National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rate change propagation

  1. Utility rate change propagation is now much faster | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this page checks jobs in OpenEI's queue. I'd suggest doing a refresh of the page (Ctrl+F5 Windows or Shift+Command+R Mac) if you want to watch the number of jobs change in...

  2. Pressure dependence on the reaction propagation rate of PETN at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, M.F.

    1993-04-01

    The reaction propagation rate (RPR) of the sensitive high explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) was measured in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) over the pressure range of 2--20 GPa. The experimental technique used is the same as that previously reported. The RPR data shows that it burns one to two orders of magnitude faster in the DAC than 1,3,5,-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and nitromethane (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}) respectively. The PETN RPR curve did not show sample pressure-dependent behavior like that of nitromethane, but instead varied abruptly like the RPR curve of TATB. In order to interpret these changes, static-pressure DAC mid-IR FTIR spectra were taken of micro-pellets of PETN embedded in KBr. The relationship between changes in the spectra, the RPR curve, and published single crystal PETN wedge test data are discussed.

  3. Near-Term Acceleration In The Rate of Temperature Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Hartin, Corinne A.; Mundra, Anupriya; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2015-03-09

    Anthropogenically-driven climate changes, which are expected to impact human and natural systems, are often expressed in terms of global-mean temperature . The rate of climate change over multi-decadal scales is also important, with faster rates of change resulting in less time for human and natural systems to adapt . We find that current trends in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions are now moving the Earth system into a regime in terms of multi-decadal rates of change that are unprecedented for at least the last 1000 years. The rate of global-mean temperature increase in the CMIP5 archive over 40-year periods increases to 0.25±0.05 (1σ) °C per decade by 2020, an average greater than peak rates of change during the previous 1-2 millennia. Regional rates of change in Europe, North America and the Arctic are higher than the global average. Research on the impacts of such near-term rates of change is urgently needed.

  4. The Multi-Step CADIS method for shutdown dose rate calculations and uncertainty propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Johnson, Seth R.

    2015-12-01

    Shutdown dose rate (SDDR) analysis requires (a) a neutron transport calculation to estimate neutron flux fields, (b) an activation calculation to compute radionuclide inventories and associated photon sources, and (c) a photon transport calculation to estimate final SDDR. In some applications, accurate full-scale Monte Carlo (MC) SDDR simulations are needed for very large systems with massive amounts of shielding materials. However, these simulations are impractical because calculation of space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes throughout the structural materials is needed to estimate distribution of radioisotopes causing the SDDR. Biasing the neutron MC calculation using an importance function is not simple because it is difficult to explicitly express the response function, which depends on subsequent computational steps. Furthermore, the typical SDDR calculations do not consider how uncertainties in MC neutron calculation impact SDDR uncertainty, even though MC neutron calculation uncertainties usually dominate SDDR uncertainty.

  5. The Multi-Step CADIS method for shutdown dose rate calculations and uncertainty propagation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Johnson, Seth R.

    2015-12-01

    Shutdown dose rate (SDDR) analysis requires (a) a neutron transport calculation to estimate neutron flux fields, (b) an activation calculation to compute radionuclide inventories and associated photon sources, and (c) a photon transport calculation to estimate final SDDR. In some applications, accurate full-scale Monte Carlo (MC) SDDR simulations are needed for very large systems with massive amounts of shielding materials. However, these simulations are impractical because calculation of space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes throughout the structural materials is needed to estimate distribution of radioisotopes causing the SDDR. Biasing the neutron MC calculation using an importance function is not simple becausemore » it is difficult to explicitly express the response function, which depends on subsequent computational steps. Furthermore, the typical SDDR calculations do not consider how uncertainties in MC neutron calculation impact SDDR uncertainty, even though MC neutron calculation uncertainties usually dominate SDDR uncertainty.« less

  6. Future global environmental changes: Comparison with past and present rates of change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, K.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Quantification of past and present rates of vegetation change provides a yardstick for the evaluation of future rates of change. Holocene and post-settlement rates of vegetation change were measured at Channel Islands and Capitol Reef National Parks, and at Indiana Dunes and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshores, using various paleoecological proxy data. Vegetation changes were quantified using several multivariate ordination techniques. Comparison of past vegetation changes due to climatic shifts, plant succession, and plant migration, with ongoing changes due to grazing, logging, exotic species invasions, and modified fire regimes, demonstrates that plant communities are presently suffering rates of change which are unprecedented in their severity for the Last 5000 years. The climatic warming projected for the next 50 years will exacerbate these ongoing changes, but win only be one of many variables operating in the unplanned experimental redesign our natural ecosystems.

  7. Fracture Propagation and Permeability Change under Poro-thermoelastic Loads & Silica Reactivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2009-10-01

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Therefore, knowledge of the conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fractures are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have developed advanced poro-thermo-chemo-mechanical fracture models for rock fracture research in support of EGS design. The fracture propagation models are based on a regular displacement discontinuity formulation. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two-dimensional solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and reservoir pressure. Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is applied to study quartz precipitation/dissolution, as well as the variation in fracture aperture and pressure. Also, a three-dimensional model of injection/extraction has been developed to consider the impact poro- and thermoelastic stresses on fracture slip and injection pressure. These investigations shed light on the processes involved in the observed phenomenon of injection pressure variation (e.g., in Coso), and allow the assessment of the potential of thermal and chemical stimulation strategies.

  8. BEAM PROPAGATOR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003691MLTPL00 Beam Propagator for Weather Radars, Modules 1 and 2 http://www.exelisvis.com/ProductsServices/IDL.aspx

  9. Colorado - C.R.S. 40-3-104, Changes in Rates - Notice | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado - C.R.S. 40-3-104, Changes in Rates - Notice Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Colorado - C.R.S. 40-3-104,...

  10. Quantitative law describing market dynamics before and after interest-rate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Wang Fengzhong; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-06-15

    We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)approx(t-T){sup -O}MEGA, with OMEGA positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n{sup '}(|t-T|) of 'preshocks' before the interest-rate change at time T. This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the 'sign effect', in which 'bad news' has a larger impact than 'good news'. Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a 'market under-reaction' that lasts at least one trading day.

  11. Calculation of the dose rate emanating from gamma radiation of a gas jet propagating through the surface layer of the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharov, O.V.; Kovalenko, V.V.; Kolobashkin, V.M.

    1982-09-01

    The problem of calculating the dose rate on the Earth's surface which emanates from a gas jet is examined.

  12. Device for testing closure disks at high rates of change of pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merten, Jr., Charles W.

    1993-11-09

    A device for testing the burst pressure of closure disks which provides high pressure to both sides of a disk and rapidly releases pressure from one side thereof causing a high rate of change of pressure. A hollow notched plug allows the rapid release of pressure upon rupturing. A means is also disclosed for transmitting a tensile load from a piston to a hollow notched plug and for sealing the means for transmitting load within a hole in a piston.

  13. Device for testing closure disks at high rates of change of pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merten, C.W. Jr.

    1993-11-09

    A device is described for testing the burst pressure of closure disks which provides high pressure to both sides of a disk and rapidly releases pressure from one side thereof causing a high rate of change of pressure. A hollow notched plug allows the rapid release of pressure upon rupturing. A means is also disclosed for transmitting a tensile load from a piston to a hollow notched plug and for sealing the means for transmitting load within a hole in a piston. 5 figures.

  14. Wave Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Converter Effects on Nearshore Wave Propagation Jesse Roberts 1 , Grace Chang *2 , Craig Jones *3 Sandia National Laboratories 1515 Eubank SE, Albuquerque, NM 87123 USA 1...

  15. Measuring kinetic energy changes in the mesoscale with low acquisition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roldn, .; Martnez, I. A.; Rica, R. A.; Dinis, L.

    2014-06-09

    We report on the measurement of the average kinetic energy changes in isothermal and non-isothermal quasistatic processes in the mesoscale, realized with a Brownian particle trapped with optical tweezers. Our estimation of the kinetic energy change allows to access to the full energetic description of the Brownian particle. Kinetic energy estimates are obtained from measurements of the mean square velocity of the trapped bead sampled at frequencies several orders of magnitude smaller than the momentum relaxation frequency. The velocity is tuned applying a noisy electric field that modulates the amplitude of the fluctuations of the position and velocity of the Brownian particle, whose motion is equivalent to that of a particle in a higher temperature reservoir. Additionally, we show that the dependence of the variance of the time-averaged velocity on the sampling frequency can be used to quantify properties of the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid. Our method could be applied to detect temperature gradients in inhomogeneous media and to characterize the complete thermodynamics of biological motors and of artificial micro and nanoscopic heat engines.

  16. Wave Propagation Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-01-08

    WPP is a massively parallel, 3D, C++, finite-difference elastodynamic wave propagation code. Typical applications for wave propagation with WPP include: evaluation of seismic event scenarios and damage from earthquakes, non-destructive evaluation of materials, underground facility detection, oil and gas exploration, predicting the electro-magnetic fields in accelerators, and acoustic noise generation. For more information, see User’s Manual [1].

  17. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  18. EFFECTS OF PORE STRUCTURE CHANGE AND MULTI-SCALE HETEROGENEITY ON CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND REACTION RATE UPSCALING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindquist, W. Brent; Jones, Keith W.; Um, Wooyong; Rockhold, mark; Peters, Catherine A.; Celia, Michael A.

    2013-02-15

    This project addressed the scaling of geochemical reactions to core and field scales, and the interrelationship between reaction rates and flow in porous media. We targeted reactive transport problems relevant to the Hanford site ? specifically the reaction of highly caustic, radioactive waste solutions with subsurface sediments, and the immobilization of 90Sr and 129I through mineral incorporation and passive flow blockage, respectively. We addressed the correlation of results for pore-scale fluid-soil interaction with field-scale fluid flow, with the specific goals of (i) predicting attenuation of radionuclide concentration; (ii) estimating changes in flow rates through changes of soil permeabilities; and (iii) estimating effective reaction rates. In supplemental work, we also simulated reactive transport systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. As a whole, this research generated a better understanding of reactive transport in porous media, and resulted in more accurate methods for reaction rate upscaling and improved prediction of permeability evolution. These scientific advancements will ultimately lead to better tools for management and remediation of DOEs legacy waste problems. We established three key issues of reactive flow upscaling, and organized this project in three corresponding thrust areas. 1) Reactive flow experiments. The combination of mineral dissolution and precipitation alters pore network structure and the subsequent flow velocities, thereby creating a complex interaction between reaction and transport. To examine this phenomenon, we conducted controlled laboratory experimentation using reactive flow-through columns. ? Results and Key Findings: Four reactive column experiments (S1, S3, S4, S5) have been completed in which simulated tank waste leachage (STWL) was reacted with pure quartz sand, with and without Aluminum. The STWL is a caustic solution that dissolves quartz. Because Al is a necessary element in the formation of secondary mineral precipitates (cancrinite), conducting experiments under conditions with and without Al allowed us to experimentally separate the conditions that lead to quartz dissolution from the conditions that lead to quartz dissolution plus cancrinite precipitation. Consistent with our expectations, in the experiments without Al, there was a substantial reduction in volume of the solid matrix. With Al there was a net increase in the volume of the solid matrix. The rate and extent of reaction was found to increase with temperature. These results demonstrate a successful effort to identify conditions that lead to increases and conditions that lead to decreases in solid matrix volume due to reactions of caustic tank wastes with quartz sands. In addition, we have begun to work with slightly larger, intermediate-scale columns packed with Hanford natural sediments and quartz. Similar dissolution and precipitation were observed in these colums. The measurements are being interpreted with reactive transport modeling using STOMP; preliminary observations are reported here. 2) Multi-Scale Imaging and Analysis. Mineral dissolution and precipitation rates within a porous medium will be different in different pores due to natural heterogeneity and the heterogeneity that is created from the reactions themselves. We used a combination of X-ray computed microtomography, backscattered electron and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy combined with computational image analysis to quantify pore structure, mineral distribution, structure changes and fluid-air and fluid-grain interfaces. ? Results and Key Findings: Three of the columns from the reactive flow experiments at PNNL (S1, S3, S4) were imaged using 3D X-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) at BNL and analyzed using 3DMA-rock at SUNY Stony Brook. The imaging results support the mass balance findings reported by Dr. Ums group, regarding the substantial dissolution of quartz in column S1. An important observation is that of grain movement accompanying dissolution in the unconsolidated media. The resultant movement

  19. Changing ventilation rates in U.S. offices: Implications for health, work performance, energy, and associated economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Black, Douglas; Brunner, Gregory

    2011-07-01

    This paper provides quantitative estimates of benefits and costs of providing different amounts of outdoor air ventilation in U.S. offices. For four scenarios that modify ventilation rates, we estimated changes in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, work performance, short-term absence, and building energy consumption. The estimated annual economic benefits were $13 billion from increasing minimum ventilation rates (VRs) from 8 to 10 L/s per person, $38 billion from increasing minimum VRs from 8 to 15 L/s per person, and $33 billion from increasing VRs by adding outdoor air economizers for the 50% of the office floor area that currently lacks economizers. The estimated $0.04 billion in annual energy-related benefits of decreasing minimum VRs from 8 to 6.5 L/s per person are very small compared to the projected annual costs of $12 billion. Benefits of increasing minimum VRs far exceeded energy costs while adding economizers yielded health, performance, and absence benefits with energy savings.

  20. Voltage modulation of propagating spin waves in Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nawaoka, Kohei; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Tamura, Eiiti; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Shinjo, Teruya; Suzuki, Yoshishige

    2015-05-07

    The effect of a voltage application on propagating spin waves in single-crystalline 5?nm-Fe layer was investigated. Two micro-sized antennas were employed to excite and detect the propagating spin waves. The voltage effect was characterized using AC lock-in technique. As a result, the resonant field of the magnetostatic surface wave in the Fe was clearly modulated by the voltage application. The modulation is attributed to the voltage induced magnetic anisotropy change in ferromagnetic metals.

  1. Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie

    2013-04-23

    Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.

  2. Semiclassical propagation of Wigner functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dittrich, T.; Gomez, E. A.; Pachon, L. A.

    2010-06-07

    We present a comprehensive study of semiclassical phase-space propagation in the Wigner representation, emphasizing numerical applications, in particular as an initial-value representation. Two semiclassical approximation schemes are discussed. The propagator of the Wigner function based on van Vleck's approximation replaces the Liouville propagator by a quantum spot with an oscillatory pattern reflecting the interference between pairs of classical trajectories. Employing phase-space path integration instead, caustics in the quantum spot are resolved in terms of Airy functions. We apply both to two benchmark models of nonlinear molecular potentials, the Morse oscillator and the quartic double well, to test them in standard tasks such as computing autocorrelation functions and propagating coherent states. The performance of semiclassical Wigner propagation is very good even in the presence of marked quantum effects, e.g., in coherent tunneling and in propagating Schroedinger cat states, and of classical chaos in four-dimensional phase space. We suggest options for an effective numerical implementation of our method and for integrating it in Monte-Carlo-Metropolis algorithms suitable for high-dimensional systems.

  3. Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation in Nuclear Density...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Propagation in Nuclear Density Functional Theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation in Nuclear Density Functional ...

  4. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

    2014-03-15

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  5. On the propagation of a coupled saturation and pressure front

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Using an asymptotic technique, valid for a medium with smoothly varying heterogeneity, I derive an expression for the velocity of a propagating, coupled saturation and pressure front. Due to the nonlinearity of the governing equations, the velocity of the propagating front depends upon the magnitude of the saturation and pressure changes across the front in addition to the properties of the medium. Thus, the expression must be evaluated in conjunction with numerical reservoir simulation. The propagation of the two-phase front is governed by the background saturation distribution, the saturation-dependent component of the fluid mobility, the porosity, the permeability, the capillary pressure function, the medium compressibility, and the ratio of the slopes of the relative permeability curves. Numerical simulation of water injection into a porous layer saturated with a nonaqueous phase liquid indicates that two modes of propagation are important. The fastest mode of propagation is a pressure-dominated disturbance that travels through the saturated layer. This is followed, much later, by a coupled mode with a large saturation change. These two modes are also observed in a simulation using a heterogeneous porous layer. A comparison between the propagation times estimated from the results of the numerical simulation and predictions from the asymptotic expression indicates overall agreement.

  6. Vehicle Efficiency and Tractive Work: Rate of Change for the Past Decade and Accelerated Progress Required for U.S. Fuel Economy and CO2 Regulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, John

    2016-04-05

    A major driving force for change in light-duty vehicle design and technology is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) joint final rules concerning Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for model years (MY) 2016 through 2025 passenger cars and light trucks. The chief goal of this current study is to compare the already rapid pace of fuel economy improvement and technological change over the previous decade to the needed rate of change to meet regulations over the next decade. EPA and NHTSA comparisons of the MY 2004 USmore » light-duty vehicle fleet to the MY 2014 fleet shows improved fuel economy (FE) of approximately 28% using the same FE estimating method mandated for CAFE regulations. Future predictions by EPA and NHTSA concerning ensemble fleet fuel economy are examined as an indicator of needed vehicle rate-of-change. A set of 40 same-model vehicle pairs for MY 2005 and MY 2015 is compared to examine changes in energy use and related technological change over the 10 year period. Powertrain improvements measured as increased vehicle efficiency, and vehicle mass-glider improvements measured as decreased tractive work requirements are quantified. The focus is first on conventional gasoline powertrain vehicles which currently dominate the market, with hybrids also examined due to their high potential importance for CAFE compliance. Most hybrid vehicles with significant sales in 2014 were represented in the study. Results show 10 years of progress for the studied vehicle set includes lowered tractive effort of about 5.6% and improved powertrain efficiency of about 16.5%. Further analysis shows that this high rate of past progress must increase by about 50% in order to meet the 2025 CAFE standards. Examination of where certain MY 2015 vehicle compare to CAFE regulations is offered as well as some simple conjecture on what is needed to meet regulations under reasonable assumptions.« less

  7. Deflagration Rates and Molecular Bonding Trends of Statically...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We discuss our measurements of the chemical reaction propagation rate as a function of pressure. Materials investigated have included CL-20, HMX, TATB, and RDX crystalline powders, ...

  8. Rate Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  9. Propagation studies of metastable intermolecular composites (MIC).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, S. F.; Busse, J. R.; Asay, B. W.; Peterson, P. D.; Mang, J. T.; Bockmon, B.; Pantoya, M.

    2002-01-01

    Thermite materials are attractive energetic materials because the reactions are highly exothermic, have high energy densities, and high temperatures of combustion. However, the application of thermite materials has been limited because of the relative slow release of energy compared to other energetic materials. Engineered nano-scale composite energetic materials, such as Al/MoO{sub 3}, show promise for additional energetic material applications because they can react very rapidly. The composite material studied in this work consists of tailored, ultra-fine grain (30-200 nm diameter) aluminum particles that dramatically increase energy release rates of these thermite materials. These reactant clusters of fuel and oxidizer particles are in nearly atomic scale proximity to each other but are constrained from reaction until triggered. Despite the growing importance of nano-scale energetic materials, even the most basic combustion characteristics of these materials have not been thoroughly studied. This paper reports initial studies of the ignition and combustion of metastable intermolecular composites (MIC) materials. The goals were lo obtain an improved understanding of flame propagation mechanisms and combustion behaviors associated with nano-structured energetic materials. Information on issues such as reaction rate and behavior as a function of composition (mixture ratio), initial static charge, and particle size are essential and will allow scientists to design applications incorporating the benefits of these compounds. The materials have been characterized, specifically focusing on particle size, shape, distribution and morphology.

  10. Correcting radar range measurements for atmospheric propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Correcting radar range measurements for atmospheric propagation effects. Abstract not provided. Authors: Doerry, Armin Walter Publication Date: 2013-12-01 OSTI Identifier: ...

  11. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  12. An Estimator of Propagation of Cascading Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian; Wierzbicki, Kevin; Carreras, Benjamin A; Lynch, Vickie E; Newman, David E

    2006-01-01

    The authors suggest a statistical estimator to measure the extent to which failures propagate in cascading failures such as large blackouts.

  13. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  14. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  15. Effect of Resolution on Propagating Detonation Wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-07-10

    Simulations of the cylinder test are used to illustrate the effect of mesh resolution on a propagating detonation wave. For this study we use the xRage code with the SURF burn model for PBX 9501. The adaptive mesh capability of xRage is used to vary the resolution of the reaction zone. We focus on two key properties: the detonation speed and the cylinder wall velocity. The latter is related to the release isentrope behind the detonation wave. As the reaction zone is refined (2 to 15 cells for cell size of 62 to 8?m), both the detonation speed and final wall velocity change by a small amount; less than 1 per cent. The detonation speed decreases with coarser resolution. Even when the reaction zone is grossly under-resolved (cell size twice the reaction-zone width of the burn model) the wall velocity is within a per cent and the detonation speed is low by only 2 per cent.

  16. On the extraction of laminar flame speed and Markstein length from outwardly propagating spherical flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Large discrepancies among the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths of methane/air mixtures measured by different researchers using the same constant-pressure spherical flame method are observed. As an effort to reduce these discrepancies, one linear model (LM, the stretched flame speed changes linearly with the stretch rate) and two non-linear models (NM I and NM II, the stretched flame speed changes non-linearly with the stretch rate) for extracting the laminar flame speed and Markstein length from propagating spherical flames are investigated. The accuracy and performance of the LM, NM I, and NM II are found to strongly depend on the Lewis number. It is demonstrated that NM I is the most accurate for mixtures with large Lewis number (positive Markstein length) while NM II is the most accurate for mixtures with small Lewis number (negative Markstein length). Therefore, in order to get accurate laminar flame speed and Markstein length from spherical flame experiments, different non-linear models should be used for different mixtures. The validity of the theoretical results is further demonstrated by numerical and experimental studies. The results of this study can be used directly in spherical flame experiments measuring the laminar flame speed and Markstein length. (author)

  17. Efficient uncertainty propagation for network multiphysics systems.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Efficient uncertainty propagation for network multiphysics systems. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficient uncertainty propagation for network multiphysics systems. Authors: Phipps, Eric T. ; Wildey, Timothy Michael ; Constantine, Paul G. Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1063360 Report Number(s): SAND2013-0423J DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name:

  18. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  19. Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation in Nanocrystalline Alloys Prev Next Title: Uncommon Deformation Mechanisms during Fatigue-Crack Propagation ...

  20. Problems with propagation and time evolution in f ( T ) gravity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Problems with propagation and time evolution in f ( T ) gravity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Problems with propagation and time evolution in f ( T ) gravity Authors: ...

  1. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ...

  2. Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in ...

  3. Characterization of Heat-Wave Propagation through Laser-Driven...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Characterization of Heat-Wave Propagation through Laser-Driven Ti-Doped Underdense Plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of Heat-Wave Propagation...

  4. Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense Plasma for Efficient X-Ray Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in...

  5. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic ... Title: Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic ...

  6. Numerical investigation of spontaneous flame propagation under RCCI conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhagatwala, Ankit V; Sankaran, Ramanan; Kokjohn, Sage; Chen, Jacqueline H

    2015-06-30

    This paper presents results from one and two-dimensional direct numerical simulations under Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) conditions of a primary reference fuel (PRF) mixture consisting of n-heptane and iso-octane. RCCI uses in-cylinder blending of two fuels with different autoignition characteristics to control combustion phasing and the rate of heat release. These simulations employ an improved model of compression heating through mass source/sink terms developed in a previous work by Bhagatwala et al. (2014), which incorporates feedback from the flow to follow a predetermined experimental pressure trace. Two-dimensional simulations explored parametric variations with respect to temperature stratification, pressure profiles andmore » n-heptane concentration. Furthermore, statistics derived from analysis of diffusion/reaction balances locally normal to the flame surface were used to elucidate combustion characteristics for the different cases. Both deflagration and spontaneous ignition fronts were observed to co-exist, however it was found that higher n-heptane concentration provided a greater degree of flame propagation, whereas lower n-heptane concentration (higher fraction of iso-octane) resulted in more spontaneous ignition fronts. A significant finding was that simulations initialized with a uniform initial temperature and a stratified n-heptane concentration field, resulted in a large fraction of combustion occurring through flame propagation. The proportion of spontaneous ignition fronts increased at higher pressures due to shorter ignition delay when other factors were held constant. For the same pressure and fuel concentration, the contribution of flame propagation to the overall combustion was found to depend on the level of thermal stratification, with higher initial temperature gradients resulting in more deflagration and lower gradients generating more ignition fronts. Statistics of ignition delay are computed to assess the Zel’dovich (1980) theory for the mode of combustion propagation based on ignition delay gradients.« less

  7. Numerical investigation of spontaneous flame propagation under RCCI conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhagatwala, Ankit V; Sankaran, Ramanan; Kokjohn, Sage; Chen, Jacqueline H

    2015-06-30

    This paper presents results from one and two-dimensional direct numerical simulations under Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) conditions of a primary reference fuel (PRF) mixture consisting of n-heptane and iso-octane. RCCI uses in-cylinder blending of two fuels with different autoignition characteristics to control combustion phasing and the rate of heat release. These simulations employ an improved model of compression heating through mass source/sink terms developed in a previous work by Bhagatwala et al. (2014), which incorporates feedback from the flow to follow a predetermined experimental pressure trace. Two-dimensional simulations explored parametric variations with respect to temperature stratification, pressure profiles and n-heptane concentration. Furthermore, statistics derived from analysis of diffusion/reaction balances locally normal to the flame surface were used to elucidate combustion characteristics for the different cases. Both deflagration and spontaneous ignition fronts were observed to co-exist, however it was found that higher n-heptane concentration provided a greater degree of flame propagation, whereas lower n-heptane concentration (higher fraction of iso-octane) resulted in more spontaneous ignition fronts. A significant finding was that simulations initialized with a uniform initial temperature and a stratified n-heptane concentration field, resulted in a large fraction of combustion occurring through flame propagation. The proportion of spontaneous ignition fronts increased at higher pressures due to shorter ignition delay when other factors were held constant. For the same pressure and fuel concentration, the contribution of flame propagation to the overall combustion was found to depend on the level of thermal stratification, with higher initial temperature gradients resulting in more deflagration and lower gradients generating more ignition fronts. Statistics of ignition delay are computed to assess the Zel’dovich (1980) theory for the mode of combustion propagation based on ignition delay gradients.

  8. Fatigue and Creep Crack Propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 in the Annealed and Aged Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julian K. Benz; Richard N. Wright

    2013-10-01

    The crack propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 was studied under various conditions. Elevated temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted at 650 and 800 degrees C under constant stress intensity (triangle K) conditions and triangular or trapezoidal waveforms at various frequencies on as-received, aged, and carburized material. Environmental conditions included both laboratory air and characteristic VHTR impure helium. As-received Alloy 617 displayed an increase in the crack growth rate (da/dN) as the frequency was decreased in air which indicated a time-dependent contribution component in fatigue crack propagation. Material aged at 650°C did not display any influence on the fatigue crack growth rates nor the increasing trend of crack growth rate with decreasing frequency even though significant microstructural evolution, including y’ (Ni3Al) after short times, occurred during aging. In contrast, carburized Alloy 617 showed an increase in crack growth rates at all frequencies tested compared to the material in the standard annealed condition. Crack growth studies under quasi-constant K (i.e. creep) conditions were also completed at 650 degrees C and a stress intensity of K = 40 MPa9 (square root)m. The results indicate that crack growth is primarily intergranular and increased creep crack growth rates exist in the impure helium environment when compared to the results in laboratory air. Furthermore, the propagation rates (da/dt) continually increased for the duration of the creep crack growth either due to material aging or evolution of a crack tip creep zone. Finally, fatigue crack propagation tests at 800 degrees C on annealed Alloy 617 indicated that crack propagation rates were higher in air than impure helium at the largest frequencies and lowest stress intensities. The rates in helium, however, eventually surpass the rates in air as the frequency is reduced and the stress intensity is decreased which was not observed at 650 degrees C.

  9. Laser propagation in underdense plasmas: Scaling arguments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    The propagation of an intense laser beam in the underdense plasma is modelled by treating the plasma as a relativistic, zero temperature, charged fluid. For paraxial propagation and a sufficiently underdense plasma ({omega}p/{omega} {much_lt} 1), a multiple-scales technique is used to expand the exact equations in powers of the small parameter {theta} {equivalent_to} {omega}p/{omega}. The zeroth order equations are used in a critical examination of previous work on this problem, and to derive a scaling law for the threshold power required for cavitation.

  10. Light propagation in the South Pole ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Dawn; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is located in the ice near the geographic South Pole. Particle showers from neutrino interactions in the ice produce light which is detected by IceCube modules, and the amount and pattern of deposited light are used to reconstruct the properties of the incident neutrino. Since light is scattered and absorbed by ice between the neutrino interaction vertex and the sensor, IceCube event reconstruction depends on understanding the propagation of light through the ice. This paper presents the current status of modeling light propagation in South Pole ice, including the recent observation of an azimuthal anisotropy in the scattering.

  11. The various manifestations of collisionless dissipation in wave propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benisti, Didier; Morice, Olivier; Gremillet, Laurent

    2012-06-15

    The propagation of an electrostatic wave packet inside a collisionless and initially Maxwellian plasma is always dissipative because of the irreversible acceleration of the electrons by the wave. Then, in the linear regime, the wave packet is Landau damped, so that in the reference frame moving at the group velocity, the wave amplitude decays exponentially with time. In the nonlinear regime, once phase mixing has occurred and when the electron motion is nearly adiabatic, the damping rate is strongly reduced compared to the Landau one, so that the wave amplitude remains nearly constant along the characteristics. Yet, we show here that the electrons are still globally accelerated by the wave packet, and in one dimension, this leads to a non local amplitude dependence of the group velocity. As a result, a freely propagating wave packet would shrink, and therefore, so would its total energy. In more than one dimension, not only does the magnitude of the group velocity nonlinearly vary, but also its direction. In the weakly nonlinear regime, when the collisionless damping rate is still significant compared to its linear value, the group velocity is directed towards the outside of the wave packet and tends to increase its transverse extent, while the opposite is true once the wave is essentially undamped. The impact of the nonlinear variation of the group velocity on the transverse size of the wave packet is quantified, and compared to that induced by the self-focussing due to wave front bowing.

  12. Radiation damage and associated phase change effect on photodesorption rates from icesLy? studies of the surface behavior of CO{sub 2}(ice)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Photodesorption from a crystalline film of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K has been studied using Ly? (10.2 eV) radiation. We combine quantitative mass spectrometric studies of gases evolved and transmission IR studies of species trapped in the ice. Direct CO desorption is observed from the primary CO{sub 2} photodissociation process, which occurs promptly for CO{sub 2} molecules located on the outermost surface of the ice (Process I). As the fluence of Ly? radiation increases to ?5.5 10{sup 17} photons cm{sup 2}, extensive damage to the crystalline ice occurs and photo-produced CO molecules from deeper regions (Process II) are found to desorb at a rapidly increasing rate, which becomes two orders of magnitude greater than Process I. It is postulated that deep radiation damage to produce an extensive amorphous phase of CO{sub 2} occurs in the 50 nm ice film and that CO (and CO{sub 2}) diffusive transport is strongly enhanced in the amorphous phase. Photodesorption in Process II is a combination of electronic and thermally activated processes. Radiation damage in crystalline CO{sub 2} ice has been monitored by its effects on the vibrational line shapes of CO{sub 2}(ice). Here the crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition has been correlated with the occurrence of efficient molecular transport over long distances through the amorphous phase of CO{sub 2}(ice). Future studies of the composition of the interstellar region, generated by photodesorption from ice layers on grains, will have to consider the significant effects of radiation damage on photodesorption rates.

  13. Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shalaby, M.; El-Sherif, L. S.; El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.

    2011-06-15

    Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.

  14. Detonation propagation in a high loss configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Scott I; Shepherd, Joseph E

    2009-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study of detonation wave propagation in tubes with inner diameters (ID) comparable to the mixture cell size. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in two test section tubes with inner diameters of 1.27 mm and 6.35 mm. For both test sections, the initial pressure of stoichiometric mixtures was varied to determine the effect on detonation propagation. For the 6.35 mm tube, the equivalence ratio {phi} (where the mixture was {phi} C{sub 3}H{sub 8} + 50{sub 2}) was also varied. Detonations were found to propagate in mixtures with cell sizes as large as five times the diameter of the tube. However, under these conditions, significant losses were observed, resulting in wave propagation velocities as slow as 40% of the CJ velocity U{sub CJ}. A review of relevant literature is presented, followed by experimental details and data. Observed velocity deficits are predicted using models that account for boundary layer growth inside detonation waves.

  15. Finance & Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    all of its costs in the rates it charges customers for wholesale electricity and transmission services. The agency is committed to careful cost management consistent with its...

  16. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1996-11-26

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator includes an evacuated chamber having a gun for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam or ion beam. The beam is discharged through a beam exit in the chamber into a higher pressure region. A plasma interface is disposed at the beam exit and includes a plasma channel for bounding a plasma maintainable between a cathode and an anode disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel is coaxially aligned with the beam exit for propagating the beam from the chamber, through the plasma, and into the higher pressure region. The plasma is effective for pumping down the beam exit for preventing pressure increase in the chamber and provides magnetic focusing of the beam discharged into the higher pressure region 24. 7 figs.

  17. Crack growth and propagation in metallic alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrey, W.C.; Wille, L.T.

    1996-12-01

    Using large-scale molecular dynamics simulation on a massively parallel computer, the authors have studied the initiation of cracking in a Monel-like alloy of Cu-Ni. In a low temperature 2D sample, fracture from a notch starts at a little beyond 2.5% critical strain when the propagation direction is perpendicular to a cleavage plane. The authors discuss a method of characterizing crack tip position using a measure of area around the crack tip.

  18. Information propagation for interacting-particle systems (Journal Article)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Information propagation for interacting-particle systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Information propagation for interacting-particle systems We study the speed at which information propagates through systems of interacting quantum particles moving on a regular lattice and show that for a certain class of initial conditions there exists a maximum speed of sound at which information can propagate. Our argument applies equally to quantum spins, bosons such as

  19. Magnesite Step Growth Rates as a Function of the Aqueous Magnesium:Carbonate Ratio

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bracco, Jacquelyn N.; Stack, Andrew G.; Higgins, Steven R.

    2014-10-01

    Step velocities of monolayer-height steps on the (101⁻4) magnesite surface have been measured as functions of the aqueous magnesium-to-carbonate ratio and saturation index (SI) using a hydrothermal atomic force microscope (HAFM). At SI ≤ 1.9 and 80-90 °C, step velocities were found to be invariant with changes in the magnesium-to-carbonate ratio, an observation in contrast with standard models for growth and dissolution of ionically-bonded, multi-component crystals. However, at high saturation indices (SI = 2.15), step velocities displayed a ratio dependence, maximized at magnesium-to-carbonate ratios slightly greater than 1:1. Traditional affinity-based models were unable to describe growth rates at the highermore » saturation index. Step velocities also could not be modeled solely through nucleation of kink sites, in contrast to other minerals whose bonding between constituent ions is also dominantly ionic in nature, such as calcite and barite. Instead, they could be described only by a model that incorporates both kink nucleation and propagation. Based on observed step morphological changes at these higher saturation indices, the step velocity maximum at SI = 2.15 is likely due to the rate of attachment to propagating kink sites overcoming the rate of detachment from kink sites as the latter becomes less significant under far from equilibrium conditions.« less

  20. An Empirical Study of Infrasonic Propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Paul Mutschlecner; Rodney W. Whitaker; Lawrence H. Auer

    1999-10-01

    Observations of atmospheric nuclear tests carried out at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 to 1958 provided data for an empirical investigation of how infrasonic signals are propagated to distances of about 250 km. Those observations and the analysis documented in this report involved signal amplitudes and average velocities and included three classes of signals: stratospheric, thermospheric, and tropospheric/surface. The authors' analysis showed that stratospheric winds have a dominant effect upon stratospheric signal amplitudes. The report outlines a method for normalizing stratospheric signal amplitudes for the effects of upper atmospheric winds and presents equations for predicting or normalizing amplitude and average velocity for the three types of signals.

  1. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY)

    1996-11-26

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator 14,14b includes an evacuated chamber 16a,b having a gun 18,18b for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam 12 or ion beam 12b. The beam 12,12b is discharged through a beam exit 22 in the chamber 16a,b into a higher pressure region 24. A plasma interface 34 is disposed at the beam exit 22 and includes a plasma channel 38 for bounding a plasma 40 maintainable between a cathode 42 and an anode 44 disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel 38 is coaxially aligned with the beam exit 22 for propagating the beam 12,12b from the chamber 16a,b, through the plasma 40, and into the higher pressure region 24. The plasma 40 is effective for pumping down the beam exit 22 for preventing pressure increase in the chamber 16a,b, and provides magnetic focusing of the beam 12,12b discharged into the higher pressure region 24.

  2. Neutrino emission in the jet propagation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, D.; Dai, Z. G.

    2014-07-20

    Relativistic jets are universal in long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) models. Before breaking out, they must propagate in the progenitor envelope along with a forward shock and a reverse shock forming at the jet head. Both electrons and protons will be accelerated by the shocks. High-energy neutrinos could be produced by these protons interacting with stellar materials and electron-radiating photons. The jet will probably be collimated, which may have a strong effect on the final neutrino flux. Under the assumption of a power-law stellar-envelope density profile ??r {sup ?} with index ?, we calculate the neutrino emission flux by these shocks for low-luminosity GRBs (LL-GRBs) and ultra-long GRBs (UL-GRBs) in different collimation regimes, using the jet propagation framework developed by Bromberg et al. We find that LL-GRBs and UL-GRBs are capable of producing detectable high-energy neutrinos up to ?PeV, from which the final neutrino spectrum can be obtained. Further, we conclude that a larger ? corresponds to greater neutrino flux at the high-energy end (?PeV) and to higher maximum neutrino energy as well. However, such differences are so small that it is not promising for us to be able to distinguish these in observations, given the energy resolution we have now.

  3. Identifying and Understanding Environment-Induced Crack propagation Behavior in Ni-based Superalloy INCONEL 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Longzhou

    2012-11-30

    The nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 617 is a candidate material for heat exchanger applications in the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) system. This project will study the crack propagation process of alloy 617 at temperatures of 650°C-950°C in air under static/cyclic loading conditions. The goal is to identify the environmental and mechanical damage components and to understand in-depth the failure mechanism. Researchers will measure the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate (da/dn) under cyclic and hold-time fatigue conditions, and sustained crack growth rates (da/dt) at elevated temperatures. The independent FCP process will be identified and the rate-controlled sustained loading crack process will be correlated with the thermal activation equation to estimate the oxygen thermal activation energy. The FCP-dependent model indicates that if the sustained loading crack growth rate, da/dt, can be correlated with the FCP rate, da/dn, at the full time dependent stage, researchers can confirm stress-accelerated grain-boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) as a predominate effect. Following the crack propagation tests, the research team will examine the fracture surface of materials in various cracking stages using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical microscope. In particular, the microstructure of the crack tip region will be analyzed in depth using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) mapping techniques to identify oxygen penetration along the grain boundary and to examine the diffused oxygen distribution profile around the crack tip. The cracked sample will be prepared by focused ion beam nanofabrication technology, allowing researchers to accurately fabricate the TEM samples from the crack tip while minimizing artifacts. Researchers will use these microscopic and spectroscopic results to interpret the crack propagation process, as well as distinguish and understand the environment or SAGBOE damage process under hold-time fatigue and sustained loading conditions

  4. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate Case Workshops Other Power Rates-Related Workshops July 1, 2004 - Rates and Finances Workshop (updated June 25, 2004) (financial and rate forecasts and scenarios for FY...

  5. A STUDY OF ALFVN WAVE PROPAGATION AND HEATING THE CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, Jiannan; Song, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Alfvn wave propagation, reflection, and heating of the chromosphere are studied for a one-dimensional solar atmosphere by self-consistently solving plasma, neutral fluid, and Maxwell's equations with incorporation of the Hall effect and strong electron-neutral, electron-ion, and ion-neutral collisions. We have developed a numerical model based on an implicit backward difference formula of second-order accuracy both in time and space to solve stiff governing equations resulting from strong inter-species collisions. A non-reflecting boundary condition is applied to the top boundary so that the wave reflection within the simulation domain can be unambiguously determined. It is shown that due to the density gradient the Alfvn waves are partially reflected throughout the chromosphere and more strongly at higher altitudes with the strongest reflection at the transition region. The waves are damped in the lower chromosphere dominantly through Joule dissipation, producing heating strong enough to balance the radiative loss for the quiet chromosphere without invoking anomalous processes or turbulences. The heating rates are larger for weaker background magnetic fields below ?500 km with higher-frequency waves subject to heavier damping. There is an upper cutoff frequency, depending on the background magnetic field, above which the waves are completely damped. At the frequencies below which the waves are not strongly damped, the interaction of reflected waves with the upward propagating waves produces power at their double frequencies, which leads to more damping. The wave energy flux transmitted to the corona is one order of magnitude smaller than that of the driving source.

  6. Digital reverse propagation in focusing Kerr media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goy, Alexandre; Psaltis, Demetri

    2011-03-15

    Lenses allow the formation of clear images in homogeneous linear media. Holography is an alternative imaging method, but its use is limited to cases in which it provides an advantage, such as three-dimensional imaging. In nonlinear media, lenses no longer work. The light produces intensity-dependent aberrations. The reverse propagation method used in digital holography to form images from recorded holograms works even in Kerr media [M. Tsang, D. Psaltis, and F. G. Omenetto, Opt. Lett. 28, 1873 (2003).]. The principle has been experimentally demonstrated recently in defocusing media [C. Barsi, W.Wan, and J.W. Fleischer, Nat. Photonics 3, 211 (2009).]. Here, we report experimental results in focusing media.

  7. Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media This study presents discrete and continuum simulations of shock wave propagating through jointed media. The simulations were performed using the Lagrangian hydrocode GEODYN-L with joints treated explicitly using an advanced contact algorithm. They studied both

  8. Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials The nanostructure of very-low-density aerogels (< 10 mg/cm3) affects the laser heating and propagation of the subsequent heat front. Simulations treat these materials as an atomistic medium without any structure differentiating between

  9. Estimating Failure Propagation in Models of Cascading Blackouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Nkei, Bertrand [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska

    2005-09-01

    We compare and test statistical estimates of failure propagation in data from versions of a probabilistic model of loading-dependent cascading failure and a power systems blackout model of cascading transmission line overloads. The comparisons suggest mechanisms affecting failure propagation and are an initial step towards monitoring failure propagation from practical system data. Approximations to the probabilistic model describe the forms of probability distributions of cascade sizes.

  10. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko ...

  11. Wave Propagation and Dispersion in Elasto-Plastic Microstructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Wave Propagation and Dispersion in Elasto-Plastic Microstructured Materials. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel ; Robbins, Joshua ; Voth, ...

  12. Wave propagation in anisotropic elastic materials and curvilinear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Wave propagation in anisotropic elastic materials and curvilinear coordinates using a summation-by-parts finite difference method Citation Details In-Document...

  13. Wave propagation in anisotropic elastic materials and curvilinear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wave propagation in anisotropic elastic materials and curvilinear coordinates using a summation-by-parts finite difference method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wave...

  14. Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Supersonic Heat Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Underdense Plasma for Efficient X-Ray Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Supersonic Heat Wave...

  15. Microsoft Word - EPA 6 Analysis of Fracture Propagation_final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in ... induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. ...

  16. Current BPA Power Rates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Workshops WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  17. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power...

  18. New approach for absolute fluence distribution calculations in Monte Carlo simulations of light propagation in turbid media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Böcklin, Christoph Baumann, Dirk; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2014-02-14

    A novel way to attain three dimensional fluence rate maps from Monte-Carlo simulations of photon propagation is presented in this work. The propagation of light in a turbid medium is described by the radiative transfer equation and formulated in terms of radiance. For many applications, particularly in biomedical optics, the fluence rate is a more useful quantity and directly derived from the radiance by integrating over all directions. Contrary to the usual way which calculates the fluence rate from absorbed photon power, the fluence rate in this work is directly calculated from the photon packet trajectory. The voxel based algorithm works in arbitrary geometries and material distributions. It is shown that the new algorithm is more efficient and also works in materials with a low or even zero absorption coefficient. The capabilities of the new algorithm are demonstrated on a curved layered structure, where a non-scattering, non-absorbing layer is sandwiched between two highly scattering layers.

  19. Propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum magnetized collisional plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R.; Taheri Boroujeni, S.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M.

    2013-12-15

    The propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum plasma in the presence of the external magnetic field and collisional effects is investigated by using quantum magnetohydrodynamics model. A general analytical expression for the dispersion relation of surface waves is obtained by considering the boundary conditions. It is shown that, in some special cases, the obtained dispersion relation reduces to the results reported in previous works. It is also indicated that the quantum, external magnetic field and collisional effects can facilitate the propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded plasma. In addition, it is found that the growth rate of the surface wave instability is enhanced by increasing the collision frequency and plasmonic parameter.

  20. Effect of thermal gravitational convection on flame propagation over a fuel surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsonov, V.P.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of thermal gravitational convection on flame propagation velocity and stability was determined by comparison of experimental results obtained by changing gravitational conditions while maintaining other external conditions constant. The fuel materials used were series BF glues. Interferograms were produced to study the alcohol vapor concentration field above the drying glue surface. Under conditions of normal gravity, flame behavior changes markedly. The flame loses stability and its structure becomes complex and strictly periodically repetitive. Experiments under conditions of weightlessness revealed that in the absence of gravity, relaxation combustion is impossible.

  1. Experimental study of stationary flame propagation in a tube under conditions of weightlessness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsonov, V.P.; Abrukov, S.A.; Danilkin, V.A.; Davydov, A.E.; Tyameikin, V.Y.

    1983-05-01

    The development of detailed concepts of the effect of gravitational conditions on a wide class of combustion phenomena has been hindered by the lack of a sufficient amount of experimental data on combustion under conditions of weightlessness. The present study investigates the changes in form of a laminar flame under the influence of natural thermal convection with stationary propagation in a vertical tube under normal gravitational conditions and under conditions of weightlessness, in which case convection is absent. Lean propane/CO/air mixtures were ignited in a reaction tube suspended in a weightlessness simulation chamber. High speed photographic recording of the flame front revealed that for flame propagation from an open lower end under normal gravitational conditions the flame front is more convex than under weightless conditions. Under conditions of weightlessness the form of the flame front is the same for propagation from either end. Equations are derived describing the change in flame front convexity produced by convection. Some divergence of the calculation results from the experimental data may be explained by the fact that the equations do not consider factors such as thermal expansion and viscosity of the combustion products, and the peculiarities of convective ascent of these products.

  2. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  3. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  4. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  5. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  6. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total mass removed from the weathering profile. Our analysis suggests that secondary clay precipitation is as important as aqueous transport in governing the amount of dissolution that occurs within a profile because clay minerals exert a strong control over the reaction affinity of the dissolving primary minerals. The modeling also indicates that the weathering advance rate and the total mass of mineral dissolved is controlled by the thermodynamic saturation of the primary dissolving phases plagioclase and K-feldspar, as is evident from the difference in propagation rates of the reaction fronts for the two minerals despite their very similar kinetic rate laws.

  7. Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousseau, O.; Yamada, M.; Miura, K.; Ogawa, S.; Otani, Y.

    2014-02-07

    We report on the experimental study of the propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic CoFeB stripes. Using an all electrical technique with coplanar waveguides, we find that two kinds of spin waves can be generated by nonlinear frequency multiplication. One has a non-uniform spatial geometry and thus requires appropriate detector geometry to be identified. The other corresponds to the resonant fundamental propagative spin waves and can be efficiently excited by double- or triple-frequency harmonics with any geometry. Nonlinear excited spin waves are particularly efficient in providing an electrical signal arising from spin wave propagation.

  8. TM01-mode microwave propagation property analysis for plasmas with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    disk-plate windows by a finite-difference time-domain method (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect TM01-mode microwave propagation property analysis for plasmas with disk-plate windows by a finite-difference time-domain method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TM01-mode microwave propagation property analysis for plasmas with disk-plate windows by a finite-difference time-domain method Numerical studies of microwave propagation properties in a conical horn and an adjustable

  9. Wave propagation and dispersion in a nonlinear microstructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wave propagation ... 1106985 Report Number(s): SAND2013-6966J 463826 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  10. PNCA-02 Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposed Adjustment to the Rate for Interchange Energy Imbalances Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA-02 Rate Case) (updated on April 26, 2002) BPA has issued...

  11. Electrically heated particulate filter propagation support methods and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-06-07

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A propagation module estimates a propagation status of the combustion of the particulate matter based on a combustion temperature. A temperature adjustment module controls the combustion temperature by selectively increasing a temperature of exhaust that passes through the particulate filter.

  12. Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser Propagation in Nanostructured Ultra-Low-Density Materials × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology.

  13. Circular polarization of obliquely propagating whistler wave magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellan, P. M.

    2013-08-15

    The circular polarization of the magnetic field of obliquely propagating whistler waves is derived using a basis set associated with the wave partial differential equation. The wave energy is mainly magnetic and the wave propagation consists of this magnetic energy sloshing back and forth between two orthogonal components of magnetic field in quadrature. The wave electric field energy is small compared to the magnetic field energy.

  14. Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation in Nuclear Density Functional

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation in Nuclear Density Functional Theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation in Nuclear Density Functional Theory Nuclear density functional theory (DFT) is one of the main theoretical tools used to study the properties of heavy and superheavy elements, or to describe the structure of nuclei far from stability. While on-going eff orts seek to better root

  15. Wave Propagation and Dispersion in Elasto-Plastic Microstructured

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Materials. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Wave Propagation and Dispersion in Elasto-Plastic Microstructured Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wave Propagation and Dispersion in Elasto-Plastic Microstructured Materials. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel ; Robbins, Joshua ; Voth, Thomas E. Publication Date: 2015-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1246266 Report Number(s): SAND2015-1780C 579622 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference

  16. Stimulated Raman scattering of beat wave of two counter-propagating X-mode lasers in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Kanika; Sajal, Vivek Varshney, Prateek; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K.

    2014-02-15

    Effects of transverse static magnetic field on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of the beat wave excited by two counter-propagating lasers are studied. Two counter-propagating lasers with frequency difference, ?{sub 1}??{sub 2}?2?{sub p}, drive a non resonant space charge beat mode at wave number k{sup ?}{sub 0}?k{sup ?}{sub 1}+k{sup ?}{sub 2} in a plasma, where k{sup ?}{sub 1} and k{sup ?}{sub 2} are wave vectors of lasers having frequencies ?{sub 1} and ?{sub 2}, respectively. The driven beat wave acts as a pump for SRS and excites parametrically a pair of plasma wave (?,k{sup ?}) and side band electromagnetic wave (?{sub 3},k{sup ?}{sub 3}) propagating in the sideward direction in such a way that momentum remains conserved. The growth rate of Raman process is maximum for side scattering at ?{sub s}=?/2 for lower values of applied magnetic field (?1?kG), which can be three fold by applying magnetic field ?5.0?kG. Thus, optimum value of magnetic field can be utilized to achieve maximum electron acceleration in counter propagating geometry of beat wave acceleration by reducing the growth rate of Raman process.

  17. Propagating and reflecting of spin wave in permalloy nanostrip with 360 domain wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Senfu; Mu, Congpu; Zhu, Qiyuan; Zheng, Qi; Liu, Xianyin; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2014-01-07

    By micromagnetic simulation, we investigated the interaction between propagating spin wave (or magnonic) and a 360 domain wall in a nanostrip. It is found that propagating spin wave can drive a 360 domain wall motion, and the velocity and direction are closely related to the transmission coefficient of the spin wave of the domain wall. When the spin wave passes through the domain wall completely, the 360 domain wall moves toward the spin wave source. When the spin wave is reflected by the domain wall, the 360 domain wall moves along the spin wave propagation direction. Moreover, when the frequency of the spin wave is coincident with that of the 360 domain wall normal mode, the 360 domain wall velocity will be resonantly enhanced no matter which direction the 360 DW moves along. On the other hand, when the spin wave is reflected from the moving 360 domain wall, we observed the Doppler effect clearly. After passing through a 360 domain wall, the phase of the spin wave is changed, and the phase shift is related to the frequency. Nevertheless, phase shift could be manipulated by the number of 360 domain walls that spin wave passing through.

  18. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  19. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...

  20. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov Power Rate Cases BPA's wholesale power rates are set to recover its costs and repay the U.S. Treasury for the Federal...

  1. Modeling quasi-static poroelastic propagation using an asymptotic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.

    2007-11-01

    Since the formulation of poroelasticity (Biot(1941)) and its reformulation (Rice & Cleary(1976)), there have been many efforts to solve the coupled system of equations. Perhaps because of the complexity of the governing equations, most of the work has been directed towards finding numerical solutions. For example, Lewis and co-workers published early papers (Lewis & Schrefler(1978); Lewis et al.(1991)Lewis, Schrefler, & Simoni) concerned with finite-element methods for computing consolidation, subsidence, and examining the importance of coupling. Other early work dealt with flow in a deformable fractured medium (Narasimhan & Witherspoon 1976); Noorishad et al.(1984)Noorishad, Tsang, & Witherspoon. This effort eventually evolved into a general numerical approach for modeling fluid flow and deformation (Rutqvist et al.(2002)Rutqvist, Wu, Tsang, & Bodvarsson). As a result of this and other work, numerous coupled, computer-based algorithms have emerged, typically falling into one of three categories: one-way coupling, loose coupling, and full coupling (Minkoff et al.(2003)Minkoff, Stone, Bryant, Peszynska, & Wheeler). In one-way coupling the fluid flow is modeled using a conventional numerical simulator and the resulting change in fluid pressures simply drives the deformation. In loosely coupled modeling distinct geomechanical and fluid flow simulators are run for a sequence of time steps and at the conclusion of each step information is passed between the simulators. In full coupling, the fluid flow and geomechanics equations are solved simultaneously at each time step (Lewis & Sukirman(1993); Lewis & Ghafouri(1997); Gutierrez & Lewis(2002)). One disadvantage of a purely numerical approach to solving the governing equations of poroelasticity is that it is not clear how the various parameters interact and influence the solution. Analytic solutions have an advantage in that respect; the relationship between the medium and fluid properties is clear from the form of the solution. Unfortunately, analytic solutions are only available for highly idealized conditions, such as a uniform (Rudnicki(1986)) or one-dimensional (Simon et al.(1984)Simon, Zienkiewicz, & Paul; Gajo & Mongiovi(1995); Wang & Kumpel(2003)) medium. In this paper I derive an asymptotic, semi-analytic solution for coupled deformation and flow. The approach is similar to trajectory- or ray-based methods used to model elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation (Aki & Richards(1980); Kline & Kay(1979); Kravtsov & Orlov(1990); Keller & Lewis(1995)) and, more recently, diffusive propagation (Virieux et al.(1994)Virieux, Flores-Luna, & Gibert; Vasco et al.(2000)Vasco, Karasaki, & Keers; Shapiro et al.(2002)Shapiro, Rothert, Rath, & Rindschwentner; Vasco(2007)). The asymptotic solution is valid in the presence of smoothly-varying, heterogeneous flow properties. The situation I am modeling is that of a formation with heterogeneous flow properties and uniform mechanical properties. The boundaries of the layer may vary arbitrary and can define discontinuities in both flow and mechanical properties. Thus, using the techniques presented here, it is possible to model a stack of irregular layers with differing mechanical properties. Within each layer the hydraulic conductivity and porosity can vary smoothly but with an arbitrarily large magnitude. The advantages of this approach are that it produces explicit, semi-analytic expressions for the arrival time and amplitude of the Biot slow and fast waves, expressions which are valid in a medium with heterogeneous properties. As shown here, the semi-analytic expressions provide insight into the nature of pressure and deformation signals recorded at an observation point. Finally, the technique requires considerably fewer computer resources than does a fully numerical treatment.

  2. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  3. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  4. Multi-dimensional instability of obliquely propagating ion acoustic solitary waves in electron-positron-ion superthermal magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EL-Shamy, E. F.

    2014-08-15

    The solitary structures of multidimensional ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) have been considered in magnetoplasmas consisting of electron-positron-ion with high-energy (superthermal) electrons and positrons are investigated. Using a reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is derived. The multi-dimensional instability of obliquely propagating (with respect to the external magnetic field) IASWs has been studied by the small-k (long wavelength plane wave) expansion perturbation method. The instability condition and the growth rate of the instability have been derived. It is shown that the instability criterion and their growth rate depend on the parameter measuring the superthermality, the ion gyrofrequency, the unperturbed positrons-to-ions density ratio, the direction cosine, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio. Clearly, the study of our model under consideration is helpful for explaining the propagation and the instability of IASWs in space observations of magnetoplasmas with superthermal electrons and positrons.

  5. Gluon propagators and center vortices in gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chernodub, M. N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Saito, T.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2011-06-01

    We study electric and magnetic components of the gluon propagators in quark-gluon plasma in terms of center vortices by using a quenched simulation of SU(2) lattice theory. In the Landau gauge, the magnetic components of the propagators are strongly affected in the infrared region by removal of the center vortices, while the electric components are almost unchanged by this procedure. In the Coulomb gauge, the time-time correlators, including an instantaneous interaction, also have an essential contribution from the center vortices. As a result, one finds that magnetic degrees of freedom in the infrared region couple strongly to the center vortices in the deconfinement phase.

  6. The fundamental solution of the unidirectional pulse propagation equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babushkin, I.; Bergé, L.

    2014-03-15

    The fundamental solution of a variant of the three-dimensional wave equation known as “unidirectional pulse propagation equation” (UPPE) and its paraxial approximation is obtained. It is shown that the fundamental solution can be presented as a projection of a fundamental solution of the wave equation to some functional subspace. We discuss the degree of equivalence of the UPPE and the wave equation in this respect. In particular, we show that the UPPE, in contrast to the common belief, describes wave propagation in both longitudinal and temporal directions, and, thereby, its fundamental solution possesses a non-causal character.

  7. A Study of Detonation Propagation and Diffraction with Compliant Confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banks, J; Schwendeman, D; Kapila, A; Henshaw, W

    2007-08-13

    A previous computational study of diffracting detonations with the ignition-and-growth model demonstrated that contrary to experimental observations, the computed solution did not exhibit dead zones. For a rigidly confined explosive it was found that while diffraction past a sharp corner did lead to a temporary separation of the lead shock from the reaction zone, the detonation re-established itself in due course and no pockets of unreacted material were left behind. The present investigation continues to focus on the potential for detonation failure within the ignition-and-growth (IG) model, but now for a compliant confinement of the explosive. The aim of the present paper is two fold. First, in order to compute solutions of the governing equations for multi-material reactive flow, a numerical method of solution is developed and discussed. The method is a Godunov-type, fractional-step scheme which incorporates an energy correction to suppress numerical oscillations that would occur near the material interface separating the reactive material and the inert confiner for standard conservative schemes. The numerical method uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on overlapping grids, and the accuracy of solutions is well tested using a two-dimensional rate-stick problem for both strong and weak inert confinements. The second aim of the paper is to extend the previous computational study of the IG model by considering two related problems. In the first problem, the corner-turning configuration is re-examined, and it is shown that in the matter of detonation failure, the absence of rigid confinement does not affect the outcome in a material way; sustained dead zones continue to elude the model. In the second problem, detonations propagating down a compliantly confined pencil-shaped configuration are computed for a variety of cone angles of the tapered section. It is found, in accord with experimental observation, that if the cone angle is small enough, the detonation fails prior to reaching the cone tip. For both the corner-turning and the pencil-shaped configurations, mechanisms underlying the behavior of the computed solutions are identified. It is concluded that disagreement between computation and experiment in the corner-turning case lies in the absence, in the model, of a mechanism that allows the explosive to undergo desensitization when subjected to a weak shock.

  8. Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitzman, Jerry; Lieuwen, Timothy

    2014-09-30

    This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These results provide evidence that the leading points model can provide useful predictions of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of operating conditions and flow geometries.

  9. Thermoacoustic wave propagation modeling using a dynamically adaptive wavelet collocation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilyev, O.V.; Paolucci, S.

    1996-12-31

    When a localized region of a solid wall surrounding a compressible medium is subjected to a sudden temperature change, the medium in the immediate neighborhood of that region expands. This expansion generates pressure waves. These thermally-generated waves are referred to as thermoacoustic (TAC) waves. The main interest in thermoacoustic waves is motivated by their property to enhance heat transfer by inducing convective motion away from the heated area. Thermoacoustic wave propagation in a two-dimensional rectangular cavity is studied numerically. The thermoacoustic waves are generated by raising the temperature locally at the walls. The waves, which decay at large time due to thermal and viscous diffusion, propagate and reflect from the walls creating complicated two-dimensional patterns. The accuracy of numerical simulation is ensured by using a highly accurate, dynamically adaptive, multilevel wavelet collocation method, which allows local refinements to adapt to local changes in solution scales. Subsequently, high resolution computations are performed only in regions of large gradients. The computational cost of the method is independent of the dimensionality of the problem and is O(N), where N is the total number of collation points.

  10. Self-Propagating Assembly of a Molecular-Based Multilayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motiei,L.; Altman, M.; Gupta, T.; Lupo, F.; Gulino, A.; Evmenenko, G.; Dutta, P.; van der Boom, M.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated growth of a molecular-based material that is an active participant in its continuing self-propagated assembly has been demonstrated. This nonlinear growth process involves diffusion of palladium into a network consisting of metal-based chromophores linked via palladium.

  11. Beam Propagator for Weather Radars, Modules 1 and 2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-10-08

    This program simulates the beam propagation of weather radar pulses under particular and realistic atmospheric conditions (without using the assumption of standard refraction conditions). It consists of two modules: radiosondings_refract_index_many.pro (MAIN MODULE) beam_propagation_function.pro(EXTERNAL FUNCTION) FOR THE MAIN MODULE, THE CODE DOES OUTPUT--INTO A FILE--THE BEAM HEIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF RANGE. THE RADIOSONDE INPUT FILES SHOULD BE ALREADY AVAILABLE BY THE USER. FOR EXAMPLE, RADIOSONDE OBSERVATION FILES CAN BE OBTAINED AT: RADIOSONDE OBSERVATIONS DOWNLOADED ATmore » "http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/soounding.html" OR "http://jervis.pyr.ec.gc.ca" THE EXTERNAL FUNCTION DOES THE ACTUAL COMPUTATION OF BEAM PROPAGATION. IT INCLUDES CONDITIONS OF ANOMALOUS PROPAGATION AND NEGATIVE ELEVATION ANGLES. THE EQUATIONS USED HERE WERE DERIVED BY EDWIN CAMPOS, BASED ON THE SNELL-DESCARTES LAW OF REFRACTION, CONSIDERING THE EARTH CURVATURE. THE PROGRAM REQUIRES A COMPILER FOR THE INTERACTIVE DATA LANGUAGE (IDL). DESCRIPTION AND VALIDATION DETAILS HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED IN THE PEER-REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE, AS FOLLOWS: Campos E. 2012. Estimating weather radar coverage over complex terrain, pp.26-32, peer reviewed, in Weather Radar and Hydrology, edited by Moore RJ, Cole SJ and Illingworth AJ. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Press, IAHS Publ. 351. ISBN 978-1-907161-26-1.« less

  12. On flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisazadeh-Far, Kian; Metghalchi, Hameed [Northeastern University, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Parsinejad, Farzan [Chevron Oronite Company LLC, Richmond, CA 94801 (United States); Keck, James C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Flame kernel formation and propagation in premixed gases have been studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments have been carried out at constant pressure and temperature in a constant volume vessel located in a high speed shadowgraph system. The formation and propagation of the hot plasma kernel has been simulated for inert gas mixtures using a thermodynamic model. The effects of various parameters including the discharge energy, radiation losses, initial temperature and initial volume of the plasma have been studied in detail. The experiments have been extended to flame kernel formation and propagation of methane/air mixtures. The effect of energy terms including spark energy, chemical energy and energy losses on flame kernel formation and propagation have been investigated. The inputs for this model are the initial conditions of the mixture and experimental data for flame radii. It is concluded that these are the most important parameters effecting plasma kernel growth. The results of laminar burning speeds have been compared with previously published results and are in good agreement. (author)

  13. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less

  14. Corrigendum and addendum. Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Christov, Ivan; Christov, C. I.; Jordan, P. M.

    2014-12-18

    This article presents errors, corrections, and additions to the research outlined in the following citation: Christov, I., Christov, C. I., & Jordan, P. M. (2007). Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 60(4), 473-495.

  15. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module. Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.

  16. ON SUN-TO-EARTH PROPAGATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ying D.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Moestl, Christian; Bale, Stuart D.; Lin, Robert P.; Lugaz, Noe; Davies, Jackie A.

    2013-05-20

    We investigate how coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagate through, and interact with, the inner heliosphere between the Sun and Earth, a key question in CME research and space weather forecasting. CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics are constrained by combining wide-angle heliospheric imaging observations, interplanetary radio type II bursts, and in situ measurements from multiple vantage points. We select three events for this study, the 2012 January 19, 23, and March 7 CMEs. Different from previous event studies, this work attempts to create a general picture for CME Sun-to-Earth propagation and compare different techniques for determining CME interplanetary kinematics. Key results are obtained concerning CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast CMEs can be approximately formulated into three phases: an impulsive acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed propagation (or gradual deceleration); (2) the CMEs studied here are still accelerating even after the flare maximum, so energy must be continuously fed into the CME even after the time of the maximum heating and radiation has elapsed in the corona; (3) the rapid deceleration, presumably due to interactions with the ambient medium, mainly occurs over a relatively short timescale following the acceleration phase; and (4) CME-CME interactions seem a common phenomenon close to solar maximum. Our comparison between different techniques (and data sets) has important implications for CME observations and their interpretations: (1) for the current cases, triangulation assuming a compact CME geometry is more reliable than triangulation assuming a spherical front attached to the Sun for distances below 50-70 solar radii from the Sun, but beyond about 100 solar radii we would trust the latter more; (2) a proper treatment of CME geometry must be performed in determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, especially when the CME propagation direction is far away from the observer; and (3) our approach to comparing wide-angle heliospheric imaging observations with interplanetary radio type II bursts provides a novel tool in investigating CME propagation characteristics. Future CME observations and space weather forecasting are discussed based on these results.

  17. Before a Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  18. Rating Agency Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liabilities Financial Plan Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales...

  19. BP-18 Rate Proceeding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  20. BP-12 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  1. BP-16 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  2. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  3. Effects of enhanced stratification on equatorward dynamo wave propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Käpylä, Petri J.; Mantere, Maarit J.; Cole, Elizabeth; Warnecke, Jörn; Brandenburg, Axel

    2013-11-20

    We present results from simulations of rotating magnetized turbulent convection in spherical wedge geometry representing parts of the latitudinal and longitudinal extents of a star. Here we consider a set of runs for which the density stratification is varied, keeping the Reynolds and Coriolis numbers at similar values. In the case of weak stratification, we find quasi-steady dynamo solutions for moderate rotation and oscillatory ones with poleward migration of activity belts for more rapid rotation. For stronger stratification, the growth rate tends to become smaller. Furthermore, a transition from quasi-steady to oscillatory dynamos is found as the Coriolis number is increased, but now there is an equatorward migrating branch near the equator. The breakpoint where this happens corresponds to a rotation rate that is about three to seven times the solar value. The phase relation of the magnetic field is such that the toroidal field lags behind the radial field by about π/2, which can be explained by an oscillatory α{sup 2} dynamo caused by the sign change of the α-effect about the equator. We test the domain size dependence of our results for a rapidly rotating run with equatorward migration by varying the longitudinal extent of our wedge. The energy of the axisymmetric mean magnetic field decreases as the domain size increases and we find that an m = 1 mode is excited for a full 2π azimuthal extent, reminiscent of the field configurations deduced from observations of rapidly rotating late-type stars.

  4. Effects of swirl-flow on flame propagation in a constant-volume vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, P.; Watanabe, Kazunori; Obara, Tetsuro; Yoshihashi, Teruo; Ohyagi, Shigeharu

    1999-07-01

    Flame propagation in a closed vessel is one of the fundamental topics in the combustion science and technology. This problem has been studied mostly for application to engine combustion because the combustion processes in a premixed spark ignition engine are well simulated by those processes in a constant-volume combustion chamber. One of the most important objective to study this phenomena is to elucidate the combustion phenomena to increase the thermal efficiency of engine by enhancing the combustion process. In real engines, a number of technical methods such as swirl, tumble, squish and jet flows ere developed to shorten a burning time. All of these methods make use of flows in the combustion chamber. The fundamental problem is then to elucidate a mechanism of reduction of the burning time by the flows and their turbulence. In the present work, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of swirl-flow on the flame propagation in a disc-shaped constant-volume vessel of 100 mm in diameter and 30 mm in depth. Figure A-1 shows a schematic of the apparatus. Gaseous mixtures used were methane diluted with air at an atmospheric pressure, and their equivalence ratios were varied as a parameter. Ignition timing was varied to change the velocity of swirling flow before the flame propagation. As results, a burning time was found to be decreased as the swirling flow increased and a maximum pressure was increased as the velocity increased as a total heat loss decreased. Flame front structures were clearly observed by the instantaneous schlieren photography.

  5. THE PROPAGATION OF NEUTRINO-DRIVEN JETS IN WOLF-RAYET STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagakura, Hiroki; Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555

    2013-02-20

    We numerically investigate the jet propagation through a rotating collapsing Wolf-Rayet star with detailed central engine physics constructed based on the neutrino-driven collapsar model. The collapsing star determines the evolution of the mass accretion rate, black hole mass, and spin, all of which are important ingredients for determining the jet luminosity. We reveal that neutrino-driven jets in rapidly spinning Wolf-Rayet stars are capable of breaking out from the stellar envelope, while those propagating in slower rotating progenitors fail to break out due to insufficient kinetic power. For progenitor models with successful jet breakouts, the kinetic energy accumulated in the cocoon could be as large as {approx}10{sup 51} erg and might significantly contribute to the luminosity of the afterglow emission or to the kinetic energy of the accompanying supernova if nickel production takes place. We further analyze the post-breakout phase using a simple analytical prescription and conclude that the relativistic jet component could produce events with an isotropic luminosity L {sub p(iso)} {approx} 10{sup 52} erg s{sup -1} and isotropic energy E {sub j(iso)} {approx} 10{sup 54} erg. Our findings support the idea of rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet stars as plausible progenitors of GRBs, while slowly rotational ones could be responsible for low-luminosity or failed GRBs.

  6. CS Chang

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CS Chang CS Chang FES Requirements Worksheet 1.1. Project Information - Center for Plasma Edge Simulation Document Prepared By CS Chang Project Title Center for Plasma Edge...

  7. Dynamic characteristic of intense short microwave propagation in an atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, J.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Mayhall, D.J.; Madsen, N.K.; Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of an intense microwave pulse which propagates through the atmosphere will be presented. Our theoretical results are obtained by solving Maxwell's equations, together with the electron fluid equations. Our calculations show that although large portions of the initial energy are absorbed by the electrons that are created through the avalanche process, a significant amount of energy is still able to reach the earth's surface. The amount of energy that reaches the earth's surface as a function of initial energy and wave shape after having propagated through 100 km in the atmosphere are investigated. Results for the air breakdown threshold intensity as a function of the pressure for different pulse widths and different frequencies will also be presented. In addition, we will present a comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results for the pulse shape of a short microwave pulse after it has traveled through a rectangular wave guide which contains a section of air. 23 references, 9 figures.

  8. Propagation of ultra-short solitons in stochastic Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt, Levent; Schfer, Tobias

    2014-01-15

    We study the propagation of ultra-short short solitons in a cubic nonlinear medium modeled by nonlinear Maxwell's equations with stochastic variations of media. We consider three cases: variations of (a) the dispersion, (b) the phase velocity, (c) the nonlinear coefficient. Using a modified multi-scale expansion for stochastic systems, we derive new stochastic generalizations of the short pulse equation that approximate the solutions of stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations. Numerical simulations show that soliton solutions of the short pulse equation propagate stably in stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations and that the generalized stochastic short pulse equations approximate the solutions to the stochastic Maxwell's equations over the distances under consideration. This holds for both a pathwise comparison of the stochastic equations as well as for a comparison of the resulting probability densities.

  9. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  10. Computation of Diffractive Beam Propagation of Monochromatic Light

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-02-20

    Computation of diffractive beam propagation of monochromatic light through a l-dimensional (slab) structure defined by a piecewise continuous complex index of refraction. Finite difference equations are fourth-order-accurate in the lateral grid size and include discontinuities of higher-order field derivatives at dielectric interfaces. Variable grid spacing is allowed, and all dielectric interfaces are assumed to coincide with grid points.

  11. Wave Propagation and Dispersion in Elasto-Plastic Microstructured Materials

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Where microstructure matters... Stunt computing option Math savvy option Perspective and summary OOOO OOO OOOOOOOO OO SAND2015-1780C Wave Propagation and Dispersion in Elasto-Plastic Microstructured Materials Remi Dingreville, Joshua Robbins and Thomas E. Voth Sandia National Laboratories1 rdingre@sandia.gov TMS Annual Meeting: Constitutive Response and Modeling of Structural Materials: An SMD Symposium in Honor of G.T. Gray III's 60th Birthday Interfaces and Surfaces session Orlando, FL, March

  12. Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Podgorney, Robert Karl

    2015-04-01

    A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.

  13. Commitment Institutional Change Principle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commitment can be a crucial element that helps federal agencies inject and emphasize sustainability in their organizational culture. Institutions and people change when they have made definite commitments to change, especially when those commitments relate to future conditions. Research shows that explicit commitments improve the rate at which people adopt energy-efficient behaviors.

  14. Fracture behavior of ceramic laminates in bending-I. Modeling of crack propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillipps, A.J.; Clegg, W.J.; Clyne, T.W. . Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy)

    1993-03-01

    This paper concerns the fracture behavior of specimens made up of ceramic sheets, separated by thin interlayers, which act to deflect cracks and thus to prevent catastrophic failure of the specimen. The treatment is divided into two parts. In this paper, the behavior of this type of material during bending is quantitatively modeled. The model is based on through-thickness cracks propagating when a critical stress is reached and interfacial cracks then advancing a distance dictated by the available energy. The variation in laminae strengths is modeled using a Monte Carlo method to determine the strength of successive laminae for a given Weibull modulus. The model is used to predict load/displacement plots and to explore the effects of changes in loading geometry and specimen variables, including Young's modulus, lamina strength, loading span, interfacial toughness, as well as lamina and sample thickness. A distinction is drawn between the energy actually absorbed in causing complete failure of the specimen as measured from the area under the load/displacement curve, and the amount of energy necessary to cause the crack propagation which occurred. These differ if the energy available to drive the interfacial cracks is more than sufficient for them to reach the ends of the specimen or if energy is dissipated elsewhere in the system. A criterion is derived by which specimens can be designed so as to minimize the difference between these two quantities. The significance of this concept in optimizing the toughness of these laminated materials is briefly discussed.

  15. Problems with propagation and time evolution inf(T)gravity (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Problems with propagation and time evolution inf(T)gravity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Problems with propagation and time evolution inf(T)gravity Authors: Ong, Yen...

  16. Propagating spectroscopy of backward volume spin waves in a metallic FeNi film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, N.; Ishida, N.; Kawakami, T.; Sekiguchi, K.

    2014-01-20

    We report a propagating spin wave spectroscopy for a magnetostatic backward volume spin wave in a metallic Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81} film. We show that the mutual-inductance between two independent antennas detects a small but clear propagation signal of backward volume spin waves. All experimental data are consistent with the time-domain propagating spin-wave spectroscopy. The control of propagating backward spin wave enables to realize the miniaturize spin-wave circuit.

  17. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  18. Intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking propagation behavior of alloy 600 in high-temperature caustic solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, H.; Hirano, H. . Komae Research Lab.)

    1999-06-01

    The effect of stress intensity factors (K) at the intergranular attack and stress corrosion crack (IGA/SCC) tips on the IGA/SCC propagation behavior of steam generator (SG) tubing was studied under accelerated test conditions. Values of K at the IGA/SCC crack tips were calculated using the statically indeterminate model. Based upon analysis of those factors, the double-cantilever beam (DCB) and SG model boiler tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of stress intensity on IGA/SCC crack propagation. K at the crack tips increased with increasing crack length. For a long crack, K decreased with an increasing number of cracks. However, for a short crack, K decreased slightly with an increasing number of cracks. DCB test results showed the IGA/SCC crack velocity of alloy 600 (UNS N06600) increased gradually with increasing K in the range from 15 MPa[radical]m to [approximately]60 MPa[radical]m. This is the range relevant to IGA/SCC crack tips of typical SG tubes under operating conditions of Pressurized-water reactors. Metallographic examination of tubes removed from the SG model boiler, fouled with 10 ppm sodium hydroxide (NaOH), showed IGA/SCC propagation rates were almost constant in the tested range of K.

  19. LOCA simulation: analysis of rarefaction waves propagating through geometric singularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crouzet, Fabien; Faucher, Vincent; Galon, Pascal; Piteau, Philippe; Izquierdo, Patrick

    2012-07-01

    The propagation of a transient wave through an orifice is investigated for applications to Loss Of Coolant Accident in nuclear plants. An analytical model is proposed for the response of an orifice plate and implemented in the EUROPLEXUS fast transient dynamics software. It includes an acoustic inertial effect in addition to a quasi-steady dissipation term. The model is experimentally validated on a test rig consisting in a single pipe filled with pressurized water. The test rig is designed to generate a rapid depressurization of the pipe, by means of a bursting disk. The proposed model gives results which compare favourably with experimental data. (authors)

  20. Harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser beams propagating in plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Ekta; Hemlata,; Jha, Pallavi

    2015-04-15

    An analytical theory is developed for studying the phenomenon of generation of harmonics by the propagation of an obliquely incident, circularly polarized laser beam in homogeneous, underdense plasma. The amplitudes of second and third harmonic radiation as well as detuning distance have been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. The amplitude of harmonic radiation increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning distance decreases, for a given plasma electron density. It is observed that the generated second and third harmonic radiation is linearly and elliptically polarized, respectively. The harmonic radiation vanishes at normal incidence of the circularly polarized laser beam.

  1. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plateau 376-7435 Class of Change I - Signatories X II - Executive Manager III - Project Manager Change Title Modify Tri-Party Agreement Milestone Series M-015 in...

  2. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plateau 376-7435 Class of Change X I - Signatories II - Executive Manager III - Project Manager Change Title Modify Tri-Party Agreement Milestone Series M-020 in...

  3. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  4. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Previous Data Years Year: 2013 2011 2010 2008 2002 Go Background and Methodology The data ... The initial report on coal transportation rates covered the years 2001 through 2008, ...

  5. Draft Tiered Rate Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Regional Dialogue Discussion Purposes Only Pre-Decisional Draft Tiered Rates Methodology March 7, 2008 Pre-decisional, Deliberative, For Discussion Purposes Only March 7,...

  6. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  7. Effects of radiation and compression on propagating spherical flames of methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zheng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Large discrepancies between the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths measured in experiments and those predicted by simulations for ultra-lean methane/air mixtures bring a great concern for kinetic mechanism validation. In order to quantitatively explain these discrepancies, a computational study is performed for propagating spherical flames of lean methane/air mixtures in different spherical chambers using different radiation models. The emphasis is focused on the effects of radiation and compression. It is found that the spherical flame propagation speed is greatly reduced by the coupling between thermal effect (change of flame temperature or unburned gas temperature) and flow effect (inward flow of burned gas) induced by radiation and/or compression. As a result, for methane/air mixtures near the lean flammability limit, the radiation and compression cause large amounts of under-prediction of the laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths extracted from propagating spherical flames. Since radiation and compression both exist in the experiments on ultra-lean methane/air mixtures reported in the literature, the measured laminar flame speeds and Markstein lengths are much lower than results from simulation and thus cannot be used for kinetic mechanism validation. (author)

  8. Electromagnetic wave propagation through an overdense magnetized collisional plasma layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, C.; Rose, D. V.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Hughes, T. P. [Voss Scientific LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The results of investigations into the feasibility of using a magnetic window to propagate electromagnetic waves through a finite-sized overdense plasma slab are described. We theoretically calculate the transmission coefficients for right- and left-handed circularly polarized plane waves through a uniform magnetized plasma slab. Using reasonable estimates for the plasma properties expected to be found in the ionized shock layer surrounding a hypersonic aircraft traveling in the earth's upper atmosphere (radio blackout conditions), and assuming a 1 GHz carrier frequency for the radio communications channel, we find that the required magnetic field for propagation of right-handed circularly polarized, or whistler, waves is on the order of a few hundred gauss. Transmission coefficients are calculated as a function of sheath thickness and are shown to be quite sensitive to the electron collision frequency. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the theory. These simulations also demonstrate that Ohmic heating of the electrons can be considerable. Two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using a simplified waveguide and antenna model illustrate the same general transmission behavior as the theory and one-dimensional simulations. In addition, a net focusing effect due to the plasma is also observed in two and three dimensions. These simulations can be extended to design and analyze more realistic waveguide and antenna models.

  9. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Dennis L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hackel, Lloyd; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Dane, C. Brent; Mrowka, Stanley

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  10. Self-Assembling Sup-porosity: The Effect On Fluid Flow And Seismic Wave Propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

    2013-04-27

    Fractures and joints in the field often contain debris within the void spaces. Debris originates from many different mechanisms: organic and/or inorganic chemical reactions/mineralization, sediment transport, formation of a fracture, mechanical weathering or combinations of these processes. In many cases, the presence of debris forms a “sub-porosity” within the fracture void space. This sub-porosity often is composed of material that differs from the fracture walls in mineralogy and morphology. The “sub-porosity” may partially fill voids that are on the order of hundreds of microns and thereby reduce the local porosity to lengths scales on the order of sub-microns to tens of microns. It is quite clear that a sub-porosity affects fracture porosity, permeability and storativity. What is not known is how the existence/formation of a sub-porosity affects seismic wave propagation and consequently our ability to probe changes in the subsurface caused by the formation or alteration of a sub-porosity. If seismic techniques are to be developed to monitor the injection and containment of phases in sequestration reservoirs or the propping of hydraulically induced fracture to enhance oil & gas production, it is important to understand how a sub-porosity within a fracture affects macroscopic seismic and hydraulic measurements. A sub-porosity will directly affect the interrelationship between the seismic and hydraulic properties of a fracture. This reports contains the results of the three main topics of research that were performed (1) to determine the effect of a sub-porosity composed of spherical grains on seismic wave propagation across fractures, (2) to determine the effect of biofilm growth in pores and between grains on seismic wave propagation in sediment, and (3) to determine the effect of the scale of observation (field-of-view) on monitoring alteration the pore space within a fracture caused by reactive flow. A brief summary of the results for each topic is contained in the report and the full details of the research and approach are contained in the publications found in the Attachment section of this report. A list of presentation and publications of all work associated with this grant is also provided.

  11. Magnetic separator having high rate of field change capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, J.A.; Crowe, K.M.

    1990-12-18

    This paper describes a combination of a large magnet for classifying magnetic particles from a passing fluid stream of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles. The large magnet including a central canister having a diameter exceeding 60-inches. It comprises: first and second manifolds for communicating; magnetic coils; a magnetic field; a power supply; first solid state rectifier circuit; second solid state rectifier circuit; first power supply drive means; and, second power supply drive means.

  12. Error field penetration and locking to the backward propagating wave

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finn, John M.; Cole, Andrew J.; Brennan, Dylan P.

    2015-12-30

    In this letter we investigate error field penetration, or locking, behavior in plasmas having stable tearing modes with finite real frequencies wr in the plasma frame. In particular, we address the fact that locking can drive a significant equilibrium flow. We show that this occurs at a velocity slightly above v = wr/k, corresponding to the interaction with a backward propagating tearing mode in the plasma frame. Results are discussed for a few typical tearing mode regimes, including a new derivation showing that the existence of real frequencies occurs for viscoresistive tearing modes, in an analysis including the effects ofmore » pressure gradient, curvature and parallel dynamics. The general result of locking to a finite velocity flow is applicable to a wide range of tearing mode regimes, indeed any regime where real frequencies occur.« less

  13. Wave propagation in an epoxy-graphite laminate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, B.E.; Johnson, J.N.; Addessio, F.L.

    1997-11-01

    The third-order, nonhomogenized, dynamic method of cells is used to calculate the particle velocity for a shock wave experiment involving an epoxy{endash}graphite laminate. Constitutive relations suitable for the various materials are used. This includes linear and nonlinear elasticity and, when appropriate, viscoelasticity. It is found to be beneficial to incorporate artificial viscosity into the analysis. Artificial viscosity successfully removes the unphysical high-frequency ringing in the numerical solutions of the theory, while leaving the physical oscillations, characteristic of wave propagation in a periodic laminate, largely undiminished. It also allows the viscoelastic relaxed moduli to be closer to their unrelaxed counterparts than in a previous calculation, thus making them more acceptable. The results agree well with the corresponding plate-impact experiment, and are compared to the second-order theory of Clements, Johnson, and Hixson [Phys. Rev. E, {bold 54}, 6876 (1996)]. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Error field penetration and locking to the backward propagating wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, John M.; Cole, Andrew J.; Brennan, Dylan P.

    2015-12-30

    In this letter we investigate error field penetration, or locking, behavior in plasmas having stable tearing modes with finite real frequencies wr in the plasma frame. In particular, we address the fact that locking can drive a significant equilibrium flow. We show that this occurs at a velocity slightly above v = wr/k, corresponding to the interaction with a backward propagating tearing mode in the plasma frame. Results are discussed for a few typical tearing mode regimes, including a new derivation showing that the existence of real frequencies occurs for viscoresistive tearing modes, in an analysis including the effects of pressure gradient, curvature and parallel dynamics. The general result of locking to a finite velocity flow is applicable to a wide range of tearing mode regimes, indeed any regime where real frequencies occur.

  15. Modeling self-propagating exothermic reactions in multilayer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayaraman, S.; Mann, A.B.; Knio, O.M.; Van Heerden, D.; Bao, G.; Weihs, T.P.

    1998-12-31

    Self-propagating reactions in free-standing multilayer foils provide a unique opportunity to study very rapid, diffusion-based transformations in non-equilibrium material systems. To fully understand the coupling between mass and thermal diffusion controlling these reactions and to optimize the commercial use of reactive foils, the authors have undertaken analytical and numerical modeling. Their analytical model predicts an increase in the reaction velocities with decreasing bilayer thickness down to a critical bilayer thickness and a reversal in this trend below the critical thickness. Predicting reaction characteristics such as the flame thermal width, the reaction zone width and the effect of variations in material properties with temperature has proven analytically intractable. To overcome these limitations, the authors have also used numerical methods to determine the composition and temperature profiles ahead of the reaction front for different multilayer periods and premixing. The results are compared with experimental values where possible.

  16. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stavroula Foteinopoulou

    2003-12-12

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates with the observed negatively refractive phenomena. They found that in the PC system, negative refraction is neither a prerequisite nor guarantees left-handed behavior. They examined carefully the condition to obtain left-handed behavior in the PC. They proposed a wedge type of experiment, in accordance with the experiment performed on the traditional LHM, to test these conditions. They found that for certain frequencies the PC shows left-handed behavior and acts in some respects like a homogeneous medium with a negative refractive index. they used the realistic PC system for this case to show how negative refraction occurs at the interface between a material with a positive and a material with a negative refractive index. Their findings indicate that the formation of the negatively refracted beam is not instantaneous and involves a transient time. With this time-dependent analysis, they were able to address previous controversial issues about negative refraction concerning causality and the speed of light limit. Finally, they attempt a systematic study of anomalous refractive phenomena that can occur at the air-PC interface. They observe cases where only a single refracted beam (in the positive or negative direction) is present, as well as cases with birefringence. they classify these different effects according to their origin and type of propagation (left-handed or not). For a complete study of the system, they also obtain expressions for the energy and group velocities, and show their equality. For cases with very low index contrast, band folding becomes an artificiality. They discuss the validity of their findings when they move to the limit of photonic crystals with a low index modulation.

  17. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change Log Change Log Crossroads/NERSC-9 Benchmarks Change Log 05/10/2016 Updated SNAP: New source distribution, LANL release version 1.07 -- See snap_release_v1.07.txt in the distribution for a list of changes. -- Now using Grind Time as the figure of merit. New Edison baseline performance values. Updated SSI Spreadsheet: Changed SNAP metric to Grind Time and updated Edison reference value. 04/13/2016 Updated GTC-P: Edison SSI reference time was updated. With the source changes made on

  18. DWPF Macrobatch 2 Melt Rate Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-01-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister production rate must be increased to meet canister production goals. Although a number of factors exist that could potentially increase melt rate, this study focused on two: (1) changes in frit composition and (2) changes to the feed preparation process to alter the redox of the melter feed. These two factors were investigated for Macrobatch 2 (sludge batch 1B) utilizing crucible studies and a specially designed ''melt rate'' furnace. Other potential factors that could increase melt rate include: mechanical mixing via stirring or the use of bubblers, changing the power skewing to redistribute the power input to the melter, and elimination of heat loss (e.g. air in leakage). The melt rate testing in FY00 demonstrated that melt rate can be improved by adding a different frit or producing a much more reducing glass by the addition of sugar as a reductant. The frit that melted the fastest in the melt rate testing was Frit 165. A paper stud y was performed using the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to determine the impact on predicted glass viscosity, liquidus, durability, and operating window if the frit was changed from Frit 200 to Frit 165. PCCS indicated that the window was very similar for both frits. In addition, the predicted viscosity of the frit 165 glass was 46 poise versus 84 poise for the Frit 200 glass. As a result, a change from Frit 200 to Frit 165 is expected to increase the melt rate in DWPF without decreasing waste loading.

  19. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to the solar ...

  20. Best Practices: Escalation Rates

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Best Practices Escalation Rates Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Best Practices: Escalation Rate Value of future energy savings * Provides purchasing power for implementing a robust, comprehensive and customized ECM set * Provides an option for paying back financing in the shortest possible

  1. The Coal Transportation: Rates and Trends in the United States...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    had previously disclosed transportation rates and mine prices changed policy. Those data were declared confidential and, by law, cannot be disclosed at individual company...

  2. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meetings & Workshops Rate Case Parties Web Site WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  3. 2007-2009 Power Rate Adjustments (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Function Review (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rate Adjustments BPA's 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) took effect on...

  4. Beam Propagation For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engine (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Beam Propagation For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy Engine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beam Propagation For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy Engine Several potential issues concerning laser-beam propagation thorough the LIFE target chambers are addressed. It is found that the absorption due to inverse Bremsstrahlung limits the gas density to approximately 2 {micro}g/cc of xenon gas. A

  5. Wave Propagation in Jointed Geologic Media (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Wave Propagation in Jointed Geologic Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wave Propagation in Jointed Geologic Media Predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in a jointed geologic media remain a modern day scientific frontier. In part this is due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of the complex physical processes associated with the transient response of geologic material, and in part it is due to numerical challenges that prohibit accurate

  6. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 97 MATHEMATICAL METHODS AND ...

  7. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-02-01 Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form Do not use blue ink. Type or print using black ink. Date 2/11/2002 Originator Phone P. M. Knollmeyer, Assistant Manager Central Plateau 376-7435 Class of Change [X] I - Signatories [ ] II - Executive Manager [ ] III - Project Manager Change Title Modification of the M-016 Series Milestones Description/Justification of Change The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (TPA) contains commitments for the U.S.

  8. CS Chang

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CS Chang CS Chang FES Requirements Worksheet 1.1. Project Information - Center for Plasma Edge Simulation Document Prepared By CS Chang Project Title Center for Plasma Edge Simulation Principal Investigator CS Chang Participating Organizations New York University, ORNL, PPPL, LBNL, MIT, Columbia U., Rutgers U. Lehigh U., Georgia Tech, Auburn U., U. Colorado, U. California at Irvine, Caltech, Hinton Associates Funding Agencies DOE SC DOE NSA NSF NOAA NIH Other: 2. Project Summary & Scientific

  9. Temperature dependent nucleation, propagation, and annihilation of domain walls in all-perpendicular spin-valve nanopillars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopman, D. B. Kent, A. D.; Bedau, D.; Mangin, S.; Fullerton, E. E.; Katine, J. A.

    2014-03-21

    We present a study of the temperature dependence of the switching fields in Co/Ni-based perpendicularly magnetized spin-valves. While magnetization reversal of all-perpendicular Co/Ni spin valves at ambient temperatures is typically marked by a single sharp step change in resistance, low temperature measurements can reveal a series of resistance steps, consistent with non-uniform magnetization configurations. We propose a model that consists of domain nucleation, propagation, and annihilation to explain the temperature dependence of the switching fields. Interestingly, low temperature (<30?K) step changes in resistance that we associate with domain nucleation have a bimodal switching field and resistance step distribution, attributable to two competing nucleation pathways.

  10. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change Log Change Log NERSC-8 / Trinity Benchmarks Change Log 09/03/2013 Correction applied to MiniDFT web-page (to remove inconsistency with MiniDFT README). Capability Improvement measurements do not require 10,000 MPI ranks per k-point. 08/06/2013 Various pages have changed to remove "draft" status 08/02/2013 Correction added to FLOP Counts for "Small" Single-Node Miniapplication Tests page 07/12/2013 README files updated for IOR benchmark to correct an error in wording

  11. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC-8 Trinity Benchmarks Change Log 09032013 Correction applied to MiniDFT web-page ... results spreadsheet (linked on SSP web page); clarification to benchmark run rules ...

  12. Exact propagating nonlinear singular disturbances in strongly coupled dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Amita; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Kaw, Predhiman; Sen, Abhijit [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2014-08-15

    The dynamical response of the strongly coupled dusty plasma medium has recently been described by utilizing the Generalized Hydrodynamic (GHD) model equations. The GHD equations capture the visco-elastic properties of the medium and have been successful in predicting a host of phenomena (e.g., existence of novel transverse shear waves in the fluid medium, modification of longitudinal wave dispersion by elastic effects, etc.) which have found experimental confirmation. In this paper, the nonlinear longitudinal response of the medium governed by GHD equations in strong coupling limit is discussed analytically. The structure of the equations rules out the balance between dispersion and nonlinearity, thereby, forbidding soliton formation. However, a host of new varieties of nonlinear solutions are found to exist, which have singular spatial profiles and yet have conservative properties. For instance, existence of novel conservative shock structures with zero strength is demonstrated, waves whose breaking produces no dissipation in the medium are observed, propagating solutions which produce cusp like singularities can exist and so on. It is suggested that simulations and experiments should look for these novel nonlinear structures in the large amplitude strong coupling limit of longitudinal disturbances in dusty plasmas.

  13. ENERGY CONTENT AND PROPAGATION IN TRANSVERSE SOLAR ATMOSPHERIC WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Soler, R.; Verth, G.

    2013-05-10

    Recently, a significant amount of transverse wave energy has been estimated propagating along solar atmospheric magnetic fields. However, these estimates have been made with the classic bulk Alfven wave model which assumes a homogeneous plasma. In this paper, the kinetic, magnetic, and total energy densities and the flux of energy are computed for transverse MHD waves in one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube models with a piecewise constant or continuous radial density profile. There are fundamental deviations from the properties for classic bulk Alfven waves. (1) There is no local equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy. (2) The flux of energy and the velocity of energy transfer have, in addition to a component parallel to the magnetic field, components in the planes normal to the magnetic field. (3) The energy densities and the flux of energy vary spatially, contrary to the case of classic bulk Alfven waves. This last property has the important consequence that the energy flux computed with the well known expression for bulk Alfven waves could overestimate the real flux by a factor in the range 10-50, depending on the flux tube equilibrium properties.

  14. Cybersim: geographic, temporal, and organizational dynamics of malware propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhi, Nandakishore; Yan, Guanhua; Eidenbenz, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Cyber-infractions into a nation's strategic security envelope pose a constant and daunting challenge. We present the modular CyberSim tool which has been developed in response to the need to realistically simulate at a national level, software vulnerabilities and resulting mal ware propagation in online social networks. CyberSim suite (a) can generate realistic scale-free networks from a database of geocoordinated computers to closely model social networks arising from personal and business email contacts and online communities; (b) maintains for each,bost a list of installed software, along with the latest published vulnerabilities; (d) allows designated initial nodes where malware gets introduced; (e) simulates, using distributed discrete event-driven technology, the spread of malware exploiting a specific vulnerability, with packet delay and user online behavior models; (f) provides a graphical visualization of spread of infection, its severity, businesses affected etc to the analyst. We present sample simulations on a national level network with millions of computers.

  15. THE PROPAGATION OF RELATIVISTIC JETS IN EXTERNAL MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberg, Omer; Piran, Tsvi; Sari, Re'em; Nakar, Ehud

    2011-10-20

    Relativistic jets are ubiquitous in astrophysical systems that contain compact objects. They transport large amounts of energy to large distances from the source and their interaction with the ambient medium has a crucial effect on the evolution of the system. The propagation of the jet is characterized by the formation of a shocked 'head' at the front of the jet which dissipates the jet's energy and a cocoon that surrounds the jet and potentially collimates it. We present here a self-consistent, analytic model that follows the evolution of the jet and its cocoon, and describes their interaction. We show that the critical parameter that determines the properties of the jet-cocoon system is the dimensionless ratio between the jet's energy density and the rest-mass energy density of the ambient medium. This parameter, together with the jet's injection angle, also determines whether the jet is collimated by the cocoon or not. The model is applicable to relativistic, unmagnetized jets on all scales and may be used to determine the conditions in active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets as well as in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) or microquasars. It shows that AGN and microquasar jets are hydrodynamically collimated due to the interaction with the ambient medium, while GRB jets can be collimated only inside a star and become uncollimated once they break out.

  16. Revenue-stability-target rate making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chernick, P.L.

    1983-02-17

    The commonly used rate-making approaches necessarily base themselves on assumptions, vital to their success, about future levels of utility aservice sales. But since sales are a function of random variables beyond the control of the utility as well as actions by the utility itself, the resulting rates fail to protect the utility's revenue stream and its realized rate of return. This article proposes an alternative approach which would decouple utility revenues from sales, thus stabilizing revenue streams with respect to sales fluctuations and rate design changes. Among the benefits would be a lower cost of capital for the utility, as well as decreased utility resistance to conservation by consumers and to efficient rate design.

  17. Physics-based statistical model and simulation method of RF propagation in urban environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Dvorak, Steven L.

    2010-09-14

    A physics-based statistical model and simulation/modeling method and system of electromagnetic wave propagation (wireless communication) in urban environments. In particular, the model is a computationally efficient close-formed parametric model of RF propagation in an urban environment which is extracted from a physics-based statistical wireless channel simulation method and system. The simulation divides the complex urban environment into a network of interconnected urban canyon waveguides which can be analyzed individually; calculates spectral coefficients of modal fields in the waveguides excited by the propagation using a database of statistical impedance boundary conditions which incorporates the complexity of building walls in the propagation model; determines statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields; and determines a parametric propagation model based on the statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields from which predictions of communications capability may be made.

  18. Fatigue-crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys processed by power and ingot metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O. ); Kim, N.J. ); Pizzo, P.P. )

    1990-04-01

    Fatigue-crack propagation behavior in powder-metallurgy (P/M) aluminum-lithium alloys, namely, mechanically-alloyed (MA) Al-4.0Mg-1.5Li-1.1C-0.80{sub 2} (Inco 905-XL) and rapid-solidification-processed (RSP) Al-2.6Li-1.0Cu-0.5Mg-0.5Zr (Allied 644-B) extrusions, has been studied, and results compared with data on an equivalent ingot-metallurgy (I/M) Al-Li alloy, 2090-T81 plate. Fatigue-crack growth resistance of the RSP Al-Li alloy is found to be comparable to the I/M Al-Li alloy; in contrast, crack velocities in MA 905-XL extrusions are nearly three orders of magnitude faster. Growth-rate response in both P/M Al-Li alloys, however, is high anisotropic. Results are interpreted in terms of the microstructural influence of strengthening mechanism, slip mode, grain morphology and texture on the development of crack-tip shielding from crack-path deflection and crack closure. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The initiation and propagation of helium detonations in white dwarf envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Ken J. [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Moore, Kevin, E-mail: kenshen@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Detonations in helium-rich envelopes surrounding white dwarfs have garnered attention as triggers of faint thermonuclear '.Ia' supernovae and double detonation Type Ia supernovae. However, recent studies have found that the minimum size of a hotspot that can lead to a helium detonation is comparable to, or even larger than, the white dwarf's pressure scale height, casting doubt on the successful ignition of helium detonations in these systems. In this paper, we examine the previously neglected effects of C/O pollution and a full nuclear reaction network, and we consider hotspots with spatially constant pressure in addition to constant density hotspots. We find that the inclusion of these effects significantly decreases the minimum hotspot size for helium-rich detonation ignition, making detonations far more plausible during turbulent shell convection or during double white dwarf mergers. The increase in burning rate also decreases the minimum shell mass in which a helium detonation can successfully propagate and alters the composition of the shell's burning products. The ashes of these low-mass shells consist primarily of silicon, calcium, and unburned helium and metals and may explain the high-velocity spectral features observed in most Type Ia supernovae.

  20. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8)more » with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.« less

  1. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  2. Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ecause it takes time to establish institutional change, federal agencies need multiyear plans that continuously work to achieve, reinforce, and improve significant and persistent sustainability goals.

  3. Optimizing the emission, propagation, and focusing of an intense electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepitone, K. Gardelle, J. Modin, P.

    2015-05-14

    Intense electron beams can be used to study the dynamical response of materials under shocks in order to adjust the models developed for hydrodynamics simulations. We present in this paper a characterization of beams produced in a field emission diode coupled to the generator RKA at CEA/CESTA. Cherenkov emission, produced by the beam interacting in a fused silica disk, was observed by fast optical cameras to estimate beam homogeneity. GEANT4 simulations were performed to estimate the transfer function of the silica target and to optimize the anode foil. First, we chose the best cathode material available among the most common materials used in field emission systems. In addition, we found that by optimization of the anode thickness, we could improve the spatial homogeneity of the beam which is of prime importance for computing the interaction of the beam with materials. Next, we changed the beam fluence by increasing the beam current and by reducing the beam radius. Finally, we studied the propagation and focusing of the electron beam in low pressure gases and observed that we could use self-magnetic field focusing in order to increase beam fluence at the target location. The experimental results are in good agreement with PIC simulations.

  4. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  5. Development of a non-propagating explosives storage cabinet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couch, W.A. ); Schneider, B.A. . Engineering Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNL) has completed the design of an Explosive Components Facility (ECF). Construction of the ECF is scheduled to begin in 1992 with completion in 1995. An integral part of the ECF will be on-site storage of explosives in six earth-covered service magazines. Each magazine will contain a non-propagating Explosives Storage Cabinet (ESC) system made up to twenty modular units. In addition to the secure storage of explosives, a primary purpose of the cabinet system is to prevent a sympathetic detonation of the explosives stored in the surrounding units as a result of an accidental detonation of up to 5.0 pounds of explosives (TNT equivalent) stored in a donor'' unit in the cabinet. Therefore, the maximum creditable event'' for each service magazine is 5.0 pounds, even though each magazine could contain up to 100 pounds of explosives stored in 5.0 pounds increments. A new material being developed at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI) known as SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fiber CONcrete), had been shown to be highly resistant to back spall from blast loadings, and penetration by high-velocity ballistic projectiles and fragments. These, and other characteristics unique to SIFCON, such as very high strength and ductility, appeared to make it an excellent candidate material for the modular units of the ESC. In 1989 SNL contracted with NMERI to develop a SIFCON modular unit for the ESC. Based upon the success of Phase 1 program, a more extensive Phase 2 program was undertaken in 1990 and has been successfully completed. This paper is a summary of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 work, which includes the design, fabrication, and explosive testing of the modular units.

  6. Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR) At the end of the performance cycle, the rating official must prepare an ISR in ePerformance for each SES member who has completed at least 90 days on an established performance plan. Rating officials must take into account the SES member's accomplishments achieved during the performance cycle and the impact to the organization's performance. Rating officials must appraise executives realistically and fairly and avoid ratings inflation.

  7. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting a specific power purchase. For more specific information see: 1996 Final Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules: Power Rates (PDF, 84 pages, 188 kb) Ancillary...

  8. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Date: M-16-04-04 Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form Do not use blue ink. Type or print using black ink. May 27, 2004 Originator: K. A. Klein Phone:...

  9. On the propagation of a quasi-static disturbance in a heterogeneous, deformable, and porous medium with pressure-dependent properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.

    2011-10-01

    Using an asymptotic technique, valid when the medium properties are smoothly-varying, I derive a semi-analytic expression for the propagation velocity of a quasi-static disturbance traveling within a nonlinear-elastic porous medium. The phase, a function related to the propagation time, depends upon the properties of the medium, including the pressure-sensitivities of the medium parameters, and on pressure and displacement amplitude changes. Thus, the propagation velocity of a disturbance depends upon its amplitude, as might be expected for a nonlinear process. As a check, the expression for the phase function is evaluated for a poroelastic medium, when the material properties do not depend upon the fluid pressure. In that case, the travel time estimates agree with conventional analytic estimates, and with values calculated using a numerical simulator. For a medium with pressure-dependent permeability I find general agreement between the semi-analytic estimates and estimates from a numerical simulation. In this case the pressure amplitude changes are obtained from the numerical simulator.

  10. PULSE RATE DIVIDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, H.C. Jr.

    1962-12-18

    A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

  11. Energy Escalation Rate Calculator Download

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Escalation Rate Calculator (EERC) computes an average annual escalation rate for a specified time period, which can be used as an escalation rate for contract payments in energy savings performance contracts and utility energy services contracts.

  12. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation through

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    coupled elastic-acoustic media (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation through coupled elastic-acoustic media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation through coupled elastic-acoustic media We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A

  13. CONDITIONS FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATION ALONG THIN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES ON THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopin, Igor; Nagorny, Ivan

    2013-09-10

    The propagation of kink waves in the thin gravity stratified flux tubes with a generalized magnetic field distribution model is considered in cylindrical geometry. The new kink wave equations for both wave variables are obtained. It is shown that the inclusion of the radial component of an unperturbed tube magnetic field sufficiently transforms the conditions for the propagation of transverse waves. It is demonstrated that, for the models of isothermal and polytropic atmosphere in the tube and its environment, the propagation of kink waves along thin magnetic flux tubes is cutoff-free.

  14. Unidirectional propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves at a magnetic film surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Kin L.; Bao, Mingqiang E-mail: caross@mit.edu; Lin, Yen-Ting; Wang, Kang L.; Bi, Lei; Wen, Qiye; Zhang, Huaiwu; Chatelon, Jean Pierre; Ross, C. A. E-mail: caross@mit.edu

    2014-12-08

    An analytical expression for the amplitudes of magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) propagating in opposite directions at a magnetic film surface is presented. This shows that for a given magnetic field H, it is forbidden for an independent MSSW to propagate along the direction of ?H{sup ?}n{sup ?}, where n{sup ?} is the surface normal. This unidirectional propagation property is confirmed by experiments with both permalloy and yttrium iron garnet films of different film thicknesses, and has implications in the design of spin-wave devices such as isolators and spin-wave diodes.

  15. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  16. Revenue instability induced by conservation rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesnutt, T.W.; McSpadden, C.; Christianson, J.

    1996-01-01

    The shift toward conservation rate structures, although they may provide better incentives to use scarce water wisely, changes who pays what and can increase the variability of future revenue streams to the water agency. Though the definition of the correct rate structure varies by community, the managerial strategies necessary to cope with the uncertainty brought about by conservation rate structures apply universally. Revenue instability directly increases water supplier`s borrowing costs and adds indirect costs in the form of more complicated planning to provide for a reliable future water supply. This article describes an empirical study using data from two water agencies that have adopted conservation rate structures. The article proposes ways quantitative tools may be used to (1) measure and cope with added uncertainty and (2) make explicit the magnitude of trade-offs between revenue stability, equity, and the provision of incentives for efficient use of water resources.

  17. Nonlinear propagation of a high-power focused femtosecond laser pulse in air under atmospheric and reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Ionin, Andrei A; Kudryashov, Sergei I; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Sunchugasheva, E S

    2012-04-30

    This paper examines the propagation of focused femtosecond gigawatt laser pulses in air under normal and reduced pressure in the case of Kerr self-focusing and photoionisation of the medium. The influence of gas density on the beam dimensions and power and the electron density in the plasma column in the nonlinear focus zone of the laser beam has been studied experimentally and by numerical simulation. It has been shown that, in rarefied air, the radiation-induced reduction in the rate of plasma formation diminishes the blocking effect of the plasma on the growth of the beam intensity in the case of tight focusing. This allows higher power densities of ultrashort laser pulses to be reached in the focal waist region in comparison with beam self-focusing under atmospheric pressure.

  18. Initiation and propagation of stress-corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high-temperature water. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1983-01-01

    Results of stress-corrosion cracking data are presented for Inconel 600 steam-generator tubing. U-bend, constant-load, and slow extension-rate tests are included. Arrhenius plots are presented for failure times vs inverse temperature for crack initiation and propagation. Effect of applied load is expressed in terms of log-log curves for failure times vs stress, and variations in environment and cold work are included. Microstructure and composition of oxide films on Inconel 600 surfaces were examined after exposure to pure water at 365/sup 0/C, and stripping with the bromine-methanol method. Results are discussed in terms of transient creep, film rupture and a mass-transport-limited anodic process.

  19. Inner heliospheric evolution of a 'STEALTH' CME derived from multi-view imaging and multipoint in situ observations. I. Propagation to 1 AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Stenborg, G.; Savani, N. P.; Koval, A.; Szabo, A.; Jian, L. K.

    2013-12-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the main driver of space weather. Therefore, a precise forecasting of their likely geo-effectiveness relies on an accurate tracking of their morphological and kinematical evolution throughout the interplanetary medium. However, single viewpoint observations require many assumptions to model the development of the features of CMEs. The most common hypotheses were those of radial propagation and self-similar expansion. The use of different viewpoints shows that, at least for some cases, those assumptions are no longer valid. From radial propagation, typical attributes that can now be confirmed to exist are over-expansion and/or rotation along the propagation axis. Understanding the 3D development and evolution of the CME features will help to establish the connection between remote and in situ observations, and hence help forecast space weather. We present an analysis of the morphological and kinematical evolution of a STEREO-B-directed CME on 2009 August 25-27. By means of a comprehensive analysis of remote imaging observations provided by the SOHO, STEREO, and SDO missions, and in situ measurements recorded by Wind, ACE, and MESSENGER, we prove in this paper that the event exhibits signatures of deflection, which are usually associated with changes in the direction of propagation and/or also with rotation. The interaction with other magnetic obstacles could act as a catalyst of deflection or rotation effects. We also propose a method to investigate the change of the CME tilt from the analysis of height-time direct measurements. If this method is validated in further work, it may have important implications for space weather studies because it will allow for inference of the interplanetary counterpart of the CME's orientation.

  20. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier5Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  1. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier1Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier1Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  2. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  3. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  4. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier4Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  5. Critical radius for sustained propagation of spark-ignited spherical flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Andrew P.; Jomaas, Grunde; Law, Chung K.

    2009-05-15

    An experimental study was performed to determine the requirements for sustained propagation of spark-ignited hydrogen-air and butane-air flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures. Results show that sustained propagation is always possible for mixtures whose Lewis number is less than unity, as long as a flame can be initially established. However, for mixtures whose Lewis number is greater than unity, sustained propagation depends on whether the initially ignited flame can attain a minimum radius. This minimum radius was determined for mixtures of different equivalence ratios and pressures, and was found to agree moderately well with the theoretically predicted critical radius beyond which there is no solution for the adiabatic, quasi-steady propagation of the spherical flame. The essential roles of pressure, detailed chemistry, and the need to use local values in the quantitative evaluation of the flame response parameters are emphasized. (author)

  6. Forecast Change

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Forecast Change 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 from 2015 United States Usage (kWh) 3,444 3,354 3,129 3,037 3,153 3,143 -0.3% Price (centskWh) 12.06 12.09 12.58 13.04 12.95 12.96 ...

  7. GLOBAL AND LOCAL CUTOFF FREQUENCIES FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATING ALONG SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Routh, S. [Department of Physics, R. V. College of Engineering, Bangalore (India)] [Department of Physics, R. V. College of Engineering, Bangalore (India); Musielak, Z. E. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Hammer, R., E-mail: routhswati@rvce.edu.in, E-mail: zmusielak@uta.edu, E-mail: hammer@kis.uni-freiburg.de [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, Schoeneckstr. 6, Freiburg, D-79104 Germany (Germany)

    2013-01-20

    It is a well-established result that the propagation of linear transverse waves along a thin but isothermal magnetic flux tube is affected by the existence of the global cutoff frequency, which separates the propagating and non-propagating waves. In this paper, the wave propagation along a thin and non-isothermal flux tube is considered and a local cutoff frequency is derived. The effects of different temperature profiles on this local cutoff frequency are studied by considering different power-law temperature distributions, as well as the semi-empirical VAL C model of the solar atmosphere. The obtained results show that the conditions for wave propagation strongly depend on the temperature gradients. Moreover, the local cutoff frequency calculated for the VAL C model gives constraints on the range of wave frequencies that are propagating in different parts of the solar atmosphere. These theoretically predicted constraints are compared to observational data and are used to discuss the role played by transverse tube waves in the atmospheric heating and dynamics, and in the excitation of solar atmospheric oscillations.

  8. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 30.56% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  9. April - September 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 40.77% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  10. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The PDF documents above provide tables of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with the LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustments for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply...

  11. April - September 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 36.93% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  12. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.66% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply a...

  13. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.91% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  14. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 46% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  15. April - September 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 49.50% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  16. April - September 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 47.00% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  17. FPS-96R Rate Adjustment (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Final Firm Power Products and Services (FPS-96R) Rate Adjustment In August 1999, BPA proposed to correct errors in the Firm Power Products and Services rate schedule (FPS-96), and...

  18. 2007-2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates In BPAs 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Case (WP-07), BPA agreed that it would post reports about BPAs power...

  19. WP-02 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-02 Power Rate Case (Updated on May 7, 2004) In May of 2000, the BPA Administrator signed a Record of Decision (ROD) on the 2002 Final Power Rate Proposal for the October 2001...

  20. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  1. Burn propagation in a PBX 9501 thermal explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, B. F.; Smilowitz, L.; Romero, J. J.; Sandstrom, M. M.; Asay, B. W.; Schwartz, C.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F.; Morris, C.; Murray, M. M.; McNeil, W. V.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Rightley, P. M.

    2007-12-12

    We have applied proton radiography to study the conversion of solid density to gaseous combustion products subsequent to ignition of a thermal explosion in PBX 9501. We apply a thermal boundary condition to the cylindrical walls of the case, ending with an induction period at 205 C. We then introduce a laser pulse that accelerates the thermal ignition and synchronizes the explosion with the proton accelerator. We then obtain fast, synchronized images of the evolution of density loss with few microsecond resolution during the approximately 100 microsecond duration of the explosion. We present images of the solid explosive during the explosion and discuss measured rates and assumed mechanisms of burning the role of pressure in this internal burning.

  2. Project Definition Rating Index Workbook

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI) Workbook is a tool that was developed to support DOE G-413.3-12A, U. S. Department of Energy Project Definition Rating Index Guide for Traditional Nuclear...

  3. Role of metastable atoms in the propagation of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Qing; Zhu Ximing; Li Jiangtao; Pu Yikang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-02-15

    In the experiment of plasma jets generated in a tube dielectric barrier discharge configuration, three distinguishable modes, namely, laminar, transition, and turbulent jet modes, have been identified. Flows of helium, neon, and argon gases shared the hydrodynamic law when their plasma jets spraying into ambient air of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Aiming to reveal the basic processes, we propose that plasma jet length is mainly determined by reactions involving metastable atoms. These processes are responsible for the variation in plasma jet length versus gas flow rate and working gas species. To investigate this proposal in detail, we have obtained three significant experimental results, i.e., (1) the plasma jet lengths of helium, neon, and argon are different; (2) the plasma jet length of krypton slightly changes with gas flow rate, with three modes indistinguishable; and (3) there are large differences between optical emission spectra of helium, neon, argon, and krypton flow gases. These observations are in good agreement with our proposal.

  4. Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

  5. Propagation of polarized light in opals: Amplitude and phase anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baryshev, A. V. Dokukin, M. E.; Merzlikin, A. M.; Inoue, M.

    2011-03-15

    The interaction of linearly polarized light with photonic crystals based on bulk and thin-film synthetic opals is studied. Experimental transmission spectra and spectra showing the polarization state of light transmitted through opals are discussed. A change in polarization is found for waves experiencing Bragg diffraction from systems of crystallographic planes of the opal lattice. It is shown that the polarization plane of the incident linearly polarized wave at the exit from photonic crystals can be considerably rotated. In addition, incident linearly polarized light can be transformed to elliptically polarized light with the turned major axis of the polarization ellipse. Analysis of polarization states of transmitted light by using the transfer-matrix theory and homogenization theory revealed good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra.

  6. Propagation of terahertz electromagnetic wave in plasma with inhomogeneous collision frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yuan; Han, YiPing; Ling, YingJie; Ai, Xia

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we investigate the absorption spectra of terahertz electromagnetic wave in plasma with inhomogeneous collision frequency. Profiles are introduced to describe the non-uniformity of collision frequency. It is interesting to find that when the plasma is collision frequency inhomogeneous, the absorption spectrum would decreases faster than that in uniform plasma. And the rate of decreasing would be different when the profile changes. Two parameters are set up to predict how the profiles affect the absorption spectra. Furthermore, the effects of electron density are also considered.

  7. Nonlinear effects of stretch on the flame front propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halter, F.; Tahtouh, T.; Mounaim-Rousselle, C. [Institut PRISME, Universite d'Orleans, 8 rue Leonard de Vinci, 45072 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2010-10-15

    In all experimental configurations, the flames are affected by stretch (curvature and/or strain rate). To obtain the unstretched flame speed, independent of the experimental configuration, the measured flame speed needs to be corrected. Usually, a linear relationship linking the flame speed to stretch is used. However, this linear relation is the result of several assumptions, which may be incorrected. The present study aims at evaluating the error in the laminar burning speed evaluation induced by using the traditional linear methodology. Experiments were performed in a closed vessel at atmospheric pressure for two different mixtures: methane/air and iso-octane/air. The initial temperatures were respectively 300 K and 400 K for methane and iso-octane. Both methodologies (linear and nonlinear) are applied and results in terms of laminar speed and burned gas Markstein length are compared. Methane and iso-octane were chosen because they present opposite evolutions in their Markstein length when the equivalence ratio is increased. The error induced by the linear methodology is evaluated, taking the nonlinear methodology as the reference. It is observed that the use of the linear methodology starts to induce substantial errors after an equivalence ratio of 1.1 for methane/air mixtures and before an equivalence ratio of 1 for iso-octane/air mixtures. One solution to increase the accuracy of the linear methodology for these critical cases consists in reducing the number of points used in the linear methodology by increasing the initial flame radius used. (author)

  8. Propagation of Reactions in Thermally-damaged PBX-9501

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tringe, J W; Glascoe, E A; Kercher, J R; Willey, T M; Springer, H K; Greenwood, D W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Henson, B F; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-05

    A thermally-initiated explosion in PBX-9501 (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is observed in situ by flash x-ray imaging, and modeled with the LLNL multi-physics arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian code ALE3D. The containment vessel deformation provides a useful estimate of the reaction pressure at the time of the explosion, which we calculate to be in the range 0.8-1.4 GPa. Closely-coupled ALE3D simulations of these experiments, utilizing the multi-phase convective burn model, provide detailed predictions of the reacted mass fraction and deflagration front acceleration. During the preinitiation heating phase of these experiments, the solid HMX portion of the PBX-9501 undergoes a {beta}-phase to {delta}-phase transition which damages the explosive and induces porosity. The multi-phase convective burn model results demonstrate that damaged particle size and pressure are critical for predicting reaction speed and violence. In the model, energetic parameters are taken from LLNL's thermochemical-kinetics code Cheetah and burn rate parameters from Son et al. (2000). Model predictions of an accelerating deflagration front are in qualitative agreement with the experimental images assuming a mode particle diameter in the range 300-400 {micro}m. There is uncertainty in the initial porosity caused by thermal damage of PBX-9501 and, thus, the effective surface area for burning. To better understand these structures, we employ x-ray computed tomography (XRCT) to examine the microstructure of PBX-9501 before and after thermal damage. Although lack of contrast between grains and binder prevents the determination of full grain size distribution in this material, there are many domains visible in thermally damaged PBX-9501 with diameters in the 300-400 {micro}m range.

  9. Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Writing an Effective ISR (max 8000 characters including spaces) Before writing: * Read definitions of rating levels and critical element targets carefully * Review Strategic Plan ...

  10. SN-03 Rate Case Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Related Link: SN-03 Power Rate Case May 1 & 13, 2003 - Debt and Liquidity Strategies workshops (on BPA Corporate web site) March 27, 2003 - SN CRAC Prescheduling...

  11. Study of lower hybrid wave propagation in ionized gas by Hamiltonian theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casolari, A.; Cardinali, A.

    2014-02-12

    In order to find an approximate solution to the Vlasov-Maxwell equation system describing the lower hybrid wave propagation in magnetic confined plasmas, the use of the WKB method leads to the ray tracing equations. The Hamiltonian character of the ray tracing equations is investigated analytically and numerically in order to deduce the physical properties of the wave propagating without absorption in the confined plasma. The consequences of the Hamiltonian character of the equations on the travelling wave, in particular, on the evolution of the parallel wavenumber along the propagation path have been accounted and the chaotic diffusion of the timeaveraged parallel wave-number towards higher values has been evaluated. Numerical analysis by means of a Runge-Kutta based algorithm implemented in a ray tracing code supplies the analytical considerations. A numerical tool based on the symplectic integration of the ray trajectories has been developed.

  12. Regularities of flame propagation in a tube under weightless conditions: stability investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsonov, V.P.; Abrukov, S.A.; Kidin, N.I.

    1985-05-01

    In research devoted to the theoretical investigation of laminar flames during propagation in channels, one of the mandatory assumptions is the assumption about no gravity forces but until now the verification of the results of such work has been impossible because of the lack of experimental data on flame propagation under weightless conditions. This paper reports on experiments conducted to verify existing deductions and to do so the flame structure and certain regularities of its propagation in a half-open square tube under weightless conditions were investigated using a Schlieren method. Further, the evolution of the displacement of single perturbations on the flame surface to the wall was investigated by the method of a stroboscopic survey.

  13. Numerical simulation of fracture rocks and wave propagation by means of fractal theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valle G., R. del

    1994-12-31

    A numerical approach was developed for the dynamic simulation of fracture rocks and wave propagation. Based on some ideas of percolation theory and fractal growth, a network of particles and strings represent the rock model. To simulate an inhomogeneous medium, the particles and springs have random distributed elastic parameters and are implemented in the dynamic Navier equation. Some of the springs snap with criteria based on the confined stress applied, therefore creating a fractured rock consistent with the physical environment. The basic purpose of this research was to provide a method to construct a fractured rock with confined stress conditions as well as the wave propagation imposed in the model. Such models provide a better understanding of the behavior of wave propagation in fractured media. The synthetic seismic data obtained henceforth, can be used as a tool to develop methods for characterizing fractured rocks by means of geophysical inference.

  14. Propagation of prices in the oil industry. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisselgoff, A.

    1980-01-01

    The main thrust of this report is the development of a price record that would provide a basis for the identification of the areas of activity in the oil industry in which significant price changes have occurred, with expectation that this type of information could serve as a useful ingredient in the policy-making process. The study presents estimates of the selling price of a barrel of oil at three stages of operations of the industry - the wellhead, the refinery, and the end-use levels. Prices of individual classes of petroleum products at refineries and at the end-use level were also estimated. The price data are provided for benchmark years 1958, 1963, 1967, and 1972, as well as for 1973, 1974, 1975, and 1976 when crude oil prices rose considerably. The estimating procedure is briefly described in the study. The examination of the transmission of prices from market to market within the oil industry shows that the steep rise in 1973-1974 prices paid by end-users of petroleum products was due not only to the large increases in crude oil prices but also to the sizable increases in gross operating margins-labor costs, transportation, profits, etc. - at the refinery and distribution levels. In the post-embargo years of 1975 and 1976, prices continued to advance but at a slower pace. The refiners' gross margins in 1975, however, declined somewhat; they rose significantly above the 1974 level in 1976. The marketers' margins made further gains in 1975, but exhibited a decrease in 1976. The study includes a short discussion of the effects of rising oil prices in 1973-1976 on the profitability of the petroleum industry and the general price level.

  15. Defect propagation in one-, two-, and three-dimensional compounds doped by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    magnetic atoms (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Defect propagation in one-, two-, and three-dimensional compounds doped by magnetic atoms Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Defect propagation in one-, two-, and three-dimensional compounds doped by magnetic atoms Inelastic neutron scattering experiments were performed to study manganese(II) dimer excitations in the diluted one-, two-, and three-dimensional compounds CsMnxMg1-xBr3, K2MnxZn1-xF4, and KMnxZn1-xF3 (x≤0.10),

  16. Propagation direction reversal of ionization zones in the transition between high and low current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Lab for Materials Processing and Die & Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Yang, Yuchen; Liu, Jason; Liu, Lin; Anders, Andr

    2014-12-11

    Past research has revealed the propagation of dense, asymmetric ionization zones in both high and low current magnetron discharges. Here we report about the direction reversal of ionization zone propagation as observed with fast cameras. At high currents, zones move in the E B direction with velocities of 103 to 104 m/s. However at lower currents, ionization zones are observed to move in the opposite, the -E B direction, with velocities ~;; 103 m/s. It is proposed that the direction reversal is associated with the local balance of ionization and supply of neutrals in the ionization zone.

  17. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System:...

  18. ARM - Measurement - Radiative heating rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsRadiative heating rate ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Radiative heating rate The heating rate due to the divergence of long and shortwave radiative flux. Categories Atmospheric State, Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  19. Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Workforce / Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, December 5, 2013.

  20. Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate levels and these studies for each of Southeastern's four power marketing systems are ...

  1. DOE Guidance-Category Rating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... For most jobs and grade levels under category rating, the certificates of eligibles should be issued in the following order: (1) Career Transition Assistance Program (CTAP) and ...

  2. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to offer information that could be used to compare and contrast sustainable building rating systems.

  3. Numerical wave propagation on non-uniform one-dimensional staggered grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, D.; Thuburn, J.

    2011-04-01

    The wave propagation behaviour of centered difference schemes on one-dimensional non-uniform staggered grids is investigated. Previous results for the linear advection equation are extended to the case of the shallow water equations on staggered grids. For waves of a given frequency, the wave field is decomposed into right- and left-propagating components, and a wave energy conservation law is derived in terms of these components. For slowly varying grids, separate evolution equations for the right- and left-propagating components are derived, leading to the result that there is asymptotically no reflection in the limit of a slowly varying grid, provided that waves of that frequency are resolvable. However, there will be reflection from any location at which the wave group velocity goes to zero. The possibility for wave energy to tunnel through a narrow region of the grid too coarse for propagation is noted. Grids with an abrupt jump in resolution are also investigated. It is possible to tailor the scheme at the jump to minimize spurious wave reflection over a range of frequencies provided the waves are resolvable on both sides of the jump. However, it does not appear possible to avoid complete reflection, except by introducing extra dissipation terms, if the waves are not resolvable on one side of the jump. An example is presented of a second-order accurate scheme that spontaneously radiates waves from the resolution jump.

  4. Finite Element Code For 3D-Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Equations (3-layer).

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-24

    HYFRACP3D is a finite element program for simulation of a pseudo three-dimensional fracture geometries with a two-dimensional planar solution. The model predicts the height, width and winglength over time for a hydraulic fracture propagating in a three-layered system of rocks with variable rock mechanics properties.

  5. Higher-order effects in bandwidth-limited soliton propagation in optical fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, A.B.; De Angelis, C. ); Nalesso, G.; Santagiustina, M. )

    1994-12-15

    By means of numerical studies and soliton perturbation theory we examine the effects of higher-order linear and nonlinear terms in bandwidth-limited amplified soliton propagation. We show that these effects are responsible for strong reductions of soliton--soliton interaction in such systems.

  6. On One Master Integral for Three-loop On-shell HQET Propagator Diagrams with Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grozin, A.G.; Huber, T.; Maitre, D.; /SLAC

    2007-06-26

    An exact expression for the master integral I{sub 2} [1] arising in three-loop on-shell HQET propagator diagrams with mass is derived and its analytical expansion in the dimensional regularization parameter {var_epsilon} is given.

  7. Simulation of streamers propagating along helium jets in ambient air: Polarity-induced effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naidis, G. V.

    2011-04-04

    Results of modeling of streamer propagation along helium jets for both positive and negative polarities of applied voltage are presented. Obtained patterns of streamer dynamics and structure in these two cases are similar to those observed in experiments with plasma jets.

  8. Commitment Institutional Change Principle | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commitment Institutional Change Principle Commitment Institutional Change Principle Commitment can be a crucial element that helps federal agencies inject and emphasize sustainability in their organizational culture. Institutions and people change when they have made definite commitments to change, especially when those commitments relate to future conditions. Research shows that explicit commitments improve the rate at which people adopt energy-efficient behaviors. Methods Explicit commitments

  9. Electromagnetic vacuum of complex media: Dipole emission versus light propagation, vacuum energy, and local field factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaire, M.

    2011-02-15

    We offer a unified approach to several phenomena related to the electromagnetic vacuum of a complex medium made of point electric dipoles. To this aim, we apply the linear response theory to the computation of the polarization field propagator and study the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. The physical distinction among the local density of states which enter the spectra of light propagation, total dipole emission, coherent emission, total vacuum energy, and Schwinger-bulk energy is made clear. Analytical expressions for the spectrum of dipole emission and for the vacuum energy are derived. Their respective relations with the spectrum of external light and with the Schwinger-bulk energy are found. The light spectrum and the Schwinger-bulk energy are determined by the Dyson propagator. The emission spectrum and the total vacuum energy are determined by the polarization propagator. An exact relationship of proportionality between both propagators is found in terms of local field factors. A study of the nature of stimulated emission from a single dipole is carried out. Regarding coherent emission, it contains two components. A direct one which is transferred radiatively and directly from the emitter into the medium and whose spectrum is that of external light. And an indirect one which is radiated by induced dipoles. The induction is mediated by one (and only one) local field factor. Regarding the vacuum energy, we find that in addition to the Schwinger-bulk energy the vacuum energy of an effective medium contains local field contributions proportional to the resonant frequency and to the spectral line width.

  10. Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) Project Definition Rating Index (EM-PDRI) is a modification of a commercially developed planning tool that has been tested by an EM team specifically for...

  11. Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at a Tier 2 rate 3) Combination of the two On Nov 1, 2009, customers made their elections for how they will serve their Above-RHWM Load during the FY 2012-2014 purchase...

  12. BPA revises oversupply rate proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    comments until May 22, 2013. The rate-setting process will end with the administrator making a decision based on the record developed in the case. BPA expects to issue a final...

  13. Higher-order paraxial theory of the propagation of ring rippled laser beam in plasma: Relativistic ponderomotive regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purohit, Gunjan Rawat, Priyanka; Chauhan, Prashant; Mahmoud, Saleh T.

    2015-05-15

    This article presents higher-order paraxial theory (non-paraxial theory) for the ring ripple formation on an intense Gaussian laser beam and its propagation in plasma, taking into account the relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity. The intensity dependent dielectric constant of the plasma has been determined for the main laser beam and ring ripple superimposed on the main laser beam. The dielectric constant of the plasma is modified due to the contribution of the electric field vector of ring ripple. Nonlinear differential equations have been formulated to examine the growth of ring ripple in plasma, self focusing of main laser beam, and ring rippled laser beam in plasma using higher-order paraxial theory. These equations have been solved numerically for different laser intensities and plasma frequencies. The well established experimental laser and plasma parameters are used in numerical calculation. It is observed that the focusing of the laser beams (main and ring rippled) becomes fast in the nonparaxial region by expanding the eikonal and other relevant quantities up to the fourth power of r. The splitted profile of laser beam in the plasma is observed due to uneven focusing/defocusing of the axial and off-axial rays. The growths of ring ripple increase when the laser beam intensity increases. Furthermore, the intensity profile of ring rippled laser beam gets modified due to the contribution of growth rate.

  14. Ignitable heterogeneous stratified structure for the propagation of an internal exothermic chemical reaction along an expanding wavefront and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Weihs, Timothy

    1996-01-01

    A multilayer structure has a selectable, (i) propagating reaction front velocity V, (ii) reaction initiation temperature attained by application of external energy and (iii) amount of energy delivered by a reaction of alternating unreacted layers of the multilayer structure. Because V is selectable and controllable, a variety of different applications for the multilayer structures are possible, including but not limited to their use as ignitors, in joining applications, in fabrication of new materials, as smart materials and in medical applications and devices. The multilayer structure has a period D, and an energy release rate constant K. Two or more alternating unreacted layers are made of different materials and separated by reacted zones. The period D is equal to a sum of the widths of each single alternating reaction layer of a particular material, and also includes a sum of reacted zone widths, t.sub.i, in the period D. The multilayer structure has a selectable propagating reaction front velocity V, where V=K(1/D.sup.n).times.[1-(t.sub.i /D)] and n is about 0.8 to 1.2.

  15. Ignitable heterogeneous stratified structure for the propagation of an internal exothermic chemical reaction along an expanding wavefront and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Weihs, T.

    1996-07-23

    A multilayer structure has a selectable, (1) propagating reaction front velocity V, (2) reaction initiation temperature attained by application of external energy, and (3) amount of energy delivered by a reaction of alternating unreacted layers of the multilayer structure. Because V is selectable and controllable, a variety of different applications for the multilayer structures are possible, including but not limited to their use as igniters, in joining applications, in fabrication of new materials, as smart materials and in medical applications and devices. The multilayer structure has a period D, and an energy release rate constant K. Two or more alternating unreacted layers are made of different materials and separated by reacted zones. The period D is equal to a sum of the widths of each single alternating reaction layer of a particular material, and also includes a sum of reacted zone widths, t{sub i}, in the period D. The multilayer structure has a selectable propagating reaction front velocity V, where V=K(1/D{sup n}){times}[1-(t{sub i}/D)] and n is about 0.8 to 1.2. 8 figs.

  16. BPA Power Rates (pbl/main)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rates, please see the transmission rates web site. Inactive Rate Cases Integrated Business Review (IBR) Integrated Program Review (IPR) Quarterly Business Review (QBR) Content...

  17. Final Report- National Database of Utility Rates and Rate Structure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the key informational barriers for consumers, installers, regulators and policymakers, is the proper comparison cost of utility-supplied electricity that will be replaced with a Photovoltaic (PV) system. Oftentimes, these comparisons are made with national or statewide averages which results in inaccurate comparisons and conclusions. Illinois State University seeks to meet the need for accurate information about electricity costs and rate structure by building a national database of utility rates and rate structures. The database will build upon the excellent framework that was developed by the OpenEI.org initiative and extend it in several important ways. First, the data will be populated and monitored by a team of trained regulatory economists. Second, the database will be more comprehensive because it will be populated with data from newer competitive retail suppliers for states that have restructured their electricity markets to allow such suppliers. Third, the University and its Institute for Regulatory Policy Studies will maintain the database and ensure that it contains the most recent rate information.

  18. A simplified analysis of uncertainty propagation in inherently controlled ATWS events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wade, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The quasi static approach can be used to provide useful insight concerning the propagation of uncertainties in the inherent response to ATWS events. At issue is how uncertainties in the reactivity coefficients and in the thermal-hydraulics and materials properties propagate to yield uncertainties in the asymptotic temperatures attained upon inherent shutdown. The basic notion to be quantified is that many of the same physical phenomena contribute to both the reactivity increase of power reduction and the reactivity decrease of core temperature rise. Since these reactivities cancel by definition, a good deal of uncertainty cancellation must also occur of necessity. For example, if the Doppler coefficient is overpredicted, too large a positive reactivity insertion is predicted upon power reduction and collapse of the ..delta..T across the fuel pin. However, too large a negative reactivity is also predicted upon the compensating increase in the isothermal core average temperature - which includes the fuel Doppler effect.

  19. Blunt-crack band propagation in finite-element analysis for concrete structures. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Bazant, Z.P.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    The knowledge of concrete fracture is needed in nuclear reactor safety. The question of safety arises from the potential of concrete to crack under thermal loading. It has been postulated that structural concrete could be exposed to very high temperature, which may result from hot reactor coolant or even core debris coming in direct contact with the concrete. The utilization of the blunt crack approach for simulating concrete cracking in a general-purpose code is explored. The difficulties encountered in establishing the proper direction of crack propagation in an arbitrary discretization are described. Crack propagation is considered within the context of two types of solution techniques: (1) implicit solution of the static crack advance, and (2) explicit time integration using a dynamic relaxation technique to simulate the static crack advance. Also, in both solution techniques an elastic model is used to characterize the concrete.

  20. Analytical study of the propagation of acoustic waves in a 1D weakly disordered lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richoux, O. Morand, E.; Simon, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents an analytical approach of the propagation of an acoustic wave through a normally distributed disordered lattice made up of Helmholtz resonators connected to a cylindrical duct. This approach allows to determine analytically the exact transmission coefficient of a weakly disordered lattice. Analytical results are compared to a well-known numerical method based on a matrix product. Furthermore, this approach gives an analytical expression of the localization length apart from the Bragg stopband which depends only on the standard deviation of the normal distribution disorder. This expression permits to study on one hand the localization length as a function of both disorder strength and frequency, and on the other hand, the propagation characteristics on the edges of two sorts of stopbands (Bragg and Helmholtz stopbands). Lastly, the value of the localization length inside the Helmholtz stopband is compared to the localization length in the Bragg stopband.

  1. EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS ON THE PROPAGATION OF NUCLEAR FLAMES IN MAGNETIC WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutsuna, Masamichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu [Research Center for the Early Universe, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-04-10

    We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on the propagation of laminar flames of nuclear reactions taking place in white dwarfs with masses close to the Chandrasekhar limit. We calculate the velocities of laminar flames parallel and perpendicular to uniform magnetic fields as eigenvalues of steady solutions for magnetic hydrodynamical equations. As a result, we find that even when the magnetic pressure does not dominate the entire pressure it is possible for the magnetic field to suppress the flame propagation through the thermal conduction. Above the critical magnetic field, the flame velocity decreases with increasing magnetic field strength as v {approx} B{sup -1}. In media with densities of 10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} g cm{sup -3}, the critical magnetic fields are orders of {approx}10{sup 10}, 10{sup 11}, and 10{sup 12} G, respectively.

  2. Towards a deep understanding of malware propagation in online social networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Guanhua; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Chen, Guanling; Li, Nan

    2009-01-01

    Online social networks, which have been expanding at a blistering speed in the recent years, have emerged as a popular communication infrastructure for Internet users. Meanwhile, malware that specifically targets these online social networks are also on the rise. In this work, we aim to investigate the characteristics of malware propagation in online social networks. Our study is based on a dataset collected from a real-world location-based online social network. We analyze the social structure and user activity patterns of this network. We further use extensive trace-driven simulation to study the impact of initial infection, user click probability, social structure, and activity patterns on malware propagation in online social networks. The results from this work has greatly deepened our understanding of the nature of online social network malware and also shed light on how to defend against them effectively.

  3. Laws of convective vortex formation behind a flame front during its propagation in a tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrukov, S.A.; Samsonov, V.P.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines laws and conditions of convective vortex formation in combustion products during the propagation of a slow, stable flame in a vertical, half-open tube. The main element of the experimental unit was the reaction tube and weightless conditions were created in a freely falling container holding the reaction tube. Propane-air and CO-air mixtures were used. The structure of the flow behind the flame front was studied by the interferometric method. Frames are show from an interference film illustrating the typical pattern of vortex formation behind the flame front when the flame propagates upward at a velocity of 7 cm/sec. Analyses of the interferograms shows that the flame is stable before the vortices appear and that the flow of combustion products is laminar.

  4. Running coupling constant from lattice studies of gluon and ghost propagators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cucchieri, A.; Mendes, T.

    2004-12-02

    We present a numerical study of the running coupling constant in four-dimensional pure-SU(2) lattice gauge theory. The running coupling is evaluated by fitting data for the gluon and ghost propagators in minimal Landau gauge. Following Refs. [1, 2], the fitting formulae are obtained by a simultaneous integration of the {beta} function and of a function coinciding with the anomalous dimension of the propagator in the momentum subtraction scheme. We consider these formulae at three and four loops. The fitting method works well, especially for the ghost case, for which statistical error and hyper-cubic effects are very small. Our present result for {lambda}MS is 200{sub -40}{sup +60} MeV, where the error is purely systematic. We are currently extending this analysis to five loops in order to reduce this systematic error.

  5. A study of the propagation of compression waves in porous medium filled with steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutrisno; Djoko Wintolo; Samsul Kamal; Sudarman, S.

    1996-01-24

    A preliminary investigation on the propagation of compression waves through a radial system of porous medium filled with steam has been conducted for the case of uniform and non-uniform basic temperature distributions. When a relatively weak pressure disturbance is introduced as a signal source in a uniform temperature system, it is found that the pressure disturbance decays away and smears out as time progresses. However, for the case of a nonuniform basic temperature distribution, the temperature gradient and fluid viscosity give significant effects on the reduction of pressure signal attenuation. The attenuation of the compression waves depends on the wave frequencies. For higher frequencies the strength of the signal decays rapidly, and for lower frequencies the signal could propagate farther away. It is found also that porosity and permeability distributions gives significant effects on the amplitude and the wave profiles.

  6. Formation of electron kappa distributions due to interactions with parallel propagating whistler waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, X. Lu, Q.; Mengcheng National Geophysical Observatory, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026

    2014-02-15

    In space plasmas, charged particles are frequently observed to possess a high-energy tail, which is often modeled by a kappa-type distribution function. In this work, the formation of the electron kappa distribution in generation of parallel propagating whistler waves is investigated using fully nonlinear particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A previous research concluded that the bi-Maxwellian character of electron distributions is preserved in PIC simulations. We now demonstrate that for interactions between electrons and parallel propagating whistler waves, a non-Maxwellian high-energy tail can be formed, and a kappa distribution can be used to fit the electron distribution in time-asymptotic limit. The ?-parameter is found to decrease with increasing initial temperature anisotropy or decreasing ratio of electron plasma frequency to cyclotron frequency. The results might be helpful to understanding the origin of electron kappa distributions observed in space plasmas.

  7. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray, Neutrino, and Photon Propagation and the Multi-Messenger Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Andrew; De Castro, Alexandra; Castillo-Ruiz, Edith

    2009-04-30

    The propagation of UHECR nuclei for A = 1(protons) to A = 56(iron) from cosmological sources through extragalactic space is discussed in the first lecture. This is followed in the second and third lectures by a consideration of the generation and propagation of secondary particles produced via the UHECR loss interactions. In the second lecture we focus on the generation of the diffuse cosmogenic UHE-neutrino flux. In the third lecture we investigate the arriving flux of UHE-photon flux at Earth. In the final lecture the results of the previous lectures are put together in order to provide new insights into UHECR sources. The first of these providing a means with which to investigate the local population of UHECR sources through the measurement of the UHECR spectrum and their photon fraction at Earth. The second of these providing contraints on the UHECR source radiation fields through the possible observation at Earth of UHECR nuclei.

  8. Constraint propagation of C{sup 2}-adjusted formulation: Another recipe for robust ADM evolution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuchiya, Takuya; Yoneda, Gen; Shinkai, Hisa-aki [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Waseda University, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Osaka Institute of Technology, 1-79-1 Kitayama, Hirakata, Osaka 573-0196 (Japan) and Computational Astrophysics Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    With a purpose of constructing a robust evolution system against numerical instability for integrating the Einstein equations, we propose a new formulation by adjusting the ADM evolution equations with constraints. We apply an adjusting method proposed by Fiske (2004) which uses the norm of the constraints, C{sup 2}. One of the advantages of this method is that the effective signature of adjusted terms (Lagrange multipliers) for constraint-damping evolution is predetermined. We demonstrate this fact by showing the eigenvalues of constraint propagation equations. We also perform numerical tests of this adjusted evolution system using polarized Gowdy-wave propagation, which show robust evolutions against the violation of the constraints than that of the standard ADM formulation.

  9. Deformable image registration based automatic CT-to-CT contour propagation for head and neck adaptive radiotherapy in the routine clinical setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumarasiri, Akila Siddiqui, Farzan; Liu, Chang; Yechieli, Raphael; Shah, Mira; Pradhan, Deepak; Zhong, Hualiang; Chetty, Indrin J.; Kim, Jinkoo

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical potential of deformable image registration (DIR)-based automatic propagation of physician-drawn contours from a planning CT to midtreatment CT images for head and neck (H and N) adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Ten H and N patients, each with a planning CT (CT1) and a subsequent CT (CT2) taken approximately 3–4 week into treatment, were considered retrospectively. Clinically relevant organs and targets were manually delineated by a radiation oncologist on both sets of images. Four commercial DIR algorithms, two B-spline-based and two Demons-based, were used to deform CT1 and the relevant contour sets onto corresponding CT2 images. Agreement of the propagated contours with manually drawn contours on CT2 was visually rated by four radiation oncologists in a scale from 1 to 5, the volume overlap was quantified using Dice coefficients, and a distance analysis was done using center of mass (CoM) displacements and Hausdorff distances (HDs). Performance of these four commercial algorithms was validated using a parameter-optimized Elastix DIR algorithm. Results: All algorithms attained Dice coefficients of >0.85 for organs with clear boundaries and those with volumes >9 cm{sup 3}. Organs with volumes <3 cm{sup 3} and/or those with poorly defined boundaries showed Dice coefficients of ∼0.5–0.6. For the propagation of small organs (<3 cm{sup 3}), the B-spline-based algorithms showed higher mean Dice values (Dice = 0.60) than the Demons-based algorithms (Dice = 0.54). For the gross and planning target volumes, the respective mean Dice coefficients were 0.8 and 0.9. There was no statistically significant difference in the Dice coefficients, CoM, or HD among investigated DIR algorithms. The mean radiation oncologist visual scores of the four algorithms ranged from 3.2 to 3.8, which indicated that the quality of transferred contours was “clinically acceptable with minor modification or major modification in a small number of contours.” Conclusions: Use of DIR-based contour propagation in the routine clinical setting is expected to increase the efficiency of H and N replanning, reducing the amount of time needed for manual target and organ delineations.

  10. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  11. Explosive containment and propagation evaluations for commonly used handling and storage containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeBlanc, R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of explosive tests were performed to establish containment integrity data for commonly used handling and storage containers of energetic materials at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M. The tests consisted of two phases: (1) each container was tested for explosive integrity and propagation, and (2) the data were used to evaluate a nominal donor-receptor test matrix for verifying the confinement integrity of a typical explosives service locker.

  12. Dispersionless propagation of electron wavepackets in single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosati, Roberto; Rossi, Fausto; Dolcini, Fabrizio

    2015-06-15

    We investigate the propagation of electron wavepackets in single-walled carbon nanotubes via a Lindblad-based density-matrix approach that enables us to account for both dissipation and decoherence effects induced by various phonon modes. We show that, while in semiconducting nanotubes the wavepacket experiences the typical dispersion of conventional materials, in metallic nanotubes its shape remains essentially unaltered, even in the presence of the electron-phonon coupling, up to micron distances at room temperature.

  13. Precision measurement of the speed of propagation of neutrinos using the MINOS detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, P.

    2015-09-17

    We report a two-detector measurement of the propagation speed of neutrinos over a baseline of 734 km. The measurement was made with the NuMI beam at Fermilab between the near and far MINOS detectors. Furthermore, the fractional difference between the neutrino speed and the speed of light is determined to be (v/c-1)=(1.0±1.1)×10-6, consistent with relativistic neutrinos.

  14. Atmospheric pressure He-air plasma jet: Breakdown process and propagation phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begum, Asma; Laroussi, Mounir; Pervez, Mohammad Rasel

    2013-06-15

    In this paper He-discharge (plasma jet/bullet) in atmospheric pressure air and its progression phenomenon has been studied experimentally using ICCD camera, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calibrated dielectric probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse has applied to a plasma pencil to generate discharge in the helium gas channel. The discharge propagation speed was measured from the ICCD images. The axial electric field distribution in the plasma jet is inferred from the optical emission spectroscopic data and from the probe measurement. The correlation between the jet velocities, jet length with the pulse duration is established. It shows that the plasma jet is not isolated from the input voltage along its propagation path. The discharge propagation speed, the electron density and the local and average electric field distribution along the plasma jet axis predicted from the experimental results are in good agreement with the data predicted by numerical simulation of the streamer propagation presented in different literatures. The ionization phenomenon of the discharge predicts the key ionization parameters, such as speed, peak electric field in the front, and electron density. The maximum local electric field measured by OES is 95 kV/cm at 1.3 cm of the jet axis, and average EF measured by probe is 24 kV/cm at the same place of the jet. The average and local electron density estimated are in the order of 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and it reaches to the maximum of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}.

  15. Precision measurement of the speed of propagation of neutrinos using the MINOS detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adamson, P.

    2015-09-17

    We report a two-detector measurement of the propagation speed of neutrinos over a baseline of 734 km. The measurement was made with the NuMI beam at Fermilab between the near and far MINOS detectors. Furthermore, the fractional difference between the neutrino speed and the speed of light is determined to be (v/c-1)=(1.0±1.1)×10-6, consistent with relativistic neutrinos.

  16. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming

    2013-01-15

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a 'black out' phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. ENERGETIC PARTICLE CROSS-FIELD PROPAGATION EARLY IN A SOLAR EVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S.; Marsh, M. S.

    2013-08-20

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) have been observed to easily spread across heliographic longitudes, and the mechanisms responsible for this behavior remain unclear. We use full-orbit simulations of a 10 MeV proton beam in a turbulent magnetic field to study to what extent the spread across the mean field can be described as diffusion early in a particle event. We compare the full-orbit code results to solutions of a Fokker-Planck equation including spatial and pitch angle diffusion, and of one including also propagation of the particles along random-walking magnetic field lines. We find that propagation of the particles along meandering field lines is the key process determining their cross-field spread at 1 AU at the beginning of the simulated event. The mean square displacement of the particles an hour after injection is an order of magnitude larger than that given by the diffusion model, indicating that models employing spatial cross-field diffusion cannot be used to describe early evolution of an SEP event. On the other hand, the diffusion of the particles from their initial field lines is negligible during the first 5 hr, which is consistent with the observations of SEP intensity dropouts. We conclude that modeling SEP events must take into account the particle propagation along meandering field lines for the first 20 hr of the event.

  18. Summary report on parametric pressure propagation test T0127-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauske, H.K.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of two ferrocyanide propagating reaction generated aerosol tests, conducted as a part of a series of tests directed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The tests discussed in this document are designated as T0208-1 and T0209-1. The tests were carried out in a 49 L containment volume equipped with an aerosol filter housing. The test setup is described in Section 2.0. Each test used an {approx} 50 gm. sample of InFarm-1 bottom flow sheet material which was vacuum dried, screened through a 140 mesh sieve, and rehydrated to 1 wgt. % water content prior to testing. The test sample and reaction ignition method are described in Section 3.0. A special test protocol was defined and followed for the tests as described in Section 4.0 and Appendix B. Test results are discussed in Section 5.0. Both tests yielded a significant aerosol sample on the filter element. These filter elements and aerosol deposits have been sent to WHC for analysis, and any information as to the content or chemical composition of the trapped particulate material awaits the results of WHC efforts in this regard. The reaction propagation tests were conducted at 60{degrees}C and 120{degrees}C respectively. The average propagation velocities are consistent with other related observations.

  19. Reserving and Scheduling Transmission over the Time Change -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Training Interconnection Notices Rates Standards of Conduct Tariff TF Web Based Training Notice: Reserving & Scheduling Transmission over the Time Change Posted Date: 10...

  20. Reserving and Scheduling Transmission over the Time Change -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Training Interconnection Notices Rates Standards of Conduct Tariff TF Web Based Training Notice: Reserving & Scheduling Transmission over the Time Change Reminder Posted...

  1. Reserving and Scheduling Transmission over the Time Change -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Training Interconnection Notices Rates Standards of Conduct Tariff TF Web Based Training Notice: Reserving & Scheduling Transmission over the Time Change Posted Date: 2...

  2. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Floating Rate Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Floating Rate Agreement Floating Rate Agreement PDF icon Floating Rate Agreement More Documents & Publications Fixed Rate Agreement Energy Efficiency Loan Program Agreement Template Energy Efficiency Loan Program Agreement-Template

  4. Variable gas leak rate valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  5. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher is described suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz. 14 figs.

  6. Fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1997-02-11

    A fast repetition rate (FRR) flasher suitable for high flash photolysis including kinetic chemical and biological analysis. The flasher includes a power supply, a discharge capacitor operably connected to be charged by the power supply, and a flash lamp for producing a series of flashes in response to discharge of the discharge capacitor. A triggering circuit operably connected to the flash lamp initially ionizes the flash lamp. A current switch is operably connected between the flash lamp and the discharge capacitor. The current switch has at least one insulated gate bipolar transistor for switching current that is operable to initiate a controllable discharge of the discharge capacitor through the flash lamp. Control means connected to the current switch for controlling the rate of discharge of the discharge capacitor thereby to effectively keep the flash lamp in an ionized state between Successive discharges of the discharge capacitor. Advantageously, the control means is operable to discharge the discharge capacitor at a rate greater than 10,000 Hz and even up to a rate greater than about 250,000 Hz.

  7. Evaluation Ratings Definitions (Excluding Utilization of Small...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Excluding Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ... Definitions (Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ...

  8. Consideration on the scatter of cod and fatigue crack propagation characteristics of heavy section C-Mn-V forged steel for offshore structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuda, T.; Iwadate, T.; Shimazaki, M.

    1982-01-01

    A 197-mm thick C-Mn-V forged steel plate including welds was subjected to mechanical and corrosion-fatigue tests and several engineering data useful for the design of offshore structures were obtained. The chemical and mechanical properties of base metal and welds satisfy typical current requirements in the North Sea projects and the heavy wall forged tubular is proved to be applicable to the offshore structures. The scatter of critical cod in the transition temperature range was studied and a new statistical method was presented for estimating the lowest critical cod value. Corrosion-fatigure tests in seawater were conducted on the base metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) of submerged arc welding at a cyclic frequency corresponding to sea wave frequency. No difference in fatigue crack propagation rate was observed between the base metal and HAZ.

  9. Rate Analysis of Two Photovoltaic Systems in San Diego

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Ong, S.; Van Geet, O.

    2009-07-01

    Analysts have found increasing evidence that rate structure has impacts on the economics of solar systems. This paper uses 2007 15-minute interval photovoltaic (PV) system and load data from two San Diego City water treatment facilities to illustrate impacts of different rate designs. The comparison is based on rates available in San Diego at the time of data collection and include proportionately small to large demand charges (relative to volumetric consumption), and varying on- and off- peak times. Findings are twofold for these large commercial systems: 1) transferring costs into demand charges does not result in savings and 2) changes in peak times do not result in a major cost difference during the course of a year. While lessons learned and discussion on rate components are based on the findings, the applicability is limited to buildings with similar systems, environments, rate options, and loads.

  10. Single crystal plasticity by modeling dislocation density rate behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Benjamin L; Bronkhorst, Curt; Beyerlein, Irene; Cerreta, E. K.; Dennis-Koller, Darcie

    2010-12-23

    The goal of this work is to formulate a constitutive model for the deformation of metals over a wide range of strain rates. Damage and failure of materials frequently occurs at a variety of deformation rates within the same sample. The present state of the art in single crystal constitutive models relies on thermally-activated models which are believed to become less reliable for problems exceeding strain rates of 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. This talk presents work in which we extend the applicability of the single crystal model to the strain rate region where dislocation drag is believed to dominate. The elastic model includes effects from volumetric change and pressure sensitive moduli. The plastic model transitions from the low-rate thermally-activated regime to the high-rate drag dominated regime. The direct use of dislocation density as a state parameter gives a measurable physical mechanism to strain hardening. Dislocation densities are separated according to type and given a systematic set of interactions rates adaptable by type. The form of the constitutive model is motivated by previously published dislocation dynamics work which articulated important behaviors unique to high-rate response in fcc systems. The proposed material model incorporates thermal coupling. The hardening model tracks the varying dislocation population with respect to each slip plane and computes the slip resistance based on those values. Comparisons can be made between the responses of single crystals and polycrystals at a variety of strain rates. The material model is fit to copper.

  11. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  12. Influence of finite radial geometry on the growth rate of ion-channel free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahmani, Mohammad; Hamzehpour, Hossein; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-11-15

    The influence of finite radial geometry on the instability of a tenuous relativistic electron beam propagating in an ion-channel in a waveguide is investigated. The instability analysis is based on the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the perturbation about a self-consistent beam equilibrium. With the help of characteristic method the dispersion relation for the TE-mode is derived and analyzed through the numerical solutions. It is found that the positioning of the beam radius R{sub b} relative to the waveguide radius R{sub c}, and the ion-channel frequency can have a large influence on the maximum growth rate and corresponding wave number.

  13. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 using the constant strain rate test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulischeck, T.S.; Van Rooyen, D.

    1981-10-01

    Nuclear grade production tubing of Alloy 600 was evaluated for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in high purity water at 365, 345, 325, and 290 C. Reverse tube U-bend specimens provided crack initiation data and constant extension rate tests were employed to determine the crack velocities experienced in th crack propagation stage. Initial results indicate that a linear extrapolation of data received from high temperature tests can be used to predict the service life of steam generator tubing that has been plastically deformed or is continually deforming by ''denting.''

  14. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  15. Fact #613: March 8, 2010 Vehicle Occupancy Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average number of persons occupying a car is 1.59 and has not changed much since 1995. The largest increases from 1995 to 2009 have been in the occupancy rates for vans – from 2.07 to 2.35 –...

  16. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right Rate?" ...

  17. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  18. Calculation of positron binding energies using the generalized any particle propagator theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, Jonathan; Charry, Jorge A.; Flores-Moreno, Roberto; Varella, Mrcio T. do N.; Reyes, Andrs

    2014-09-21

    We recently extended the electron propagator theory to any type of quantum species based in the framework of the Any-Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) approach [J. Romero, E. Posada, R. Flores-Moreno, and A. Reyes, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074105 (2012)]. The generalized any particle molecular orbital propagator theory (APMO/PT) was implemented in its quasiparticle second order version in the LOWDIN code and was applied to calculate nuclear quantum effects in electron binding energies and proton binding energies in molecular systems [M. Daz-Tinoco, J. Romero, J. V. Ortiz, A. Reyes, and R. Flores-Moreno, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 194108 (2013)]. In this work, we present the derivation of third order quasiparticle APMO/PT methods and we apply them to calculate positron binding energies (PBEs) of atoms and molecules. We calculated the PBEs of anions and some diatomic molecules using the second order, third order, and renormalized third order quasiparticle APMO/PT approaches and compared our results with those previously calculated employing configuration interaction (CI), explicitly correlated and quantum Montecarlo methodologies. We found that renormalized APMO/PT methods can achieve accuracies of ?0.35 eV for anionic systems, compared to Full-CI results, and provide a quantitative description of positron binding to anionic and highly polar species. Third order APMO/PT approaches display considerable potential to study positron binding to large molecules because of the fifth power scaling with respect to the number of basis sets. In this regard, we present additional PBE calculations of some small polar organic molecules, amino acids and DNA nucleobases. We complement our numerical assessment with formal and numerical analyses of the treatment of electron-positron correlation within the quasiparticle propagator approach.

  19. Cosmic ray propagation and dark matter in light of the latest AMS-02 data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Hong-Bo; Wu, Yue-Liang; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2015-09-21

    The AMS-02 experiment is measuring the high energy cosmic rays with unprecedented accuracy. We explore the possibility of determining the cosmic-ray propagation models using the AMS-02 data alone. A global Bayesian analysis of the constraints on the cosmic-ray propagation models from the preliminary AMS-02 data on the Boron to Carbon nuclei flux ratio and proton flux is performed, with the assumption that the primary nucleon source is a broken power law in rigidity. The ratio of the diffusion coefficient D{sub 0} to the diffusive halo height Z{sub h} is determined with high accuracy D{sub 0}/Z{sub h}≃2.00±0.07 cm{sup 2}s{sup −1}kpc{sup −1}, and the value of the halo width is found to be Z{sub h}≃3.3 kpc with uncertainty less than 50%. As a consequence, the typical uncertainties in the positron fraction predicted from dark matter (DM) annihilation is reduced to a factor of two, and that in the antiproton flux is about an order of magnitude. Both of them are significantly smaller than that from the analyses prior to AMS-02. Taking into account the uncertainties and correlations in the propagation parameters, we derive conservative upper limits on the cross sections for DM annihilating into various standard model final states from the current PAMELA antiproton data. We also investigate the reconstruction capability of the future high precision AMS-02 antiproton data on the DM properties. The results show that for DM particles lighter than ∼100 GeV and with typical thermal annihilation cross section, the cross section can be well reconstructed with uncertainties about a factor of two for the AMS-02 three-year data taking.

  20. Modulated heat pulse propagation and partial transport barriers in chaotic magnetic fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Blazevski, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations of the time dependent parallel heat transport equation modeling heat pulses driven by power modulation in 3-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields are presented. The numerical method is based on the Fourier formulation of a Lagrangian-Green's function method that provides an accurate and efficient technique for the solution of the parallel heat transport equation in the presence of harmonic power modulation. The numerical results presented provide conclusive evidence that even in the absence of magnetic flux surfaces, chaotic magnetic field configurations with intermediate levels of stochasticity exhibit transport barriers to modulated heat pulse propagation. In particular, high-order islands and remnants of destroyed flux surfaces (Cantori) act as partial barriers that slow down or even stop the propagation of heat waves at places where the magnetic field connection length exhibits a strong gradient. The key parameter ismore » $$\\gamma=\\sqrt{\\omega/2 \\chi_\\parallel}$$ that determines the length scale, $$1/\\gamma$$, of the heat wave penetration along the magnetic field line. For large perturbation frequencies, $$\\omega \\gg 1$$, or small parallel thermal conductivities, $$\\chi_\\parallel \\ll 1$$, parallel heat transport is strongly damped and the magnetic field partial barriers act as robust barriers where the heat wave amplitude vanishes and its phase speed slows down to a halt. On the other hand, in the limit of small $$\\gamma$$, parallel heat transport is largely unimpeded, global transport is observed and the radial amplitude and phase speed of the heat wave remain finite. Results on modulated heat pulse propagation in fully stochastic fields and across magnetic islands are also presented. In qualitative agreement with recent experiments in LHD and DIII-D, it is shown that the elliptic (O) and hyperbolic (X) points of magnetic islands have a direct impact on the spatio-temporal dependence of the amplitude and the time delay of modulated heat pulses.« less

  1. Electromagnetic wave propagation in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2014-10-15

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules are investigated, within the framework of the classical electrodynamics. Electronic excitations over the each C{sub 60} molecule surface are modeled by a spherical layer of electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account the different nature of the ? and ? electrons. It is found that the present medium supports four modes of electromagnetic waves, where they can be divided into two groups: one group with shorter wavelength than the light waves of the same frequency and the other with longer wavelength than the free-space radiation.

  2. Self-focusing of circularly polarized laser pulse propagating through a magnetized non-Maxwellian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepehri Javan, N.

    2014-10-15

    Self-focusing of an intense circularly polarized laser pulse propagating through a magnetized non-Maxwellian plasma is investigated. Based on a relativistic two-fluid model, nonlinear equation describing dynamics of the slowly varying amplitude is obtained. The evolution of laser spot size is studied and effect of non-Maxwellian distribution of charge density on the spot size is considered. It is shown that the existence of super-thermal particles leads to the enhancement of the self-focusing quality of plasma.

  3. Self-Propagating Molecular Assemblies as Interlayers for Efficient Inverted Build-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motiei, L.; Yao, Y.; Choudhury, J.; Yan, Hao; Marks, Tobin J.; Van de Boom, M. E.; Facchetti, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    Here we report the first use of self-propagating molecule-based assemblies (SPMAs) as efficient electron-transporting layers for inverted organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. P3HT-PCBM cells functionalized with optimized SPMAs exhibit power conversion efficiencies approaching 3.6% (open circuit voltage = 0.6 V) vs 1.5% and 2.4% for the bare ITO and Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-coated devices, respectively. The dependence of cell response parameters on interlayer thickness is investigated, providing insight into how to further optimize device performance.

  4. Tunable mega-ampere electron current propagation in solids by dynamic control of lattice melt

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    MacLellan, D.  A.; Carroll, D.  C.; Gray, R.  J.; Booth, N.; Burza, M.; Desjarlais, M.  P.; Du, F.; Neely, D.; Powell, H.  W.; Robinson, A.  P. L.; et al

    2014-10-31

    The influence of lattice-melt-induced resistivity gradients on the transport of mega-ampere currents of fast electrons in solids is investigated numerically and experimentally using laser-accelerated protons to induce isochoric heating. Tailoring the heating profile enables the resistive magnetic fields which strongly influence the current propagation to be manipulated. This tunable laser-driven process enables important fast electron beam properties, including the beam divergence, profile, and symmetry to be actively tailored, and without recourse to complex target manufacture.

  5. Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingnan

    2009-12-03

    Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity {epsilon}, magnetic permeability {mu} are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective {mu} < 1 or even {mu} < 0. Varactor based nonlinear SRRs are built and modeled to study the nonlinearity in magnetic metamaterials and the results will be presented in Chapter 3. Negative refractive index n is one of the major target in the research of metamaterials. Negative n can be obtained with a metamaterial with both {epsilon} and {mu} negative. As an alternative, negative index for one of the circularly polarized waves could be achieved with metamaterials having a strong chirality ?. In this case neither {epsilon} nor {mu} negative is required. My work on chiral metamaterials will be presented in Chapter 4.

  6. Nonlinear dissipation of circularly polarized Alfven waves due to the beam-induced obliquely propagating waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nariyuki, Y.; Hada, T.; Tsubouchi, K.

    2012-08-15

    In the present study, the dissipation processes of circularly polarized Alfven waves in solar wind plasmas including beam components are numerically discussed by using a 2-D hybrid simulation code. Numerical results suggest that the parent Alfven waves are rapidly dissipated due to the presence of the beam-induced obliquely propagating waves, such as kinetic Alfven waves. The nonlinear wave-wave coupling is directly evaluated by using the induction equation for the parent wave. It is also observed both in the 1-D and 2-D simulations that the presence of large amplitude Alfven waves strongly suppresses the beam instabilities.

  7. HELICAL BLOWOUT JETS IN THE SUN: UNTWISTING AND PROPAGATION OF WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E. J.; Archontis, V.; Hood, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a numerical experiment of the recurrent onset of helical ''blowout'' jets in an emerging flux region. We find that these jets are running with velocities of ?100-250 km s{sup 1} and they transfer a vast amount of heavy plasma into the outer solar atmosphere. During their emission, they undergo an untwisting motion as a result of reconnection between the twisted emerging and the non-twisted pre-existing magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. For the first time in the context of blowout jets, we provide direct evidence that their untwisting motion is associated with the propagation of torsional Alfvn waves in the corona.

  8. Error propagation equations for estimating the uncertainty in high-speed wind tunnel test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.L.

    1994-07-01

    Error propagation equations, based on the Taylor series model, are derived for the nondimensional ratios and coefficients most often encountered in high-speed wind tunnel testing. These include pressure ratio and coefficient, static force and moment coefficients, dynamic stability coefficients, and calibration Mach number. The error equations contain partial derivatives, denoted as sensitivity coefficients, which define the influence of free-steam Mach number, M{infinity}, on various aerodynamic ratios. To facilitate use of the error equations, sensitivity coefficients are derived and evaluated for five fundamental aerodynamic ratios which relate free-steam test conditions to a reference condition.

  9. Effect of polariton propagation on spectra of SRS amplification and CARS from polaritons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlov, Sergei N; Polivanov, Yurii N

    2001-10-31

    The properties of k spectra of SRS amplification and CARS from polaritons caused by 'running out' of polaritons from the volume of their interaction with incident light beams are theoretically analysed. It is shown that the shape and width of the spectra depend on the relation between the size of the overlap region of exciting waves in a crystal along the direction of polariton propagation and the mean free path of polaritons. The conditions are found under which the widths of SRS amplification and CARS spectra give information on the polariton decay. (nonlinear optical phenomena and devices)

  10. Rating fenestration for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markway, R.

    1993-09-01

    The grading of windows and doors by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) opens a new era regarding the energy efficiency of fenestration products. For the first time, architects, designers, and other specifiers will find themselves on a level playing field when it comes to comparing the thermal performance of fenestration products. Although only one state, California, now requires the use of fenestration products that have gone through the NFRC's simulation and testing procedures, five other states will soon be doing so, including Washington, Alaska, Oregon, Idaho, and Wisconsin. Others will follow suit; Florida, Arizona, Texas, Louisiana, New York, Massachusetts, and Colorado have shown interest. Exactly what does this mean to architects The NFRC, which was established last year, has developed a procedure to determine accurately the U-value of fenestration products. Under the NFRC program a number of independent simulation and testing laboratories have been approved. These laboratories are charged with the responsibility of determining whether products conform to the U-values represented by the manufacturers. The rating procedure and benefits from it are described.

  11. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality...

  12. Climate Change Response

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Interior Climate Change Response "From the Everglades to the Great Lakes to Alaska and everywhere in between, climate change is a leading threat to natural and cultural ...

  13. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality ...

  14. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Cripples Forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality ...

  15. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2011 CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Big Rivers and Henderson, KY System: CU October 1, 2011 CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate...

  16. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: electric load data Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  17. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: DOE Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry DOE...

  18. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: API Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry API...

  19. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: EZFeed Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  20. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Database Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  1. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: bug Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Discussion bug...

  2. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: energy efficiency Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  3. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: clean energy Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog...

  4. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: datasets Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  5. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: FOA Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry FOA...

  6. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Illinois State University Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort...

  7. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: building load Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog...

  8. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: building load data Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  9. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: dataset Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  10. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Energy Visions Prize Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon...

  11. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: funding Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  12. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate Home > Utility Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: EIA Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry EIA...

  13. Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mario Agio

    2002-12-31

    This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser.

  14. Stochastic simulation for the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves through a random velocity field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, B.; Darmon, M.; Leymarie, N.; Chatillon, S.; Potel, C.

    2012-05-17

    In-service inspection of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) requires the development of non-destructive techniques adapted to the harsh environment conditions and the examination complexity. From past experiences, ultrasonic techniques are considered as suitable candidates. The ultrasonic telemetry is a technique used to constantly insure the safe functioning of reactor inner components by determining their exact position: it consists in measuring the time of flight of the ultrasonic response obtained after propagation of a pulse emitted by a transducer and its interaction with the targets. While in-service the sodium flow creates turbulences that lead to temperature inhomogeneities, which translates into ultrasonic velocity inhomogeneities. These velocity variations could directly impact the accuracy of the target locating by introducing time of flight variations. A stochastic simulation model has been developed to calculate the propagation of ultrasonic waves in such an inhomogeneous medium. Using this approach, the travel time is randomly generated by a stochastic process whose inputs are the statistical moments of travel times known analytically. The stochastic model predicts beam deviations due to velocity inhomogeneities, which are similar to those provided by a determinist method, such as the ray method.

  15. Phenomena in oscillating downward propagating flames induced by external laser irradiation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, June Sung; Fujita, Osamu; Honko, Teruaki; Yamada, Yuichiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuji [Division of Mechanical and Space Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Experiments in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2} premixed flames (Le < 1) propagating downwardly in a tube have been conducted to observe transition phenomena from laminar flame front to turbulent flame propagation triggered by external laser irradiation method. To investigate the exact motions of flame tip fluctuation at the initial moment of irradiating CO{sub 2} laser, the completely flat flame front is selected as a default flame, which is corresponding to the primary acoustic instability as reported by Searby (1992). According to the time-resolved observation, the flame front exposed to CO{sub 2} laser beam shows extremely unstable flame motions in which highly curved flame front towards unburned mixture is subject to diffusive-thermal instability. Then, the sudden enhanced burning state (increased flame surface) caused by flame instability induces the secondary acoustic instability which is akin to the observation in Ref. In the present study, we report the detailed descriptions of flame fronts on the transient behaviors leading the primary acoustic instability to turbulent motions actively induced by the absorption of externally irradiated CO{sub 2} laser beam. (author)

  16. The detection of upwardly propagating waves channeling energy from the chromosphere to the low corona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freij, N.; Nelson, C. J.; Mumford, S.; Erdlyi, R.; Scullion, E. M.; Wedemeyer, S.

    2014-08-10

    There have been ubiquitous observations of wave-like motions in the solar atmosphere for decades. Recent improvements to space- and ground-based observatories have allowed the focus to shift to smaller magnetic structures on the solar surface. In this paper, high-resolution ground-based data taken using the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope is combined with co-spatial and co-temporal data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite to analyze running penumbral waves (RPWs). RPWs have always been thought to be radial wave propagation that occurs within sunspots. Recent research has suggested that they are in fact upwardly propagating field-aligned waves (UPWs). Here, RPWs within a solar pore are observed for the first time and are interpreted as UPWs due to the lack of a penumbra that is required to support RPWs. These UPWs are also observed co-spatially and co-temporally within several SDO/AIA elemental lines that sample the transition region and low corona. The observed UPWs are traveling at a horizontal velocity of around 17 0.5 km s{sup 1} and a minimum vertical velocity of 42 21 km s{sup 1}. The estimated energy of the waves is around 150 W m{sup 2}, which is on the lower bound required to heat the quiet-Sun corona. This is a new, yet unconsidered source of wave energy within the solar chromosphere and low corona.

  17. Low-frequency dilatational wave propagation through unsaturated porous media containing two immiscible fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, W.-C.; Sposito, G.; Majer, E.

    2007-02-01

    An analytical theory is presented for the low-frequency behavior of dilatational waves propagating through a homogeneous elastic porous medium containing two immiscible fluids. The theory is based on the Berryman-Thigpen-Chin (BTC) model, in which capillary pressure effects are neglected. We show that the BTC model equations in the frequency domain can be transformed, at sufficiently low frequencies, into a dissipative wave equation (telegraph equation) and a propagating wave equation in the time domain. These partial differential equations describe two independent modes of dilatational wave motion that are analogous to the Biot fast and slow compressional waves in a single-fluid system. The equations can be solved analytically under a variety of initial and boundary conditions. The stipulation of 'low frequency' underlying the derivation of our equations in the time domain is shown to require that the excitation frequency of wave motions be much smaller than a critical frequency. This frequency is shown to be the inverse of an intrinsic time scale that depends on an effective kinematic shear viscosity of the interstitial fluids and the intrinsic permeability of the porous medium. Numerical calculations indicate that the critical frequency in both unconsolidated and consolidated materials containing water and a nonaqueous phase liquid ranges typically from kHz to MHz. Thus engineering problems involving the dynamic response of an unsaturated porous medium to low excitation frequencies (e.g. seismic wave stimulation) should be accurately modeled by our equations after suitable initial and boundary conditions are imposed.

  18. Plant salt stress status is transmitted systemically via propagating calcium waves

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stephan, Aaron B.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-04-29

    The existence and relevance of rapid long distance signaling in plants is evident to any observer of the nastic movements of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) or the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). However, all plants require the transmission of sensory information from the site of perception to other tissues to adjust their physiological states according to their environment. It is becoming increasingly apparent that rapid long-distance signals exist throughout the plant kingdom and may be responsible for initiating a multitude of physiological responses: electrical “action potentials” have been shown to convey wounding and saltstress information from leaf-to-leaf (1, 2); amore » “hydraulic signal” transmitted by the direction of water movement within the xylem can mediate long-distance signaling of water stress experienced by the roots to the leaves in Arabidopsis (3); and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to propagate across a plant and carry stimulus-specific information to a variety of stresses (4). In PNAS, Choi et al. (5) use elegant approaches and present advances demonstrating that calcium can function as a long-distance signaling messenger, propagating in waves from roots and carrying salt-stress signals to induce expression of salt tolerance genes in leaves.« less

  19. Plutonium Hexafluoride Thermal Decomposition Rates (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plutonium Hexafluoride Thermal Decomposition Rates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Plutonium Hexafluoride Thermal Decomposition Rates Uranium and plutonium may be ...

  20. LB CRAC Workshops (rates/meetings)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Load-Based (LB) CRAC Power Rate Adjustment Workshop Materials Related Links: Power Rate Adjustments > Load-Based (LB) CRAC December 13, 2006 LB CRAC Workshop Materials (updated...

  1. utility rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    utility Utility Companies utility rate Utility Rates version 1 version 2 version 3 web service Smart meter After several months of development and testing, the next...

  2. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  3. Fixed Rate Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fixed Rate Agreement Fixed Rate Agreement PDF icon Fixed Rate Agreement More Documents & Publications Floating Rate Agreement Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (August 6, 2009) Federal Loan Guarantees for Projects that Manufacture Commercial Technology Renewable Energy Systems and Components: August 10, 2010

  4. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    2013-02-22

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  5. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feng, Zhe

    Microphysical retrievals and heating rates from the AMIE/Gan deployment using the PNNL Combined Retrieval.

  6. Wholesale Power Rate Schedules | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rate Schedules » Wholesale Power Rate Schedules Wholesale Power Rate Schedules October 1, 2015 KP-AP-1-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 KP-AP-2-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 KP-AP-3-C Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: American Electric Power System: Kerr-Philpott October 1, 2015 CU-CC-1-J Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Duke Energy Progress, Western

  7. Characterization of self-propagating formation reactions in Ni/Zr multilayered foils using reaction heats, velocities, and temperature-time profiles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barron, S. C.; Knepper, R.; Walker, N.; Weihs, T. P.

    2011-01-11

    We report on intermetallic formation reactions in vapor-deposited multilayered foils of Ni/Zr with 70 nm bilayers and overall atomic ratios of Ni:Zr, 2 Ni:Zr, and 7 Ni:2 Zr. The sequence of alloy phase formation and the stored energy is evaluated at slow heating rates (~1 K/s) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces to 725ºC. All three chemistries initially form a Ni-Zr amorphous phase which crystallizes first to the intermetallic NiZr. The heat of reaction to the final phase is 34-36 kJ/mol atom for all chemistries. Intermetallic formation reactions are also studied at rapid heating rates (greater than 105 K/s) inmore » high temperature, self-propagating reactions which can be ignited in these foils by an electric spark. We find that reaction velocities and maximum reaction temperatures (Tmax) are largely independent of foil chemistry at 0.6 ± 0.1 m/s and 1220 ± 50 K, respectively, and that the measured Tmax is more than 200 K lower than predicted adiabatic temperatures (Tad). The difference between Tmax and Tad is explained by the prediction that transformation to the final intermetallic phases occurs after Tmax and results in the release of 20-30 % of the total heat of reaction and a delay in rapid cooling.« less

  8. Attachments Energy Ratings Council | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attachments Energy Ratings Council Attachments Energy Ratings Council Attachments Energy Ratings Council Lead Performer: Window Covering Manufacturing Association - New York, NY DOE Funding: $1,600,000 Project Term: October 1, 2014 - September 30, 2018 Funding Opportunity Announcement: Certification and Rating Attachments for Fenestration Technologies DE-FOA-001000-1504 Project Objective This project is to develop an independent rating, certification, labeling, and performance verification

  9. A low order flow/acoustics interaction method for the prediction of sound propagation using 3D adaptive hybrid grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallinderis, Yannis; Vitsas, Panagiotis A.; Menounou, Penelope

    2012-07-15

    A low-order flow/acoustics interaction method for the prediction of sound propagation and diffraction in unsteady subsonic compressible flow using adaptive 3-D hybrid grids is investigated. The total field is decomposed into the flow field described by the Euler equations, and the acoustics part described by the Nonlinear Perturbation Equations. The method is shown capable of predicting monopole sound propagation, while employment of acoustics-guided adapted grid refinement improves the accuracy of capturing the acoustic field. Interaction of sound with solid boundaries is also examined in terms of reflection, and diffraction. Sound propagation through an unsteady flow field is examined using static and dynamic flow/acoustics coupling demonstrating the importance of the latter.

  10. An Experiment Study of the Propagation of Radio Waves in a Scaled Model of Long-Wall Coal Mining Tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, G.R.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, Y.P.

    2009-07-01

    A long-wall coal mining tunnel is the most important working area in a coal mine. It has long been realized that radio communications can improve both productivity and safety in this dangerous area. Hence, many attempts to use radio communications in such an environment have been made. Unfortunately, no radio system has satisfactorily provided communication services there, which, we believe, is partially due to poor understanding of the propagation characteristics of radio waves in the long-wall mining tunnel. To have deeper physical insight into the propagation problem, a scaled model of the long-wall mining tunnel was built, and the propagation characteristics of UHF radio waves were measured. The experiment and the measured results are presented and discussed.

  11. Plasmonic circular polarization analyzer formed by unidirectionally controlling surface plasmon propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jiaming; Wang, Jiajian; Tang, Peng; Liu, Wei; Huang, Tao; Wang, Yanqi; Lin, Feng; Fang, Zheyu; Zhu, Xing

    2015-04-20

    Analyzing the polarization of a circularly polarized light is a critical issue. We have fabricated a spiral nano-structure on the Au film by using focused ion beam etching technique. The fabricated structure can be used as a plasmonic circular polarization analyzer. By designing the relative orientation of two nano-apertures in the spiral structural unit, the propagation direction of the surface plasmon polaritons excited by circularly polarized light of opposite handedness can be controlled. Therefore, the spiral structure could be used to accurately determine the helicity of the excited circularly polarized light. Based on the results of scanning near-field optical microscopy, the obtained circular polarization extinction ratio of this structure was above 500. This structure can be used for a flexible detecting size and a very wide spectrum.

  12. Nonlinear propagation of ultraintense and ultrashort laser pulses in a plasma channel limited by metallic walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sid, A.; Debbache, D.; Bendib, A.

    2006-08-15

    The nonlinear propagation of an ultraintense and ultrashort (UIUS) laser pulse in a metallic capillary is investigated using a classical model which takes into account the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption (IBA) in the formed plasma. The attenuation of the laser pulse due to the IBA in the plasma and to the laser energy dissipation in the metallic walls is shown. The guiding length and the twist of the laser pulse temporal envelope are presented for several values of the parameters of the plasma, the laser pulse and the metal. The numerical treatment shows that the guiding length increases when the pulse duration becomes shorter. This calculus shows also that in the case of moderate electronic densities, n{sub e}<10{sup 17} m{sup -3}, the formed plasma has a negligible effect compared to that of the metallic walls.

  13. Propagation of misfit dislocations from buffer/Si interface into Si

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Maltez, Rogerio Luis; Morkoc, Hadis; Xie, Jinqiao

    2011-08-30

    Misfit dislocations are redirected from the buffer/Si interface and propagated to the Si substrate due to the formation of bubbles in the substrate. The buffer layer growth process is generally a thermal process that also accomplishes annealing of the Si substrate so that bubbles of the implanted ion species are formed in the Si at an appropriate distance from the buffer/Si interface so that the bubbles will not migrate to the Si surface during annealing, but are close enough to the interface so that a strain field around the bubbles will be sensed by dislocations at the buffer/Si interface and dislocations are attracted by the strain field caused by the bubbles and move into the Si substrate instead of into the buffer epi-layer. Fabrication of improved integrated devices based on GaN and Si, such as continuous wave (CW) lasers and light emitting diodes, at reduced cost is thereby enabled.

  14. Upper limit power for self-guided propagation of intense lasers in plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Weimin; Hu Zhidan; Chen Liming; Li Yutong; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Zeng Ming; Liu Yue; Kawata, Shigeo; Zheng Chunyang; Mori, Warren B.

    2012-10-29

    It is shown that there is an upper-limit laser power for self-focusing of a laser pulse in plasma in addition to the well-known lower-limit critical power set by the relativistic effect. This upper limit is caused by the transverse ponderomotive force of the laser, which tends to expel plasma electrons from the laser propagating area. Furthermore, there is a lower-limit plasma density for a given laser spot size, below which self-focusing does not occur for any laser power. Both the lower-limit density and the upper-limit power are derived theoretically and verified by two-dimensional and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is also found that plasma channels may be unfavorable for stable guiding of lasers above the upper-limit power.

  15. Experimental study of multichromatic terahertz wave propagation through planar micro-channels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shin, Young-Min -Min; Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL; Fermi National Accelerator Lab.; Baig, Anisullah; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.

    2012-04-10

    Previous theoretical and numerical studies [Y. M. Shin and L. R. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091501 (2008) and Y. M. Shin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221504 (2008)] have reported that a planar micro-channel with an asymmetric corrugation array supports strongly confined propagation of broadband THz plasmonic waves. The highly broad spectral response is experimentally demonstrated in the near-THz regime of 0.19-0.265 THz. Signal reflection and transmission tests on the three designed micro-channels including directional couplers resulted in a full-width-half-maximum bandwidth of ~ 50-60GHz with an insertion loss of approximately -5 dB, which is in good agreement withmore » simulation data. As a result, these micro-structures can be utilized for free electron beam and electronic/optic integrated devices« less

  16. Propagation of rarefaction pulses in particulate materials with strain-softening behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbold, E B; Nesterenko, V F

    2011-07-29

    We investigate rarefaction waves in nonlinear periodic systems with a 'softening' power-law relationship between force and displacement to understand the dynamic behavior of this class of materials. A closed form expression describing the shape of the strongly nonlinear rarefaction wave is exact for n = 1/2 and agrees well with the shape and width of the pulses resulting from discrete simulations. A chain of particles under impact was shown to propagate a rarefaction pulse as the leading pulse in initially compressive impulsive loading in the absence of dissipation. Compression pulses generated by impact quickly disintegrated into a leading rarefaction solitary wave followed by an oscillatory train. Such behavior is favorable for metamaterials design of shock absorption layers as well as tunable information transmission lines for scrambling of acoustic information.

  17. Prediction of crack propagation paths in the unit cell of SOFC stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joulaee, N.; Makradi, A.; Ahzi, Said; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2009-08-01

    Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) stacks are multi-material layered systems with different thermo-mechanical properties. Due to their severe thermal loading, these layers have to meet high demands to preserve their mechanical integrity without initiation and propagation of fracture. Here, we focus on a typical unit cell of the stack which consists of positive electrode-electrolyte-negative electrode (PEN). Based on the mechanical properties of each layer and their interfaces, an energy criterion as a function of crack length is used for the prediction of possible crack extensions in the PEN. This criterion is a pure local criterion, independent of applied loads and geometry of the specimen. An analysis of the competition between crack deflections in the interfaces and crack penetration in layers is presented.

  18. Atmospheric transmission model for a solar beam propagating between a heliostat and a receiver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, C.L.; Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Formulae are presented that provide estimates of the transmittance for a solar beam propagating between a heliostat and a central receiver. These formulae are wavelength independent, functional fits to the tabulated data of Vittitoe and Biggs, which in turn are from numerical integrations of spectral transmittance data calculated with the aid of the computer code LOWTRAN 3. The formulae allow for interpolation and extrapolation, and they have a form characteristic of atmospheric transmission models. The transmittance model contains five explicit physical variables (the site elevation H, the atmospheric water vapor density rho, the scattering coefficient ..beta.., the tower height h, and the slant range R) and three implicit variables (the season of the year, the climatic region, and the site elevation H) because rho and ..beta.. are dependent on these three variables.

  19. Role of ambient dielectric in propagation of Ar atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jian; Wang, Youyin; Yu, Daren; Tang, Jingfeng Wei, Liqiu; Ren, Chunsheng

    2015-05-15

    A single-electrode atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma jet surrounded with different ambient dielectrics is investigated driven by AC power supply. Another three ambient dielectrics, distilled water, ethanol, and carbon tetrachloride, are adopted to compare with air. By examining electrical and optical characteristics, it was found that the molecular polarity of ambient dielectrics had its significant effect on the propagation of atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma jets. When the polarization of molecules was enhanced, the discharge current and the bullet velocity were also increased. For nonpolar dielectric of carbon tetrachloride, this was mainly resulted from the electron polarization in the built-in electric field. For polar dielectrics of ethanol and distilled water, in addition to the electron polarization, orientation polarization was the main cause for the further increase in discharge current and bullet velocity.

  20. Measurement of underfilm corrosion propagation by use of spotface paint damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D.L; Franks, L.L.; Kallend, J.S.

    1995-11-01

    A new method of paint damage for underfilm corrosion testing of painted galvanized steel was introduced. The method was based on the observation that the onset of underfilm creepback propagation in atmospheric exposures is preceded by the formation of red rust at the paint defect. Spotface panel damage, i.e., milling through organic and metallic coatings to create a large, unprotected source of red rust, was used to shorten the time needed to produce underfilm creepback in atmospheric exposures. The traditional scribe method of paint damage was used in the same tests. Statistical techniques were used to rank underfilm creepback performance on a variety of painted metallic coated steels and to provide rank correlations between scribe and spotface data. Spotface data collected at six months provided similar rankings and discriminating ability as scribe data collected after a 30 month atmospheric exposure.

  1. New perspectives on the damage estimation for buried pipeline systems due to seismic wave propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three decades, seismic fragility fonnulations for buried pipeline systems have been developed following two tendencies: the use of earthquake damage scenarios from several pipeline systems to create general pipeline fragility functions; and, the use of damage scenarios from one pipeline system to create specific-system fragility functions. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of both tendencies are analyzed and discussed; in addition, a summary of what can be considered the new challenges for developing better pipeline seismic fragility formulations is discussed. The most important conclusion of this paper states that more efforts are needed to improve the estimation of transient ground strain -the main cause of pipeline damage due to seismic wave propagation; with relevant advances in that research field, new and better fragility formulations could be developed.

  2. Non-Standard Interactions in propagation at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coloma, Pilar

    2016-03-03

    Here, we study the sensitivity of current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to the effects of dimension six operators affecting neutrino propagation through Earth, commonly referred to as Non-Standard Interactions (NSI). All relevant parameters entering the oscillation probabilities (standard and non-standard) are considered at once, in order to take into account possible cancellations and degeneracies between them. We find that the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment will significantly improve over current constraints for most NSI parameters. Most notably, it will be able to rule out the so-called LMA-dark solution, still compatible with current oscillation data, and will be sensitive to off-diagonal NSI parameters at the level of ε ~more » $$ \\mathcal{O} $$ (0.05 – 0.5). We also identify two degeneracies among standard and non-standard parameters, which could be partially resolved by combining T2HK and DUNE data.« less

  3. Propagation and oblique collision of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty electronegative plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Labany, S. K.; Behery, E. E.; El-Shamy, E. F.; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004 Abha

    2013-12-15

    The propagation and oblique collision of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary waves in a magnetized dusty electronegative plasma consisting of cold mobile positive ions, Boltzmann negative ions, Boltzmann electrons, and stationary positive/negative dust particles are studied. The extended Poincar-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method is employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equations and the corresponding expressions for the phase shifts after collision between two IA solitary waves. It turns out that the angle of collision, the temperature and density of negative ions, and the dust density of opposite polarity have reasonable effects on the phase shift. Clearly, the numerical results demonstrated that the IA solitary waves are delayed after the oblique collision. The current finding of this work is applicable in many plasma environments having negative ion species, such as D- and F-regions of the Earth's ionosphere and some laboratory plasma experiments.

  4. Van Allen Probes observation and modeling of chorus excitation and propagation during weak geomagnetic activities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Yihua; Xiao, Fuliang; Zhou, Qinghua; Yang, Chang; Liu, Si; Baker, D. N.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; et al

    2015-08-20

    We report correlated data on nightside chorus waves and energetic electrons during two small storm periods: 1 November 2012 (Dst ≈ –45) and 14 January 2013 (Dst ≈ –18). The Van Allen Probes simultaneously observed strong chorus waves at locations L = 5.8 – 6.3, with a lower frequency band 0.1–0.5fce and a peak spectral density ~10–4 nT2/Hz. In the same period, the fluxes and anisotropy of energetic (~10–300 keV) electrons were greatly enhanced in the interval of large negative interplanetary magnetic field Bz. Using a bi-Maxwellian distribution to model the observed electron distribution, we perform ray tracing simulations tomore » show that nightside chorus waves are indeed produced by the observed electron distribution with a peak growth for a field-aligned propagation approximately between 0.3fce and 0.4fce, at latitude <7°. Moreover, chorus waves launched with initial normal angles either θ < 90° or > 90° propagate along the field either northward or southward and then bounce back either away from Earth for a lower frequency or toward Earth for higher frequencies. The current results indicate that nightside chorus waves can be excited even during weak geomagnetic activities in cases of continuous injection associated with negative Bz. Furthermore, we examine a dayside event during a small storm C on 8 May 2014 (Dst ≈ –45) and find that the observed anisotropic energetic electron distributions potentially contribute to the generation of dayside chorus waves, but this requires more thorough studies in the future.« less

  5. Tribal Climate Change Webinars: BIA's Climate Change Competitive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tribal Climate Change Webinars: BIA's Climate Change Competitive Award Process Overview Tribal Climate Change Webinars: BIA's Climate Change Competitive Award Process Overview...

  6. Effect of electron-density gradients on propagation of radio waves in the mid-latitude trough. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Citrone, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Partial contents of this thesis include: (1) Radio-wave propagation and the mid-latitude trough; (2) Ionospheric measurements; (3) Modification of time-dependent ionospheric model output with latitudinal electron-density profiles from digisonde trough depictions; (4) Ray-tracing simulations to examine ground range; and (5) Effects of three-dimensional gradients in electron density on radio-wave propagation in the trough region. Data is tabulated for geophysical conditions, solar activity level, geomagnetic activity level, conditions for vertical ray refraction to surface, and ray-tracing fixed-input conditions.

  7. CONFIGURATION CHANGE PROPOSAL (CCP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yes (If required, firewall and F5 NAT changes can be addressed to HQNST@hq.doe.gov.)| | Supporting Information: (You must complete all of this section before the DNS change request ...

  8. ARM - Climate Change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Climate Change A Student's Guide to Global Climate Change ...

  9. ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE TO

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    450.2 Admin Change 1 1 1-27-15 ADMINISTRATIVE CHANGE TO NNSA SD 450.2 - Functions, Responsibilities, and Authorities (FRA) Document for Safety Management Locations of Changes: Page Paragraph Changed To Title Bottom Office of Safety and Health Office of Safety, Infrastructure, and Operations 1 1 This SD is issued to comply with the Secretary's direction concerning safety management responsibilities and assigns safety responsibilities and authorities described in the most recent version of DOE O

  10. Infrastructure Institutional Change Principle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Research shows that changes in infrastructure prompt changes in behavior (for better or worse). Federal agencies can modify their infrastructure to promote sustainability-oriented behavior change, ideally in ways that make new behaviors easier and more desirable to follow than existing patterns of behavior.

  11. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-06-24

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varyingmore » two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. In addition, we also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths.« less

  12. Changes of O/M, dimension and microstructure of MOX pellet during heat treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, M.; Kato, M.; Sunaoshi, T.

    2013-07-01

    The oxidation and reduction behaviors of sintered (Pu{sub 0.3}U{sub 0.7})O{sub 2-x} pellets have been studied at 1873 K under a controlled oxygen partial pressure. From the results of oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio changes, dimensional and structural changes, it was concluded that the crack nucleation-propagation and the local density change of pores were caused by the tensile and compressive stresses due to the O/M ratio distribution in the direction of the pellet radius. (authors)

  13. Recent DOE Directives Changes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2009, the Department of Energy (DOE) manuals were revised and issued to correspond with the following recent Contractor Requirements Documents (CRDs) changes to the following Directives: DOE M 205.1-8 Administrative Change 1—Cyber Security Incident Management Manual; DOE M 205.1-7 Administrative Change 1—Security Controls for Unclassified Information Systems Manual; DOE M 205.1-6 Administrative Change 1—Media Sanitization Manual; DOE M 205.1-5 Administrative Change 1—Cyber Security Process Requirements Manual

  14. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, DWH; Adlakha, S; Low, SH; De Martini, P; Chandy, KM

    2013-11-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy Department Invests $6 Million to Increase Building Energy Code Compliance Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has awarded $6 million to fund projects that will investigate whether investing in education, training, and outreach programs can produce a significant change in residential building code compliance rates.

  16. 2014-2015 Power Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration 905 N.E. 11th Avenue...

  17. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For new and existing home purchases that are rated 6 Star or 5 Star Plus, applicants are eligible for an interest rate reduction for the first $200,000 of the loan amount, with a blended interest...

  18. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rate > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: American Clean Skies Foundation Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry...

  19. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility Rate Home > Groups > Groups > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds There are no feeds from external sites for this group. Groups Menu You must login in...

  20. Category:Utility Rates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rates Jump to: navigation, search Add a new Utility Rate This category currently contains no pages or media. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:Utility...

  1. Public Utilities Specialist (Rates) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Area Power Administration Locations Phoenix, Arizona Announcement Number ... Southwest Region, Power Marketing, Rates and Alternative Financing, Phoenix, AZ (G6100). ...

  2. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE commercial building energy asset rating program information presented to stakeholders at the workshop held in Washington, DC, December 2011

  3. Residential Solar Valuation Rates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Residential Solar Valuation Rates This presentation summarizes the information discussed by Rabago Energy during the Best Practices in the Design of Utility Solar Programs Webinar on Sept. 27, 2012. PDF icon utility_design_rabago_energy.pdf More Documents & Publications Austin Energy's Residential Solar Rate QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 1 QER - Comment of Energy Innovation 8

  4. Fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorometer and method for measuring fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Zbigniew; Falkowski, Paul

    1995-06-20

    A fast repetition rate fluorometer device and method for measuring in vivo fluorescence of phytoplankton or higher plants chlorophyll and photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton or higher plants by illuminating the phytoplankton or higher plants with a series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes effective to bring about and measure resultant changes in fluorescence yield of their Photosystem II. The series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes has a predetermined energy per flash and a rate greater than 10,000 Hz. Also, disclosed is a flasher circuit for producing the series of fast repetition rate flashes.

  5. Fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorometer and method for measuring fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolber, Z.; Falkowski, P.

    1995-06-20

    A fast repetition rate fluorometer device and method for measuring in vivo fluorescence of phytoplankton or higher plants chlorophyll and photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton or higher plants is revealed. The phytoplankton or higher plants are illuminated with a series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes effective to bring about and measure resultant changes in fluorescence yield of their Photosystem II. The series of fast repetition rate excitation flashes has a predetermined energy per flash and a rate greater than 10,000 Hz. Also, disclosed is a flasher circuit for producing the series of fast repetition rate flashes. 14 figs.

  6. Lab announces security changes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab announces security changes Lab announces security changes The Laboratory is implementing several changes to its security procedures as the result of a recent security assessment conducted jointly by the Department of Defense and Department of Energy. February 23, 2012 Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Contact Kevin Roark Communications Office (505) 665-9202 Email LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, February 23, 2012-Los Alamos National

  7. Climate Change Response

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Interior Climate Change Response "From the Everglades to the Great Lakes to Alaska and everywhere in between, climate change is a leading threat to natural and cultural resources across America, and tribal communities are often the hardest hit by severe weather events such as droughts, floods and wildfires" - Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell "Impacts of climate change are increasingly evident for American Indian and Alaska Native communities and, in some cases, threaten

  8. Climate change cripples forests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate change cripples forests Climate change cripples forests A team of scientists concluded that in the warmer and drier Southwest of the near future, widespread tree mortality will cause forest and species distributions to change substantially. October 1, 2012 A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the Southwest United States. Photo courtesy A. Park Williams. A dead pinon at the edge of the Grand Canyon, harbinger of the future for trees in the

  9. Climate Change Webinar Series

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experts will provide findings from the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) and outline federal energy policy objectives, proposals, and actions as they relate to climate change and resilience for...

  10. Chang-F-L

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Droplet Size Distribution on the Determination of Cloud Droplet Effective Radius F.-L. Chang and Z. Li ESSICDepartment of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park,...

  11. change_address_111609

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CHANGE OF ADDRESS and EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION TO: HUMAN RESOURCES DATE: Z Social Security Print First Name Print Middle Name or Initial Print Last Name (Currently in Payroll...

  12. Climate Change, Drought & Environment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Afternoon Plenary Session: Current Trends in the Advanced Bioindustry Climate Change, Drought, and Environment—Michael Champ, Executive Director, The Sustainable Water Challenge

  13. Change Control Management Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-07-29

    The Guide provides a suggested approach and uniform guidance for managing project and contract changes through applying the requirements of DOE O 413.3B. No cancellation.

  14. Benchmark of numerical tools simulating beam propagation and secondary particles in ITER NBI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sartori, E. Veltri, P.; Serianni, G.; Dlougach, E.; Hemsworth, R.; Singh, M.

    2015-04-08

    Injection of high energy beams of neutral particles is a method for plasma heating in fusion devices. The ITER injector, and its prototype MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector and Concept Advancement), are large extrapolations from existing devices: therefore numerical modeling is needed to set thermo-mechanical requirements for all beam-facing components. As the power and charge deposition originates from several sources (primary beam, co-accelerated electrons, and secondary production by beam-gas, beam-surface, and electron-surface interaction), the beam propagation along the beam line is simulated by comprehensive 3D models. This paper presents a comparative study between two codes: BTR has been used for several years in the design of the ITER HNB/DNB components; SAMANTHA code was independently developed and includes additional phenomena, such as secondary particles generated by collision of beam particles with the background gas. The code comparison is valuable in the perspective of the upcoming experimental operations, in order to prepare a reliable numerical support to the interpretation of experimental measurements in the beam test facilities. The power density map calculated on the Electrostatic Residual Ion Dump (ERID) is the chosen benchmark, as it depends on the electric and magnetic fields as well as on the evolution of the beam species via interaction with the gas. Finally the paper shows additional results provided by SAMANTHA, like the secondary electrons produced by volume processes accelerated by the ERID fringe-field towards the Cryopumps.

  15. Transition properties from the Hermitian formulation of the coupled cluster polarization propagator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucholska, Aleksandra M. Modrzejewski, Marcin; Moszynski, Robert

    2014-09-28

    Theory of one-electron transition density matrices has been formulated within the time-independent coupled cluster method for the polarization propagator [R. Moszynski, P. S. ?uchowski, and B. Jeziorski, Coll. Czech. Chem. Commun. 70, 1109 (2005)]. Working expressions have been obtained and implemented with the coupled cluster method limited to single, double, and linear triple excitations (CC3). Selected dipole and quadrupole transition probabilities of the alkali earth atoms, computed with the new transition density matrices are compared to the experimental data. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found. The results obtained with the new approach are of the same quality as the results obtained with the linear response coupled cluster theory. The one-electron density matrices for the ground state in the CC3 approximation have also been implemented. The dipole moments for a few representative diatomic molecules have been computed with several variants of the new approach, and the results are discussed to choose the approximation with the best balance between the accuracy and computational efficiency.

  16. Experimental study of crack initiation and propagation in high- and gigacycle fatigue in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannikov, Mikhail E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru Oborin, Vladimir E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru Naimark, Oleg E-mail: oborin@icmm.ru

    2014-11-14

    Fatigue (high- and gigacycle) crack initiation and its propagation in titanium alloys with coarse and fine grain structure are studied by fractography analysis of fracture surface. Fractured specimens were analyzed by interferometer microscope and SEM to improve methods of monitoring of damage accumulation during fatigue test and to verify the models for fatigue crack kinetics. Fatigue strength was estimated for high cycle fatigue regime using the Luong method [1] by “in-situ” infrared scanning of the sample surface for the step-wise loading history for different grain size metals. Fine grain alloys demonstrated higher fatigue resistance for both high cycle fatigue and gigacycle fatigue regimes. Fracture surface analysis for plane and cylindrical samples was carried out using optical and electronic microscopy method. High resolution profilometry (interferometer-profiler New View 5010) data of fracture surface roughness allowed us to estimate scale invariance (the Hurst exponent) and to establish the existence of two characteristic areas of damage localization (different values of the Hurst exponent). Area 1 with diameter ∼300 μm has the pronounced roughness and is associated with damage localization hotspot. Area 2 shows less amplitude roughness, occupies the rest fracture surface and considered as the trace of the fatigue crack path corresponding to the Paris kinetics.

  17. The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi

    2016-01-04

    The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water’smore » hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Lastly, our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought.« less

  18. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, V D

    2011-09-20

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

  19. Energy propagation by transverse waves in multiple flux tube systems using filling factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Doorsselaere, T.; Gijsen, S. E.; Andries, J.; Verth, G. E-mail: stief.gijsen@wis.kuleuven.be E-mail: g.verth@sheffield.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    In the last few years, it has been found that transverse waves are present at all times in coronal loops or spicules. Their energy has been estimated with an expression derived for bulk Alfvn waves in homogeneous media, with correspondingly uniform wave energy density and flux. The kink mode, however, is localized in space with the energy density and flux dependent on the position in the cross-sectional plane. The more relevant quantities for the kink mode are the integrals of the energy density and flux over the cross-sectional plane. The present paper provides an approximation to the energy propagated by kink modes in an ensemble of flux tubes by means of combining the analysis of single flux tube kink oscillations with a filling factor for the tube cross-sectional area. This finally allows one to compare the expressions for energy flux of Alfvn waves with an ensemble of kink waves. We find that the correction factor for the energy in kink waves, compared to the bulk Alfvn waves, is between f and 2f, where f is the density filling factor of the ensemble of flux tubes.

  20. Propagation and absorption of high-intensity femtosecond laser radiation in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kononenko, V V; Konov, V I; Gololobov, V M; Zavedeev, E V

    2014-12-31

    Femtosecond interferometry has been used to experimentally study the photoexcitation of the electron subsystem of diamond exposed to femtosecond laser pulses of intensity 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}. The carrier concentration has been determined as a function of incident intensity for three harmonics of a Ti : sapphire laser (800, 400 and 266 nm). The results demonstrate that, in a wide range of laser fluences (up to those resulting in surface and bulk graphitisation), a well-defined multiphoton absorption prevails. We have estimated nonlinear absorption coefficients for pulsed radiation at λ = 800 nm (four-photon transition) and at 400 and 266 nm (indirect and direct two-photon transitions, respectively). It has also been shown that, at any considerable path length of a femtosecond pulse in diamond (tens of microns or longer), the laser beam experiences a severe nonlinear transformation, determining the amount of energy absorbed by the lattice, which is important for the development of technology for diamond photostructuring by ultrashort pulses. The competition between wave packet self-focusing and the plasma defocusing effect is examined as a major mechanism governing the propagation of intense laser pulses in diamond. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  1. Propagation and dispersion of transverse wave trains in magnetic flux tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.; Terradas, J.; Ruderman, M. S.

    2014-07-01

    The dispersion of small-amplitude, impulsively excited wave trains propagating along a magnetic flux tube is investigated. The initial disturbance is a localized transverse displacement of the tube that excites a fast kink wave packet. The spatial and temporal evolution of the perturbed variables (density, plasma displacement, velocity, ...) is given by an analytical expression containing an integral that is computed numerically. We find that the dispersion of fast kink wave trains is more important for shorter initial disturbances (i.e., more concentrated in the longitudinal direction) and for larger density ratios (i.e., for larger contrasts of the tube density with respect to the environment density). This type of excitation generates a wave train whose signature at a fixed position along a coronal loop is a short event (duration ? 20 s) in which the velocity and density oscillate very rapidly with typical periods of the order of a few seconds. The oscillatory period is not constant but gradually declines during the course of this event. Peak values of the velocity are of the order of 10 km s{sup 1} and are accompanied by maximum density variations of the order of 10%-15% the unperturbed loop density.

  2. Tracker: A three-dimensional raytracing program for ionospheric radio propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argo, P.E.; DeLapp, D.; Sutherland, C.D.; Farrer, R.G.

    1994-12-01

    TRACKER is an extension of a three-dimensional Hamiltonian raytrace code developed some thirty years ago by R. Michael Jones. Subsequent modifications to this code, which is commonly called the {open_quotes}Jones Code,{close_quotes} were documented by Jones and Stephensen (1975). TRACKER incorporates an interactive user`s interface, modern differential equation integrators, graphical outputs, homing algorithms, and the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) ionosphere. TRACKER predicts the three-dimensional paths of radio waves through model ionospheres by numerically integrating Hamilton`s equations, which are a differential expression of Fermat`s principle of least time. By using continuous models, the Hamiltonian method avoids false caustics and discontinuous raypath properties often encountered in other raytracing methods. In addition to computing the raypath, TRACKER also calculates the group path (or pulse travel time), the phase path, the geometrical (or {open_quotes}real{close_quotes}) pathlength, and the Doppler shift (if the time variation of the ionosphere is explicitly included). Computational speed can be traded for accuracy by specifying the maximum allowable integration error per step in the integration. Only geometrical optics are included in the main raytrace code; no partial reflections or diffraction effects are taken into account. In addition, TRACKER does not lend itself to statistical descriptions of propagation -- it requires a deterministic model of the ionosphere.

  3. PROPAGATION OF THE 2012 MARCH CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM THE SUN TO HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Chi; Richardson, John D.; Luhmann, Janet G.

    2014-06-20

    In 2012 March the Sun exhibited extraordinary activities. In particular, the active region NOAA AR 11429 emitted a series of large coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which were imaged by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory as it rotated with the Sun from the east to west. These sustained eruptions are expected to generate a global shell of disturbed material sweeping through the heliosphere. A cluster of shocks and interplanetary CMEs were observed near the Earth, and are propagated outward from 1AU using an MHD model. The transient streams interact with each other, which erases memory of the source and results in a large merged interaction region (MIR) with a preceding shock. The MHD model predicts that the shock and MIR would reach 120AU around 2013 April 22, which agrees well with the period of radio emissions and the time of a transient disturbance in galactic cosmic rays detected by Voyager 1. These results are important for understanding the ''fate'' of CMEs in the outer heliosphere and provide confidence that the heliopause is located around 120AU from the Sun.

  4. The generation and damping of propagating MHD kink waves in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morton, R. J.; Verth, G.; Erdlyi, R.; Hillier, A. E-mail: g.verth@sheffield.ac.uk

    2014-03-20

    The source of the non-thermal energy required for the heating of the upper solar atmosphere to temperatures in excess of a million degrees and the acceleration of the solar wind to hundreds of kilometers per second is still unclear. One such mechanism for providing the required energy flux is incompressible torsional Alfvn and kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, which are magnetically dominated waves supported by the Sun's pervasive and complex magnetic field. In particular, propagating MHD kink waves have recently been observed to be ubiquitous throughout the solar atmosphere, but, until now, critical details of the transport of the kink wave energy throughout the Sun's atmosphere were lacking. Here, the ubiquity of the waves is exploited for statistical studies in the highly dynamic solar chromosphere. This large-scale investigation allows for the determination of the chromospheric kink wave velocity power spectra, a missing link necessary for determining the energy transport between the photosphere and corona. Crucially, the power spectra contain evidence for horizontal photospheric motions being an important mechanism for kink wave generation in the quiescent Sun. In addition, a comparison with measured coronal power spectra is provided for the first time, revealing frequency-dependent transmission profiles, suggesting that there is enhanced damping of kink waves in the lower corona.

  5. A model experiment to assess the effects of inclusions on wave propagation in soil media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Thomas W; Ray, Richard P

    2009-01-01

    A data acquisition system has been assembled using Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology which provides a flexible data gathering capability to support recording accelerations at various locations within a sand filled 5 meter square test pit that has a depth extending into underlying gravelly soils. Dual-axis accelerometers weighing less than 1 gram each, made possible by advances in MEMS technology, are connected to up to 5 data acquisition (PXI modules) boards, each capable of controlling and recording data from 16 separate dual axis accelerometers. This data acquisition system is used to measure and record acceleration data from wave propagations that are generated by the impact of a hammer on a striker plate and are modified by an inclusion or occlusion buried in the soil media. Thirty-four two-axis accelerometers were placed at surface and embedded locations on either side of various inclusions buried in the test pit. This large number of accelerometers permits experimentally obtaining high quality spatial and temporal data that can describe the character of the generated wave-forms and the modification of those wave-forms caused by the inclusion. A number of differing materials and geometric forms are used to create inclusions in order to provide sufficient data to permit ascertaining the ability of the measurements to describe the character of the inclusion. Continuous Wavelet Transforms are used to remove background noise and to aid interpretation of the character of the generated wave-form.

  6. Simulation of crack propagation in fiber-reinforced concrete by fracture mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jun; Li, Victor C

    2004-02-01

    Mode I crack propagation in fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is simulated by a fracture mechanics approach. A superposition method is applied to calculate the crack tip stress intensity factor. The model relies on the fracture toughness of hardened cement paste (K{sub IC}) and the crack bridging law, so-called stress-crack width ({sigma}-{delta}) relationship of the material, as the fundamental material parameters for model input. As two examples, experimental data from steel FRC beams under three-point bending load are analyzed with the present fracture mechanics model. A good agreement has been found between model predictions and experimental results in terms of flexural stress-crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) diagrams. These analyses and comparisons confirm that the structural performance of concrete and FRC elements, such as beams in bending, can be predicted by the simple fracture mechanics model as long as the related material properties, K{sub IC} and ({sigma}-{delta}) relationship, are known.

  7. Bit error rate tester using fast parallel generation of linear recurring sequences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierson, Lyndon G.; Witzke, Edward L.; Maestas, Joseph H.

    2003-05-06

    A fast method for generating linear recurring sequences by parallel linear recurring sequence generators (LRSGs) with a feedback circuit optimized to balance minimum propagation delay against maximal sequence period. Parallel generation of linear recurring sequences requires decimating the sequence (creating small contiguous sections of the sequence in each LRSG). A companion matrix form is selected depending on whether the LFSR is right-shifting or left-shifting. The companion matrix is completed by selecting a primitive irreducible polynomial with 1's most closely grouped in a corner of the companion matrix. A decimation matrix is created by raising the companion matrix to the (n*k).sup.th power, where k is the number of parallel LRSGs and n is the number of bits to be generated at a time by each LRSG. Companion matrices with 1's closely grouped in a corner will yield sparse decimation matrices. A feedback circuit comprised of XOR logic gates implements the decimation matrix in hardware. Sparse decimation matrices can be implemented with minimum number of XOR gates, and therefore a minimum propagation delay through the feedback circuit. The LRSG of the invention is particularly well suited to use as a bit error rate tester on high speed communication lines because it permits the receiver to synchronize to the transmitted pattern within 2n bits.

  8. Large enhancement in the heterogeneous oxidation rate of organic aerosols by hydroxyl radicals in the presence of nitric oxide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Richards-Henderson, Nicole K.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2015-10-27

    In this paper we report an unexpectedly large acceleration in the effective heterogeneous OH reaction rate in the presence of NO. This 10–50 fold acceleration originates from free radical chain reactions, propagated by alkoxy radicals that form inside the aerosol by the reaction of NO with peroxy radicals, which do not appear to produce chain terminating products (e.g., alkyl nitrates), unlike gas phase mechanisms. Lastly, a kinetic model, constrained by experiments, suggests that in polluted regions heterogeneous oxidation plays a much more prominent role in the daily chemical evolution of organic aerosol than previously believed.

  9. The use of laser diodes for control of uranium vaporization rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagans, K.; Galkowski, J.

    1993-09-01

    Within the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program we have successfully used the laser absorption spectroscopy technique (LAS) to diagnose process physics performance and control vaporization rate. In the LAS technique, a narrow line-width laser is tuned to an absorption line of the species to be measured. The laser light that is propagated through the sample is and, from this data, the density of the species can be calculated. These laser systems have exclusively consisted of expensive, cumbersome, and difficult to maintain argon-ion-pumped ring dye lasers. While the wavelength flexibility of dye lasers is very useful in a laboratory environment, these laser systems are not well suited for the industrial process control system under development for an AVLIS plant. Diode-lasers offer lower system costs, reduced man power requirements, reduced space requirements, higher system availability, and improved operator safety. We report the. successful deployment and test of a prototype laser diode based uranium vapor rate control system. Diode-laser generated LAS data was used to control the uranium vaporization rate in a hands-off mode for greater than 50 hours. With one minor adjustment the system successfully controlled the vaporization rate for greater than 147 hours. We report excellent agreement with ring dye laser diagnostics and uranium weigh-back measurements.

  10. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Risk Analysis Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), operated on behalf of the ratepayers of the PNW by BPA and other Federal agencies, faces many uncertainties during the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Among these uncertainties, the largest revolve around hydro conditions, market prices and river operations for fish recovery. In order to provide a high probability of making its U.S. Treasury payments, BPA performs a Risk Analysis as part of its rate-making process. In this Risk Analysis, BPA identifies key risks, models their relationships, and then analyzes their impacts on net revenues (total revenues less expenses). BPA subsequently evaluates in the ToolKit Model the Treasury Payment Probability (TPP) resulting from the rates, risks, and risk mitigation measures described here and in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS). If the TPP falls short of BPA's standard, additional risk mitigation revenues, such as PNRR and CRAC revenues are incorporated in the modeling in ToolKit until the TPP standard is met. Increased wholesale market price volatility and six years of drought have significantly changed the profile of risk and uncertainty facing BPA and its stakeholders. These present new challenges for BPA in its effort to keep its power rates as low as possible while fully meeting its obligations to the U.S. Treasury. As a result, the risk BPA faces in not receiving the level of secondary revenues that have been credited to power rates before receiving those funds is greater. In addition to market price volatility, BPA also faces uncertainty around the financial impacts of operations for fish programs in FY 2006 and in the FY 2007-2009 rate period. A new Biological Opinion or possible court-ordered change to river operations in FY 2006 through FY 2009 may reduce BPA's net revenues included Initial Proposal. Finally, the FY 2007-2009 risk analysis includes new operational risks as well as a more comprehensive analysis of non-operating risks. Both the operational and non-operational risks will be described in Section 2.0 of this study. Given these risks, if rates are designed using BPA's traditional approach of only adding Planned Net Revenues for Risk (PNRR), power rates would need to recover a much larger ''risk premium'' to meet BPA's TPP standard. As an alternative to high fixed risk premiums, BPA is proposing a risk mitigation package that combines PNRR with a variable rate mechanism similar to the cost recovery adjustment mechanisms used in the FY 2002-2006 rate period. The proposed risk mitigation package is less expensive on a forecasted basis because the rates can be adjusted on an annual basis to respond to uncertain financial outcomes. BPA is also proposing a Dividend Distribution Clause (DDC) to refund reserves in excess of $800M to customers in the event net revenues in the next rate period exceed current financial forecasts.

  11. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Validation Photovoltaic Energy Ratings Methods Validation The Photovoltaic (PV) Engineering group at NREL validates energy ratings methods by standards committees to establish an energy rating methodology. We are evaluating techniques to account for the impact on PV performance from variations in the spectral distribution of solar radiation. Two types of methods were evaluated for correcting the short-circuit current of PV modules for variations in the solar spectrum under clear skies: (1)

  12. Introducing the Attachments Energy Ratings Council

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Window Covering Manufacturers Association (WCMA) has launched the Attachments Energy Ratings Council (AERC).

  13. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

    1983-05-09

    This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

  14. BPA issues final decision on oversupply rate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is consistent with our multiple statutory responsibilities, is rooted in the basic principles of cost causation and fairness that underlie BPA's rate directives, and...

  15. OpenEI Community - utility rate

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    title"" >After several months of development and testing, the next generation web service for the utility rate database is finally here I encourage you to check out...

  16. BPA proposes rate increase to bolster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    proposed a 9.6 percent average wholesale power rate increase to compensate for reduced revenue expectations from surplus power sales and to continue funding needed investments in...

  17. CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Availability:This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency (hereinafter...

  18. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  19. Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

  20. Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-02

    We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

  1. Changing Climate Doug Sisterson Environmental ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Change Minds about our Changing Climate Doug Sisterson Environmental Science Division, ... We are regularly confronted with arguments that deny climate change is happening or is a ...

  2. 0.351 micron Laser Beam propagation in High-temperature Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Froula, D; Divol, L; Meezan, N; Ross, J; Berger, R L; Michel, P; Dixit, S; Rekow, V; Sorce, C; Moody, J D; Neumayer, P; Pollock, B; Wallace, R; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H

    2007-12-10

    A study of the laser-plasma interaction processes have been performed in plasmas that are created to emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. The plasma emulator is produced in a gas-filled hohlraum; a blue 351-nm laser beam propagates along the axis of the hohlraum interacting with a high-temperature (T{sub e} = 3.5 keV), dense (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 20}cm{sup -3}), long-scale length (L {approx} 2 mm) plasma. Experiments at these conditions have demonstrated that the interaction beam produces less than 1% total backscatter resulting in transmission greater than 90% for laser intensities less than I < 2 x 10{sup 15} W-cm{sup -2}. The bulk plasma conditions have been independently characterized using Thomson scattering where the peak electron temperatures are shown to scale with the hohlraum heater beam energy in the range from 2 keV to 3.5 keV. This feature has allowed us to determine the thresholds for both backscattering and filamentation instabilities; the former measured with absolutely calibrated full aperture backscatter and near backscatter diagnostics and the latter with a transmitted beam diagnostics. A plasma length scaling is also investigated extending our measurements to 4-mm long high-temperature plasmas. At intensities I < 5 x 10{sup 14} W-cm{sup -2}, greater than 80% of the energy in the laser is transmitted through a 5-mm long, high-temperature (T{sub e} > 2.5 keV) high-density (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 20} w-cm{sup -3}) plasma. Comparing the experimental results with detailed gain calculations for the onset of significant laser scattering processes shows a stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold (R=10%) for a linear gain of 15; these high temperature, low density experiments produce plasma conditions comparable to those along the outer beams in ignition hohlraum designs. By increasing the gas fill density (n{sub e} = 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}) in these targets, the inner beam ignition hohlraum conditions are accessed. In this case, stimulated Raman scattering dominates the backscattering processes and we show that scattering is small for gains less than 20 which can be achieved through proper choice of the laser beam intensity. The first three-dimensional (3D) simulations of a high power 0.351 {micro}m laser beam propagating through a high-temperature hohlraum plasma are also reported. We show that 3D linear kinetic modeling of Stimulated Brillouin scattering reproduces quantitatively the experimental measurements, provided it is coupled to detailed hydrodynamics simulation and a realistic description of the laser beam from its millimeter-size envelop down to the micron scale speckles. These simulations accurately predict the strong reduction of SBS measured when polarization smoothing is used.

  3. Modeling the Structural Response from a Propagating High Explosive Using Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margraf, J

    2012-06-12

    This report primarily concerns the use of two massively parallel finite element codes originally written and maintained at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ALE3D is an explicit hydrodynamics code commonly employed to simulate wave propagation from high energy scenarios and the resulting interaction with nearby structures. This coupled response ensures that a structure is accurately applied with a blast loading varying both in space and time. Figure 1 illustrates the radial outward propagation of a pressure wave due to a center detonated spherical explosive originating from the lower left. The radial symmetry seen in this scenario is lost when instead a cylindrocal charge is detonated. Figure 2 indicates that a stronger, faster traveling pressure wave occurs in the direction of the normal axis to the cylinder. The ALE3D name is derived because of the use of arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian elements in which the mesh is allowed to advect; a process through which the mesh is modified to alleviate tanlging and general mesh distortion often cuased by high energy scenarios. The counterpart to an advecting element is a Lagrange element, whose mesh moves with the material. Ideally all structural components are kept Lagrange as long as possible to preserve accuracy of material variables and minimize advection related errors. Advection leads to mixed zoning, so using structural Lagrange elements also improves the visualization when post processing the results. A simplified representation of the advection process is shown in Figure 3. First the mesh is distorted due to material motion during the Lagrange step. The mesh is then shifted to an idealized and less distorted state to prevent irregular zones caused by the Lagrange motion. Lastly, the state variables are remapped to the elements of the newly constructed mesh. Note that Figure 3 represents a purely Eulerian mesh relaxation because the mesh is relocated back to the pre-Lagrange position. This is the case when the material flows through a still mesh. This is not typically done in an ALE3D analysis, especially if Lagrange elements exist. Deforming Lagrange elements would certainly tangle with a Eulerian mesh eventually. The best method in this case is to have an advecting mesh positioned as some relaxed version of the pre and post Lagrange step; this gives the best opportunity of modeling a high energy event with a combination of Lagrange and ALE elements. Dyne3D is another explicit dynamic analysis code, ParaDyn being the parallel version. ParaDyn is used for predicting the transient response of three dimensional structures using Lagrangian solid mechanics. Large deformation and mesh tangling is often resolved through the use of an element deletion scheme. This is useful to accommodate component failure, but if it is done purely as a means to preserve a useful mesh it can lead to problems because it does not maintain continuity of the material bulk response. Whatever medium exists between structural components is typically not modeled in ParaDyn. Instead, a structure either has a known loading profile applied or given initial conditions. The many included contact algorithms can calculate the loading response of materials if and when they collide. A recent implementation of an SPH module in which failed or deleted material nodes are converted to independent particles is currently being utilized for a variety of spall related problems and high velocity impact scenarios. Figure 4 shows an example of a projectile, given an initial velocity, and how it fails the first plate which generates SPH particles which then interact with and damage the second plate.

  4. A PARALLEL-PROPAGATING ALFVENIC ION-BEAM INSTABILITY IN THE HIGH-BETA SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verscharen, Daniel; Bourouaine, Sofiane; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Maruca, Bennett A. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu E-mail: bmaruca@ssl.berkeley.edu

    2013-08-10

    We investigate the conditions under which parallel-propagating Alfven/ion-cyclotron waves are driven unstable by an isotropic (T{sub {alpha}} = T{sub Parallel-To {alpha}}) population of alpha particles drifting parallel to the magnetic field at an average speed U{sub {alpha}} with respect to the protons. We derive an approximate analytic condition for the minimum value of U{sub {alpha}} needed to excite this instability and refine this result using numerical solutions to the hot-plasma dispersion relation. When the alpha-particle number density is {approx_equal} 5% of the proton number density and the two species have similar thermal speeds, the instability requires that {beta}{sub p} {approx}> 1, where {beta}{sub p} is the ratio of the proton pressure to the magnetic pressure. For 1 {approx}< {beta}{sub p} {approx}< 12, the minimum U{sub {alpha}} needed to excite this instability ranges from 0.7v{sub A} to 0.9v{sub A}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed. This threshold is smaller than the threshold of {approx_equal} 1.2v{sub A} for the parallel magnetosonic instability, which was previously thought to have the lowest threshold of the alpha-particle beam instabilities at {beta}{sub p} {approx}> 0.5. We discuss the role of the parallel Alfvenic drift instability for the evolution of the alpha-particle drift speed in the solar wind. We also analyze measurements from the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups and show that the U{sub {alpha}} values measured in solar-wind streams with T{sub {alpha}} Almost-Equal-To T{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} are approximately bounded from above by the threshold of the parallel Alfvenic instability.

  5. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right Rate?" call slides and discussion summary, December 1, 2011. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding Financing Small Business Upgrades

  6. Two-dimensional numerical study of two counter-propagating helium plasma jets in air at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Wen; Sang, Chaofeng; Wang, Dezhen; Liu, Fucheng

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, a computational study of two counter-propagating helium plasma jets in ambient air is presented. A two-dimensional fluid model is applied to investigate the physical processes of the two plasma jets interaction (PJI) driven by equal and unequal voltages, respectively. In all studied cases, the PJI results in a decrease of both plasma bullets propagation velocity. When the two plasma jets are driven by equal voltages, they never merge but rather approach each other around the middle of the gas gap at a minimum approach distance, and the minimal distance decreases with the increase of both the applied voltages and initial electron density, but increases with the increase of the relative permittivity. When the two plasma jets are driven by unequal voltages, we observe the two plasma jets will merge at the position away from the middle of the gas gap. The effect of applied voltage difference on the PJI is also studied.

  7. Nuclear Data Uncertainty Propagation in Depletion Calculations Using Cross Section Uncertainties in One-group or Multi-group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Díez, C.J.; Cabellos, O.; Martínez, J.S.

    2015-01-15

    Several approaches have been developed in last decades to tackle nuclear data uncertainty propagation problems of burn-up calculations. One approach proposed was the Hybrid Method, where uncertainties in nuclear data are propagated only on the depletion part of a burn-up problem. Because only depletion is addressed, only one-group cross sections are necessary, and hence, their collapsed one-group uncertainties. This approach has been applied successfully in several advanced reactor systems like EFIT (ADS-like reactor) or ESFR (Sodium fast reactor) to assess uncertainties on the isotopic composition. However, a comparison with using multi-group energy structures was not carried out, and has to be performed in order to analyse the limitations of using one-group uncertainties.

  8. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  9. Change Control Management Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-07-29

    The Guide provides a suggested approach and uniform guidance for managing project and contract changes through applying the requirements of DOE O 413.3B. Admin Chg 1 dated 10-22-2015.

  10. Oversight and Change

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Oversight and Change http:nnsa.energy.govourmissionoversightandchange

    Page...

  11. Climate Change Adaptation Planning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This course provides an introduction to planning for climate change impacts, with examples of tribes that have been going through the adaptation planning process. The course is intended for tribal...

  12. Oversight and Change

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Oversight and Change http:www.nnsa.energy.govourmissionoversightandchange

    Page...

  13. Low rate entrainment feeder for fine solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, D.S.; Piskorz, J.

    1982-08-01

    A mechanically stirred entrainment-type feeder for fine solids has been developed which will give rates constant to +/- 5% for 1 h or more. The feeder was constructed in connection with a mini-fluidized bed flash pyrolysis project for both biomass and Canadian coals. It has been used to feed coal, sawdust and ground bark in sizes below 600 micro m at rates as low as 6 g/h. Gas to solids weight ratios obtained were from about 3:1 to 1:3. The effect on feed rates of most of the operating and geometric parameters was investigated at low feed rates. A mechanism for control of the feed rate was tested and found to be satisfactory.

  14. On the influence of singlet oxygen molecules on the speed of flame propagation in methane-air mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starik, A.M.; Kozlov, V.E.; Titova, N.S.

    2010-02-15

    The effect of the presence of singlet oxygen molecules O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) in a CH{sub 4}-air mixture on the speed of laminar flame propagation is considered. The known experimental data on the laminar flame speed and ignition delay are used to validate the developed kinetic model involving electronically excited oxygen molecules O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) and O{sub 2}(b{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}). Numerical simulation shows that the presence of 10% O{sub 2}(a{sup 1}{delta}{sub g}) in molecular oxygen enables to increase significantly (by a factor of 1.7) the speed of flame propagation in a fuel-lean ({phi}=0.45) methane-air mixture. The main reason for such an acceleration of flame propagation is the intensification of chain reactions due to addition of singlet delta oxygen molecules. For a fuel-rich mixture ({phi}=1.9), the growth in the flame speed is significantly smaller and attains a factor of 1.4. (author)

  15. Generalized multiscale finite-element method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Gibson, Richard L.; Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-04-14

    It is important to develop fast yet accurate numerical methods for seismic wave propagation to characterize complex geological structures and oil and gas reservoirs. However, the computational cost of conventional numerical modeling methods, such as finite-difference method and finite-element method, becomes prohibitively expensive when applied to very large models. We propose a Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media, where we construct basis functions from multiple local problems for both the boundaries and interior of a coarse node support or coarse element. The application of multiscale basis functions can capture the fine scale medium property variations, and allows us to greatly reduce the degrees of freedom that are required to implement the modeling compared with conventional finite-element method for wave equation, while restricting the error to low values. We formulate the continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the multiscale method, both of which have pros and cons. Applications of the multiscale method to three heterogeneous models show that our multiscale method can effectively model the elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media with a significant reduction in the degrees of freedom in the modeling system.

  16. Generalized multiscale finite-element method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Gibson, Richard L.; Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-04-14

    It is important to develop fast yet accurate numerical methods for seismic wave propagation to characterize complex geological structures and oil and gas reservoirs. However, the computational cost of conventional numerical modeling methods, such as finite-difference method and finite-element method, becomes prohibitively expensive when applied to very large models. We propose a Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media, where we construct basis functions from multiple local problems for both the boundaries and interior of a coarse node support or coarse element. The application of multiscale basis functions can capture the fine scale mediummore » property variations, and allows us to greatly reduce the degrees of freedom that are required to implement the modeling compared with conventional finite-element method for wave equation, while restricting the error to low values. We formulate the continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the multiscale method, both of which have pros and cons. Applications of the multiscale method to three heterogeneous models show that our multiscale method can effectively model the elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media with a significant reduction in the degrees of freedom in the modeling system.« less

  17. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  18. Austin Energy- Value of Solar Residential Rate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: In August 2014, the City Council of Austin, Texas, enacted Resolution No. 20140828, which directed program changes to the Value of Solar Tariff as follows:

  19. Considerations for How to Rate CPV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.

    2011-02-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.

  20. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  1. Propagation of Isotopic Bias and Uncertainty to Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radulescu, Georgeta

    2010-06-01

    Burnup credit methodology is economically advantageous because significantly higher loading capacity may be achieved for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks based on this methodology as compared to the loading capacity based on a fresh fuel assumption. However, the criticality safety analysis for establishing the loading curve based on burnup credit becomes increasingly complex as more parameters accounting for spent fuel isotopic compositions are introduced to the safety analysis. The safety analysis requires validation of both depletion and criticality calculation methods. Validation of a neutronic-depletion code consists of quantifying the bias and the uncertainty associated with the bias in predicted SNF compositions caused by cross-section data uncertainty and by approximations in the calculational method. The validation is based on comparison between radiochemical assay (RCA) data and calculated isotopic concentrations for fuel samples representative of SNF inventory. The criticality analysis methodology for commercial SNF disposal allows burnup credit for 14 actinides and 15 fission product isotopes in SNF compositions. The neutronic-depletion method for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is the two-dimensional (2-D) depletion sequence TRITON (Transport Rigor Implemented with Time-dependent Operation for Neutronic depletion)/NEWT (New ESC-based Weighting Transport code) and the 44GROUPNDF5 crosssection library in the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE 5.1) code system. The SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 cross section library is based on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version V (ENDF/B-V) library. The criticality calculation code for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is General Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code. The purpose of this calculation report is to determine the bias on the calculated effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, due to the bias and bias uncertainty associated with predicted spent fuel compositions (i.e., determine the penalty in reactivity due to isotopic composition bias and uncertainty) for use in disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit. The method used in this calculation to propagate the isotopic bias and bias-uncertainty values to k{sub eff} is the Monte Carlo uncertainty sampling method. The development of this report is consistent with 'Test Plan for: Isotopic Validation for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel'. This calculation report has been developed in support of burnup credit activities for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and provides a methodology that can be applied to other criticality safety applications employing burnup credit.

  2. Application of Compressed Sensing to 2-D Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging System data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascarenas, David D.; Farrar, Charles R.; Chong, See Yenn; Lee, J.R.; Park, Gyu Hae; Flynn, Eric B.

    2012-06-29

    The Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging (UPI) System is a unique, non-contact, laser-based ultrasonic excitation and measurement system developed for structural health monitoring applications. The UPI system imparts laser-induced ultrasonic excitations at user-defined locations on a structure of interest. The response of these excitations is then measured by piezoelectric transducers. By using appropriate data reconstruction techniques, a time-evolving image of the response can be generated. A representative measurement of a plate might contain 800x800 spatial data measurement locations and each measurement location might be sampled at 500 instances in time. The result is a total of 640,000 measurement locations and 320,000,000 unique measurements. This is clearly a very large set of data to collect, store in memory and process. The value of these ultrasonic response images for structural health monitoring applications makes tackling these challenges worthwhile. Recently compressed sensing has presented itself as a candidate solution for directly collecting relevant information from sparse, high-dimensional measurements. The main idea behind compressed sensing is that by directly collecting a relatively small number of coefficients it is possible to reconstruct the original measurement. The coefficients are obtained from linear combinations of (what would have been the original direct) measurements. Often compressed sensing research is simulated by generating compressed coefficients from conventionally collected measurements. The simulation approach is necessary because the direct collection of compressed coefficients often requires compressed sensing analog front-ends that are currently not commercially available. The ability of the UPI system to make measurements at user-defined locations presents a unique capability on which compressed measurement techniques may be directly applied. The application of compressed sensing techniques on this data holds the potential to reduce the number of required measurement locations, reduce the time to make measurements, reduce the memory required to store the measurements, and possibly reduce the computational burden to classify the measurements. This work considers the appropriate selection of the signal dictionary used for signal reconstruction, and performs an evaluation of compressed sensing technique's ability to reconstruct ultrasonic images using fewer measurements than would be needed using traditional Nyquist-limited data collection techniques.

  3. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier2Adjustment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier2Adjustment&oldid539746...

  5. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier5Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier5Max&oldid539754...

  6. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier1Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier1Max&oldid539766...

  7. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier1Sell | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier1Sell&oldid539770...

  8. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier6Adjustment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier6Adjustment&oldid539759...

  9. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Max | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier4Max&oldid539751...

  10. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Period | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is a property of type Number. The allowed values for this property are: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructurePeriod" Showing...

  11. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Sell | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier4Sell Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  12. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Adjustment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier3Adjustment Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  13. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Sell | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier5Sell Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  14. Getting Rate Information from the utility_rates api | OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Getting Rate Information from the utilityrates api Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hello, I am trying to use the API to generate information similar to what you can see here: http:...

  15. BPA Power Rates (pbl/main)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov BPA Fuel Mix 2012 2013 2014...

  16. Minority Utility Rate Design Assessment Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-01-20

    Econometric model simulates consumer demand response to various user-supplied, two-part tariff electricity rate designs and assesses their economic welfare impact on black, hispanic, poor and majority households.

  17. Contract and Tiered Rate Methodology Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    historical demand to provide incentive to lower their peak by providing a marginal price signal on an incremental component of demand. The CDQs are calculated outside of the rate...

  18. Project Definition Rating Index Workbook Instructions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides instructions for use of the Project Definition Rating Index (PDRI) Workbook, a tool that automates the calculation of scores in the PDRI master spreadsheet in Appendix D,...

  19. Utility Rates | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rates I'm considering removing the "Show Preview" button, since it does not work (javascript validation issue that could be fixed), and it doesn't make sense. The reason to...

  20. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    > Posts by term > Utility Rate Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Term: Global Atlas Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Blog entry Global Atlas IRENA...

  1. Utility Rate | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utility Rate Home > Groups Content Group Activity By term Q & A Feeds Share your own status updates, and follow the updates & activities of others by creating your own account. Or,...

  2. Historical river flow rates for dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1991-06-10

    Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS`s, EID`S, SAR`S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants.

  3. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  4. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Green Building Rate Discount

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This discounted rate is available to commercial customers whose building meets the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification or equivalent. To...

  5. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Kenneth H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  6. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  7. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  8. Realization rates of the National Energy Audit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, L.G.; Gettings, M.B.

    1998-11-01

    Engineering estimates of savings resulting from installation of energy conservation measures in homes are often greater than the savings actually realized. A brief review of prior studies of realization rates prefaces this study of rates from an engineering audit tool, NEAT, (developed for the Department of Energy`s Low-Income Weatherization Assistance Program) used in a New York state utility`s low-income program. Estimates of metered and predicted savings are compared for 49 homes taken from a data base of homes that participated in the first year of the utility`s program. Average realization rates ranging from 57% to 69% result, depending on the data quality. Detailed examinations of two houses using an alternate engineering method, the DOE-2 computer program (considered an industry standard), seem to indicate that the low realization rates mainly result from factors other than inaccuracies in the audit`s internal algorithms. Causes of the low realization rates are examined, showing that the strongest single factor linked to the low rates in this study is the use of secondary heating fuels that supplement the primary heating fuel. This study, like the other similar studies, concludes that engineering estimates are valuable tools in determining ranked lists of cost-effective weatherization measures, but may not be accurate substitutes for measured results in evaluating program performance.

  9. Propagation of gamma rays and production of free electrons in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimant, Y. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Granatstein, V. L.; Sprangle, P.; Penano, J.

    2012-10-15

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of production of free electrons in air by gamma-rays leaking from radioactive materials. A model based on the Klein-Nishina scattering theory is used to calculate scattering cross sections and approximate the electron production rate. The model includes the effects of primary gamma-quanta radiated by the source as well as that scattered in air. Comparison of the model with the mcnpx kinetic code (http://mcnpx.lanl.gov/) in a sample problem shows excellent agreement. The motivation for this research comes from the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. The concept is based on the breakdown in air at the focal point of a high-power beam of electromagnetic waves produced by a THz gyrotron with a 10-20 {mu}s pulse. The presence of a radioactive material can greatly exceed the production rate of free electrons over the natural background rate. Additional electrons act as seeds to initiate the breakdown and create sufficiently dense plasma at the focal region. The dense plasma can then be remotely detected as an unambiguous effect of the concealed radioactive material.

  10. Leadership Institutional Change Principle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For changing behavior among employees, leaders in Federal agencies should visibly communicate their own commitments to sustainability in the workplace. Such visible leadership will help achieve sustainability goals in the short term and continue to provide motivation for long-term benefits.

  11. Phase change compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    Compositions containing crystalline, long chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

  12. Phase change compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1989-01-01

    Compositions containing crystalline, straight chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

  13. Formation and propagation of laser-driven plasma jets in an ambient medium studied with X-ray radiography and optical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dizière, A.; Pelka, A.; Ravasio, A.; Yurchak, R.; Loupias, B.; Falize, E.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Sakawa, Y.; Morita, T.; Pikuz, S.; Koenig, M.

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, we present experimental results obtained on the LULI2000 laser facility regarding structure and dynamics of astrophysical jets propagating in interstellar medium. The jets, generated by using a cone-shaped target, propagate in a nitrogen gas that mimics the interstellar medium. X-ray radiography as well as optical diagnostics were used to probe both high and low density regions. In this paper, we show how collimation of the jets evolves with the gas density.

  14. Effects of obliqueness and strong electrostatic interaction on linear and nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahmansouri, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156- 8 8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak 38156- 8 8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mamun, A. A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342 (Bangladesh)

    2014-03-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a magnetized strongly coupled dusty plasma is theoretically investigated. The normal mode analysis (reductive perturbation method) is employed to investigate the role of ambient/external magnetic field, obliqueness, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature in modifying the properties of linear (nonlinear) dust-acoustic waves propagating in such a strongly coupled dusty plasma. The effective electrostatic dust-temperature, which arises from strong electrostatic interactions among highly charged dust, is considered as a dynamical variable. The linear dispersion relation (describing the linear propagation characteristics) for the obliquely propagating dust-acoustic waves is derived and analyzed. On the other hand, the Korteweg-de Vries equation describing the nonlinear propagation of the dust-acoustic waves (particularly, propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves) is derived and solved. It is shown that the combined effects of obliqueness, magnitude of the ambient/external magnetic field, and effective electrostatic dust-temperature significantly modify the basic properties of linear and nonlinear dust-acoustic waves. The results of this work are compared with those observed by some laboratory experiments.

  15. CK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    quantities. Document Available for Download PDF icon CK-1-H Rate Schedule More Documents & Publications CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CTV-1-H Wholesale Power Rate ...

  16. Replacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Replacement Energy System: Kerr-Philpott This rate schedule shall be available to public...

  17. Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rating and Feedback Systems Contractor Rating and Feedback Systems Better Buildings Residential Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Contractor Rating and ...

  18. Widget:UtilityRateNamingHelper | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UtilityRateNamingHelper Jump to: navigation, search This widget displays the utility rate database form. For example: Widget:UtilityRateNamingHelper Retrieved from "http:...

  19. Evaluation of the home-energy-rating concept and the Massachusetts Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frankel, M.L.; Duberg, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    This is a report on the results of an evaluation of a home-energy-rating concept based on a Massachusetts pilot project. The focus of the evaluation was on: (1) the compatibility of the Massachusetts rating with the RCS program, (2) who would use the rating and how, (3) qualitative estimates of benefits and costs, and (4) recommendations for further use and testing of the rating. In addition the evaluation of the rating concept also attempted to determine what if any effect the home energy rating has on the demand for energy audits, on the propensity of customers who received ratings to undertake recommended energy-efficiency home improvements, and on changes in mortgage-lending procedures for energy-efficient homes. The evaluation consisted of telephone and in-person discussions with the project developers, the various professional user groups, the recipients of the energy ratings, and control groups of audit customers that did not receive the energy rating. The evaluation was designed to determine the results of the pilot project, assess the project's effectiveness, and analyze the potential for transferring the rating procedure to other geographic locations.

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J. Chien-Chih [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of failing molten lithium or Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) jets encircles the reactors central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel.

  1. Second harmonic generation by propagation of a p-polarized obliquely incident laser beam in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Pallavi; Agrawal, Ekta

    2014-05-15

    An analytical study of second harmonic generation due to interaction an intense, p-polarized laser beam propagating obliquely in homogeneous underdense plasma, in the mildly relativistic regime, has been presented. The efficiency of the second harmonic radiation as well as its detuning length has been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. It is shown that, for a given plasma electron density, the second harmonic efficiency increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning length decreases. The second harmonic amplitude vanishes at normal incidence of the laser beam.

  2. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  3. Farming: A Climate Change Culprit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Farming: A Climate Change Culprit Farming: A Climate Change Culprit Simulations run at NERSC show impact of land-use change on African monsoon precipitation June 7, 2014 SahelMap ...

  4. chang-98.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Relationship Between TOA Albedo and Cloud Optical Depth as Deduced from Models and Collocated AVHRR and ERBE Satellite Observations F.-L. Chang and Z. Li Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada S. A. Ackerman Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences University of Wisconsin-Madison Introduction It has long been recognized that clouds have a large influence on the earth's radiation budget and climate. Current cloud and radiation research programs, such as the Clouds and

  5. ChangePoint

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-10-18

    This software allows one to locate the sudden intensity changes in fluorescence time trajectoreis photon by photon. It also automatically calculate the most probable number of intensity levels in the trajectory according to Bayesian statistics measure. This allows an accurate and unbiased analysis and interpretation of experimental data. The code can be applied to analysis of DNA sequencing data, for example, to allow rapid single-molecule and single-base resolution.

  6. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  7. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Rate our Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate our Site U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Rate our website The Nevada Field Office is committed to providing high-quality products and services that meet your needs. Your participation in our customer satisfaction survey will help us achieve this goal. NFO would appreciate your taking the time to complete this survey. Responses are confidential. The survey should take approximately 15 minutes or 1 minute per question. You do not have to answers all the questions. How did you feel working

  8. Energetic electron propagation in the decay phase of non-thermal flare emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua; Tsap, Yuri T.

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of the trap-plus-precipitation model, the peculiarities of non-thermal emission in the decay phase of solar flares have been considered. The calculation formulas for the escape rate of trapped electrons into the loss cone in terms of time profiles of hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission have been obtained. It has been found that the evolution of the spectral indices of non-thermal emission depend on the regimes of the pitch angle diffusion of trapped particles into the loss cone. The properties of non-thermal electrons related to the HXR and MW emission of the solar flare on 2004 November 3 are studied with Nobeyama Radioheliograph, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, RHESSI, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations. The spectral indices of non-thermal electrons related to MW and HXR emission remained constant or decreased, while the MW escape rate as distinguished from that of the HXRs increased. This may be associated with different diffusion regimes of trapped electrons into the loss cone. New arguments in favor of an important role of the superstrong diffusion for high-energy electrons in flare coronal loops have been obtained.

  9. Institutional Change Process for Sustainability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For establishing institutional change in a federal agency to achieve sustainability or other energy efficiency goals, follow the five-step institutional change process.

  10. ARM - Predictions of Climate Change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TeachersTopic ListPredictions of Climate Change Outreach Home Room News Publications ... Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Predictions of Climate Change There are no accurate ...

  11. ARM - Climate Change Through History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Climate Change Through History Scientists know ... Evidence of Climate Change It is important to remember that even minor fluctuations can ...

  12. Strategies for Achieving Institutional Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many strategies—including those derived from Institutional Change Principles–may be used to effect institutional change in support of energy and sustainability objectives.

  13. Wave propagation method for Stirling engine cycle simulation: An experimental validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calandrelli, L.; Rispoli, F.

    1995-12-31

    A thermo-fluid-dynamic model for Stirling Engine Cycle simulation, first proposed by Rispoli in 1986, has been modified to keep into account the effect of gas axial turbulent conductivity and the results of recent research in oscillating flow friction and turbulent transition phenomena. Sudden cross sectional area changes are handled as flow discontinuities described by a set of equations solved by means of the secant method. Model prediction accuracy has been tested comparing numerical results with experimental data for the cogenerative unit V160. The comparison between numerical and experimental data shows model`s capability to take into account physical phenomena involved in working fluid evolution.

  14. Front-end utility rate updates | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Front-end utility rate updates Home > Groups > Utility Rate Rmckeel's picture Submitted by Rmckeel(297) Contributor 13 February, 2013 - 14:28 Utility Rates A few utility rate...

  15. The Distant Type Ia Supernova Rate

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Pain, R.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R. S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Deustua, S. E.; Fruchter, A. S.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Irwin, M. J.; Kim, A. G.; Kim, M. Y.; Knop, R. A.; Lee, J. C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N. A.

    2002-05-28

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample, which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean red shift z {approx_equal} 0.55 of 1.53 {sub -0.25}{sub -0.31}{sup 0.28}{sup 0.32} x 10{sup -4} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1} or 0.58{sub -0.09}{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10}{sup +0.10} h{sup 2} SNu(1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per 10{sup 10} L{sub B}sun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  16. Overview of Field Experience - Degradation Rates & Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-14

    The way a PV module fails may depend not only on its design and the materials used in its construction, but also on the weather it experiences, the way it is mounted, and the quality control during its manufacture. This presentation gives an overview of Field Experience - what degradation rates and what lifetimes are being observed in various regions.

  17. U.S. Utility Rate Database - U.S. Utility Rate Database

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    As Of Today ApprovedUnapproved All Approved Only Unapproved Only Order By Latest Update Utility Name Rate Name Sector Approval Staus Effective Date End Date Display Results...

  18. WP-96/TR-96 & TC-96 Power and Transmission Rate Case (rates/ratecases...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Decision (WP-96 ROD) Final Studies And Documentation (WP-96-FS) Loads and Resources Revenue Requirement Segmentation Marginal Cost Analysis Wholesale Power Rate Development...

  19. Nonpremixed ignition, laminar flame propagation, and mechanism reduction of n-butanol, iso-butanol, and methyl butanoate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wei; Kelley, A. P.; Law, C. K.

    2011-01-01

    The non-premixed ignition temperature of n-butanol (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH), iso-butanol ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHCH{sub 2}OH) and methyl butanoate (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 3}) was measured in a liquid pool assembly by heated oxidizer in a stagnation flow for system pressures of 1 and 3 atm. In addition, the stretch-corrected laminar flame speeds of mixtures of airn-butanol/iso-butanol/methyl butanoate were determined from the outwardly propagating spherical flame at initial pressures of up to 2 atm, for an extensive range of equivalence ratio. The ignition temperature and laminar flame speeds of n-butanol and methyl butanoate were computationally simulated with three recently developed kinetic mechanisms in the literature. Dominant reaction pathways to ignition and flame propagation were identified and discussed through a chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) and sensitivity analysis. The detailed models were further reduced through a series of systematic strategies. The reduced mechanisms provided excellent agreement in both homogeneous and diffusive combustion environments and greatly improved the computation efficiency.

  20. An investigation of the information propagation and entropy transport aspects of Stirling-machine numerical simulation. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, L.F.

    1992-04-01

    Aspects of the information propagation modeling behavior of integral machine computer simulation programs are investigated in terms of a transmission line. In particular, the effects of pressure-linking and temporal integration algorithms on the amplitude ratio and phase angle predictions are compared against experimental and closed-form analytic data. It is concluded that the discretized, first order conservation balances may not be adequate for modeling information propagation effects at characteristic numbers less than about 24. An entropy transport equation suitable for generalized use in Stirling machine simulation is developed. The equation is evaluated by including it in a simulation of an incompressible oscillating flow apparatus designed to demonstrate the effect of flow oscillations on the enhancement of thermal diffusion. Numerical false diffusion is found to be a major factor inhibiting validation of the simulation predictions with experimental and closed-form analytic data. A generalized false diffusion correction algorithm is developed which allows the numerical results to match their analytic counterparts. Under these conditions, the simulation yields entropy predictions which satisfy Clausius' inequality.