process where energy is continuously transmitted from one scale to the next in order of decreasing size.

  8. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stavroula Foteinopoulou

    2003-12-12

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates with the observed negatively refractive phenomena. They found that in the PC system, negative refraction is neither a prerequisite nor guarantees left-handed behavior. They examined carefully the condition to obtain left-handed behavior in the PC. They proposed a wedge type of experiment, in accordance with the experiment performed on the traditional LHM, to test these conditions. They found that for certain frequencies the PC shows left-handed behavior and acts in some respects like a homogeneous medium with a negative refractive index. they used the realistic PC system for this case to show how negative refraction occurs at the interface between a material with a positive and a material with a negative refractive index. Their findings indicate that the formation of the negatively refracted beam is not instantaneous and involves a transient time. With this time-dependent analysis, they were able to address previous controversial issues about negative refraction concerning causality and the speed of light limit. Finally, they attempt a systematic study of anomalous refractive phenomena that can occur at the air-PC interface. They observe cases where only a single refracted beam (in the positive or negative direction) is present, as well as cases with birefringence. they classify these different effects according to their origin and type of propagation (left-handed or not). For a complete study of the system, they also obtain expressions for the energy and group velocities, and show their equality. For cases with very low index contrast, band folding becomes an artificiality. They discuss the validity of their findings when they move to the limit of photonic crystals with a low index modulation.

  9. The Influence of Instantons on the Quark Propagator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Trewartha; Waseem Kamleh; Derek Leinweber; Peter Moran

    2012-12-03

    We use over-improved stout-link smearing to investigate the presence and nature of instantons on the lattice. We find that smearing can remove short-range effects with little damage to the long-range structure of the gauge field, and that after around 50 sweeps this process is complete. There are more significant risks for very high levels of smearing beyond 100 sweeps. We are thus able to produce gauge configurations dominated by instanton effects. We then calculate the overlap quark propagator on these configurations, and thus the non-perturbative mass function. We find that smeared configurations reproduce the majority of dynamical mass generation, and conclude that instantons are primarily responsible for the dynamical generation of mass.

  10. Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation over Nonuniform Earth Surface: Numerical Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexei V. Popov; Vladimir V. Kopeikin

    2007-04-14

    We simulate EM pulse propagation along the nonuniform earth surface using so called time-domain parabolic equation. To solve it by finite differences, we introduce a time-domain analog of the impedance boundary condition and a nonlocal BC of transparency reducing open computational domain to a strip of finite width. Numerical examples demonstrate influence of soil conductivity on the wide-band pulse waveform. For a high-frequency modulated EM pulse, we develop an asymptotic approach based on the ray structure of the monochromatic wave field at carrier frequency. This radically diminishes the computation costs and allows for pulsed wave field calculation in vast domains measured by tens of thousands wavelengths.

  11. Error field penetration and locking to the backward propagating wave

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finn, John M.; Cole, Andrew J.; Brennan, Dylan P.

    2015-12-30

    In this letter we investigate error field penetration, or locking, behavior in plasmas having stable tearing modes with finite real frequencies wr in the plasma frame. In particular, we address the fact that locking can drive a significant equilibrium flow. We show that this occurs at a velocity slightly above v = wr/k, corresponding to the interaction with a backward propagating tearing mode in the plasma frame. Results are discussed for a few typical tearing mode regimes, including a new derivation showing that the existence of real frequencies occurs for viscoresistive tearing modes, in an analysis including the effects ofmore »pressure gradient, curvature and parallel dynamics. The general result of locking to a finite velocity flow is applicable to a wide range of tearing mode regimes, indeed any regime where real frequencies occur.« less

  12. Manifestly gauge-covariant representation of scalar and fermion propagators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latosi?ski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    A new way to write the massive scalar and fermion propagators on a background of a weak gauge field is presented. They are written in a form that is manifestly gauge-covariant up to several additional terms that can be written as boundary terms in momentum space. These additional terms violate Ward-Takahashi identities and need to be renormalized by appropriate counterterms if the complete theory is to be gauge-covariant. This form makes it possible to calculate many amplitudes in a manifestly gauge-covariant way (at the same time reducing the number of Feynman diagrams). It also allows to express some counterterms in a way independent of the regularization scheme and provides an easy way to derive the anomalous term affecting the chiral current conservation.

  13. Analysis of Errors in a Special Perturbations Satellite Orbit Propagator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckerman, M.; Jones, J.P.

    1999-02-01

    We performed an analysis of error densities for the Special Perturbations orbit propagator using data for 29 satellites in orbits of interest to Space Shuttle and International Space Station collision avoidance. We find that the along-track errors predominate. These errors increase monotonically over each 36-hour prediction interval. The predicted positions in the along-track direction progressively either leap ahead of or lag behind the actual positions. Unlike the along-track errors the radial and cross-track errors oscillate about their nearly zero mean values. As the number of observations per fit interval decline the along-track prediction errors, and amplitudes of the radial and cross-track errors, increase.

  14. Seismic pulse propagation with constant Q and stable probability distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Mainardi; Massimo Tomirotti

    2010-08-07

    The one-dimensional propagation of seismic waves with constant Q is shown to be governed by an evolution equation of fractional order in time, which interpolates the heat equation and the wave equation. The fundamental solutions for the Cauchy and Signalling problems are expressed in terms of entire functions (of Wright type) in the similarity variable and their behaviours turn out to be intermediate between those for the limiting cases of a perfectly viscous fluid and a perfectly elastic solid. In view of the small dissipation exhibited by the seismic pulses, the nearly elastic limit is considered. Furthermore, the fundamental solutions for the Cauchy and Signalling problems are shown to be related to stable probability distributions with index of stability determined by the order of the fractional time derivative in the evolution equation.

  15. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  16. The Propagation of Light Pollution in Diffusely Urbanised Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Cinzano

    1998-11-19

    The knowledge of the contribution $b_d(d)$ to the artificial sky luminance in a given point of the sky of a site produced by the sources beyond a given distance $d$ from it is important to understand the behaviour of light pollution in diffusely urbanized areas and to estimate which fraction of the artificial luminance would be regulated by norms or laws limiting the light wasted upward within protection areas of given radii. I studied the behaviour of $b_d(d)$ constructing a model for the propagation of the light pollution based on the modelling technique introduced by Garstang which allows to calculate the contribution to the artificial luminance in a given point of the sky of a site of given altitude above sea level, produced by a source of given emission and geographic position. I obtained $b_d(d)$ integrating the contribution to the artificial luminance from every source situated at a distance greater than $d$. I also presented an analitical expression for $b_d(d)$ depending mainly from one parameter, a core radius, well reproducing model's results. In this paper I present the results for $b_d(d)$ at some Italian Astronomical Observatories. In a diffusely urbanised territory the artificial sky luminance produced by sources located at large distances from the site is not negligible due at the additive character of light pollution and its propagation at large distances. Only when the core radius is small, e.g. for sites in the inner outskirts of a city, the sky luminance from sources beyond few kilometers is negligible. The radii of protection zones around Observatories needs to be large in order that prescriptions limiting upward light be really effective.

  17. Propagation of Neutrinos through Magnetized Gamma-Ray Burst Fireball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarira Sahu; Nissim Fraija; Yong-Yeon Keum

    2009-11-10

    The neutrino self-energy is calculated in a weakly magnetized plasma consists of electrons, protons, neutrons and their anti-particles and using this we have calculated the neutrino effective potential up to order $M^{-4}_W$. In the absence of magnetic field it reduces to the known result. We have also calculated explicitly the effective potentials for different backgrounds which may be helpful in different environments. By considering the mixing of three active neutrinos in the medium with the magnetic field we have derived the survival and conversion probabilities of neutrinos from one flavor to another and also the resonance condition is derived. As an application of the above, we considered the dense and relativistic plasma of the Gamma-Ray Bursts fireball through which neutrinos of 5-30 MeV can propagate and depending on the fireball parameters they may oscillate resonantly or non-resonantly from one flavor to another. These MeV neutrinos are produced due to stellar collapse or merger events which trigger the Gamma-Ray Burst. The fireball itself also produces MeV neutrinos due to electron positron annihilation, inverse beta decay and nucleonic bremsstrahlung. Using the three neutrino mixing and considering the best fit values of the neutrino parameters, we found that electron neutrinos are hard to oscillate to another flavors. On the other hand, the muon neutrinos and the tau neutrinos oscillate with equal probability to one another, which depends on the neutrino energy, temperature and size of the fireball. Comparison of oscillation probabilities with and without magnetic field shows that, they depend on the neutrino energy and also on the size of the fireball. By using the resonance condition, we have also estimated the resonance length of the propagating neutrinos as well as the baryon content of the fireball.

  18. Changing feedbacks in the climate-biosphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapin, F Stuart; Randerson, James T; McGuire, A David; Foley, Jonathan A; Field, Christopher B

    2008-01-01

    nations, reduced desertification in arid zones, and reducedeffects • Reductions in desertification rates reduce theclimate warming, (3) desertification, and (4) changing for-

  19. Bubble growth rates in boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1956-01-01

    The conditions determining the growth rate of a bubble on a surface in boiling are considered and a mathematical model framed in the light of these conditions. The growth rate is then calculated for bubbles growing under ...

  20. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  1. Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

  2. Methane oxidation rates by AMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pack, M; Heintz, M; ReeburGh, WS; Trumbore, SE; Valentine, DL; Xu, X

    2009-01-01

    second case. Number of cases Methane oxidation rates by AMSIn the marine environment methane (CH 4 ) oxidation consumes

  3. The initiation and propagation of helium detonations in white dwarf envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Ken J. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Moore, Kevin, E-mail: kenshen@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Detonations in helium-rich envelopes surrounding white dwarfs have garnered attention as triggers of faint thermonuclear '.Ia' supernovae and double detonation Type Ia supernovae. However, recent studies have found that the minimum size of a hotspot that can lead to a helium detonation is comparable to, or even larger than, the white dwarf's pressure scale height, casting doubt on the successful ignition of helium detonations in these systems. In this paper, we examine the previously neglected effects of C/O pollution and a full nuclear reaction network, and we consider hotspots with spatially constant pressure in addition to constant density hotspots. We find that the inclusion of these effects significantly decreases the minimum hotspot size for helium-rich detonation ignition, making detonations far more plausible during turbulent shell convection or during double white dwarf mergers. The increase in burning rate also decreases the minimum shell mass in which a helium detonation can successfully propagate and alters the composition of the shell's burning products. The ashes of these low-mass shells consist primarily of silicon, calcium, and unburned helium and metals and may explain the high-velocity spectral features observed in most Type Ia supernovae.

  4. Propagation and Retention of Viscoelastic Surfactants in Carbonate Cores 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Meng

    2012-07-16

    to prepare the sample solution; ma atomic mass; N number of atoms; q flow rate; qi and qj point charge; r distance between two particles; r* distance at which the potential reaches its minimum; ra reaction rate; re drainage..., where n = 6-16. pH value is high enough such that the carboxyl group is deprotonated............................................. 20 2.3 Mechanism of acid-hydrolysis reaction of amido-surfactants ................... 23 4.1 Molecular formula...

  5. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System:...

  6. Spatially resolved observation of domain-wall propagation in a submicron ferromagnetic NOT-gate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grütter, Peter

    , one head-to-head or tail-to-tail domain wall propagates in the structure. Magnetic fields above by the polarity of the adjacent wire magnetization directions as either head-to- head or tail-to-tail domain walls-wall propagation. MFM using low magnetic moment tips 30 nm CoPtCr was operated in the constant height mode

  7. Deep seafloor arrivals in long range ocean acoustic propagation Ralph A. Stephena)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Deep seafloor arrivals in long range ocean acoustic propagation Ralph A. Stephena) and S. Thompson by ocean acoustic propagation models. These "deep seafloor" arrivals are the largest amplitude arrivals) deep seafloor arrivals correspond to the sea surface reflec- tion of an out-of-plane diffraction from

  8. Modeling dynamic crack propagation in fiber reinforced composites including frictional effects q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    Modeling dynamic crack propagation in fiber reinforced composites including frictional effects q S Abstract Dynamic crack propagation in a unidirectional carbon/epoxy composite is studied through finite deformation anisotropic visco-plastic model is used to describe the constitutive response of the composite

  9. A Closed-Form Solution to the Arbitrary Order Cauchy Problem with Propagators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henrik Stenlund

    2014-11-24

    The general abstract arbitrary order (N) Cauchy problem was solved in a closed form as a sum of exponential propagator functions. The infinite sparse exponential series was solved with the aid of a homogeneous differential equation. It generated a linear combination of exponential functions. The Cauchy problem solution was formed with N linear combinations of N exponential propagators.

  10. The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory deep-water acoustic propagation experiments in the Philippine Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory deep-water acoustic propagation experiments in the Philippine in the Philippine Sea during 2009­2011 investigated deep-water acoustic propagation and ambient noise of spanning the water column in the deep ocean. The acoustic transmissions and ambient noise were also

  11. Contextual Back-Propagation Technical Report UT-CS-00-443

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Bruce

    Contextual Back-Propagation Technical Report UT-CS-00-443 Bruce J. MacLennan #3; Computer Science. This report presents an adaptation of the back- propagation algorithm to training contextual neural networks and adaptation must also be context- dependent. The basic idea is simple enough | hold the context constant while

  12. Long-range propagation of finite-amplitude acoustic waves in an ocean waveguide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstoft, Peter

    Wave Equation NPE 7 is used to propagate a finite-amplitude acoustic wave field. Second, this codeLong-range propagation of finite-amplitude acoustic waves in an ocean waveguide Kae¨lig Castor for T-wave formation. © 2004 Acoustical Society of America. DOI: 10.1121/1.1756613 PACS numbers: 43

  13. One-way propagation of light in Born-Infeld-like metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vitorio A. De Lorenci; Jonas P. Pereira

    2014-12-18

    We propose and investigate a family of nonlinear metamaterials in which light rays propagate just in one direction -- one-way propagation. Furthermore, we argue how such nonlinear media could provide an analog model for investigating the Born-Infeld Lagrangian in the realm of fields larger than its scale field.

  14. Effect of the open roof on low frequency acoustic propagation in street canyons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of the open roof on low frequency acoustic propagation in street canyons O. Richoux, C of the effect of open roof on acoustic propagation along a 3D urban canyon. The experimental study is led Domain approach adapted to take into account the acoustic radiation losses due to the street open roof

  15. Trace formula for systems with spin from the coherent state propagator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

    Trace formula for systems with spin from the coherent state propagator A. D. Ribeiroa Instituto de November 2007 We present a detailed derivation of the trace formula for a general Hamiltonian with two the semiclassical formula for the propagator in a basis formed by the product of a canonical and a spin coherent

  16. Joint propagation of probability and possibility in risk analysis: Towards a formal framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba

    Joint propagation of probability and possibility in risk analysis: Towards a formal framework Ce by propagating uncertainty in risk analysis when some input parameters are stochastic and perfectly observable to the output of some function of interest from the risk analysis model can be either represented by a fuzzy

  17. Radio Wave Propagation in Metal Train Compartments MSc thesis in Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    #12;#12;Radio Wave Propagation in Metal Train Compartments MSc thesis in Embedded Systems Faculty Yaowen Khee January 12, 2009 #12;#12;Author Yaowen Khee yb.khee@gmail.com Title Radio Wave Propagation of multiple nodes, each with the ability to communicate using radio waves. The characteristics of the radio

  18. Note on the determination of the ignition point in forest fires propagation using a control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note on the determination of the ignition point in forest fires propagation using a control-lès-Nancy Cedex, France Abstract This paper is devoted to the determination of the origin point in forest fires pro- pagation using a control algorithm. The forest fires propagation are mathema- tically modelled

  19. Copyright 2010 IEEE. Reprinted from: Propagation of load shed in cascading line outages simulated by OPA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copyright © 2010 IEEE. Reprinted from: Propagation of load shed in cascading line outages simulated, February 2010 c IEEE 2010 Propagation of load shed in cascading line outages simulated by OPA Janghoon Kim transmission line outages on the 300 bus IEEE test system. We discuss the effectiveness of the estimator

  20. Shock wave criterion for propagating solitary states in driven surface waves O. Lioubashevski and J. Fineberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fineberg, Jay

    sin( t), where a and are the applied acceleration and angular frequency. The system is furtherShock wave criterion for propagating solitary states in driven surface waves O. Lioubashevski and J to propagate along the surface of a thin two-dimensional fluid layer. The states are driven by means

  1. Implementacin paralela del algoritmo Belief Propagation A. Mendiburu J. Miguel-Alonso J. A. Lozano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miguel-Alonso, José

    Implementación paralela del algoritmo Belief Propagation A. Mendiburu J. Miguel-Alonso J. A. Lozano concreto. Entre estos métodos podemos ci- tar los algoritmos belief propagation, que se aplican estos algoritmos de inferencia, concretamente loopy belief pro- pagation sobre factor graphs. Nuestra

  2. Reducing pulse distortion in fast-light pulse propagation through an erbium-doped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Robert W.

    Reducing pulse distortion in fast-light pulse propagation through an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, 2007 (Doc. ID 78405); published March 19, 2007 When a pulse superposed on a cw background propagates through an erbium-doped fiber amplifier with a negative group velocity, either pulse broadening or pulse

  3. Excitation and Active Control of Propagating Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    tunability,4,19 and plasmonic devices based on a 2D electron gas in semiconductors20 have been demonstratedExcitation and Active Control of Propagating Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Graphene Weilu Gao, Gang polaritons propagating through monolayer graphene using a silicon diffractive grating. The normal

  4. PREVENTING NETWORK INSTABILITY CAUSED BY PROPAGATION OF CONTROL PLANE POISON MESSAGES*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shayman, Mark A.

    PREVENTING NETWORK INSTABILITY CAUSED BY PROPAGATION OF CONTROL PLANE POISON MESSAGES* Xiaojiang Du to as "poison message failure propagation": Some or all of the network elements have a software or protocol `bug' which is activated on receipt of a certain network control/management message (the poison message

  5. A Wavefront-Based Gaussian Beam Method for Computing High Frequency Wave Propagation Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Runborg, Olof

    A Wavefront-Based Gaussian Beam Method for Computing High Frequency Wave Propagation Problems, Sweden Abstract We present a novel wavefront method based on Gaussian beams for computing high frequency of the method is illustrated with two numerical examples. Keywords: wave propagation, high frequency, asymptotic

  6. Sun to 1 AU propagation and evolution of a slow streamerblowout coronal mass ejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Click Here for Full Article Sun to 1 AU propagation and evolution of a slow streamerblowout coronal was directed 40° East of the SunEarth line and the Heliospheric Imager observations are consistent with the CME. Thernisien, E. Robbrecht, G. H. Fisher, J. G. Luhmann, and A. Vourlidas (2010), Sun to 1 AU propagation

  7. Slow electromagnetic pulse propagation through a narrow transmission band in a coaxial photonic crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, William

    Slow electromagnetic pulse propagation through a narrow transmission band in a coaxial photonic the slow group-velocity propagation of electromagnetic pulses through a narrow transmission band describe a simple experimental configuration that leads to slow-group-velocity electromagnetic pulse

  8. Spin wave propagation in spatially nonuniform magnetic fields Kevin R. Smith,1,2,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spin wave propagation in spatially nonuniform magnetic fields Kevin R. Smith,1,2,a Michael J August 2008 Spin wave pulse propagation in a magnetic thin film under static, spatially nonuniform strip. Spin wave pulses were excited with a microstrip transducer at one end of the film strip. The spin

  9. Shock wave propagation along constant sloped ocean bottoms Joseph T. Maestasa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shock wave propagation along constant sloped ocean bottoms Joseph T. Maestasa) Department wave equation (NPE) is a time-domain model used to calculate long- range shock propagation using a wave waves generated by explosives buried beneath mud line. VC 2014 Acoustical Society of America. [http

  10. WCCE ECCE TCCE Joint Conference: EARTHQUAKE & TSUNAMI BASIN SCALE TSUNAMI PROPAGATION MODELING USING BOUSSINESQ MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    WCCE ­ ECCE ­ TCCE Joint Conference: EARTHQUAKE & TSUNAMI 1 BASIN SCALE TSUNAMI PROPAGATION-scale tsunami modeling are based on the shallow water equations and neglect frequency dispersion effects in wave propagation. Recent studies on tsunami modeling revealed that such tsunami models may not be satisfactory

  11. Electromagnetic Surface Wave Propagation Applicable to UltraHigh Energy Neutrino

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromagnetic Surface Wave Propagation Applicable to UltraHigh Energy Neutrino Detection Peter ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR), which would typically interact very close to the surface. Since of electromagnetic surface waves and their propagation is presented. The charged particle shower is modelled

  12. One-Way Wave Propagation Through Smoothly Varying Media Controlling the Energy Production at Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    One-Way Wave Propagation Through Smoothly Varying Media Controlling the Energy Production at Home, Citadel T100 As part of the application called migration or reflection seismic imaging, we model wave propagation through the earth, governed by the acoustic wave equation. Downward continuation is a technique

  13. Free Energy Estimates of All-atom Protein Structures Using Generalized Belief Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langmead, Christopher James

    Free Energy Estimates of All-atom Protein Structures Using Generalized Belief Propagation a technique for approximating the free energy of protein structures using Generalized Belief Propagation (GBP, we show that the entropy compo- nent of our free energy estimates can be useful in distinguishing

  14. Free Energy Estimates of All-atom Protein Structures Using Generalized Belief Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Eric P.

    Free Energy Estimates of All-atom Protein Structures Using Generalized Belief Propagation a technique for approximating the free energy of protein structures using Generalized Belief Propagation (GBP, we show that the entropy component of our free energy estimates can useful in distinguishing native

  15. Active Vibration Control of a Modular Robot Combining a Back-Propagation Neural Network with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yangmin

    by joints, vibration can easily be induced in this special type of mechanical structure. Based on the modalActive Vibration Control of a Modular Robot Combining a Back-Propagation Neural Network-propagation neural network suboptimal controller is developed to control the vibration of a nine

  16. On Disturbance Propagation in Vehicle Formations with Inter-vehicle Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vijay

    of the frequency response magnitude of the transfer function from a deterministic disturbance at the leadingOn Disturbance Propagation in Vehicle Formations with Inter-vehicle Communication Yingbo Zhao, Paolo Minero, and Vijay Gupta Abstract-- This paper focuses on disturbance propagation in a formation

  17. Laboratory study of linear and nonlinear elastic pulse propagation in sandstone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratory study of linear and nonlinear elastic pulse propagation in sandstone James A. Ten propagation experiments were performed in sandstone rods, both at ambient conditions and in vacuum-long, 5-cm-diam rod of Berea sandstone with embedded detectors used in previously published experiments

  18. Propagation of continental break-up in the southwestern South China Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas, Chamot-Rooke

    Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France 2present address: Gdosciences Azur, Pierre & Marie Curie University on the southwestern tip of the South China Sea oceanic basin, where propagation of continental break-up occurred of the South China Sea basin, one of the best examples of an ocea- nic basin with a propagating ridge geometry

  19. Genealogies and Increasing Propagation of Chaos for FeynmanKac and Genetic Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Moral , Pierre

    Genealogies and Increasing Propagation of Chaos for Feynman­Kac and Genetic Models P. Del Moral L for the genealogical structure of genetic algorithms is presented. We connect the historical process Interacting particle systems, genetic algorithms, historical process, genealogy, relative entropy, propagation

  20. Precise Propagations of Chaos Estimates for FeynmanKac and Genealogical Particle Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Moral , Pierre

    Precise Propagations of Chaos Estimates for Feynman­Kac and Genealogical Particle Models P. Del genealogical tree evolution yielding what seems to be the first precise propagations of chaos estimates ). In this situation the N­path particle algo­ rithm # i n = (# #i p,n )0#p#n # E # [0,n] represents the genealogical

  1. An empirical study of faults in late propagation clone genealogies Liliane Barbour1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Ying

    An empirical study of faults in late propagation clone genealogies Liliane Barbour1 , Foutse Khomh2 has an effect on the fault proneness of specific types of late propagation genealogies. Lastly, we can February 2012; Revised 21 January 2013; Accepted 15 March 2013 KEY WORDS: clone genealogies; late

  2. Thermoelectric figure of merit as a function of carrier propagation angle in semiconducting superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Erica

    Thermoelectric figure of merit as a function of carrier propagation angle in semiconducting;Thermoelectric figure of merit as a function of carrier propagation angle in semiconducting superlattices Shuo a fruitful approach for enhancing the figure of merit, ZT, of thermoelectric materials. Generally

  3. Review: Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    introduction to global climate change, the greenhouseReview: Global Climate Change: A Primer By Orrin H PilkeyPilkey, Keith C. Global Climate Change: a primer. Durham,

  4. Apportioning Climate Change Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Apportioning Climate Change Costs Daniel A. Farber* I. II.ON CLIMATE CHANGE FOUR QUESTIONS ABOUTof how to respond to climate change. Most public attention

  5. Physics-based statistical model and simulation method of RF propagation in urban environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan (San Jose, CA); Dvorak, Steven L. (Tucson, AZ)

    2010-09-14

    A physics-based statistical model and simulation/modeling method and system of electromagnetic wave propagation (wireless communication) in urban environments. In particular, the model is a computationally efficient close-formed parametric model of RF propagation in an urban environment which is extracted from a physics-based statistical wireless channel simulation method and system. The simulation divides the complex urban environment into a network of interconnected urban canyon waveguides which can be analyzed individually; calculates spectral coefficients of modal fields in the waveguides excited by the propagation using a database of statistical impedance boundary conditions which incorporates the complexity of building walls in the propagation model; determines statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields; and determines a parametric propagation model based on the statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields from which predictions of communications capability may be made.

  6. Inner heliospheric evolution of a 'STEALTH' CME derived from multi-view imaging and multipoint in situ observations. I. Propagation to 1 AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Stenborg, G.; Savani, N. P.; Koval, A.; Szabo, A.; Jian, L. K.

    2013-12-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main driver of space weather. Therefore, a precise forecasting of their likely geo-effectiveness relies on an accurate tracking of their morphological and kinematical evolution throughout the interplanetary medium. However, single viewpoint observations require many assumptions to model the development of the features of CMEs. The most common hypotheses were those of radial propagation and self-similar expansion. The use of different viewpoints shows that, at least for some cases, those assumptions are no longer valid. From radial propagation, typical attributes that can now be confirmed to exist are over-expansion and/or rotation along the propagation axis. Understanding the 3D development and evolution of the CME features will help to establish the connection between remote and in situ observations, and hence help forecast space weather. We present an analysis of the morphological and kinematical evolution of a STEREO-B-directed CME on 2009 August 25-27. By means of a comprehensive analysis of remote imaging observations provided by the SOHO, STEREO, and SDO missions, and in situ measurements recorded by Wind, ACE, and MESSENGER, we prove in this paper that the event exhibits signatures of deflection, which are usually associated with changes in the direction of propagation and/or also with rotation. The interaction with other magnetic obstacles could act as a catalyst of deflection or rotation effects. We also propose a method to investigate the change of the CME tilt from the analysis of height-time direct measurements. If this method is validated in further work, it may have important implications for space weather studies because it will allow for inference of the interplanetary counterpart of the CME's orientation.

  7. Growth-rate dependent partitioning of RNA polymerases in bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Klumpp; Terence Hwa

    2008-12-11

    Physiological changes which result in changes in bacterial gene expression are often accompanied by changes in the growth rate for fast adapting enteric bacteria. Since the availability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) in cells is dependent on the growth rate, transcriptional control involves not only the regulation of promoters, but also depends on the available (or free) RNAP concentration which is difficult to quantify directly. Here we develop a simple physical model describing the partitioning of cellular RNAP into different classes: RNAPs transcribing mRNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), RNAPs non-specifically bound to DNA, free RNAP, and immature RNAP. Available experimental data for E. coli allow us to determine the two unknown parameters of the model and hence deduce the free RNAP concentration at different growth rates. The results allow us to predict the growth-rate dependence of the activities of constitutive (unregulated) promoters, and to disentangle the growth-rate dependent regulation of promoters (e.g., the promoters of rRNA operons) from changes in transcription due to changes in the free RNAP concentration at different growth rates. Our model can quantitatively account for the observed changes in gene expression patterns in mutant E. coli strains with altered levels of RNAP expression without invoking additional parameters. Applying our model to the case of the stringent response following amino acid starvation, we can evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of passive transcriptional control proposed to account for the observed changes in the expression of rRNA and biosynthetic operons.

  8. CME propagation: Where does the solar wind drag take over?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachdeva, Nishtha; Colaninno, Robin; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Sun-Earth dynamics of a set of eight well observed solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using data from the STEREO spacecraft. We seek to quantify the extent to which momentum coupling between these CMEs and the ambient solar wind (i.e., the aerodynamic drag) influences their dynamics. To this end, we use results from a 3D flux rope model fit to the CME data. We find that solar wind aerodynamic drag adequately accounts for the dynamics of the fastest CME in our sample. For the relatively slower CMEs, we find that drag-based models initiated below heliocentric distances ranging from 15 to 50 $R_{\\odot}$ cannot account for the observed CME trajectories. This is at variance with the general perception that the dynamics of slow CMEs are influenced primarily by solar wind drag from a few $R_{\\odot}$ onwards. Several slow CMEs propagate at roughly constant speeds above 15--50 $R_{\\odot}$. Drag-based models initiated above these heights therefore require negligible aerodynamic drag to explain their...

  9. Wave Propagation in Gravitational Systems: Late Time Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. S. C. Ching; P. T. Leung; W. M. Suen; K. Young

    1995-07-14

    It is well-known that the dominant late time behavior of waves propagating on a Schwarzschild spacetime is a power-law tail; tails for other spacetimes have also been studied. This paper presents a systematic treatment of the tail phenomenon for a broad class of models via a Green's function formalism and establishes the following. (i) The tail is governed by a cut of the frequency Green's function $\\tilde G(\\omega)$ along the $-$~Im~$\\omega$ axis, generalizing the Schwarzschild result. (ii) The $\\omega$ dependence of the cut is determined by the asymptotic but not the local structure of space. In particular it is independent of the presence of a horizon, and has the same form for the case of a star as well. (iii) Depending on the spatial asymptotics, the late time decay is not necessarily a power law in time. The Schwarzschild case with a power-law tail is exceptional among the class of the potentials having a logarithmic spatial dependence. (iv) Both the amplitude and the time dependence of the tail for a broad class of models are obtained analytically. (v) The analytical results are in perfect agreement with numerical calculations.

  10. Exact propagating nonlinear singular disturbances in strongly coupled dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Amita; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Kaw, Predhiman; Sen, Abhijit [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2014-08-15

    The dynamical response of the strongly coupled dusty plasma medium has recently been described by utilizing the Generalized Hydrodynamic (GHD) model equations. The GHD equations capture the visco-elastic properties of the medium and have been successful in predicting a host of phenomena (e.g., existence of novel transverse shear waves in the fluid medium, modification of longitudinal wave dispersion by elastic effects, etc.) which have found experimental confirmation. In this paper, the nonlinear longitudinal response of the medium governed by GHD equations in strong coupling limit is discussed analytically. The structure of the equations rules out the balance between dispersion and nonlinearity, thereby, forbidding soliton formation. However, a host of new varieties of nonlinear solutions are found to exist, which have singular spatial profiles and yet have conservative properties. For instance, existence of novel conservative shock structures with zero strength is demonstrated, waves whose breaking produces no dissipation in the medium are observed, propagating solutions which produce cusp like singularities can exist and so on. It is suggested that simulations and experiments should look for these novel nonlinear structures in the large amplitude strong coupling limit of longitudinal disturbances in dusty plasmas.

  11. Cybersim: geographic, temporal, and organizational dynamics of malware propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhi, Nandakishore; Yan, Guanhua; Eidenbenz, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-infractions into a nation's strategic security envelope pose a constant and daunting challenge. We present the modular CyberSim tool which has been developed in response to the need to realistically simulate at a national level, software vulnerabilities and resulting mal ware propagation in online social networks. CyberSim suite (a) can generate realistic scale-free networks from a database of geocoordinated computers to closely model social networks arising from personal and business email contacts and online communities; (b) maintains for each,bost a list of installed software, along with the latest published vulnerabilities; (d) allows designated initial nodes where malware gets introduced; (e) simulates, using distributed discrete event-driven technology, the spread of malware exploiting a specific vulnerability, with packet delay and user online behavior models; (f) provides a graphical visualization of spread of infection, its severity, businesses affected etc to the analyst. We present sample simulations on a national level network with millions of computers.

  12. ENERGY CONTENT AND PROPAGATION IN TRANSVERSE SOLAR ATMOSPHERIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Soler, R. [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Verth, G., E-mail: tom.vandoorsselaere@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    Recently, a significant amount of transverse wave energy has been estimated propagating along solar atmospheric magnetic fields. However, these estimates have been made with the classic bulk Alfven wave model which assumes a homogeneous plasma. In this paper, the kinetic, magnetic, and total energy densities and the flux of energy are computed for transverse MHD waves in one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube models with a piecewise constant or continuous radial density profile. There are fundamental deviations from the properties for classic bulk Alfven waves. (1) There is no local equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy. (2) The flux of energy and the velocity of energy transfer have, in addition to a component parallel to the magnetic field, components in the planes normal to the magnetic field. (3) The energy densities and the flux of energy vary spatially, contrary to the case of classic bulk Alfven waves. This last property has the important consequence that the energy flux computed with the well known expression for bulk Alfven waves could overestimate the real flux by a factor in the range 10-50, depending on the flux tube equilibrium properties.

  13. THE PROPAGATION OF RELATIVISTIC JETS IN EXTERNAL MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberg, Omer; Piran, Tsvi; Sari, Re'em; Nakar, Ehud

    2011-10-20

    Relativistic jets are ubiquitous in astrophysical systems that contain compact objects. They transport large amounts of energy to large distances from the source and their interaction with the ambient medium has a crucial effect on the evolution of the system. The propagation of the jet is characterized by the formation of a shocked 'head' at the front of the jet which dissipates the jet's energy and a cocoon that surrounds the jet and potentially collimates it. We present here a self-consistent, analytic model that follows the evolution of the jet and its cocoon, and describes their interaction. We show that the critical parameter that determines the properties of the jet-cocoon system is the dimensionless ratio between the jet's energy density and the rest-mass energy density of the ambient medium. This parameter, together with the jet's injection angle, also determines whether the jet is collimated by the cocoon or not. The model is applicable to relativistic, unmagnetized jets on all scales and may be used to determine the conditions in active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets as well as in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) or microquasars. It shows that AGN and microquasar jets are hydrodynamically collimated due to the interaction with the ambient medium, while GRB jets can be collimated only inside a star and become uncollimated once they break out.

  14. Climate Change and Extinctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinervo, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Lectures presents: Climate Change and Extinctions Happening2013. He will present a climate change extinction model that

  15. On the Generation, Propagation, and Reflection of Alfven Waves from the Solar Photosphere to the Distant Heliosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. R. Cranmer; A. A. van Ballegooijen

    2004-10-26

    We present a comprehensive model of the global properties of Alfven waves in the solar atmosphere and fast solar wind. Linear non-WKB wave transport equations are solved from the photosphere to 4 AU, and for wave periods ranging from 3 seconds to 3 days. We derive a radially varying power spectrum of kinetic and magnetic energy fluctuations for waves propagating in both directions along a superradially expanding magnetic flux tube. This work differs from previous models in 3 major ways. (1) In the chromosphere and low corona, the successive merging of flux tubes on granular and supergranular scales is described using a 2D magnetostatic model of a network element. Below a critical merging height the waves are modeled as thin-tube kink modes, and we assume that all of the kink-mode wave energy is transformed into volume-filling Alfven waves above the merging height. (2) The frequency spectrum of horizontal motions is specified only at the photosphere based on prior analyses of G-band bright point kinematics. Everywhere else the amplitudes of outward and inward propagating waves are computed with no free parameters. We find that the wave amplitudes in the corona agree well with off-limb nonthermal line widths. (3) Nonlinear turbulent damping is applied to the results of the linear model using a phenomenological loss term. A single choice for the normalization of the turbulent outer-scale length produces both the right amount of damping at large distances (to agree with in situ measurements) and the right amount of heating in the extended corona (to agree with empirical wind acceleration models). In the corona, the modeled heating rate differs by more than an order of magnitude from a rate based on isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence.

  16. Climate Change Scoping Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change as approved Prepared by the California AirBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  17. Climate Change Scoping Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change Scoping Plan a amework for change Prepared by the California Air Resources BoardBackgroundBackgroundBackground ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4444 1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California1. Climate Change Policy in California

  18. LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2014/15 SUBSCRIPTION RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2014/15 SUBSCRIPTION RATES LMS membership subscription: £ US.00 Associate membership 16.00 32.00 Free membership (see note 2) Print only Online only Print & online* LMS, or are unemployed or otherwise in hardship. Contact membership@lms.ac.uk to enquire further. #12;LMS PUBLICATIONS 4

  19. LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2013/14 SUBSCRIPTION RATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LMS SUBSCRIPTION RATES & NOTES 2013/14 SUBSCRIPTION RATES LMS membership subscription: £ US.00 Associate membership 15.00 30.00 Free membership (see note 2) Print only Online only Print & online* LMS, or are unemployed or otherwise in hardship. Contact membership@lms.ac.uk to enquire further. #12;LMS PUBLICATIONS 4

  20. Upper Great Plains Rates information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, 2014 (112 KB .pdf) FRN Notice of Proposed Transmission and Ancillary Services Formula Rates November 3, 2014 (93 KB .pdf) SPP Membership Information Integrated System (IS)...

  1. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  2. Application of Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis to the Fabrication of Actinide Bearing Nitride and Other Ceramic Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John J. Moore, Marissa M. Reigel, Collin D. Donohoue

    2009-04-30

    The project uses an exothermic combustion synthesis reaction, termed self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), to produce high quality, reproducible nitride fuels and other ceramic type nuclear fuels (cercers and cermets, etc.) in conjunction with the fabrication of transmutation fuels. The major research objective of the project is determining the fundamental SHS processing parameters by first using manganese as a surrogate for americium to produce dense Zr-Mn-N ceramic compounds. These fundamental principles will then be transferred to the production of dense Zr-Am-N ceramic materials. A further research objective in the research program is generating fundamental SHS processing data to the synthesis of (i) Pu-Am-Zr-N and (ii) U-Pu-Am-N ceramic fuels. In this case, Ce will be used as the surrogate for Pu, Mn as the surrogate for Am, and depleted uranium as the surrogate for U. Once sufficient fundamental data has been determined for these surrogate systems, the information will be transferred to Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for synthesis of Zr-Am-N, Pu-Am-Zr-N and U-Pu-Am-N ceramic fuels. The high vapor pressures of americium (Am) and americium nitride (AmN) are cause for concern in producing nitride ceramic nuclear fuel that contains Am. Along with the problem of Am retention during the sintering phases of current processing methods, are additional concerns of producing a consistent product of desirable homogeneity, density and porosity. Similar difficulties have been experienced during the laboratory scale process development stage of producing metal alloys containing Am wherein compact powder sintering methods had to be abandoned. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a low-temperature or low–heat fuel fabrication process for the synthesis of Am-containing ceramic fuels. Self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), also called combustion synthesis, offers such an alternative process for the synthesis of Am nitride fuels. Although SHS takes thermodynamic advantage of the high combustion temperatures of these exothermic SHS reactions to synthesize the required compounds, the very fast heating, reaction and cooling rates can kinetically generate extremely fast reaction rates and facilitate the retention of volatile species within the rapidly propagating SHS reaction front. The initial objective of the research program is to use Mn as the surrogate for Am to synthesize a reproducible, dense, high quality Zr-Mn-N ceramic compound. Having determined the fundamental SHS reaction parameters and optimized SHS processing steps using Mn as the surrogate for Am, the technology will be transferred to Idaho National Laboratory to successfully synthesize a high quality Zr-Am-N ceramic fuel.

  3. The Rate of Osmotic Downshock Determines the Survival Probability of Bacterial Mechanosensitive Channel Mutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Rob

    The Rate of Osmotic Downshock Determines the Survival Probability of Bacterial Mechanosensitive and respond to environmental changes. In bacteria, these channels are be- lieved to protect against an osmotic that the protection provided by MS channels depends strongly on the rate of osmotic change, revealing that, under

  4. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  5. Unidirectional propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves at a magnetic film surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Kin L.; Bao, Mingqiang E-mail: caross@mit.edu; Lin, Yen-Ting; Wang, Kang L.; Bi, Lei; Wen, Qiye; Zhang, Huaiwu; Chatelon, Jean Pierre; Ross, C. A. E-mail: caross@mit.edu

    2014-12-08

    An analytical expression for the amplitudes of magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) propagating in opposite directions at a magnetic film surface is presented. This shows that for a given magnetic field H, it is forbidden for an independent MSSW to propagate along the direction of ?H{sup ?}×n{sup ?}, where n{sup ?} is the surface normal. This unidirectional propagation property is confirmed by experiments with both permalloy and yttrium iron garnet films of different film thicknesses, and has implications in the design of spin-wave devices such as isolators and spin-wave diodes.

  6. CONDITIONS FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATION ALONG THIN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopin, Igor; Nagorny, Ivan

    2013-09-10

    The propagation of kink waves in the thin gravity stratified flux tubes with a generalized magnetic field distribution model is considered in cylindrical geometry. The new kink wave equations for both wave variables are obtained. It is shown that the inclusion of the radial component of an unperturbed tube magnetic field sufficiently transforms the conditions for the propagation of transverse waves. It is demonstrated that, for the models of isothermal and polytropic atmosphere in the tube and its environment, the propagation of kink waves along thin magnetic flux tubes is cutoff-free.

  7. Propagation of super-high-energy cosmic rays in the Galaxy Jorg R. Horandel a,*, Nikolai N. Kalmykov b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hörandel, Jörg R.

    for the propagation in the magnetic fields. This method works best for the highest energy particles, since the timePropagation of super-high-energy cosmic rays in the Galaxy Jo¨rg R. Ho¨randel a,*, Nikolai N Available online 27 October 2006 Abstract The propagation of high-energy cosmic rays in the Galaxy

  8. Role of metastable atoms in the propagation of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Qing; Zhu Ximing; Li Jiangtao; Pu Yikang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-02-15

    In the experiment of plasma jets generated in a tube dielectric barrier discharge configuration, three distinguishable modes, namely, laminar, transition, and turbulent jet modes, have been identified. Flows of helium, neon, and argon gases shared the hydrodynamic law when their plasma jets spraying into ambient air of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Aiming to reveal the basic processes, we propose that plasma jet length is mainly determined by reactions involving metastable atoms. These processes are responsible for the variation in plasma jet length versus gas flow rate and working gas species. To investigate this proposal in detail, we have obtained three significant experimental results, i.e., (1) the plasma jet lengths of helium, neon, and argon are different; (2) the plasma jet length of krypton slightly changes with gas flow rate, with three modes indistinguishable; and (3) there are large differences between optical emission spectra of helium, neon, argon, and krypton flow gases. These observations are in good agreement with our proposal.

  9. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-21

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  10. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental Change Institute Environmental Change Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    Environmental Change Institute 2012/13 eci Environmental Change Institute #12;ii Environmental 06 Educating environmental leaders 08 Centre for interdisciplinary doctoral training 10 A thriving, Dumfriesshire (ECI) #12;1 The Environmental Change Institute has 21 years' experience in helping governments

  12. Climate change action plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delivery Climate change action plan 2009-2011 #12;2 | Climate change action plan ©istockphoto.com #12;Climate Change Action Plan Climate change action plan | 3 Contents Overview 4 Preface and Introduction 5 Climate change predictions for Scotland 6 The role of forestry 7 Protecting and managing

  13. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  14. Forearc uplift rates deduced from sediment cores of two coastal lakes in south-central Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Forearc uplift rates deduced from sediment cores of two coastal lakes in south-central Chile Keywords: Forearc tectonics Uplift rate Lago Lanalhue Lago Lleu Lleu Arauco Peninsula Sea-level change uplift rates based on the study of lake sediments. We investigated two coastal lakes at the south

  15. FURTHER NOTES ON THE NATURAL HISTORY AND ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION OF THE DIAMOND-BACK TERRAPIN.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the artificial propagation of the diamond-back terrapin, Malaclemmys cenirata, at the United States Fisheries been directed since its beginning by several investigators. Originally Dr. R. E. Coker gave his

  16. Non-Foster Circuit Loaded Periodic Structures for Broadband Fast and Slow Wave Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    1.1 Periodic Structure, Fast and Slow Wave Propagation . 1.2for a periodic structure. . . . . . . Slow and fast waveA unit cell of a periodic structure . . . . .

  17. Propagation dynamics of controlled cross-talk via interplay between chi((1)) and chi((3)) processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Paul S.; Welch, George R.; Gord, James R.; Patnaik, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the propagation dynamics of a nonlinear cross-talk effect between two probe channels in a double-ladder system and show that an interplay between chi((1)) and chi((3)) processes ...

  18. Determination and Characterization of Ice Propagation Mechanisms on Surfaces Undergoing Dropwise Condensation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Jeffrey B.

    2011-08-08

    The mechanisms responsible for ice propagation on surfaces undergoing dropwise condensation have been determined and characterized. Based on experimental data acquired non-invasively with high speed quantitative microscopy, ...

  19. Critical radius for sustained propagation of spark-ignited spherical flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Andrew P.; Jomaas, Grunde; Law, Chung K.

    2009-05-15

    An experimental study was performed to determine the requirements for sustained propagation of spark-ignited hydrogen-air and butane-air flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures. Results show that sustained propagation is always possible for mixtures whose Lewis number is less than unity, as long as a flame can be initially established. However, for mixtures whose Lewis number is greater than unity, sustained propagation depends on whether the initially ignited flame can attain a minimum radius. This minimum radius was determined for mixtures of different equivalence ratios and pressures, and was found to agree moderately well with the theoretically predicted critical radius beyond which there is no solution for the adiabatic, quasi-steady propagation of the spherical flame. The essential roles of pressure, detailed chemistry, and the need to use local values in the quantitative evaluation of the flame response parameters are emphasized. (author)

  20. Time-evolving acoustic propagation modeling in a complex ocean environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin, M. E. G. D.

    During naval operations, sonar performance estimates often need to be computed in-situ with limited environmental information. This calls for the use of fast acoustic propagation models. Many naval operations are carried ...

  1. Ferrocyanide safety program: Final report on adiabatic calorimetry and tube propagation tests with synthetic ferrocyanide materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauske, H.F. [Fauske and Associates, Inc. (United States); Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-09-29

    Based on Fauske and Associates, Inc. Reactive System Screening Tool tests, the onset or initiation temperature for a ferrocyanide-nitrate propagating reaction is about 250 degrees Celcius. This is at about 200 degrees Celcius higher than current waste temperatures in the highest temperature ferrocyanide tanks. Furthermore, for current ambient waste temperatures, the tube propagation tests show that a ferrocyanide concentration of 15.5 wt% or more is required to sustain a propagation reaction in the complete absence of free water. Ignoring the presence of free water, this finding rules out propagating reactions for all the Hanford flowsheet materials with the exception of the ferrocyanide waste produced by the original In Farm flowsheet

  2. The Walnut Street Model of Ionospheric HF Radio Propagation Eric E. Johnson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    1 The Walnut Street Model of Ionospheric HF Radio Propagation Eric E. Johnson New Mexico State on radio frequency, latitude, time of day, season, the solar weather, and so on. Signals reach the receiver

  3. Investigation on Wave Propagation Characteristics in Plates and Pipes for Identification of Structural Defect Locations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Je Heon

    2013-07-31

    For successful identification of structural defects in plates and pipes, it is essential to understand structural wave propagation characteristics such as dispersion relations. Analytical approaches to identify the dispersion relations...

  4. Linear elastic fracture mechanics in anisotropic solids : application to fluid-driven crack propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laubie, Hadrien Hyacinthe

    2013-01-01

    Fracture mechanics is a field of continuum mechanics with the objective to predict how cracks initiate and propagate in solids. It has a wide domain of application. While aerospace engineers want to make sure a defect in ...

  5. Propagation techniques for a spineless Acacia wrightii and a weeping Ulmus parvifolia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan, Donita Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Three spineless phenotypes of Acacia wrightii G. Bentham ex A. Gray were identified with aesthetic landscape potential. Experiments in seed, cutting, grafting, and tissue culture propagation were undertaken to perpetuate this desired spineless...

  6. Fracture propagation as means of rapidly transferring surface meltwater to the base of glaciers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Veen, Cornelis J.

    2007-01-07

    1] Propagation of water-filled crevasses through glaciers is investigated based on the linear elastic fracture mechanics approach. A crevasse will penetrate to the depth where the stress intensity factor at the crevasse tip equals the fracture...

  7. A finite element method and the method of finite spheres enriched for analysis of wave propagations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ham, Seounghyun, 1982-

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to present a finite element method and the method of finite spheres enriched for the solution of various wave propagation problems. The first part of this thesis is to present an enriched ...

  8. Short time scale thermal mechanical shock wave propagation in high performance microelectronic packaging configuration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagaraj, Mahavir

    2004-11-15

    The generalized theory of thermoelasticity was employed to characterize the coupled thermal and mechanical wave propagation in high performance microelectronic packages. Application of a Gaussian heat source of spectral profile similar to high...

  9. ZFX Controls Propagation and Prevents Differentiation of Acute T-Lymphoblastic and Myeloid Leukemia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weisberg, Stuart P.

    Tumor-propagating cells in acute leukemia maintain a stem/progenitor-like immature phenotype and proliferative capacity. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) originate from different ...

  10. ASYMPTOTIC AND INCREASING PROPAGATION OF CHAOS EXPANSIONS FOR GENEALOGICAL PARTICLE MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Moral , Pierre

    ASYMPTOTIC AND INCREASING PROPAGATION OF CHAOS EXPANSIONS FOR GENEALOGICAL PARTICLE MODELS PIERRE with genealogical tree models. Applications to nonlinear filtering problems and interacting Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms are discussed. Key words. Interacting particle systems, historical and genealogical tree models

  11. Rate Analysis of Two Photovoltaic Systems in San Diego

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Ong, S.; Van Geet, O.

    2009-07-01

    Analysts have found increasing evidence that rate structure has impacts on the economics of solar systems. This paper uses 2007 15-minute interval photovoltaic (PV) system and load data from two San Diego City water treatment facilities to illustrate impacts of different rate designs. The comparison is based on rates available in San Diego at the time of data collection and include proportionately small to large demand charges (relative to volumetric consumption), and varying on- and off- peak times. Findings are twofold for these large commercial systems: 1) transferring costs into demand charges does not result in savings and 2) changes in peak times do not result in a major cost difference during the course of a year. While lessons learned and discussion on rate components are based on the findings, the applicability is limited to buildings with similar systems, environments, rate options, and loads.

  12. Resuspension rates from aged inert-tracer sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1982-11-01

    Wind-caused particle resuspension rates were investigated with molybdenum tracers at two circular resuspension sites in the Hanford area. The tracer particles were calcium molybdate. The radii of each circular tracer-source area were 22.9 m and 29.9 m respectively for tracer deposited on 2 October 1973 and 29 May 1979. Resuspension rates were investigated by sampling resuspended tracer with air sampling equipment mounted as a function of height on a centrally located sampling tower at each site. Sampling equipment was operated as a function of wind speed increments in order to investigate resuspension rates, wind speed dependencies of resuspension rates, and for subsequent comparisons of resuspension rate changes as a function of time for constant wind speed ranges. Experimental results are reported for measurements over several years. Resuspension rates ranged from about 10/sup -13/ to 10/sup -6/ fraction of the tracer source resuspended per second. Resuspension rates tended to increase with increasing wind speed. At one investigation site, resuspension rates were nearly constant, except for seasonal variations, for a four-year time period. Resuspension rates appear higher in the autumn than in the spring and summer.

  13. How Europe is Changing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdolah, Kader

    2012-01-01

    20. Devil 21. Tirannie How Europe is Changing 22. Bin Ladencan swim in a pond," he How Europe is Changing I says. "Yourain falls on his hat. How Europe is Changing An Empty Grave

  14. Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Letter to South Texas Electric Coop., Inc requesting an extension of the existing rate formula FalconAmistad WAPA-143 FERC Approval FalconAmistad Published WAPA-143 Falcon...

  15. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    period FY2015 through 2028. Customers have a diversification right to limit the amount of power they purchase at the Load Growth rate in future years with notice provided by...

  16. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2003-08-01

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that ...

  17. Asset Prices and Exchange Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavlova, Anna

    2004-11-30

    This paper develops a simple two-country, two-good model, in which the real exchange rate, stock and bond prices are jointly determined. The model predicts that stock market prices are correlated ...

  18. High repetition rate fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

  19. High compression rate text summarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

  20. GLOBAL AND LOCAL CUTOFF FREQUENCIES FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATING ALONG SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Routh, S. [Department of Physics, R. V. College of Engineering, Bangalore (India)] [Department of Physics, R. V. College of Engineering, Bangalore (India); Musielak, Z. E. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Hammer, R., E-mail: routhswati@rvce.edu.in, E-mail: zmusielak@uta.edu, E-mail: hammer@kis.uni-freiburg.de [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, Schoeneckstr. 6, Freiburg, D-79104 Germany (Germany)

    2013-01-20

    It is a well-established result that the propagation of linear transverse waves along a thin but isothermal magnetic flux tube is affected by the existence of the global cutoff frequency, which separates the propagating and non-propagating waves. In this paper, the wave propagation along a thin and non-isothermal flux tube is considered and a local cutoff frequency is derived. The effects of different temperature profiles on this local cutoff frequency are studied by considering different power-law temperature distributions, as well as the semi-empirical VAL C model of the solar atmosphere. The obtained results show that the conditions for wave propagation strongly depend on the temperature gradients. Moreover, the local cutoff frequency calculated for the VAL C model gives constraints on the range of wave frequencies that are propagating in different parts of the solar atmosphere. These theoretically predicted constraints are compared to observational data and are used to discuss the role played by transverse tube waves in the atmospheric heating and dynamics, and in the excitation of solar atmospheric oscillations.

  1. Effects of pore fluids in the subsurface on ultrasonic wave propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifert, P.K.

    1998-05-01

    This thesis investigates ultrasonic wave propagation in unconsolidated sands in the presence of different pore fluids. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in the sub-MHz range using quartz sand fully saturated with one or two liquids. Elastic wave propagation in unconsolidated granular material is computed with different numerical models: in one-dimension a scattering model based on an analytical propagator solution, in two dimensions a numerical approach using the boundary integral equation method, in three dimensions the local flow model (LFM), the combined Biot and squirt flow theory (BISQ) and the dynamic composite elastic medium theory (DYCEM). The combination of theoretical and experimental analysis yields a better understanding of how wave propagation in unconsolidated sand is affected by (a) homogeneous phase distribution; (b) inhomogeneous phase distribution, (fingering, gas inclusions); (c) pore fluids of different viscosity; (d) wettabilities of a porous medium. The first study reveals that the main ultrasonic P-wave signatures, as a function of the fraction on nonaqueous-phase liquids in initially water-saturated sand samples, can be explained by a 1-D scattering model. The next study investigates effects of pore fluid viscosity on elastic wave propagation, in laboratory experiments conducted with sand samples saturated with fluids of different viscosities. The last study concentrates on the wettability of the grains and its effect on elastic wave propagation and electrical resistivity.

  2. Coulomb-gauge ghost and gluon propagators in SU(3) lattice Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Toki, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki-shi, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Voigt, A. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Ilgenfritz, E.-M. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Karl-Franzens-Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Physik, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Mueller-Preussker, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Nakamura, A. [Research Institute for Information Science and Education, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Saito, T. [Integrated Information Center, Kochi University, Akebono-cho, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Sternbeck, A. [CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2009-06-01

    We study the momentum dependence of the ghost propagator and of the space and time components of the gluon propagator at equal time in pure SU(3) lattice Coulomb-gauge theory carrying out a joint analysis of data collected independently at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka and Humboldt University, Berlin. We focus on the scaling behavior of these propagators at {beta}=5.8,...,6.2 and apply a matching technique to relate the data for the different lattice cutoffs. Thereby, lattice artifacts are found to be rather strong for both instantaneous gluon propagators at a large momentum. As a byproduct we obtain the respective lattice scale dependences a({beta}) for the transversal gluon and the ghost propagator which indeed run faster with {beta} than two-loop running, but slightly slower than what is known from the Necco-Sommer analysis of the heavy quark potential. The abnormal a({beta}) dependence as determined from the instantaneous time-time gluon propagator, D{sub 44}, remains a problem, though. The role of residual gauge-fixing influencing D{sub 44} is discussed.

  3. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...

  4. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 51, NO. 5, MAY 2003 945 Propagation Model for the HVAC Duct as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hannaford, Blake

    for the HVAC Duct as a Communication Channel Pavel V. Nikitin, Member, IEEE, Daniel D. Stancil, Senior Member (HVAC) ducts in buildings are typically hollow metal pipes which can be used as waveguides to carry such a communication system. This paper presents a propagation model for a straight HVAC duct terminated at both ends

  6. Counterclockwise Dynamics of a Rate-Independent Semilinear Duhem Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Dennis S.

    Counterclockwise Dynamics of a Rate-Independent Semilinear Duhem Model Ashwani K. Padthe, Jin of a hysteretic simple closed curve. In magnetics, hysteresis caused by the irreversible flux-change mechanism dissipates energy in the form of heat [2]. In both cases, the energy dissipated in one cycle is equal

  7. Fact #613: March 8, 2010 Vehicle Occupancy Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average number of persons occupying a car is 1.59 and has not changed much since 1995. The largest increases from 1995 to 2009 have been in the occupancy rates for vans – from 2.07 to 2.35 –...

  8. Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reale, Marco

    1 23 Climatic Change An Interdisciplinary, International Journal Devoted to the Description, Causes and Implications of Climatic Change ISSN 0165-0009 Volume 107 Combined 3-4 Climatic Change (2011) 107:247-265 DOI available until 12 months after publication. #12;Climatic Change (2011) 107:247­265 DOI 10.1007/s10584

  9. Climate Change and Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1 Climate Change and Transportation Addressing Climate Change in the Absence of Federal Guidelines;6 WSDOT Efforts · Climate Change Team · Project Level GHG Approach · Planning Level GHG Approach · Alternative Fuels Corridor · Recent legislation and research #12;7 WSDOT Efforts: Climate Change Team

  10. Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and HydrologyHydrology Steven Fassnacht Watershed Science Colorado State University The Importance of Climate · Climate affects the environment and us ­ Ecology: vegetation and animals ­ Water Systems ­ People

  11. Burn propagation in a PBX 9501 thermal explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, B. F.; Smilowitz, L.; Romero, J. J.; Sandstrom, M. M.; Asay, B. W.; Schwartz, C.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F.; Morris, C.; Murray, M. M.; McNeil, W. V.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Rightley, P. M.

    2007-12-12

    We have applied proton radiography to study the conversion of solid density to gaseous combustion products subsequent to ignition of a thermal explosion in PBX 9501. We apply a thermal boundary condition to the cylindrical walls of the case, ending with an induction period at 205 C. We then introduce a laser pulse that accelerates the thermal ignition and synchronizes the explosion with the proton accelerator. We then obtain fast, synchronized images of the evolution of density loss with few microsecond resolution during the approximately 100 microsecond duration of the explosion. We present images of the solid explosive during the explosion and discuss measured rates and assumed mechanisms of burning the role of pressure in this internal burning.

  12. Measuring large topographic change with InSAR: Lava thicknesses, extrusion rate and subsidence rate at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, John

    at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala S.K. Ebmeier a,n , J. Biggs b , T.A. Mather a , J.R. Elliott a , G. Wadge c , F. We apply this to Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, and measure increases in lava thickness of up to 140

  13. Wave Propagation in Gravitational Systems: Completeness of Quasinormal Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. S. C. Ching; P. T. Leung; W. M. Suen; K. Young

    1995-07-14

    The dynamics of relativistic stars and black holes are often studied in terms of the quasinormal modes (QNM's) of the Klein-Gordon (KG) equation with different effective potentials $V(x)$. In this paper we present a systematic study of the relation between the structure of the QNM's of the KG equation and the form of $V(x)$. In particular, we determine the requirements on $V(x)$ in order for the QNM's to form complete sets, and discuss in what sense they form complete sets. Among other implications, this study opens up the possibility of using QNM expansions to analyse the behavior of waves in relativistic systems, even for systems whose QNM's do {\\it not} form a complete set. For such systems, we show that a complete set of QNM's can often be obtained by introducing an infinitesimal change in the effective potential.

  14. Propagation of polarized light in opals: Amplitude and phase anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baryshev, A. V. Dokukin, M. E.; Merzlikin, A. M.; Inoue, M.

    2011-03-15

    The interaction of linearly polarized light with photonic crystals based on bulk and thin-film synthetic opals is studied. Experimental transmission spectra and spectra showing the polarization state of light transmitted through opals are discussed. A change in polarization is found for waves experiencing Bragg diffraction from systems of crystallographic planes of the opal lattice. It is shown that the polarization plane of the incident linearly polarized wave at the exit from photonic crystals can be considerably rotated. In addition, incident linearly polarized light can be transformed to elliptically polarized light with the turned major axis of the polarization ellipse. Analysis of polarization states of transmitted light by using the transfer-matrix theory and homogenization theory revealed good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra.

  15. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  16. MEDICAL RATES for Active Employees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    -time, your base salary is calculated on the full-time equivalent. For example, if you are at an appointment percentage of 50% and earn $12,000 per year, your base salary is $24,000 and UNM would contribute 40%. UNM Health-Bi-Weekly Rates Annualized Salary $34,999 and below Annualized Salary $35,000 - $49,999 Annualized

  17. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul (Stony Brook, NY)

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  18. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development Daniel H. Cole*THE COSTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE . ADAPTATIONCONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE . IV. A.

  19. Nonlinear effects of stretch on the flame front propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halter, F.; Tahtouh, T.; Mounaim-Rousselle, C. [Institut PRISME, Universite d'Orleans, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2010-10-15

    In all experimental configurations, the flames are affected by stretch (curvature and/or strain rate). To obtain the unstretched flame speed, independent of the experimental configuration, the measured flame speed needs to be corrected. Usually, a linear relationship linking the flame speed to stretch is used. However, this linear relation is the result of several assumptions, which may be incorrected. The present study aims at evaluating the error in the laminar burning speed evaluation induced by using the traditional linear methodology. Experiments were performed in a closed vessel at atmospheric pressure for two different mixtures: methane/air and iso-octane/air. The initial temperatures were respectively 300 K and 400 K for methane and iso-octane. Both methodologies (linear and nonlinear) are applied and results in terms of laminar speed and burned gas Markstein length are compared. Methane and iso-octane were chosen because they present opposite evolutions in their Markstein length when the equivalence ratio is increased. The error induced by the linear methodology is evaluated, taking the nonlinear methodology as the reference. It is observed that the use of the linear methodology starts to induce substantial errors after an equivalence ratio of 1.1 for methane/air mixtures and before an equivalence ratio of 1 for iso-octane/air mixtures. One solution to increase the accuracy of the linear methodology for these critical cases consists in reducing the number of points used in the linear methodology by increasing the initial flame radius used. (author)

  20. On the Source of Propagating Slow Magneto-acoustic Waves in Sunspots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasad, S Krishna; Khomenko, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent high-resolution observations of sunspot oscillations using simultaneously operated ground- and space-based telescopes reveal the intrinsic connection between different layers of the solar atmosphere. However, it is not clear whether these oscillations are externally driven or generated in-situ. We address this question by using observations of propagating slow magneto-acoustic waves along a coronal fan loop system. In addition to the generally observed decreases in oscillation amplitudes with distance, the observed wave amplitudes are also found to be modulated with time, with similar variations observed throughout the propagation path of the wavetrain. Employing multi-wavelength and multi-instrument data we study the amplitude variations with time as the waves propagate through different layers of the solar atmosphere. By comparing the amplitude-modulation period in different layers, we find that slow magneto-acoustic waves observed in sunspots are externally driven by photospheric p-modes, which prop...

  1. 1D3V PIC simulation of propagation of relativistic electron beam in an inhomogeneous plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shukla, Chandrashekhar; Patel, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    A recent experimental observation has shown efficient transport of Mega Ampere of electron currents through aligned carbon nanotube arrays [Phys. Rev Letts. 108, 235005 (2012)]. The result was subsequently interpreted on the basis of suppression of the filamentation instability in an inhomogeneous plasma [Phys. Plasmas 21, 012108 (2014)]. This inhomogeneity forms as a result of the ionization of the carbon nanotubes. In the present work a full 1D3V Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations have been carried out for the propagation of relativistic electron beams (REB) through an inhomogeneous background plasma. The suppression of the filamentation instability, responsible for beam divergence, is shown. The simulation also confirms that in the nonlinear regime too the REB propagation is better when it propagates through a plasma whose density is inhomogeneous transverse to the beam. The role of inhomogeneity scale length, its amplitude and the transverse beam temperature etc., in the suppression of the instability is ...

  2. Ultrasonic beam propagation in periodic structures: verifying the existence of sonic crystals in triangular structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrique Orduna-Malea

    2013-05-17

    When waves are propagated through a medium with scatters and these elements are positioned periodically, as in the crystal structures, multiple scattering leads to a phenomenon known as banded structures. This means that waves can propagate in a certain frequency range, according to rules of dispersion, while in other frequency ranges the propagation is cancelled. The first are called allowed bands and the last deaf bands. This work part in order to verify the existence of forbidden bands in the zone of ultrasonic frequency to triangular structures formed by cylinders (hollow and solid) of different diameters (8 and 16mm.). The results indicate that the triangular structure has selective attenuation zones, obtaining results similar to those theoretically predicted for the two main directions of symmetry (0 and 30).

  3. Proton Heating in Solar Wind Compressible Turbulence with Collisions between Counter-propagating Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Jiansen; Marsch, Eckart; Chen, Christopher H K; Wang, Linghua; Pei, Zhongtian; Zhang, Lei; Salem, Chadi S; Bale, Stuart D

    2015-01-01

    Magnetohydronamic turbulence is believed to play a crucial role in heating the laboratorial, space, and astrophysical plasmas. However, the precise connection between the turbulent fluctuations and the particle kinetics has not yet been established. Here we present clear evidence of plasma turbulence heating based on diagnosed wave features and proton velocity distributions from solar wind measurements by the Wind spacecraft. For the first time, we can report the simultaneous observation of counter-propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar wind turbulence. Different from the traditional paradigm with counter-propagating Alfv\\'en waves, anti-sunward Alfv\\'en waves (AWs) are encountered by sunward slow magnetosonic waves (SMWs) in this new type of solar wind compressible turbulence. The counter-propagating AWs and SWs correspond respectively to the dominant and sub-dominant populations of the imbalanced Els\\"asser variables. Nonlinear interactions between the AWs and SMWs are inferred from the non-orth...

  4. Propagation and dispersion of sausage wave trains in magnetic flux tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, R; Terradas, J

    2015-01-01

    A localized perturbation of a magnetic flux tube produces a pair of wave trains that propagate in opposite directions along the tube. These wave packets disperse as they propagate, where the extent of dispersion depends on the physical properties of the magnetic structure, on the length of the initial excitation, and on its nature (e.g., transverse or axisymmetric). In Oliver et al. (2014) we considered a transverse initial perturbation, whereas the temporal evolution of an axisymmetric one is examined here. In both papers we use a method based on Fourier integrals to solve the initial value problem. Previous studies on wave propagation in magnetic wave guides have emphasized that the wave train dispersion is influenced by the particular dependence of the group velocity on the longitudinal wavenumber. Here we also find that long initial perturbations result in low amplitude wave packets and that large values of the magnetic tube to environment density ratio yield longer wave trains. To test the detectability ...

  5. Modelling of Reflective Propagating Slow-mode Wave in a Flaring Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, X; Van Doorsselaere, T; Keppens, R; Xia, C

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-periodic propagating intensity disturbances have been observed in large coronal loops in EUV images over a decade, and are widely accepted to be slow magnetosonic waves. However, spectroscopic observations from Hinode/EIS revealed their association with persistent coronal upflows, making this interpretation debatable. We perform a 2.5D magnetohydrodynamic simulation to imitate the chromospheric evaporation and the following reflected patterns in a flare loop. Our model encompasses the corona, transition region, and chromosphere. We demonstrate that the quasi periodic propagating intensity variations captured by the synthesized \\textit{Solar Dynamics Observatory}/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 131, 94~\\AA~emission images match the previous observations well. With particle tracers in the simulation, we confirm that these quasi periodic propagating intensity variations consist of reflected slow mode waves and mass flows with an average speed of 310 km/s in an 80 Mm length loop with an average temperatu...

  6. Parametric instabilities of large-amplitude parallel propagating Alfven waves: 2-D PIC simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasuhiro Nariyuki; Shuichi Matsukiyo; Tohru Hada

    2008-04-25

    We discuss the parametric instabilities of large-amplitude parallel propagating Alfven waves using the 2-D PIC simulation code. First, we confirmed the results in the past study [Sakai et al, 2005] that the electrons are heated due to the modified two stream instability and that the ions are heated by the parallel propagating ion acoustic waves. However, although the past study argued that such parallel propagating longitudinal waves are excited by transverse modulation of parent Alfven wave, we consider these waves are more likely to be generated by the usual, parallel decay instability. Further, we performed other simulation runs with different polarization of the parent Alfven waves or the different ion thermal velocity. Numerical results suggest that the electron heating by the modified two stream instability due to the large amplitude Alfven waves is unimportant with most parameter sets.

  7. Study of lower hybrid wave propagation in ionized gas by Hamiltonian theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casolari, A.; Cardinali, A.

    2014-02-12

    In order to find an approximate solution to the Vlasov-Maxwell equation system describing the lower hybrid wave propagation in magnetic confined plasmas, the use of the WKB method leads to the ray tracing equations. The Hamiltonian character of the ray tracing equations is investigated analytically and numerically in order to deduce the physical properties of the wave propagating without absorption in the confined plasma. The consequences of the Hamiltonian character of the equations on the travelling wave, in particular, on the evolution of the parallel wavenumber along the propagation path have been accounted and the chaotic diffusion of the timeaveraged parallel wave-number towards higher values has been evaluated. Numerical analysis by means of a Runge-Kutta based algorithm implemented in a ray tracing code supplies the analytical considerations. A numerical tool based on the symplectic integration of the ray trajectories has been developed.

  8. Cascading Power Outages Propagate Locally in an Influence Graph that is not the Actual Grid Topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hines, Paul D H; Rezaei, Pooya

    2015-01-01

    In a cascading power transmission outage, component outages propagate non-locally; after one component outages, the next failure may be very distant, both topologically and geographically. As a result, simple models of topological contagion do not accurately represent the propagation of cascades in power systems. However, cascading power outages do follow patterns, some of which are useful in understanding and reducing blackout risk. This paper describes a method by which the data from many cascading failure simulations can be transformed into a graph-based model of influences that provides actionable information about the many ways that cascades propagate in a particular system. The resulting "influence graph" model is Markovian, since component outage probabilities depend only on the outages that occurred in the prior generation. To validate the model we compare the distribution of cascade sizes resulting from n-2 contingencies in a 2896 branch test case to cascade sizes in the influence graph. The two dist...

  9. Numerical Study of a Propagating Non-Thermal Microwave Feature in a Solar Flare Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Minoshima; T. Yokoyama

    2008-06-24

    We analytically and numerically study the motion of electrons along a magnetic loop, to compare with the observation of the propagating feature of the non-thermal microwave source in the 1999 August 28 solar flare reported by Yokoyama et al. (2002). We model the electron motion with the Fokker-Planck equation and calculate the spatial distribution of the gyrosynchrotron radiation. We find that the microwave propagating feature does not correspond to the motion of electrons with a specific initial pitch angle. This apparent propagating feature is a consequence of the motion of an ensemble of electrons with different initial pitch angles, which have different time and position to produce strong radiation in the loop. We conclude that the non-thermal electrons in the 1999 August 28 flare were isotropically accelerated and then are injected into the loop.

  10. Advertising Rates from May 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard

    and commitments in line with newspaper format changes. SMH and The Age editions of Drive are available only in NSW bookings taken inside cancellation deadline are taken on a non-cancellation basis. No liability note that Fairfax Media will only accept material via electronic transmission. Fairfax Media operates

  11. Hard X-ray Emission During Flares and Photospheric Field Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burtseva, O; Petrie, G J D; Pevtsov, A A

    2015-01-01

    We study the correlation between abrupt permanent changes of magnetic field during X-class flares observed by the GONG and HMI instruments, and the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed by RHESSI, to relate the photospheric field changes to the coronal restructuring and investigate the origin of the field changes. We find that spatially the early RHESSI emission corresponds well to locations of the strong field changes. The field changes occur predominantly in the regions of strong magnetic field near the polarity inversion line (PIL). The later RHESSI emission does not correspond to significant field changes as the flare footpoints are moving away from the PIL. Most of the field changes start before or around the start time of the detectable HXR signal, and they end at about the same time or later than the detectable HXR flare emission. Some of the field changes propagate with speed close to that of the HXR footpoint at a later phase of the flare. The propagation of the field changes often takes place after the...

  12. Laser pulse propagation in inhomogeneous magnetoplasma channels and wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, B. S., E-mail: bs-phy@yahoo.com; Jain, Archana [Government College Kota, Kota 324001 (India)] [Government College Kota, Kota 324001 (India); Jaiman, N. K. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota 324010 (India)] [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, University of Kota, Kota 324010 (India); Gupta, D. N. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)] [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jang, D. G.; Suk, H. [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kulagin, V. V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)] [Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Wakefield excitation in a preformed inhomogeneous parabolic plasma channel by an intense relativistic (?10{sup 19}?W/cm{sup 2}) circularly polarized Gaussian laser pulse is investigated analytically and numerically in the presence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. A three dimensional envelope equation for the evolution of the laser pulse is derived, which includes the effect of the nonparaxial and applied external magnetic field. A relation for the channel radius with the laser spot size is derived and examines numerically to see the external magnetic field effect. It is observed that the channel radius depends on the applied external magnetic field. An analytical expression for the wakefield is derived and validated with the help of a two dimensional particle in cell (2D PIC) simulation code. It is shown that the electromagnetic nature of the wakes in an inhomogeneous plasma channel makes their excitation nonlocal, which results in change of fields with time and external magnetic field due to phase mixing of the plasma oscillations with spatially varying frequencies. The magnetic field effect on perturbation of the plasma density and decreasing length is also analyzed numerically. In addition, it has been shown that the electron energy gain in the inhomogeneous parabolic magnetoplasma channel can be increased significantly compared with the homogeneous plasma channel.

  13. Change in historic buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Chien-Ni

    1992-01-01

    Change in historic buildings is inevitable. If these changes are not well-managed, the cityscape will be threatened because a city is composed of buildings. A good city should combine both growth and preservation. Controlling ...

  14. "Managing Department Climate Change"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    "Managing Department Climate Change" #12;Presenters · Ronda Callister Professor, Department Department Climate? · Assesment is essential for determining strategies for initiating change · In a research climate · Each panelist will describe an intervention designed to improve department climate ­ Ronda

  15. Numerical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Using Thermo-hydro-mechanical Analysis with Brittle Damage Model by Finite Element Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min, Kyoung

    2013-07-16

    Better understanding and control of crack growth direction during hydraulic fracturing are essential for enhancing productivity of geothermal and petroleum reservoirs. Structural analysis of fracture propagation and impact ...

  16. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate fracture propagation induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. For rigorous, full 3D modeling, we employ a numerical method that can model failure resulting from tensile and shear stresses, dynamic nonlinear permeability, leak-off in all directions, and thermo-poro-mechanical effects with the double porosity approach. Our numerical results indicate that fracture propagation is not the same as propagation of the water front, because fracturing is governed by geomechanics, whereas water saturation is determined by fluid flow. At early times, the water saturation front is almost identical to the fracture tip, suggesting that the fracture is mostly filled with injected water. However, at late times, advance of the water front is retarded compared to fracture propagation, yielding a significant gap between the water front and the fracture top, which is filled with reservoir gas. We also find considerable leak-off of water to the reservoir. The inconsistency between the fracture volume and the volume of injected water cannot properly calculate the fracture length, when it is estimated based on the simple assumption that the fracture is fully saturated with injected water. As an example of flow-geomechanical responses, we identify pressure fluctuation under constant water injection, because hydraulic fracturing is itself a set of many failure processes, in which pressure consistently drops when failure occurs, but fluctuation decreases as the fracture length grows. We also study application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods, because these methods are highly sensitive to changes in porosity and pore-fluid properties due to water injection into gas reservoirs. Employing a 3D finite-element EM geophysical simulator, we evaluate the sensitivity of the crosswell EM method for monitoring fluid movements in shaly reservoirs. For this sensitivity evaluation, reservoir models are generated through the coupled flow-geomechanical simulator and are transformed via a rock-physics model into electrical conductivity models. It is shown that anomalous conductivity distribution in the resulting models is closely related to injected water saturation, but not closely related to newly created unsaturated fractures. Our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that the crosswell EM method can be highly sensitive to conductivity changes that directly indicate the migration pathways of the injected fluid. Accordingly, the EM method can serve as an effective monitoring tool for distribution of injected fluids (i.e., migration pathways) during hydraulic fracturing operations

  17. Influence of finite radial geometry on the growth rate of ion-channel free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmani, Mohammad; Hamzehpour, Hossein; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-11-15

    The influence of finite radial geometry on the instability of a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in an ion-channel in a waveguide is investigated. The instability analysis is based on the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the perturbation about a self-consistent beam equilibrium. With the help of characteristic method the dispersion relation for the TE-mode is derived and analyzed through the numerical solutions. It is found that the positioning of the beam radius R{sub b} relative to the waveguide radius R{sub c}, and the ion-channel frequency can have a large influence on the maximum growth rate and corresponding wave number.

  18. Propagation of Reactions in Thermally-damaged PBX-9501

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, J W; Glascoe, E A; Kercher, J R; Willey, T M; Springer, H K; Greenwood, D W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Henson, B F; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-05

    A thermally-initiated explosion in PBX-9501 (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is observed in situ by flash x-ray imaging, and modeled with the LLNL multi-physics arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALE3D. The containment vessel deformation provides a useful estimate of the reaction pressure at the time of the explosion, which we calculate to be in the range 0.8-1.4 GPa. Closely-coupled ALE3D simulations of these experiments, utilizing the multi-phase convective burn model, provide detailed predictions of the reacted mass fraction and deflagration front acceleration. During the preinitiation heating phase of these experiments, the solid HMX portion of the PBX-9501 undergoes a {beta}-phase to {delta}-phase transition which damages the explosive and induces porosity. The multi-phase convective burn model results demonstrate that damaged particle size and pressure are critical for predicting reaction speed and violence. In the model, energetic parameters are taken from LLNL's thermochemical-kinetics code Cheetah and burn rate parameters from Son et al. (2000). Model predictions of an accelerating deflagration front are in qualitative agreement with the experimental images assuming a mode particle diameter in the range 300-400 {micro}m. There is uncertainty in the initial porosity caused by thermal damage of PBX-9501 and, thus, the effective surface area for burning. To better understand these structures, we employ x-ray computed tomography (XRCT) to examine the microstructure of PBX-9501 before and after thermal damage. Although lack of contrast between grains and binder prevents the determination of full grain size distribution in this material, there are many domains visible in thermally damaged PBX-9501 with diameters in the 300-400 {micro}m range.

  19. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  20. Curvature aided long range propagation of short laser pulses in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yedierler, Burak [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    The pre-filamentation regime of propagation of a short and intense laser pulse in the atmosphere is considered. Spatiotemporal self-focusing dynamics of the laser beam are investigated by calculating the coupled differential equations for spot size, pulse length, phase, curvature, and chirp functions of a Gaussian laser pulse via a variational technique. The effect of initial curvature parameter on the propagation of the laser pulse is taken into consideration. A method relying on the adjustment of the initial curvature parameter can expand the filamentation distance of a laser beam of given power and chirp is proposed.

  1. Propagation direction reversal of ionization zones in the transition between high and low current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Lab for Materials Processing and Die & Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Yang, Yuchen; Liu, Jason; Liu, Lin; Anders, André

    2014-12-11

    Past research has revealed the propagation of dense, asymmetric ionization zones in both high and low current magnetron discharges. Here we report about the direction reversal of ionization zone propagation as observed with fast cameras. At high currents, zones move in the E B direction with velocities of 103 to 104 m/s. However at lower currents, ionization zones are observed to move in the opposite, the -E B direction, with velocities ~;; 103 m/s. It is proposed that the direction reversal is associated with the local balance of ionization and supply of neutrals in the ionization zone.

  2. Huygens-Fresnel-Kirchhoff construction for quantum propagators with application to diffraction in space and time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arseni Goussev

    2012-01-06

    We address the phenomenon of diffraction of non-relativistic matter waves on openings in absorbing screens. To this end, we expand the full quantum propagator, connecting two points on the opposite sides of the screen, in terms of the free particle propagator and spatio-temporal properties of the opening. Our construction, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, describes the quantum phenomena of diffraction in space and diffraction in time, as well as the interplay between the two. We illustrate the method by calculating diffraction patterns for localized wave packets passing through various time-dependent openings in one and two spatial dimensions.

  3. Electric Rate Alternatives to Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandberg, K. R. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    ALTERNATIVES TO COGENERATION" K. R. SANDBERG, JR. INDUSTRIAL ACCOUNTS MANAGER - TEXAS GULF STATES UTILITIES COMPANY BEAUMONT, TEXAS ABSTRACT This paper discusses electric rate slternatives to cogeneration for the industrisl customer and attempts... electricity to municipalities and rural electric cooperatives in both Texas and Louisiana. In Baton Rouge. GSU supplies steam and electricity to a large industrial customer through a cogeneration facility that the company has had in operation since...

  4. Discovery of a Spin-Down State Change in the LMC Pulsar B0540-69

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, F E; Harding, A K; Martin, P; Smith, D A

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a large, sudden, and persistent increase in the spin-down rate of B0540-69, a young pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using observations from the Swift and RXTE satellites. The relative increase in the spin-down rate of 36% is unprecedented for B0540-69. No accompanying change in the spin rate is seen, and no change is seen in the pulsed X-ray emission from B0540-69 following the change in the spin-down rate. Such large relative changes in the spin-down rate are seen in the recently discovered class of 'intermittent pulsars', and we compare the properties of B0540-69 to such pulsars. We consider possible changes in the magnetosphere of the pulsar that could cause such a large change in the spin-down rate.

  5. Infrastructure Institutional Change Principle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Research shows that changes in infrastructure prompt changes in behavior (for better or worse). Federal agencies can modify their infrastructure to promote sustainability-oriented behavior change, ideally in ways that make new behaviors easier and more desirable to follow than existing patterns of behavior.

  6. CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE CHANGE AND BIODIVERSITY THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY #12;At, the origin of which is mainly related to human activities. For the first time climate change sends a strong of climate change and that will fully find material expression in the debates. What will the world we shape

  7. CLIMATE CHANGE & THE GREENHOUSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    CLIMATE CHANGE & THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;This development of these materials was supported under.nasa.gov/Features/BlueMarble/BlueMarble_history.php © 2014 University of Western Australia ISBN 978-0-646-93241-5 Title: Climate change and the greenhouse OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction to climate change resources 5 Alternative conceptions 6 References

  8. Forest Research: Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Research: Climate Change projects Forest Research is part of the Forestry Commission of climate change-related research is wide-ranging, covering impact assessment and monitoring, adaptation around a quarter of its research budget with Forest Research on climate change and related programmes

  9. Geography 131 Environmental Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the present landscape of the earth reflects past environmental conditions. We will then look at the impact Environmental Changes in the late Holocene 6 9 The Impact of People and Natural Environmental Changes in the late Holocene 7-8 10 TEST 2 - Thurs 8th The Impact of People and Natural Environmental Changes

  10. Climate change vulnerability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilderbrand, Robert H.

    Climate change vulnerability assessment of the Verde Island Passage, Philippines #12;ii This document should be cited as: R. Boquiren, G. Di Carlo, and M.C. Quibilan (Eds). 2010. Climate Change, Marine Climate Change Program Conservation International­Global Marine Division epidgeon

  11. Environment and Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galles, David

    Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE #12;The opinions expressed;Migration, Environment and Climate Change: ASSESSING THE EVIDENCE Edited by Frank Laczko and Christine with with the financial support of #12;3 Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence Contents

  12. Climate Change Workshop 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    1 Climate Change Workshop 2007 Adaptive Management and Resilience Relevant for the Platte River, UNL Climate Change Workshop 2007 · Resilience ·Why it matters · Adaptive Management ·How it helps ·Adaptive Capacity · What it is Overview Climate Change Workshop 2007 "A public Domain, once a velvet carpet

  13. Cooling rate, heating rate and aging effects in glassy water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Giovambattista; H. Eugene Stanley; Francesco Sciortino

    2004-03-03

    We report a molecular dynamics simulation study of the properties of the potential energy landscape sampled by a system of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process of regenerating the equilibrium liquid by heating the glass. We study the dependence of these processes on the cooling/heating rates as well as on the role of aging (the time elapsed in the glass state). We compare the properties of the potential energy landscape sampled during these processes with the corresponding properties sampled in the liquid equilibrium state to elucidate under which conditions glass configurations can be associated with equilibrium liquid configurations.

  14. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos and Videos Videos Re-EntryApproval OMB No.:Rates

  15. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power are

  16. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power

  17. October 2001 - September 2006 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power1 -

  18. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power1

  19. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power13 -

  20. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996 - September 2001 The rates BPA charges for power13