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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Variations in the diet of introduced Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) inferred using stable isotope analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Variations in the diet of introduced Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) inferred using stable isotope predators; island ecosystem conservation; stable isotope analysis; Norway rats; diet. Correspondence Heather of introduced Norway rats Rattus norvegicus has raised concerns for the fate of the large least auklet Aethia

Jones, Ian L.

2

Demography of auklets Aethia spp. in relation to introduced Norway rats Rattus norvegicus at Kiska  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demography of auklets Aethia spp. in relation to introduced Norway rats Rattus norvegicus at Kiska................................................................................................4 Norway Rat Abundance and Distribution .........................................................5................................................................................................6 Norway Rat Abundance and Distribution.........................................................7

Jones, Ian L.

3

Maternal Responsiveness to Infant Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Ultrasonic Vocalizations During the Maternal Behavior Cycle and After  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Maternal Responsiveness to Infant Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Ultrasonic Vocalizations During environment, Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) pups emit ultrasonic vocalizations that can elicit maternal search is particularly important in altricial species such as the Norway rat in which infants rely on the mother

4

ECOLOGY OF NORWAY RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) IN RELATION TO CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SEABIRDS ON KISKA ISLAND,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ECOLOGY OF NORWAY RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) IN RELATION TO CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SEABIRDS to predation by introduced Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). In 2001 and 2002 the auklet colony experienced the lowest reproductive success ever recorded for auklets. Norway rats have been suggested as the cause

Jones, Ian L.

5

Stimulus Control of Maternal Responsiveness to Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Pup Ultrasonic Vocalizations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stimulus Control of Maternal Responsiveness to Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Pup Ultrasonic be considered a specialization of Norway rats and other small rodents. When removed from the nest and placed in a cool environment, infant Norway rats emit USVs. These vocalizations range from 30 to 50 k

6

adult rats rattus: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 IMPACTS OF INTRODUCED NORWAY RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) ON LEAST AUKLETS (AETHIA PUSILLA) BREEDING AT KISKA ISLAND,...

7

albino rats rattus: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

most commonly used in research are believed to be domesticated albino strains of the Norway rat rattus nirvegicus. Rats like mice, belong to the order Rodentia Biology and...

8

Marine Ornithology 41: 4148 (2013) Bond et al.: Crested Auklet survival with Norway Rats 41  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Marine Ornithology 41: 41­48 (2013) Bond et al.: Crested Auklet survival with Norway Rats 41 in the Aleutians (Bailey 1993, Ebbert & Byrd 2002). Another introduced predator, the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF CRESTED AUKLETS AETHIA CRISTATELLA IN THE PRESENCE OF INTRODUCED NORWAY RATS RATTUS

Jones, Ian L.

9

Impacts of the Norway Rat on the auklet breeding colony at Sirius Point, Kiska  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impacts of the Norway Rat on the auklet breeding colony at Sirius Point, Kiska Island, Alaska-3239 FAX: (709) 737-3018 e-mail: x19hlm@mun.ca #12;Major and Jones Impacts of the Norway Rat... 2 Fresh rat during World War II (Atkinson, 1985). It is believed that the Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus

Jones, Ian L.

10

Assessing the effects of Norway rats on auklet breeding success and survival at Sirius Point, Kiska  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessing the effects of Norway rats on auklet breeding success and survival at Sirius Point, Kiska Introduction The presence of introduced Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) has been implicated as a possible sightings of Norway rats at Sirius Point Colony during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Furthermore

Jones, Ian L.

11

Impacts of the Norway Rat on the auklet breeding colony at Sirius Point, Kiska Island, Alaska in 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impacts of the Norway Rat on the auklet breeding colony at Sirius Point, Kiska Island, Alaska of the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) onto Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in the 1940s (Murie 1959 and to investigate the biology and demography of the Norway rat population. Moors and Atkinson (1984) suggested

Jones, Ian L.

12

The laboratory rat strains most commonly used in research are believed to be domesticated albino strains of the Norway rat rattus nirvegicus. Rats like mice, belong to the order Rodentia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the nude rat. Uses Despite the fear that rats invoke in people they actually make quiet, gentle pets rate 70-115 Food consumption 5-6g/100g/d Water consumption 10-12ml/100g/d Breeding onset Male 65-110d

Shihadeh, Alan

13

albino rat cfn: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

most commonly used in research are believed to be domesticated albino strains of the Norway rat rattus nirvegicus. Rats like mice, belong to the order Rodentia Biology and...

14

albino wistar rats: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

most commonly used in research are believed to be domesticated albino strains of the Norway rat rattus nirvegicus. Rats like mice, belong to the order Rodentia Biology and...

15

albino rats exposed: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

most commonly used in research are believed to be domesticated albino strains of the Norway rat rattus nirvegicus. Rats like mice, belong to the order Rodentia Biology and...

16

albino rat anatomical: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

most commonly used in research are believed to be domesticated albino strains of the Norway rat rattus nirvegicus. Rats like mice, belong to the order Rodentia Biology and...

17

auklet ptychoramphus aleuticus: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to nestlings in order 9 Demography of auklets Aethia spp. in relation to introduced Norway rats Rattus norvegicus at Kiska Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary:...

18

Least and Crested Auklet productivity and survival in relation to introduced Norway  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Least and Crested Auklet productivity and survival in relation to introduced Norway Rats at Sirius and rats - Kiska 2004 2 Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) were introduced to Kiska Island, western Aleutian was near normal (c. 50%) at Sirius Point in 2003 (Major and Jones 2003, Major 2004). Introduced Norway rats

Jones, Ian L.

19

Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-{mu}XRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian registered (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

Parreiras Nogueira, Liebert; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Braz, Delson; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; Silva, Claudia Marcello da [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory / COPPE / UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute / State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory / COPPE / UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratory of Radiological Sciences / State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

20

Supplement 22, Part 5, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Arthropoda and Miscellaneous Phyla  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(64) , 37-67 Rattus rattus: Lelydorp, Surinam Rattus rattus frugivorus: Brokubaka, Surinam Afrolistrophorus mediolineatus sp. n. Fain, ?., 1976, Acta Zool. et Path. Antverpi- ensia (64), 37-67 bandicoot rat: Ban Thenon, 18 Km NW Kieng- Kwang...

Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

RATS VERSUS PEOPLE Rats equal twice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from rats to man and to other animals. Amebiasis, infectious jaun- dice, Salmonella food poison- ing, and tapeworm infections are spread by rats. The germs are transmitted to man by polluted_food and water. Rat. Rats will gnaw through almost anything in their path to obtain food. Hard substances ~ like concrete

22

E-Print Network 3.0 - als3p protects mice Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to mice and rats. In Utah, house mice (Mus musculus) and Norway rats (Rattus... of house mice and Norway rats. House mice are ... Source: Berryman Institute, Department of...

23

E-Print Network 3.0 - acyltransferase-2 protects mice Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Utah, house mice (Mus musculus) and Norway rats (Rattus... of house mice and Norway rats. House mice are ... Source: Berryman Institute, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Utah...

24

Controlling Rats and Mice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at least 18 inches off the ground. 18? 18? TCE?Wildlife Services P.O. Box 100410 ? San Antonio, Texas 78201-1710 Rat-proofing Whenever it can be accomplished at a rea- sonable cost, rat-proofing is recommended as the most permanent means of control...

Texas Wildlife Services

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

25

Super Rat Poison Man  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bob Square Tie. But Zheng Xiaoyu, the deposed head of China's State Food and Drug Administration begs to be excused. A rat poison manufacturer here in China applied for permission to name some of its products after him, partly because he's corrupt...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

26

Polar Biol (2007) 30:391394 DOI 10.1007/s00300-006-0204-8  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pairs of thin-billed prions nests despite the presence of introduced ship rats, house mice and feral Pachyptila belcheri (Catry et al. 2003). Ship rats Rattus rattus, house mice Mus musculus and cats Felis em Eco-Etologia, Rua Jardim do Tabaco 44, Lisboa 1149-041, Portugal e-mail: paulo.catry@netc.pt P

27

Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution Rat Genome Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality `draft' covering over 90% of the genome

Pachter, Lior

28

Water Retrieval by Norway Rats: Behavior as Deduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1948). Burrows and feeding of the Norway a radial Mammalogy,Object retrieval preferences of Norway rats: An evolutionaryinedible objects by Norway rats: Motivational interactions

Wallace, R J

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary ethanol consumption by their adolescent young. We found that exposure to an ethanol-ingesting dam

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

30

The Metabolism of Americium in the Rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

t _ 'mE METABOLISM OF AMERICIUM IN THE RAT* By K. G. Scott,The distri :.1). tl.on of americium in the bone was studied,48A THE METABOLISM OF AMERICIUM IN THE RAT By K. G. Scott,

Scott, K.G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Arginine metabolism in enterocytes of diabetic rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diabetic rats and patients exhibit decreased plasma arginine concentrations. Arginine is important in numerous cellular pathways, including the synthesis of nitric oxide and the release of insulin from pancreatic ? cells. At present, little...

Morrow, Natalie Anne

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Metabolism of Curium in the RAT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

G. , "The Metabolism of Americium in the Rat", Jour. Clin.of the metabOlism of americium has been reported in.is also radloacti ve. Americium and curium are not available

Hamilton, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

TRACTOGRAPHY OF FORNIX, CINGULUM, AND CORPUS CALLOSUM IN RAT BRAIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was performed and visually inspected for anatomical correctness according to a rat atlas brain. Values of Trace as the effects of pharmacological drugs on white matter. DISCUSSION Figure 4: Trace, FA, RD, and AD Figure 1: Rat

34

The influence of magnesium deficiency on inflammatory reaction in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The influence of magnesium deficiency on inflammatory reaction in rats Régine DELAIGUE, P. DUCHENE, France. Summary. The inflammatory reactions obtained in magnesium-deficient rats, by injecting of inflammatory reactions observed in magnesium- deficient rats could not be explained only by histamine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Viability of adult rat skin following 13 Mev proton irradiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

then removed from suspension by centrifugation and washed twice in Smith's chick heart growth media. 33 All cells removed from the biopsy by this enzyme dissection were placed in culture to check viability. Two Rose chambers con- taining the first scraping... Dissipation . Diagram ? Proton Energy Dissipation 17 17 Cell Suspension Filter Tube. Exploded View of Rose Chamber 24 Rat 822, Gross Appearance 37 SB. Rat 822, Skin Section. 38 Rat 771, Gross Appearance 37 Rat 771, Skin Section. 38 7A. 7B. Rat 835...

Caraway, Bobby Lamar

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Supplement 22, Part 5, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Arthropoda And Miscellaneous Phyla  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-67 Rattus sabanus vociferans: Gunong Benom, Pahang, Malaysia Afrolistrophorus maculatus ssp. rattus ssp. n. Fain, ?., 1976, Acta Zool. et Path. Antverpi- ensia (64) , 37-67 Rattus rattus: Lelydorp, Surinam Rattus rattus frugivorus: Brokubaka, Surinam...

Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.; Shaw, Judith H.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Kirby, Margie D.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Zidar, Judith A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Social Influences on Food Choices of Norway Rats and Mate Choices of Japanese Quail  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ecology and sociology of the Norway rat . Bethesda: U.S. De-food stealing by young Norway rats. Journal of Comparativesufficient diet by Norway rats. Journal of Comparative

Galef, Jr., Bennett G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Dose Dependent Response to Cyclodextrin Infusion in a Rat Model of Verapamil Toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of cyclodextrin infusion in a rat model of verapamilresuscitation with a lipid infusion shifts the dose-responseResponse to Cyclodextrin Infusion in a Rat Model of

Mottram, Allan R.; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rats effects Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Norway rats and von Frisch's (1967) extraordinary demonstrations of social effects on food selection... observed that Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to...

40

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat brain Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Image Analysis... Cytochem 44:981-987,19%) KEY WORDS: Immunohistochemistry; Image analysis; GABAAre- ceptor; Rat; Brain... density in postfixed thin sections of rat...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Imaging Nicotine in Rat Brain Tissue by Use of Nanospray Desorption...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nicotine in Rat Brain Tissue by Use of Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Imaging Nicotine in Rat Brain Tissue by Use of Nanospray Desorption...

42

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat liver Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from normal rat liver and incubated for 3 or 16 hours with increasing doses... of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Rat ... Source: Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit - Centre for...

43

Suppressed serum prolactin in sinoaortic-denervated rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors investigated the effect of arterial baroreceptor deafferentation on serum and pituitary prolactin (PRL) and on catecholamines in median eminence (ME) and anterior and posterior pituitaries. Male Wistar rats were sinoaortic denervated (SAD) or sham operated (SO). Three days after surgery serum prolactin, measured by radioimmunoassay, was suppressed in SAD rats, and dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, measured by radioenzymatic or high-performance liquid chromatography electron capture methods, were significantly reduced in ME of SAD rats. Simultaneously, anterior pituitary of SAD rats had significant increases in both catecholamines, whereas posterior pituitary showed no changes. Four hours after surgery serum PRL was also reduced in SAD rats, but no changes in ME catecholamines were found. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured before and after injection of bromocriptine in SAD and SO rats 3 days after surgery. Bromocriptine markedly suppressed serum PRL in both groups and reduced MAP from 144 +/- 10 to 84 +/- 5 and from 116 +/- 2 to 99 +/- 3 in SAD and SO rats, respectively; heart rate was reduced in SAD rats. They conclude that the SAD rat is a model of hypertension with suppressed serum PRL and that interruption of arterial baroreceptor nerves suppresses PRL secretion probably by modulating tuberoinfundibular turnover of catecholamines.

Alexander, N.; Melmed, S.; Morris, M.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

adult rat vestibular: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

stimulate cell proliferation in adult rat vestibular sensory epithelia, as does the infusion of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF ) plus insulin. We sought to determine...

45

Uranium biokinetics in gavaged young adult female rats.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Blood, liver, kidney, femur, and ovaries were assayed from female Wistar rats following oral administration of uranyl nitrate. Three uranium concentrations were studied for six (more)

Keizer, Philip John

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Isoproterenol effects evaluated in heart slices of human and rat in comparison to rat heart in vivo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury was evaluated by gene and protein pathway changes in human heart slices, and compared to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Isoproterenol (10 and 100 ?M) altered human and rat heart slice markers of oxidative stress (ATP and GSH) at 24 h. In this in vivo rat study (0.5 mg/kg), serum troponin concentrations increased with lesion severity, minimal to mild necrosis at 24 and 48 h. In the rat and the human heart, isoproterenol altered pathways for apoptosis/necrosis, stress/energy, inflammation, and remodeling/fibrosis. The rat and human heart slices were in an apoptotic phase, while the in vivo rat heart exhibited necrosis histologically and further progression of tissue remodeling. In human heart slices genes for several heat shock 70 kD members were altered, indicative of stress to mitigate apoptosis. The stress response included alterations in energy utilization, fatty acid processing, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of increased oxidative stress in both species. Inflammation markers linked with remodeling included IL-1?, Il-1?, IL-6 and TNF? in both species. Tissue remodeling changes in both species included increases in the TIMP proteins, inhibitors of matrix degradation, the gene/protein of IL-4 linked with cardiac fibrosis, and the gene Ccl7 a chemokine that induces collagen synthesis, and Reg3b a growth factor for cardiac repair. This study demonstrates that the initial human heart slice response to isoproterenol cardiac injury results in apoptosis, stress/energy status, inflammation and tissue remodeling at concentrations similar to that in rat heart slices. - Highlights: Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury evaluated in heart slices. Isoproterenol altered apoptosis, energy, inflammation and remodeling pathways. Human model verified by comparison to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Human and rat respond to isoproterenol at similar concentrations in vitro.

Herrmann, Julia E.; Heale, Jason; Bieraugel, Mike; Ramos, Meg [Drug Safety Evaluation, Allergan Inc., 2525 Dupont Dr, Irvine, CA 92612 (United States); Fisher, Robyn L. [Vitron Inc., Tucson, AZ (United States); Vickers, Alison E.M., E-mail: vickers_alison@allergan.com [Drug Safety Evaluation, Allergan Inc., 2525 Dupont Dr, Irvine, CA 92612 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

A DELAYED NONLINEAR PBPK MODEL FOR GENISTEIN DOSIMETRY IN RATS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A DELAYED NONLINEAR PBPK MODEL FOR GENISTEIN DOSIMETRY IN RATS #3; MICHAEL G. ZAGER y , HIEN T on laboratory animals and human volunteers [4], and critical literature reviews [32]. Phytoestrogens, a class endocrine-related e#11;ects such as reduced birth weight in rats and humans. In its conjugated form

48

Rat Trachea Dose Distribution Model Using MCNPTM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

formed the trachea. The outer cylinder represented the outer part of the rat trachea with a radius of 0.1 cm, and the other cylinder, with a radius of 0.075 cm, represented the inner part of the trachea. The trachea was the volume that is not shared... tallies provided a more sound result for both the 22? and 45?calculations, as the calculated relative error was below 0.1 and, therefore is generally reliable by MCNP TM standards. However, neither of the *F8 tallies were below the 0.1 reference value...

Almanza, Christian

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Ultrastructural development of the rat corpus luteum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

througn semi-micro dissection of the ovary, tissue differentation in some fields of view was d. ifficult and classification as to cell type was virtually impossible. By comparison of intracellular structure and. inclusions with the work of previous...hitehoiise q r ~ T stiiy y of tne ultr structu. "e of the d. velopin' corpus lu eum cells;ias carried out. The rats::ere sacrificed according to their st-, -. e of estrous, eiid their ovaries removed immediately before dicath. The tissue was fixed in 25...

Bailey, John Franklin

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

AMPA-receptor mediated plasticity within the rat spinal cord  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that the spinal cord is capable of a simple form of instrumental learning. In this instrumental learning paradigm, rats typically receive a complete spinal transection at the second thoracic...

Hoy, Kevin Corcoran

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Intracellular protein degradation in cultured rat muscle cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1982 Major Subject: Biochemistry INTRACELLULAR PROTEIN DEGRADATION IN CULTURED RAT MUSCLE CELLS A Thesis by GWENDOLYN BETH MILLER Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee) p I 'P) (Member) (M r) (Head of Department) August... 1982 "BOGS-'. 4( 3 3q ABSTRACT Intracellular Protein Degradation in Cultured Rat Muscle Cells (August 1982) Gwendolyn Beth Miller, B. S. , Texas Asm Dniversity Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. martyn Gunn Intra:elMlar protein degradation...

Miller, Gwendolyn Beth

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Non-essential amino acid metabolism in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN RATS A Thesis by JAMES DARRELL CROOKS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1971 Major Subject...: Animal Nutrition O 4 0 E ? NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN RATS A Thesis by JAMES DARRELL CROOKS& JR. Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Head of Department) (Member) May 197 1 ABSTRACT Non...

Crooks, James Darrell

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Preexposure sensitizes rats to the reinforcing effects of cocaine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PREEXPOSURE SENSITIZES RATS TO THE REINFORCING EFFECTS OF COCAINE A Thesis by BRIAN ARTHUR HORGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Psychology PREEXPOSURE SENSITIZES RATS TO THE REINFORCING EFFECTS OF COCAINE A Thesis by BRIAN ARTHUR HORGER Approved as to style and content by: Susan Sch nk ' (Chair of Committee) ~, r, :. ). ~+~~- ?- : Jack R...

Horger, Brian Arthur

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

Arginine and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduce Fat Mass in Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARGININE AND CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID REDUCE FAT MASS IN RATS A Thesis by JENNIFER LYNN NALL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2008 Major Subject: Nutrition ARGININE AND CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID REDUCE FAT MASS IN RATS A Thesis by JENNIFER LYNN NALL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas A...

Nall, Jennifer L.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

55

Neuroendocrine effects of acute nickel chloride administration in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An sc injection of nickel chloride (20 and 10 mg/kg) led to a profound and consistent increase of circulating prolactin (PRL) levels after 1 day and lasted for 4 days (p < 0.001) in male rats. Increases in insulin levels occurred 1 and 2 days postinjection. The nickel-induced PRL rise could be abolished by a simultaneous administration of 2-bromo-..cap alpha..-ergocryptine (CB 154). In vitro incubation of pituitaries from rats that received 20 mg/kg of nickel chloride 48 hr prior to sacrifice released more PRL into the culture medium, as well as contained more PRL in the final tissue than did the pituitaries from control animals. The hypothalamic extracts (HE) obtained from hypothalami of nickel-injected rats were tested also in vitro on normal rat pituitaries and the results showed that the HE from such rats released more PRL and therefore had less prolactin-inhibiting factor (PIF) than the HE obtained from control rats. The results show that nickel chloride has effects on the endocrine system that (a) last considerably longer than previously reported, (b) are mediated through the neuroendocrine system, and (c) instead of specifically inhibiting PRL secretion from the pituitary promote high circulating PRL levels lasting from 1 to 4 days.

Clemons, G.K.; Garcia, J.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Toxicologic and biochemical effects of extracts from Karwinskia humboldtiana on the albino rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) received empty gelatin capsules once each week for seven weeks. Group IV-C contained six control rats, and these rats were not fed Ch-3. The treated rats in Group IV-A and the control rats in Group IV-C were fed Purina Rat Chow ad libitum throughout... the study. The treated animals in Group IV-A were individually killed by decapitation and necropsied when it appeared they were in a moribund condition. Rats in Groups IV-B and IV-C were killed and necropsied on the BBth day. Blood samples were collected...

Wheeler, Michael Hugh

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

E-Print Network 3.0 - awake behaving rats Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rats Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: awake behaving rats Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Stimulus-driven response dynamics of the...

58

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat central Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult rats deposited urine...

59

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat posterodorsal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult rats deposited urine...

60

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rats relate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult rats deposited urine...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rats exposed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult rats deposited urine...

62

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat offspring Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult rats deposited urine...

63

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rats tested Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult rats deposited urine...

64

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rats potential Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult rats deposited urine...

65

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rats relationship Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult rats deposited urine...

66

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rats efeito Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult rats deposited urine...

67

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rats treated Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult rats deposited urine...

68

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat type Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult rats deposited urine...

69

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid-deficient hairless rat Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with hairless rat skin mounted... of the gel was made by contact with a Kodak BioMax MR film (France). Animals Female hairless rats (OFA... as to obtain 20 mg b-lactoglobulin per...

70

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat pancreas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-expressing vector as 5 doses between 27 and 39 h after the first dose of HGF into young adult rats (data not shown... , Thyroid, Spleen, and Colon in Rats in Vivo Cuihua ......

71

Circadian rhythms on hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal axis hormones and cytokines of collagen induced arthritis in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with corresponding circadian fluctuations in cytokines in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA adjuvant at the left foot. On day 33, in both the CIA and the control rats, circulating adrenocorticotropin-rhythmometry. The results showed that plasma corticosterone in CIA rats had a trough at 18:00 and reached a peak at 06

Li, Shao

72

Serum proteins in magnesium-deficient rat Y. RAYSSIGUIER P. LARVOR Y. AUGUSTI J. DURLACH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Serum proteins in magnesium-deficient rat Y. RAYSSIGUIER P. LARVOR Y. AUGUSTI J. DURLACH (1 Cochin, Paris Summary. Hypoproteinemia appears early in the magnesium-deficient rat with a drop in serum. In the magnesium-deficient rat, we have shown serum protein modifications related to immunologic and allergic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces fat mass in diet-induced obese rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation reduces fat mass in diet-induced obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either low- or high-fat diets for 15 wks (16 rats/diet). Thereafter, lean or obese...

Jobgen, Wenjuan Shi

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

74

E-Print Network 3.0 - aging female rats Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DAMAGE POTENTIAL OF THREE RODENT SPECIES ON Summary: : 0.39 0.03g; female cotton rats: 0.34 0.03g; male roof rats:0.25 0.04g; female roof rats:0... .26 0.04g;...

75

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Acetonitrile in rats. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for acetonitrile to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 100, 400, or 1200 ppM acetonitrile, 6 hours/day, 7 days/week. Exposure of rats to these concentrations of acetonitrile resulted in mortality in the 1200 ppM group (2/33 pregnant females; 1/10 non-pregnant females). However, there were no treatment-related effects upon body weights or reproduction indices at any exposure level, nor was there a significant increase in the incidence of fetal malformations or variations. The only effect observed in the fetuses was a slight, but not statiscally significant, exposure-correlated increase in the incidence of supernumerary ribs. Determination of acetonitrile and cyanide concentrations in maternal rat blood showed that acetonitrile concentration in the blood increased with exposure concentration for all exposed maternal rats. Detectable amounts of cyanide in the blood were found only in the rats exposed to 1200 ppM acetonitrile ({approximately}2 {mu}g cyanide/g of blood).

Mast, T.J.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Boyd, P.J.; Hayden, B.K.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Sexual differences in the expression of copper deficiency in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present investigation was undertaken to establish whether the severity of copper deficiency in rats fed diets containing fructose is affected by the presence and type of endogenous sex hormones. Intact and castrated male rats and intact and ovariectomized females were fed from weaning a copper-deficient diet (0.6 ppm) containing 62% fructose for 8 weeks. Regardless of castration, male rats were anemic, exhibited heart hypertrophy, and died of the deficiency. However, castration ameliorated the anemia and delayed the mortality. In contrast, none of the females died of the deficiency. It is suggested that in addition to the sex of the animal, levels of testosterone in the male may also play a role in the severity of copper deficiency.

Fields, M.; Lewis, C.G.; Beal, T.; Scholfield, D.; Patterson, K.; Smith, J.C.; Reiser, S.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Regional neurohypophysial and hypothalamic blood flow in rats during hypercapnia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in the neurohypophysis and hypothalamus in normocapnic and hypercapnic rats using (/sup 14/C)isopropyliodoamphetamine. Rats were surgically prepared using nitrous oxide and halothane and placed in plaster restraining casts. Hypercapnia was produced by increasing the fractional concentration of inspired CO/sub 2/ (FICO/sub 2/). rCBF in normocapnic rats was higher in the paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, median eminence, and neural lobe than rates previously measured by use of diffusible tracers. During hypercapnia blood flow increased linearly with arterial PCO/sub 2/ (PACO/sub 2/) in all regions except the median eminence and neural lobe, which were not affected by hypercapnia. When rats were pretreated with phentolamine (1 mg/kg) to block the alpha-adrenergic receptors, blood flow in the median eminence and neural lobe increased significantly during hypercapnia. We conclude that blood flow in the cell bodies of the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus is regulated differently during hypercapnia than blood flow in the nerve terminals in the median eminence and neural lobe. Furthermore, vasodilation produced by increased CO/sub 2/ is offset by alpha-receptor stimulation in the median eminence and neural lobe.

Bryan, R.M. Jr.; Myers, C.L.; Page, R.B.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Characterization of a plasma membrane zinc transporter in rat brain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ireland Ltd. Keywords: Ion transport; Membrane vesicles; Excitotoxicity; Zinc homeostasis; TransitionCharacterization of a plasma membrane zinc transporter in rat brain Robert A. Colvin* Department transport in the brain. This report provides convincing evidence of a zinc transporter in plasma membrane

79

PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF VERAPAMIL AGAINST HEXACHLOROBUTADIENE NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to evaluate the protective effect of verapamil against hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) nephrotoxicity, 30 adult Wistar albino rats were divided into five equal groups, A, B, C, D and E and were given intra-peritonially corn oil (I ml/kg; control), HCBD (50 mg/kg), verapamil (50 g/kg) with HCBD

E. Moghtadai Khorasgani; K. Manochehri; M. Hosseini

80

Hypoxia Stimulates Vesicular ATP Release From Rat Osteoblasts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hypoxia Stimulates Vesicular ATP Release From Rat Osteoblasts ISABEL R. ORRISS,1 GILLIAN E. KNIGHT, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Many neuronal and non-neuronal cell types release ATP in a controlled manner. After release, extracellular ATP (or, following hydrolysis, ADP) acts on cells in a paracrine

Burnstock, Geoffrey

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Single Glucose Biofuel Cells Implanted in Rats Power Electronic Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single Glucose Biofuel Cells Implanted in Rats Power Electronic Devices A. Zebda1,2 , S. Cosnier1 the first implanted glucose biofuel cell (GBFC) that is capable of generating sufficient power from a mammal further developments. Following recent developments in nano- and biotechnology, state-of-the-art biofuel

Boyer, Edmond

82

Susceptibility of immature rats to seizures induced by unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Bain. Convulsant hydrazides I. In vito and in vivo inhibition of vitamin B6 enzymes by convulsive hydrazides. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 119:255-262 (1957). 8. Baxter, C. F. , and E. Roberts. Elevation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in rat brain...

Boyd, Dale Duaine

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Original article Digestion and fermentation of proteins in rats fed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Digestion and fermentation of proteins in rats fed keratin, albumin, cooked casein the hypothesis that cooking reduces the digestibility of casein, and increases the yield of bacterial me transfer and fermentation in the caecum. The caecal digestion of casein (cooked or not), ker- atin

Boyer, Edmond

84

Facial Wiping in the Rat Fetus: Variation of Chemosensory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

how variation in stimulus parameters of lemon odor infusion (concentration, volume, and infusion time) affected the wiping response of E20 rat fetuses. Infusions of higher concentration or greater volume of stimulation. Intraoral infusion of chemosensory fluids with strong olfactory components, such as lemon extract

Robinson, Scott R.

85

Aardvark hunt in Kenya Gaten B. Rat}rUin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I I i Aardvark hunt in Kenya Gaten B. Rat}rUin Dept of Omittrologr & Mamrnalogr, Catifomia Academy eactrirg science as a Peace Corps Volunteer at Mirogi $conOary Scnou in Sou*r Nyanza District or Kenya of Kenya in Nairobi. 14 #12;

86

Characterization and Mapping of the Gene Conferring Resistance to Rift Valley Fever Virus Hepatic Disease in WF.LEW Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

168 271 164 218 243 142 154 268 168 271 164 218 243 142 D6Rat46 D6Rat68 D6Rat105 D6Rat74 D6Rat144 D6Rat135 D6Rat124 D6Rat116 D6Rat1 155 278 246 253 185 169 260 152 238 155 278 244 255 181 169 260... 220 242 181 349 134 177 256 132 131 160 165 216 242 181 349 134 177 256 132 133 148 159 220 248 203 349 126 175 246 138 171 160 163 214 248 203 349 126 175 246 138 171 160 163 214 248 203 349...

Callicott, Ralph J.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

87

Hemodynamic characterization of chronic bile duct-ligated rats: effect of pentobarbital sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation.

Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

E-Print Network 3.0 - african mole rats Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

18 Trees of the "Madsen" data set Morphological topology Summary: Rat Capybara Rabbit Elephant Shrew Hedgehog Mole Sloth Opossum Kangaroo 12;Mitochondrial topology... Hedgehog...

89

Brain reward deficits accompany withdrawal (hangover) from acute ethanol in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stimulation reward: effects of ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Resstimulus produced by ethanol withdrawal. J Pharmacol Expthe "anxiogenic" response to ethanol withdrawal in the rat.

Schulteis, Gery; Liu, Jian

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

E-Print Network 3.0 - aged rat vocal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Medicine 96 SOCIAL LEARNING IN NON-PRIMATE MAMMALS Bennett G. Galef Summary: , elephants, food choice, hamsters, mate choice, meekats, poison avoidance, predator avoidance, rats......

91

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat prefrontal Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mem. Summary: of prefrontal neural activity in the rat to the acquisition of trace fear conditioning using microinfusions... was performed on a total of 120 adult male...

92

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloxan-treated rats beneficial Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in a panel of 11 different inbred rat strains to evaluate the genetic variance Source: Brand, Paul H. - Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo...

93

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rats neuroprotection Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

magnocellular nucleus basalis: neuroprotection by Ca(2... levels in rats: effects on brain 5-HT1A receptors and behavioral coping with stress in adult offspring... in adult...

94

E-Print Network 3.0 - awake rats achieving Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

<< < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Anticorrelated resting-state functional connectivity in awake rat brain Zhifeng Liang, Jean King, Nanyin Zhang Summary: Anticorrelated resting-state...

95

Sorbitol accumulation in male and female rats consuming starch or fructose diets with or without copper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study was designed to examine the relationship between the sex of the rats, tissue sorbitol accumulation and copper deficiency in rats consuming dietary fructose. Rats were provided with a diet containing either 62.7% fructose or starch, and either 6.0 or 0.6 {mu}g copper/g for three weeks. Hepatic copper concentration of all rats consuming the copper-deficient diets was about 40% of copper sufficient rats. Hepatic, renal and thymic sorbitol concentrations were significantly elevated in males consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups regardless of the sex of the rat. Hepatic, renal the thymic fructose concentrations were significantly higher in rats eating fructose as compared to female rats. Hepatic glucose concentration was higher in males and females consuming the fructose, copper-deficient diet when compared to all other dietary groups. Renal glucose concentration was elevated in males as compared to females. These results demonstrate that the pathology and complications of copper deficiency in the male rat consuming fructose closely parallel aberration in tissue sorbitol accumulation.

Lewis, C.G.; Fields, M.; Beal, T. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))

1989-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

96

PyRAT - python radiography analysis tool (u)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PyRAT is a radiography analysis tool used to reconstruction images of unknown 1-0 objects. The tool is written in Python and developed for use on LINUX and Windows platforms. The tool is capable of performing nonlinear inversions of the images with minimal manual interaction in the optimization process. The tool utilizes the NOMAD mixed variable optimization tool to perform the optimization.

Temple, Brian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buescher, Kevin L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstrong, Jerawan C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

97

Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic evaluation of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, which induces renal tubular necrosis in rats. In the context of the European InnoMed PredTox project, transcriptomic and proteomic studies were performed to provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were treated with 25 and 75 mg/kg/day subcutaneously for 1, 3 and 14 days. Histopathology observations showed mild tubular degeneration/necrosis and regeneration and moderate mononuclear cell infiltrate after long-term treatment. Transcriptomic data indicated a strong treatment-related gene expression modulation in kidney and blood cells at the high dose after 14 days of treatment, with the regulation of 463 and 3241 genes, respectively. Of note, the induction of NF-kappa B pathway via the p38 MAPK cascade in the kidney, together with the activation of T-cell receptor signaling in blood cells were suggestive of inflammatory processes in relation with the recruitment of mononuclear cells in the kidney. Proteomic results showed a regulation of 163 proteins in kidney at the high dose after 14 days of treatment. These protein modulations were suggestive of a mitochondrial dysfunction with impairment of cellular energy production, induction of oxidative stress, an effect on protein biosynthesis and on cellular assembly and organization. Proteomic results also provided clues for potential nephrotoxicity biomarkers such as AGAT and PRBP4 which were strongly modulated in the kidney. Transcriptomic and proteomic data turned out to be complementary and their integration gave a more comprehensive insight into the putative mode of nephrotoxicity of gentamicin which was in accordance with histopathological findings. -- Highlights: ? Gentamicin induces renal tubular necrosis in rats. ? The mechanisms of gentamicin nephrotoxicity remain still elusive. ? Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed to study this toxicity in rats. ? Transcriptomic and proteomic data turned out to be complementary and are integrated. ? A more comprehensive putative model of nephrotoxicity of gentamicin is presented.

Com, Emmanuelle, E-mail: emmanuelle.com@univ-rennes1.fr [sanofi-aventis R and D, Disposition Safety and Animal Research, Vitry-sur-Seine (France) [sanofi-aventis R and D, Disposition Safety and Animal Research, Vitry-sur-Seine (France); INSERM U625, Proteomics Core Facility Biogenouest, Rennes (France); Boitier, Eric; Marchandeau, Jean-Pierre [sanofi-aventis R and D, Disposition Safety and Animal Research, Vitry-sur-Seine (France)] [sanofi-aventis R and D, Disposition Safety and Animal Research, Vitry-sur-Seine (France); Brandenburg, Arnd [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland)] [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Schroeder, Susanne [Nycomed GmbH, Barsbttel (Germany)] [Nycomed GmbH, Barsbttel (Germany); Hoffmann, Dana; Mally, Angela [University of Wrzburg, Department of Toxicology, University of Wrzburg, Wrzburg (Germany)] [University of Wrzburg, Department of Toxicology, University of Wrzburg, Wrzburg (Germany); Gautier, Jean-Charles [sanofi-aventis R and D, Disposition Safety and Animal Research, Vitry-sur-Seine (France)] [sanofi-aventis R and D, Disposition Safety and Animal Research, Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 {sup o}C) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure.

Gate, Laurent [Institut National de Recherche et Securite, Avenue de Bourgogne, BP 27, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France)]. E-mail: laurent.gate@inrs.fr; Langlais, Cristina [Institut National de Recherche et Securite, Avenue de Bourgogne, BP 27, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Micillino, Jean-Claude [Institut National de Recherche et Securite, Avenue de Bourgogne, BP 27, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Nunge, Herve [Institut National de Recherche et Securite, Avenue de Bourgogne, BP 27, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Bottin, Marie-Claire [Institut National de Recherche et Securite, Avenue de Bourgogne, BP 27, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Wrobel, Richard [Institut National de Recherche et Securite, Avenue de Bourgogne, BP 27, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Binet, Stephane [Institut National de Recherche et Securite, Avenue de Bourgogne, BP 27, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Albumin extravasation rates in tissues of anesthetized and unanesthetized rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with /sup 131/I was injected intravenously in chronically prepared, unanesthetized rats and into pentobarbital-anesthetized rats that had received 2 ml 5% BSA to help sustain plasma volume. Initial uptake rates (clearances) in skin, skeletal muscles, diaphragm, and heart (left ventricle) were measured over 1 h. BSA labeled with /sup 125/I was injected terminally to correct for intravascular /sup 131/I-BSA. Observed clearances were in the following order in both groups of animals: heart much greater than diaphragm approximately equal to skin greater than resting skeletal muscles. Differences between unanesthetized and anesthetized animals were small and inconsistently directed. Our results suggest that the lower albumin clearances reported in the literature for anesthetized rats are not the result of their immobility or any direct effect of anesthesia on albumin transport in these tissues. The lower transport rates appear to result indirectly from changes produced by anesthesia and/or surgery in controllable parameters such as plasma volume and intravascular protein mass.

Renkin, E.M.; Joyner, W.L.; Gustafson-Sgro, M.; Plopper, G.; Sibley, L.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Auklet Demography and the Influence of Norway rats at Kiska Island report on results of monitoring to 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Auklet Demography and the Influence of Norway rats at Kiska Island ­ report on results METHODS 4 AUKLET PRODUCTIVITY 4 TIMING OF BREEDING 5 AUKLET SURVIVAL 6 NORWAY RAT ABUNDANCE 10 NORWAY RAT ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION 10 VEGETATION CHANGES 11 DISCUSSION 11 LEAST AUKLET

Jones, Ian L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

pH dependence and compartmentalization of zinc transported across plasma membrane of rat cortical neurons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pH dependence and compartmentalization of zinc transported across plasma membrane of rat corticalH dependence and compartmental- ization of zinc transported across plasma membrane of rat cortical neurons. Am; ion transport; transition elements; primary culture IT IS KNOWN THAT Zn2 can enter neurons by two

102

Water balance in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation RUDY M. ORTIZ AND CHARLES E. WADE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was observed, the lack of a change in %TBW among the three measurement periods or in water flux over the 12Water balance in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation RUDY M. ORTIZ AND CHARLES E. WADE Life; accepted in final form 22 February 2000 Ortiz, Rudy M., and Charles E. Wade. Water balance in rats exposed

Ortiz, Rudy M.

103

The impact of binge drinking on the young growing female rat skeleton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, on the actively growing skeleton. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not binge drinking impacts the normal growth process of the young growing female rat skeleton. Twelve, four-week-old, female rats were paired to form an ethanol group and a...

Gallagher, Sharon Lee

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

DRD2 Gene Transfer Into the Nucleus Accumbens Core of the Alcohol Preferring and Nonpreferring Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in alcohol intake in Sprague Dawley rats. This overexpression of DRD2 reduced alcohol consumption in a two that high levels of DRD2 are causally associated with a reduction in alcohol consumption and may serve Tomography (PET) Gene Therapy. ETHANOL STIMULATES BOTH dopamine (DA) neurons and DA release in the rat

Homes, Christopher C.

105

Research Report Effects of ethanol consumption by adult female rats on subsequent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Report Effects of ethanol consumption by adult female rats on subsequent consumption January 2004 Abstract We used a two-bottle choice test to measure voluntary ethanol consumption by adolescent rats that had lived with ethanol-consuming or water-consuming adult conspecifics. We found

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

106

PMSG responsiveness during adult life after partial oogonia destruction with misulban in the rat embryo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sensitive to X-ray irradiation in the last period of division, i.e. about day 15 of pregnancy in the rat-month old female rats were bred under standard conditions of light (14 h light―10 h dark) and food

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

MAGNESIUM ABSORPTION IN THE CCUM OF RATS RELATED TO VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS PRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MAGNESIUM ABSORPTION IN THE C?CUM OF RATS RELATED TO VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS PRODUCTION Y. RAYSSIGUIER RELATIONS ENTRE L'ABSORPTION C,4ECALE DE MAGNESIUM CHEZ LE RAT ET LA PRODUCTION D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS du caecum, pH, acides gras volatils, activité microbienne. Introduction The mode of magnesium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Plasticity in the Rat Posterior Auditory Field Following Nucleus Basalis Stimulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plasticity in the Rat Posterior Auditory Field Following Nucleus Basalis Stimulation Amanda C. Plasticity in the rat posterior auditory field following nucleus basalis stimulation. J Neurophysiol 98: 253 have been shown to cause frequency-specific plasticity in both primary and secondary cortical areas

Kilgard, Michael P.

109

Activation of orexin signal in basal forebrain facilitates the emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia in rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

anesthesia in rat Hailong Dong 1 , Jiyuan Niu 1 , Binxiao Su, Zhenghua Zhu, Yan Lv, Yizhi Li, Lize Xiong t Orexinergic system may play an important role in the regulation of anesthesiaarousal. However, which region, induction and emergence time to sevoflurane anesthesia in rats. Either orexin-A or orexin-B was injected

110

Relaxation Time Constants and Apparent Diffusion Coefficients of Rat Retina at 7 Tesla  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relaxation Time Constants and Apparent Diffusion Coefficients of Rat Retina at 7 Tesla Govind Nair* and ADC of the rat eyes were measured at 50 3 50 3 800 lm at 7 Tesla. Profiles of T1, T2, T2* and ADC

Duong, Timothy Q.

111

Catheterization of the Hepatic Artery Via the Left Common Carotid Artery in Rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The commonly used approach for rat hepatic artery catheterization is via the gastroduodenal artery, which is ligated after the procedure. A new method of rat hepatic artery catheterization via the left common carotid artery (LCCA) is described. The LCCA is repaired after catheterization. The catheterization procedures included the following: (1) opening the rat's abdominal cavity and exposing the portion of abdominal aorta at the level of the celiac trunk; (2) separating and exposing the LCCA; inserting a microguidewire and microcatheter set into the LCCA via an incision; after placement into the descending aorta, the microguidewire and microcatheter are maneuvered into the hepatic artery under direct vision; (3) after transcatheter therapy, the catheter is withdrawn and the incision at the LCCA is repaired. This technique was employed on 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats with diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer, using a 3F microguidewire and microcatheter set. Selective hepatic artery catheterization was successfully performed in 57 rats. One rat died during the operation and five rats died within 7 days after the procedure. It is envisaged that as experience increases, the catheterization success rate will increase and the death rate will decrease. A new approach for selective hepatic artery catheterization via the LCCA in rats is introduced, which makes repeat catheterization of this artery possible and allows large embolization particles to be delivered by using a 3F catheter.

Li Xiao [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Radiology (China); Wang Yixiang, J. [AstraZeneca R and D (United Kingdom); Zhou Xiangping [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Radiology (China)], E-mail: xiangpingzhou46@163.com; Guan Yongsong; Tang Chengwei [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Gastroenterology (China)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acrolein, a member of reactive ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including ?-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased.

Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa [Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abnous, Khalil, E-mail: Abnouskh@mums.ac.r [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Hossein, E-mail: Hosseinzadehh@mums.ac.ir [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Department of Pharmacodynamics and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The multistage theory of carcinogenesis specifies that cells progress to cancer through a series of discrete, irreversible genetic alterations, but data on radiation-induced cancer incidence in rat skin suggests that an intermediate repairable alteration may occur. Data are presented on cancer induction in rat skin exposed to an electron beam (LET=0.34 keV/[mu]), a neon ion beam (LET=45) or an argon ion beam (LET=125). The rats were observed for tumors at least 78 weeks with squamous and basal cell carcinomas observed. The total cancer yield was fitted by the quadratic equation, and the equation parameters were estimated by linear regression for each type of radiation. Analysis of the DNA from the electron-induced carcinomas indicated that K-ras and/or c-myc oncogenes were activated. In situ hybridization indicated that the cancers contain subpopulations of cells with differing amounts of c-myc and H-ras amplification. The results are consistent with the idea that ionizing radiation produces stable, carcinogenically relevant lesions via 2 repairable events at low LET and via a non-repairable linked event pathway at high LET; either pathway may advance the cell by 1 stage. The proliferative response of rat epidermis following exposure to ionizing radiation was quantified by injection of [sup 14]C-thymidine. The return of these cells to S-phase a second time was detected by a second label ([sup 3]H). When the labeled cells were in G1-phase, the dorsal skin was irradiated with X-rays. All labeling indices were determined. The [sup 14]C labeling index was constant and unaffected by the radiation. The proportion of all cells entering S-phase averaged 3.5% at 18 hr and increased after 44, 52 and 75 hr to average levels of 11.8%, 5. 3%, and 6.6% at 0, 10 and 25 Gy respectively. The proportion of S-phase cells labeled with [sup 14]C increased after 42 hr and remained relatively constant thereafter.

Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Organization and evolution of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the organization of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and compares its structure with the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Both genes are single copy and contain 13 exons separated by 12 introns. Remarkably, the positions of 10 out 12 intron/exon boundaries are identical for the two genes. These results support the idea that these hydroxylases genes are members of a gene family which has a common evolutionary origin. The authors predict that this ancestral gene would have encoded exons similar to those of TH prior to evolutionary drift to other members of this gene family.

Brown, E.R.; Coker, G.T. III; O'Malley, K.L.

1987-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

115

Sodium alterations in isolated rat heart during cardioplegic arrest  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Triple-quantum-filtered (TQF) Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) without chemical shift reagent is used to investigate Na derangement in isolated crystalloid perfused rat hearts during St. Thomas cardioplegic (CP) arrest. The extracellular Na contribution to the NMR TQF signal of a rat heart is found to be 73 {+-} 5%, as determined by wash-out experiments at different moments of ischemia and reperfusion. With the use of this contribution factor, the estimated intracellular Na ([Na{sup +}]{sub i}) TQF signal is 222 {+-} 13% of preischemic level after 40 min of CP arrest and 30 min of reperfusion, and the heart rate pressure product recovery is 71 {+-} 8%. These parameters are significantly better than for stop-flow ischemia: 340 {+-} 20% and 6 {+-} 3%, respectively. At 37{degrees}C, the initial delay of 15 min in [Na{sup +}]{sub i} growth occurs during CP arrest along with reduced growth later ({approximately}4.0%/min) in comparison with stop-flow ischemia ({approximately}6.7%/min). The hypothermia (21{degrees}C, 40 min) for the stop-flow ischemia and CP dramatically decreases the [Na{sup +}]{sub i} gain with the highest heart recovery for CP ({approximately}100%). These studies confirm the enhanced sensitivity of TQF NMR to [Na{sup +}]{sub i} and demonstrate the potential of NMR without chemical shift reagent to monitor [Na{sup +}]{sub i} derangements. 48 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Schepkin, V.D.; Choy, I.O.; Budinger, T.F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Effect of anesthesia on glucose production and utilization in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was undertaken to determine the effects of pentobarbital anesthesia (50 mg/kg ip) on glucose kinetics and individual tissue glucose utilization in vivo, in chronically catheterized rats. Glucose turnover studies were carried out using (3-/sup 3/H) glucose as tracer. A transient hyperglycemia and an increased glucose production were observed 3 min after induction of anesthesia. However, 40 min after induction of anesthesia, glycemia returned to the level observed in awake animals, whereas glucose turnover was decreased by 30% as compared with unanesthetized rats. These results are discussed with regard to the variations observed in plasma insulin, glucagon, and catecholamine levels. Glucose utilization by individual tissues was studied by the 2-(1-/sup 3/H) deoxyglucose technique. A four- to fivefold decrease in glucose utilization was observed in postural muscles (soleus and adductor longus), while in other nonpostural muscles (epitrochlearis, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and diaphragm) and other tissues (white and brown adipose tissues) anesthesia did not modify the rate of glucose utilization. A decrease in glucose utilization was also observed in the brain.

Penicaud, L.; Ferre, P.; Kande, J.; Leturque, A.; Issad, T.; Girard, J.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. Ozone metabolic effects are only slightly exacerbated in geriatric rats.

Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

E-Print Network 3.0 - anesthetized lactating rats Sample Search...  

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in situ and force in the rat plantaris muscle during repeated Effect of lactate infusion on M... .physiology.orgDownloadedfrom 12;Effect of lactate infusion on M-wave...

119

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-macroglobulin rat alpha Sample Search...  

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hormones such as ACTH, corticosterone, cytokines of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in CIA rats were... .4. Diurnal variations of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6 In our study, serum...

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat left Sample Search Results  

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Norway rats born to a colony whose adults had learned to avoid ingesting a particular poison... bait would not eat that bait. He hypothesized that adult ... Source: Galef Jr.,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult wistar rats Sample Search Results  

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(C3H RIII)F1... 344Tox fdr FDRL fds Food and Drug Research Laboratories stock rats fis Fischer fmf Fischer 344Mai f... :(LE) lee Leeds albino lev Long-Evans lew Lewis lwj...

122

E-Print Network 3.0 - albinus rat wistar Sample Search Results  

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(C3H RIII)F1... 344Tox fdr FDRL fds Food and Drug Research Laboratories stock rats fis Fischer fmf Fischer 344Mai f... :(LE) lee Leeds albino lev Long-Evans lew Lewis lwj...

123

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat heart Sample Search Results  

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heart Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adult rat heart Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 doi:10.1152ajpheart.00114.2006 291:496-506,...

124

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetate-salt hypertensive rats Sample Search...  

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hypertensive rats Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ISSN: 1524-4563 Copyright 2005 American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Print ISSN: 0194-911X. Online Summary: hypertensive...

125

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rats spinalized Sample Search Results  

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Search Sample search results for: adult rats spinalized Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Brain Research 918 (2001) 101106 www.elsevier.comlocatebres Summary: play a minor role in...

126

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat spinal Sample Search Results  

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Advanced Search Sample search results for: adult rat spinal Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Brain Research 918 (2001) 101106 www.elsevier.comlocatebres Summary: play a minor role in...

127

The effect of Zoledronate treatment timing on lumbar and caudal vertebrae in ovariectomized rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction: While there have been numerous studies demonstrating the effect of bisphosphonates in rats as either a preventative treatment or recovering treatment for osteoporosis, few have directly compared the two ...

Ruchelsman, Michal (Michal Aliza)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The Lower Keys marsh rabbit and silver rice rat: steps toward recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be detrimentally impacted by hardwood encroachment into salt-marsh habitats. For LKMR recovery, I recommend management to resist hardwood encroachment, together with active predator control. I surveyed 36 locations on 18 islands for SRRs, capturing rats on 12...

Perry, Neil Desmond

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

129

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult rat sacral Sample Search Results  

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capensis) from Cape Town. Used with the permission of the pho... . Georychus capensis (Pallas, 1778) Cape Mole-rat Mus capensis Pallas, 1778:172. Type locality ... Source: Hayssen,...

130

Effects of insulin on messenger RNA activities in rat liver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liver poly(A) RNA, isolated from adrenalectomized rats after insulin treatment, was translated in a nuclease-treated lysate of rabbit reticulocytes and quantitated for both total activity and the capacity to synthesize the insulin-inducible enzyme tyrosine amino-transferase. Analysis of the translated products from poly(A) RNA isolated 1 h after insulin treatment showed a 2.7-fold increase in activity of tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA. During the same interval, the capacity of poly(A) RNA to direct the synthesis of total protein in lysates also changed, showing a 30 to 40% increase in translational activity/unit of RNA. Increased translatability was apparent in all fractions of poly(A) RNA separated by centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Insulin thus appears to mediated a generalized changed in mRNAs leading to increased capacity for translation; induction of tyrosine aminotransferase may reflect unusual sensitivity to this effect of the hormone.

Hill, R.E. (Univ. of Tennessee, Oak Ridge); Lee, K.L.; Kenney, F.T.

1981-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

131

The effects of radiation on spermatogenesis in the albino rat as determined by semen analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rate all could be significant factors. Total body X-irradiation (470 r) in rats produced minimal alterations in the testes, namely depletion of spermatogonia (Gunn, et al. , 1960). 17 18 The effect of whole-body radiation on fertility of male rats...) Figure 22. Effect of Radiation on Weight Change (Chronic). no irradiation, demonstrated steady weekly increases through the investigation period. The average body weight of these animals at the initiation of this study was approximately 510 grams...

Lawson, Rommon Loy

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Sodium and potassium levels in the serum of acutely irradiated and non-irradiated rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject: Zoology SODIUM AND POTASSIUM LEVELS IN THE SERUM OF ACUTELY IRRADIATED AND NON-IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis By DAVID PRESTON SHEPHERD Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head...

Shepherd, David Preston

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Copper induced osteopenia and its relationship to the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis in the rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPPER INDUCED OSTEOPENIA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS IN THE RAT A Thesis CINDY DEANN YEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject: Nutrition COPPER INDUCED OSTEOPENIA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS IN THE RAT A Thesis CINDY DEANN YEE Approved as to style and content...

Yee, Cindy Deann

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Tissue magnesium and calcium concentration in relation to magnesium and calcium intake in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TISSUE MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM CONCENTRATION IN RELATION TO MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM INTAKE IN RATS A Thesis by CARRIE STANTON PINKRAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirerrents... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject: Nutrition TISSUE MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM CONCENTRATION IN RELATION TO MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM INTAKE IN RATS A Thesis by CARRIE STANTON PINKHAM Approved as to style and content by: Karen S...

Pinkham, Carrie Stanton

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

135

Magnesium and pyridoxine intake and mineral content of selected tissues and physical development in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE INTAKE MINERAL CONTENT OF SELECTED TISSUES PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN RATS A Thesis by SU S AN ELA I NE EDGAR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8rM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Nutrition MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE INTAKE MINERAL CONTENT OF SELECTED TISSUES PHYS ICAL DEVELOPMENT IN RATS A Thesis by SUSAN ELAINE EDGAR Approved as to style and content by: 'KAREN...

Edgar, Susan Elaine

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

LES TYROSINASES CUTANES CHEZ LE RAT. MODIFICATIONS AU COURS DU DVELOPPEMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LES TYROSINASES CUTAN?ES CHEZ LE RAT. MODIFICATIONS AU COURS DU D?VELOPPEMENT ET PENDANT LE CYCLE Sciences appliquées, 69621 Villeurbanne 1 1 R?SUM? Nous avons effectué l'étude des tyrosinases de la peau chez le Rat. Ces tyrosinases sont mises en évidence, après électrophorèse par réaction de Dopa sur gel

Boyer, Edmond

137

Prolactin and aging: X-irradiated and estrogen-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both sexes of inbred WF rats at either 8 or 28-60 weeks of age were exposed to 200 rad whole-body radiation, 2.5 or 5.0 mg 17 beta-estradiol (E2), or both agents The female rats treated with E2 alone or with both X-rays and E2 at 8 weeks of age showed a high incidence of mammary carcinomas (MCA), a large increase in pituitary weight, and a rise in serum prolactin (PRL) levels. However, the same treatments to males did not induce MCA despite a moderate increase in both pituitary weight and serum PRL. Ovariectomy prior to E2 treatment failed to modify the occurrence of MCA or pituitary tumors. When X-rays and E2 were given to female rats at 28-60 weeks of age, pituitary weight, serum PRL levels, and the incidence of MCA were unaffected. When the E2 pellet was kept for the first 24 weeks and withdrawn during the last 12 weeks, the incidence of MCA, pituitary weight, and serum PRL was low. It was concluded that: 1) the pituitary glands of young female rats were susceptible to E2 treatment but were insensitive in older females, and 2) the occurrence of MCA in female rats appeared to be promoted by elevated PRL levels secreted by E2-induced pituitary tumors. Mammary tissue of male rats was less sensitive to PRL levels in the development of MCA.

Ito, A.; Naito, M.; Watanabe, H.; Yokoro, K.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats release prolactin differently in response to estrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mature female Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Long-Evans (LE) rats were ovariectomized (OVX), and given a single sc injection of either 25 or 100 ..mu..g polyestradiol phosphate (PEP); seven days later blood samples were withdrawn at two hour intervals from 1100 to 2100 hours to detect the presence of an afternoon surge of prolactin (PRL). Other groups of OVX rats of both strains also treated with PEP were sampled before and at 2, 5, 10 and 30 min after iv administration of 1 ..mu..g synthetic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). Pituitary (AP) and uterine weights were determined following sacrifice one day after TRH treatment. The AP homogenates and plasma samples were assayed for PRL by radioimmunoassay. Rats of both strains had afternoon PRL surges and in both strains the magnitude and/or duration of the surges were enhanced by the higher dose of PEP. However, within each PEP dose LE rats released significantly more PRL during the surge than did SD drats. Rats of both strains also rleased PRL in response to TRH and this response was enhanced in both strains by the higher of the two doses of PEP. These data not only show that strain differences exist in estrogen-induced or mediated PRL release in the rat but also indicate that the differences are not uniform.

Lawson, D.M.; Sensui, N.; Gala, R.R.

1984-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-?B expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ? Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ? MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ? MP and EP decreased TNF-? and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ? MP and EP reduced NF-?B expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ? MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

Saeed, Noha M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Demerdash, Ebtehal [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Egyptian Russian University, Cairo (Egypt); Algandaby, Mardi M. [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Biology (Botany), Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abbasi, Fahad A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)] [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim@pharma.asu.edu.eg [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Dose-Response Effect of Charged Carbon Beam on Normal Rat Retina Assessed by Electroretinography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To compare the effects of carbon beam irradiation with those of proton beam irradiation on the physiology of the retina of rats. Methods and Materials: Eight-week-old Wister rats were used. The right eyes were irradiated with carbon beam (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 Gy) or proton beam (4, 8, 16, and 24 Gy) with the rats under general anesthesia. Electroretinograms were recorded 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the irradiation, and the amplitudes of the a and b waves were compared with those of control rats. Results: The amplitude of b waves was reduced more than that of a waves at lower irradiation doses with both types of irradiation. With carbon ion irradiation, the amplitudes of the b wave were significantly reduced after radiation doses of 8 and 16 Gy at 6 months and by radiation doses of 4, 8, and 16 Gy at 12 months. With proton beam irradiation, the b-wave amplitudes were significantly reduced after 16 and 24 Gy at 6 months and with doses of 8 Gy or greater at 12 months. For the maximum b-wave amplitude, a significant difference was observed in rats irradiated with carbon beams of 4 Gy or more and with proton beams of 8 Gy or more at 12 months after irradiation. Conclusions: These results indicate that carbon beam irradiation is about two times more damaging than proton beam irradiation on the rat retina at the same dose.

Mizota, Atsushi, E-mail: mizota-a@med.teikyo-u.ac.j [Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu (Japan); Tanaka, Minoru [Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu (Japan); Kubota, Mariko; Negishi, Hisanari [Department of Ophthalmology, National Hospital Organization Chiba Medical Center, Chiba (Japan); Watanabe, Emiko [Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Nobuyuki; Furusawa, Yoshiya [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The effects of exercise and dietary fat on calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc on selected tissues in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and had a 12-hour photoperiod. Cages were lined with woodchip bedding, and stainless steel feeders were used. Design Following a three-day acclimation period, during which rats were fed the control diet, the rats were weighed and randomly assigned... the reliability of exhaustive swimming in the laboratory rat. Male albino rats exhibited exercise oxygen consumption of 2. 7 times the resting level in a no-weight applied condition after swimming for 5 to 30 minutes. At a load of 2% body weight, oxygen...

Nguyen, Thuy Huong

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Differences in pulmonary responses of rats, other animals, and humans to chronic inhalation of silica and other particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulmonary carcinogenicity of quartz in rats supports the plausibility of silica-induced lung cancer in humans. However, pulmonary responses of rats to dusts differ from those of other rodents, and may differ from those of humans. Dust-exposed rats have a greater propensity than mice or hamsters for epithelial hyperplasia, metaplasia, and fibrosis. Lung tumors occur in rats, but not mice or hamsters, treated with quartz, or exposed chronically to several other dusts. There are few opportunities for directly comparing the susceptibilities of rats and humans to dust-induced lung tumors. Because of the uncertain human responses to silica and many other particles, the negative human lung cancer response to coal dust may provide the best opportunity to calibrate responses of rats against those of humans. Historical dust lung burdens in coal miners were in the range of those associated with carcinogenicity in rats exposed to several dusts, but the carcinogenicity of coal dust in rats is unknown. The usefulness of tumor data from rats for predicting human lung cancer risk from inhaled silica and other dusts remains uncertain.

Mauderly, J.L.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Comparative Metabolism of Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats, Mice and Hamsters Using Gas Uptake and PBPK Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

No study has comprehensively compared the rate of metabolism of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) across species. Therefore, the in vivo metabolism of CCl4 was evaluated using groups of male animals (F344 rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Syrian hamsters) exposed to 40-1800 ppm CCl4 in a closed, recirculating gas-uptake system. For each species, an optimal fit of the family of uptake curves was obtained by adjusting Michaelis-Menten metabolic constants Km (affinity) and Vmax (capacity) using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The results show that the mouse has a slightly higher capacity and lower affinity for metabolizing CCl4 compared to the rat, while the hamster has a higher capacity and lower affinity than either rat or mouse. A comparison of the Vmax to Km ratio, normalized for mg of liver protein (L/hr/mg) across species indicates that hamsters metabolize more CCl4 than either rats or mice, and should be more susceptible to CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. These species comparisons were evaluated against toxicokinetic studies conducted in animals exposed by nose-only inhalation to 20 ppm 14C-labeled CCl4 for 4 hours. The toxicokinetic study results are consistent with the in vivo rates of metabolism, with rats eliminating less radioactivity associated with metabolism (14CO2 and urine/feces) and more radioactivity associated with the parent compound (radioactivity trapped on charcoal) compared to either hamsters or mice. The in vivo metabolic constants determined here, together with in vitro constants determined using rat, mouse, hamster and human liver microsomes, were used to estimate human in vivo metabolic rates of 1.49 mg/hr/kg body weight and 0.25 mg/L for Vmax and Km, respectively. Normalizing the rate of metabolism (Vmax/Km) by mg liver protein, the rate of metabolism of CCl4 differs across species, with hamster > mouse& > rat > human.

Thrall, Karla D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Vucelick, Mark E. (FLUOR HANFORD, INC); Gies, Richard A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zangar, Richard C. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Weitz, Karl K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Poet, Torka S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Springer, David L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Grant, Donna M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Benson, Janet M. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute)

2000-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

144

Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 {mu}m, GSD = 2.4 {mu}m) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m{sup 3} nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m{sup 3} females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies.

Oller, Adriana R. [NiPERA, 2605 Meridian Parkway, Suite 200, Durham, NC 27713 (United States)], E-mail: aoller@nipera.org; Kirkpatrick, Daniel T.; Radovsky, Ann [WIL Research Laboratories, LLC, 1407 George Road, Ashland, OH 44805 8946 (United States); Bates, Hudson K. [NiPERA, 2605 Meridian Parkway, Suite 200, Durham, NC 27713 (United States)

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

In vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in human and rat skin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dermal exposure to pyrethroid pesticides can occur during manufacture and application. This study examined the in vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroids using rat and human skin. Dermatomed skin from adult male Long Evans rats or human cadavers was mounted in flow-through diffusion cells, and radiolabeled bifenthrin, deltamethrin or cis-permethrin was applied in acetone to the skin. Fractions of receptor fluid were collected every 4 h. At 24 h, the skins were washed with soap and water to remove unabsorbed chemical. The skin was then solubilized. Two additional experiments were performed after washing the skin; the first was tape-stripping the skin and the second was the collection of receptor fluid for an additional 24 h. Receptor fluid, skin washes, tape strips and skin were analyzed for radioactivity. For rat skin, the wash removed 53-71% of the dose and 26-43% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid ranged from 1 to 5%. For human skin, the wash removed 71-83% of the dose and 14-25% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid was 1-2%. Tape-stripping removed 50-56% and 79-95% of the dose in rat and human skin, respectively, after the wash. From 24-48 h, 1-3% and about 1% of the dose diffused into the receptor fluid of rat and human skin, respectively. The pyrethroids bifenthrin, deltamethrin and cis-permethrin penetrated rat and human skin following dermal application in vitro. However, a skin wash removed 50% or more of the dose from rat and human skin. Rat skin was more permeable to the pyrethroids than human skin. Of the dose in skin, 50% or more was removed by tape-stripping, suggesting that permeation of pyrethroids into viable tissue could be impeded. The percentage of the dose absorbed into the receptor fluid was considerably less than the dose in rat and human skin. Therefore, consideration of the skin type used and fractions analyzed are important when using in vitro dermal absorption data for risk assessment.

Hughes, Michael F., E-mail: hughes.michaelf@epa.go [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Edwards, Brenda C. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Correction par voie nutritionnelle d'un excs d'acides gras insaturs dans les lipides corporels du rat en croissance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Hydrogenated coconut oil was a very effective substance for rapidly decreasing levels of reserve lipid linoleic acids in body lipids of growing rat. The use of hydrogenated coconut oil as a putative substance for correcting an excess of unsaturated fatty acids in reserve lipids was tested in growing rats. Young rats

Boyer, Edmond

147

Dietary apigenin and naringenin protect against colon carcinogenesis by lowering high multiplicity aberrant crypt foci and enhancing apoptosis in azoxymethane-treated rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

investigated the potentially protective effects of four citrus flavonoids and one limonoid mixture against the promotion stage of chemically-induced colon cancer in rats. Male SD rats (n =60; 10 rats/group) were assigned to receive diets containing 0...

Leonardi, Tety

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

148

Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of 1,4-Dioxane in Rats, Mice, and Humans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT 1,4-Dioxane (CAS No. 123-91-1) is used primarily as a solvent or as a solvent stabilizer. It can cause lung, liver and kidney damage at sufficiently high exposure levels. Two physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of 1,4-dioxane and its major metabolite, hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), were published in 1990. These models have uncertainties and deficiencies that could be addressed and the model strengthened for use in a contemporary cancer risk assessment for 1,4-dioxane. Studies were performed to fill data gaps and reduce uncertainties pertaining to the pharmacokinetics of 1,4-dioxane and HEAA in rats, mice, and humans. Three types of studies were performed:partition coefficient measurements, blood time course in mice, and in vitro pharmacokinetics using rat, mouse, and human hepatocytes. Updated PBPK models were developed based on these new data and previously available data. The optimized rate of metabolism for the mouse was significantly higher than the value previously estimated. The optimized rat kinetic parameters were similar to those in the 1990 models. Only two human studies were identified. Model predictions were consistent with one study, but did not fit the second as well. In addition, a rat nasal exposure was completed. The results confirmed water directly contacts rat nasal tissues during drinking water under bioassays. Consistent with previous PBPK models, nasal tissues were not specifically included in the model. Use of these models will reduce the uncertainty in future 1,4-dioxane risk assessments.

Sweeney, Lisa M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Poet, Torka S.; Corley, Rick; Weber, Thomas J.; Locey, B. J.; Clarkson, Jacquelyn; Sager, S.; Gargas, M. L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Extracellular calcium sensing in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) can act as a first messenger in many cell types through a G protein-coupled receptor, calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). It is still debated whether the CaR is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we report the expression of CaR mRNA and protein in rat aortic VSMCs and show that Ca2+o stimulates proliferation of the cells. The effects of Ca2+o were attenuated by pre-treatment with MAPK kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor, as well as an allosteric modulator, NPS 2390. Furthermore, stimulation of the VSMCs with Ca2+o-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but surprisingly did not cause inositol phosphate accumulation. We were not able to conclusively state that the CaR mediates Ca2+o-induced cell proliferation. Rather, an additional calcium-sensing mechanism may exist. Our findings may be of importance with regard to atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of VSMCs and high local levels of calcium.

Smajilovic, Sanela [Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet (Denmark); Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Cardiac Arrhythmia (DARC), Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, Jakob Lerche [Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet (Denmark); Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Cardiac Arrhythmia (DARC), Copenhagen (Denmark); Christoffersen, Tue E.H. [Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet (Denmark); Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Cardiac Arrhythmia (DARC), Copenhagen (Denmark)] (and others)

2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

150

Deregulation of Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity Induced by Central Lipid Infusion in Rats Is Mediated by Nitric Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deregulation of Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity Induced by Central Lipid Infusion in Rats Is Mediated effect of central lipid overload. Thus we infused rats for 24 hours into carotid artery towards brain). Principal Findings: Lipids infusion led to hepatic insulin-resistance partly related to a decreased

Routh, Vanessa H.

151

Neutral sphingomyelinase inhibition participates to the benefits of N-acetylcysteine treatment in post-myocardial infarction failing heart rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

treatment in post- myocardial infarction failing heart rats Christophe ADAMY1,2,9 , Paul MULDER3,4,9 , Lara-MI failing heart rat Key words: chronic heart failure; glutathione; N-acetylcysteine; neutral, we showed that the left ventricle (LV) of human failing heart was depleted in total glutathione by 54

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

Methods for testing the strength of cancellous bone and tested method effects on cortical bone in the ovariectomized rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, two mechanical testing procedures were developed to test the strength of cancellous bone from the proximal tibia of the rat, the "punch method" and the "whole slice method". These were used to quantify the effect of ovariectomy on rat...

Ruhmann, Sean Phillip

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Cardiovascular changes in unanesthetized and ketamine-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 2. 8-GHz radiofrequency radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation, first while unanesthetized and then while anesthetized with ketamine (150 mg/kg.I.M.). Irradiation at a power density of 60 mW/cm2 (whole-body average specific absorption rate of approximately 14 W/kg) was conducted for sufficient duration to increase colonic temperature from 38.5 to 39.5 degrees C. The time required for the temperature increase was significantly longer in the anesthetized state. During irradiation, heart rate increased significantly both with and without anesthesia, while mean arterial blood pressure increased only when the rats were unanesthetized. The heart rate increase in the anesthetized state contrasts with a lack of change in a previous study of Fischer rats. This difference between anesthetized Sprague-Dawley and Fischer rats should be considered when comparing cardiovascular data obtained from these two strains of rats.

Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R. (United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, TX (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Grafting fibroblasts genetically modified to produce L-dopa in a rat model of Parkinson disease  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rat fibroblasts were infected with a retroviral vector containing the cDNA for rat tyrosine hydroxylase. A TH-positive clone was identified by biochemical assay and immunohistochemical staining. When supplemented in vitro with pterin cofactors required for TH activity, these cells produced L-dopa and released it into the cell cultured medium. Uninfected control cells and fibroblasts infected with the TH vector were grafted separately to the caudate of rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway. Only grafts containing TH-expressing fibroblasts were found to reduce rotational asymmetry. These results have general implications for the application of gene therapy to human neurological disease and specific implications for Parkinson disease.

Wolff, J.A.; Fisher, L.J.; Xu, L.; Jinnah, H.A.; Rosenberg, M.B.; Shimohama, S.; Gage, F.H. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, La Jolla (USA)); Langlais, P.J. (Univ. of California School of Medicine, La Jolla (USA) School of Medicine and Veterans Administration Medical Center, La Jolla (USA) San Diego State Univ., CA (USA)); Iuvone, P.M. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (USA)); O'Malley, K.L. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Chronic cellular responses of rat skin to 13 Mev proton irradiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHRONIC CELLULAR RESPONSES OF RAT SKIN TO 13 MEV PROTON IRRADIATION A Thesis by DONALD KING HINKLE, D. V. M. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AErM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject: Laboratory Animal Medicine CHRONIC CELLULAR RESPONSES OF RAT SKIN TO 13 MEV PROTON IRRADIATION A Thesis by DONALD KING HINKLE, D. V. M. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial...

Hinkle, Donald King

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

The inability of rats to synthesize linoleic acid from cis-2-octenoic acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE INABILITY OF RATS TO SYNTHESI2E LINOLEIC ACID FROM CIS-2-OCTENOIC ACID A Thesis Robert Eugene Anderson Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A g: M University in partia1 fulfillment of the requirerents for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE January 1965 Major Subjeot: Bioohemistry THE INABILITY OF RATS TQ SYNTHESIEE LINOLEIC ACID FROM CIS-2E)CTENOIC ACID A Thesis Robert, Eugene Anderson Approved as to style and content by: Chair n of Committee)~ (Head of Depart~ant, Member...

Anderson, Robert Eugene

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

157

Effect of passive and active immunization against somatostatin in growing rats and cattle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as in Exp. 1. Rats were infused daily with . 50 ml of either anti-SS or NGS and weighed every fifth day. Antiserum used to infuse treatment rats was the same used in Exp. l. 81ood samples were taken via cannula on d 5, 10, 15 and 20 of the experiment... calculated on 10 determinations of four plasma samples containing 1, 6, 10 and 30 ng GH/ml was 2, 3. 5, 6. 5, and 22. 8% respectively. The interassay coefficient of variation calculated on determination of the same four plasma samples in four different...

Lawrence, Mark Elliott

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A?TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE A Thesis by MARION CAROL BECKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Toxicology TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A1TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE by MARION CAROL BECKER Approved as to style and content by: Stephen H. S (Ca...

Becker, Marion Carol

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Systematics of the southern races of two species of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys compactus and D. ordi)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. David J. Schmidly The systematics of two species of kangaroo rats (g D~*d ~ ) f o y d * t!l* M * reviewed. Nongeographic and geographic variation was assessed among 63 samples (representing approximately... and that more than one biological species may occur 'n the area. These above studies imply tnat the ktngaroo rats from the barrier islands of Texas and H ' o ( f d t ~D' d 9 P T ', 1999( are specifically distinct from populations on the tt T ' 1 d ( f d t...

Baumgardner, George D

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Associative tolerance to nicotine analgesia in the rat: tail-flick and hot-plate assays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studies (e. g. , Miller, Rotenberg, 8c Adir, 1977; Sastry et al. , 1995) of intravenous (i. v. ) nicotine injections (0. 08, 0. 40, 0. 8 mg/kg and 1mg/kg respectively) in the rat (Sprague-Dawley and Fischer F344) indicate that it is rapidly... and extensively distributed and absorbed into the blood, brain, liver, and kidneys, and that it rapidly reaches peak concentrations. Sastry et al. (1995) reported peak nicotine levels in the rat brain, kidneys and liver were reached within five to ten minutes...

Reynoso, Jose T.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

3-Methylhistidine excretion as an index of dietary protein adequacy in the rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Landmann The excretion of the amino acid, 3-methylhistidine (Nz-methyl- histidine, 3-MeHis), in urine has been shown to correlate with skel- etal muscle breakdown. In the rat, tissues such as skin, viscera, and liver in addition to skeletal muscle...-MeHis indicates the degree of catabolism of body proteins in rats (3). In addition to the contzibution of skeletal muscle, the higher turnover rate of skin, visceza, and liver contributes significantly to whole body protein breakdown in small...

Kirby, Rebecca Kay

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

162

Uptake and retention kinetics of para-fluorine-18-fluorobenzylguanidine in isolated rat heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Para-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzylguanidine ([{sup 18}F]PFBG) is a newly developed tracer for imaging myocardial sympathetic neuronal innervation. This study investigated the uptake and retention mechanisms of [{sup 18}F]PFBG in perfused, isolated rat heart. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Berry, C.R.; Garg, P.K.; Zalutsky, M.R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Beneficial Effects of Hematopoietic Growth Factor Therapy in Chronic Ischemic Stroke in Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beneficial Effects of Hematopoietic Growth Factor Therapy in Chronic Ischemic Stroke in Rats Li. Vania Apkarian, PhD; John A. Kessler, MD Background and Purpose--Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment for stroke survivors. Stem cell factor (SCF

Apkarian, A. Vania

164

The Effects of Alcohol and Age on Astrocytes In Female Rats Following an Inflammatory Stimulus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

------+ + + + + + + + + - - - + + + - - - MMP- 2 #0;? * Optica l Density Control Control+LPS Control+EtOH Control+LPS+EtOH Optica l Density Fig 6. MMP-2 lytic activity decreases in astrocytes derived from reproductive senescent female rats. LPS decreased MMP-2 lytic activity...

Simpson, Ashley

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

165

Rat injury model under controlled field-relevant primary blast conditions: Acute response to a wide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 1 Rat injury model under controlled field-relevant primary blast conditions: Acute response.edu Keywords: Traumatic Brain Injury, Primary Blast, Mortality, Cellular Membrane Permeability, Lung Injury the risk of sustaining blast induced injury by military personnel and civilians. The blast injury

Farritor, Shane

166

A Glucose BioFuel Cell Implanted in Rats Philippe Cinquin1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Glucose BioFuel Cell Implanted in Rats Philippe Cinquin1 *, Chantal Gondran2 , Fabien Giroud2 powerful ones, Glucose BioFuel Cells (GBFCs), are based on enzymes electrically wired by redox mediators applications. Citation: Cinquin P, Gondran C, Giroud F, Mazabrard S, Pellissier A, et al. (2010) A Glucose BioFuel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

Imaging Oxygen Consumption in Forepaw Somatosensory Stimulation in Rats Under Isoflurane Anesthesia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Imaging Oxygen Consumption in Forepaw Somatosensory Stimulation in Rats Under Isoflurane Anesthesia consumption, indicative of partial coupling of CBF and CMRO2. This study describes a useful forepaw. Following Fox et al.'s (2) initial study with positron emission tomography (PET), stimulus- evoked CMRO2

Duong, Timothy Q.

168

Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation, and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of oxygen consumption (CMRO2). Temporary (60-minute) MCAO was performed on five rats. Ischemic changes--Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of the brain is an attractive new complementary to those of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomog- raphy (PET), and holds

Yodh, Arjun G.

169

anticoagulant-susceptible norway rats: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

anticoagulant-susceptible norway rats First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Assessing the...

170

Effect of fermentable carbohydrates on volatile fatty acids, ammonia and mineral absorption in the rat caecum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intestine on caecal digestion and absorption have been studied in the rat. Even in diets lacking these carbo of the urea nitrogen was used in bacterial protein synthesis. Arteriovenous differences in the caecum showed, for which hydrolysing enzymes are lacking or poorly efficient in the small i ntesti ne. These carbohydrates

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

171

UPTAKE OF [3H]-COLCHICINE INTO BRAIN AND LIVER OF MOUSE, RAT, AND CHICK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by M.R. Rosenzweig and E.l. Bennett, Cambridge, MA: The MITJ.F. , D.W. landry, E.l. Bennett, and M.E. Jarvik. long-termRAT,AND CHICK Edward L. Bennett, Marie Hebert Alberti, and

Bennett, Edward L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Mineral bone composition and some elements of calcium metabolism in magnesium-deficient growing rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mineral bone composition and some elements of calcium metabolism in magnesium-deficient growing-Chomponelle, Theix, 63110 Beaumont, France. Summary. (1) Magnesium deficiency was induced in Sprague-Dawley male rats of deprivation. (3) The leg bones were fragmented as shown in figure 1. Their magnesium content had decreased

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

Effect of dietary baobab oil on the hepatic ?-9 desaturase in the rat.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

baobab seed oil (BO) or heated baobab oil (HBO) or a mixture of palm and sun- flower oils (MO). HeatEffect of dietary baobab oil on the hepatic ?-9 desaturase in the rat. JP Blond A Andrianaivo- seille Cedex 13, France) Refined baobab seed oil is consumed by the Mal- agasy population (inhabitants

Boyer, Edmond

175

Regulation of metabolism during lactation in the rat D. H. WILLIAMSON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the lactose and protein and a high proportion of the lipid con- tained in rat milk are synthesized within, in particular, milk production, appears to depend on two hormo- nes, prolactin and insulin. Secretion responsible for regula- tion of insulin secretion from the pancreas. The apparent paradox in lactation

Boyer, Edmond

176

Resveratrol Improves Survival, Hemodynamics and Energetics in a Rat Model of Hypertension Leading to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Resveratrol Improves Survival, Hemodynamics and Energetics in a Rat Model of Hypertension Leading and vascular function as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism were assessed in a hypertensive/kg/day; HS-RSV) was given for 8 weeks after hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy were established (which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Gender Differences in Transcriptional Signature of Developing Rat Testes and Ovaries following Embryonic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dioxins are persistent organic pollutants interfering with endocrine systems and causing reproductive,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD) on reproductive function of male and female offspring in the rat with a special fertility of the progeny. We choose a global gene expression approach using Affymetrix microarray analysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan suppresses food intake in food-deprived and stressed rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP), serotonin's immediate intracellular precursor, has been thought inhibitor to protect 5-HTP from destruction outside the brain. We have examined the effect of 5-HTP on food consumption and tissue 5-HTP levels among rats subjected to two different hyperphagic stimuli, food

Wurtman, Richard

179

A study of the effect of restricted diets in the male albino rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLon exxpertment metabolic rate was also osti mated by means ?f serum clearance of radioactive I?dine. This determination was ne during tho twenty fourth week of the superi ment on five animals from each Creatment group. Each rat was infected intraperitoneally...

Griffin, Travis Barton

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Induced Hypothermia During Resuscitation from Hemorrhagic Shock Attenuates Microvascular Inflammation in the Rat Mesenteric Microcirculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INDUCED HYPOTHERMIA DURING RESUSCITATION FROM HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK ATTENUATES MICROVASCULAR INFLAMMATION IN THE RAT MESENTERIC MICROCIRCULATION BY GARRETT NICHOLAS COYAN BS, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, 2009 Submitted to the graduate degree... program in Clinical Research and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science. ________________________________ Chairperson Edward F. Ellerbeck, MD, MPH...

Coyan, Garrett Nicholas

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Grid Cells and Theta as Oscillatory Interference: Electrophysiological Data From Freely Moving Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grid Cells and Theta as Oscillatory Interference: Electrophysiological Data From Freely Moving Rats, regular firing patterns by medial entorhinal cortical (mEC) grid cells in terms of the interference specific relationships between the intrinsic firing frequency and spa- tial scale of grid cell firing

Burgess, Neil

182

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Present in Cigarette Smoke Cause Bone Loss in an Ovariectomized Rat Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of epidemiological studies have suggested that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Benzo- (a and fragility seen in smoking-related osteoporosis. In this study four groups of 9-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats; Ovariectomy (ovx); Estrogen; Osteoporosis. Introduction Epidemiological studies have focused

Waldman, Stephen D.

183

Some histological manifestations in the vitamin B b12 sdeficient newborn rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

&dna;, . and spieen 1n duced by a materw?l v1tamin Rl? deficiency 1? the ?suborn albino rat, 4 secondary porno a Ips to co"lpga e the '?Jot'. , +t dif faro loca bot'i&en the hearts, livorn and '. . Tdnevs of novborn offspring oi' v'to oin Q2 deficient mothers...

Jones, Carroll Christian

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Effects of dietary fat, fiber and carcinogen on fecal diacylglcyerols in the rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of physiological modifiers such as diet and carcinogen on fecal DAG mass and composition have not been reported. We designed a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial study (2 fats: corn oil 'I and fish oil; 2 fibers: pectin and 'Cellulose; with and without carcinogen). Rats were...

Pickering, Jennifer Sharon

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Activation of calcium-sensing receptor increases TRPC3 expression in rat cardiomyocytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research highlights: {yields} Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) activation stimulates TRP channels. {yields} CaR promoted transient receptor potential C3 (TRPC3) expression. {yields} Adult rat ventricular myocytes display capacitative calcium entry (CCE), which was operated by TRPCs. {yields} TRPC channels activation induced by CaR activator sustained the increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} to evoke cardiomyocytes apoptosis. -- Abstract: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes, which gate a type of influx of extracellular calcium, the capacitative calcium entry. TRP channels play a role in mediating Ca{sup 2+} overload in the heart. Calcium-sensing receptors (CaR) are also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and promote the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by Ca{sup 2+} overload. However, data about the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart are few. In this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine the expression of the TRP canonical proteins TRPC1 and TRPC3 in adult and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Laser scan confocal microscopy was used to detect intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} levels in isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes. The results showed that, in adult rat cardiomyocytes, the depletion of Ca{sup 2+} stores in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) by thapsigargin induced a transient increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} and the subsequent restoration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o} sustained the increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} for a few minutes, whereas, the persisting elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was reduced in the presence of the TRPC inhibitor SKF96365. The stimulation of CaR by its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) or spermine also resulted in the same effect and the duration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase was also shortened in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}. In adult and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, GdCl{sub 3} increased the expression of TRPC3 mRNA and protein, which were reversed by SKF96365 but not by inhibitors of the L-type channels and the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchangers. However, GdCl{sub 3} had no obvious effect on the expression of TRPC1 protein. These results suggested that CaR stimulation induced activation of TRP channels and promoted the expression of TRPC3, but not TRPC1, that sustained the increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}.

Feng, Shan-Li [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Sun, Ming-Rui [Department of Pharmacology, Qiqihaer Medical College, Qiqihaer 160001 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, Qiqihaer Medical College, Qiqihaer 160001 (China); Li, Ting-Ting; Yin, Xin [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Xu, Chang-Qing [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)] [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Sun, Yi-Hua, E-mail: syh200415@126.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

186

Studies on Pentoxifylline and Tocopherol Combination for Radiation-Induced Heart Disease in Rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate whether the application of pentoxifylline (PTX) and tocopherol l (Vit. E) could modify the development of radiation-induced heart disease and downregulate the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1mRNA in rats. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups: control group, irradiated group, experimental group 1, and experiment group 2. Supplementation was started 3 days before irradiation; in experimental group 1, injection of PTX (15 mg/kg/d) and Vit. E (5.5 mg/kg/d) continued till the 12th week postirradiation, whereas in experimental group 2 it was continued until the 24th week postirradiation. All rats were administrated a single dose of 20 Gy irradiation to the heart except the control group. Histopathologic evaluation was performed at various time points (Days 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 and 24th week) up to 24 weeks after irradiation. Changes of levels of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were also investigated at the same time points using competitive polymerase chain reaction. Results: Compared with the irradiated group, levels of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA of the rat hearts were relatively low in the two experimental groups on the 12th week postirradiation. In experimental group 1, there was a rebound expression of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA on the 24th week postirradiation, whereas that of the experimental group 2 remained low (p < 0.05). The proportions of collagen fibers of the two experimental groups were lower than that of irradiated group (p < 0.05). A rebound could be observed in the experimental group 1. Conclusion: PTX and Vit. E downregulated the expression of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA. The irradiated rat hearts showed a marked pathologic response to the drugs. The withdrawal of drugs in the 12th week postirradiation could cause rebound effects of the development of fibrosis.

Liu Hui [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Xiong Mai [Department of Cardiac Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Xia Yunfei; Cui Nianji; Lu Rubiao [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiotherapy, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Deng Ling [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Lin Yuehao [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Clinical Laboratory, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Rong Tiehua [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: esophagus2003@yahoo.com.cn

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Myocardial kinetics of carbon-11-epinephrine in the isolated working rat heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of EPI were studied in the isolated rat heart model to evaluate {sup 11}C-epinephrine (EPI) as a radiotracer for the assessment of sympathetic neuronal function in the heart. Isolated rat hearts were perfused in a working mode. Carbon-11-EPI was added to the perfusate during wash-in period of 20 min, followed by a washout period of 40 min. Radioactivity in the heart was externally monitored and time-activity curves were recorded as a function of time. Effluent samples were collected throughout each study to determine the fraction of {sup 11}C radioactivity as intact tracer. Time-activity curves of control hearts showed that {sup 11}C-EPI is taken up and retained by the myocardium. Desipramine inhibition (DMI) of uptake-1 resulted in a significant decrease in myocardial uptake and retention of {sup 11}C-EPI by 91% compared to controls. Addition of DMI to the perfusion medium during washout did not affect kinetics of {sup 11}C-EPI compared to control hearts. Reserpine pretreated rat hearts also showed significant decrease in tracer retention of 95% compared to controls. The metabolic data showed that, in control conditions, about 61% of {sup 11}C-EPI taken up by the rat heart is rapidly metabolized and released. Carbon-11-EPI traces sympathetic nerve terminals in the isolated rat heart. Uptake blockade by DMI and reserpine suggest that uptake and storage of {sup 11}C-EPI appear to be similar to that of norepinephrine. However, the prominent metabolic pathway warrants further consideration. These results suggest that {sup 11}C-EPI may be a suitable radiolabeled tracer for the evaluation of sympathetic vesicular function of the heart by PET. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Nguyen, N.T.B.; DeGrado, T.R.; Chakraborty, P. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Anesthesia with propofol induces insulin resistance systemically in skeletal and cardiac muscles and liver of rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Propofol, as a model anesthetic drug, induced whole body insulin resistance. ? Propofol anesthesia decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. ? Propofol decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal and cardiac muscles. ? Propofol increased hepatic glucose output confirming hepatic insulin resistance. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia together with hepatic and muscle insulin resistance are common features in critically ill patients, and these changes are associated with enhanced inflammatory response, increased susceptibility to infection, muscle wasting, and worsened prognosis. Tight blood glucose control by intensive insulin treatment may reduce the morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Although some anesthetics have been shown to cause insulin resistance, it remains unknown how and in which tissues insulin resistance is induced by anesthetics. Moreover, the effects of propofol, a clinically relevant intravenous anesthetic, also used in the intensive care unit for sedation, on insulin sensitivity have not yet been investigated. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study was performed in rats anesthetized with propofol and conscious unrestrained rats. To evaluate glucose uptake in tissues and hepatic glucose output [{sup 3}H]glucose and 2-deoxy[{sup 14}C]glucose were infused during the clamp study. Anesthesia with propofol induced a marked whole-body insulin resistance compared with conscious rats, as reflected by significantly decreased glucose infusion rate to maintain euglycemia. Insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake was decreased in skeletal muscle and heart, and hepatic glucose output was increased in propofol anesthetized rats. Anesthesia with propofol induces systemic insulin resistance along with decreases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal and heart muscle and attenuation of the insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output in rats.

Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Yuji; Kaneki, Masao [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)] [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Martyn, J.A. Jeevendra, E-mail: jmartyn@partners.org [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)] [Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration in WldS transgenic rats after optic nerve crush and lens injury  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Background We have previously shown that the slow Wallerian degeneration mutation, whilst delaying axonal degeneration after optic nerve crush, does not protect retinal ganglion cell (RGC) bodies in adult rats. To test the effects of a...

Lorber, Barbara; Tassoni, Alessia; Bull, Natalie D; Moschos, Marilita M; Martin, Keith R

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

190

Redescription of the enigmatic long-tailed rat Sigmodontomys aphrastus (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) with comments on taxonomy and natural history  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sigmodontomys aphrastus, the long-tailed rat, is an exceedingly rare rodent species from montane regions of Central and South America of which very little is known ecologically or systematically. It has been variously ...

McCain, Christy M.; Timm, Robert M.; Weksler, Marcelo

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

The role of constrictor prostanoids in the development of aortic coarctation-induced hypertension in male and female rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

function and arterial blood pressure (MAP) during development of aortic coarctation-induced hypertension (HT). M and F rats, (15-18 wks.) in four groups: normotensive (NT), hypertensive (HT), ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX estrogen-replaced (OE), underwent...

Baltzer, Wendy Irene

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

192

Quantifying the strain response in the rat tibia during simulated resistance training used as a disuse countermeasure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

loss. This study used a hindlimb unloaded (HU) rat model to simulate microgravity and a muscle stimulation countermeasure to simulate resistive exercise. Uniaxial strain gages were implanted on the antero-medial aspect of the proximal tibia to measure...

Jeffery, Jay Melvin

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Quantifying the strain response in the rat tibia during simulated resistance training used as a disuse countermeasure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

loss. This study used a hindlimb unloaded (HU) rat model to simulate microgravity and a muscle stimulation countermeasure to simulate resistive exercise. Uniaxial strain gages were implanted on the antero-medial aspect of the proximal tibia to measure...

Jeffery, Jay Melvin

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

194

Effect of dietary protein quality on fractional rates of muscle protein synthesis and catabolism in the rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN QUALITY ON FRACTIONAL RATES OF MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND CATABOLISM IN THE RAT A Thesis by RICHARD ANTHONY ROEDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Animal Nutrition EFFECT OF DIETARY PROTEIN QUALITY ON FRACTIONAL RATES OF MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND CATABOLISM IN THE RAT A Thesis by RICHARD ANTHONY ROEDER Approved...

Roeder, Richard Anthony

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Opiate activity in the rat prefrontal cortex: modulation of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic influence on cortical efferent neurons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPIATE ACTIVITY IN THE RAT PREFRONTAL CORTEX: MODULATION OF VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA DOPAMINERGIC INFLUENCE ON CORTICAL EFFERENT NEURONS A Thesis by JOHN STEVEN ST. MARY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... Thesis by JOHN STEVEN ST. MARY Approved as to style and content by: Steven Peterson (Chairman of Committee) Robert Matthews (- '" j'pj") Ger a ((~Fe g (Mem er) George Chion (Member) December 1986 ABSTRACT Opiate Activity in the Rat...

St. Mary, John Steven

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

The effects of a suboptimal intake of magnesium with soy protein concentrate on parturition, growth, and viability in the rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF A SUBOPTIMAL INTAKE OF MAGNESIUM WITH SOY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE ON PARTURITION, GROWTH, AND VIABILITY IN THE RAT A Thesis by SONJA D'AWN CARSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF A SUBOPTIMAL INTAKE OF MAGNESIUM WITH SOY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE ON PARTURITIONe GROWTH, AND VIABILITY IN THE RAT A Thesis by SONJA D'AWN CARSON...

Carson, Sonja D'Awn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

197

Short term effects of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures and individual PCB congeners in female Sprague-Dawley rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF COMMERCIAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB) MIXTURFS AND INDIVIDUAL PCB CONGENERS IN FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS A Thesis by YU-CHYU CHEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major subject: Toxicology SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF COMMERCIAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB) MIXTURES AND INDIVIDUAL PCB CONGENERS IN FEMALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS A Thesis...

Chen, Yu-Chyu

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

The Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on the Behavior of the Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus):Phase II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors studied the movements of cotton rats and cotton mice in experimental landscapes at the SRS in order to determine the effects of fragmentation and connectivity between habitat patches on dispersal movements and population dynamics. Densities between connected and isolated patches were not different. Small patches tended to support higher densities. Cotton rats were more common in corridors than expected and cotton mice were more likely to leave by a corridor.

Barrett, G.W.; Drelin, E.A.; Mabry, K.E.

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

An investigation of the potentiating effects of ethanol on a chronic exposure of rats to 1,1,1-trichloroethane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIATING EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ON A CHRONIC EXPOSURE OF RATS TO 1, 1&I-TRICHLOROETHANE A Thesis by DEWAYNE HAROLD WALKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AFM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Laboratory Animal Medicine AN INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIATING EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ON A CHRONIC EXPOSURE OF RATS TQ 1&1, 1-TRICHLOROETHANE A Thesis by DENAYNE HAROLD WALKER...

Walker, DeWayne Harold

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Blood risk factor metabolites associated with heart disease and myocardial fatty acids in copper-deficient male and female rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intact and castrated males and intact and ovariectomized female rats were fed a copper-deficient diet in order to establish whether the protection provided in females against cardiovascular pathology and mortality is due to endogenous sex hormones, and different levels of blood lipids and/or myocardial fatty acids. Seventy-three male and female rats were assigned to a copper-deficient diet (0.6 {mu}g of copper/g diet) containing 62% fructose for 8 weeks. Twelve of the male rats underwent castration and 12 of the females were ovariectomized. All animals exhibited high levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid, which were neither affected by the sex of the rat nor by the surgical treatment. The composition of fatty acids of the myocardium was similar in males and females. Except for those animals that were sacrificed by us, all other male rats died of heart pathology. In contrast, none of the female rats exhibited heart pathology and none died of the deficiency. It is suggested that heart pathology and mortality in copper deficiency are sex related and not due to high levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid or to differences in myocardial fatty acid composition.

Fields, M.; Lewis, C.; Beal, T. (Georgetown Univ. Medical School, WA (USA)); Berlin, E.; Kliman, P.G.; Peters, R.C. (Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Protective effects of tocotrienols against lipid-induced nephropathy in experimental type-2 diabetic rats by modulation in TGF-? expression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dyslipidemia is common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and is considered a risk factor for the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia act synergistically to induce renal injury. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of tocotrienols as tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) extracted from palm (PO) and rice bran oils (RBO) against lipid induced nephropathy in type-2 diabetic rats and its probable molecular mechanism. Male Wistar rats (175200 g) were divided into four groups. The first group served as diabetic control, while the second and third groups received PO-TRF and RBO-TRF, respectively by gavage over a period of sixteen weeks post-induction of diabetes. The fourth group comprised of age-matched rats that served as normal control. The effects of TRF on serum lipid profile, oxidative stress markers, expression of TGF-?, fibronectin and collagen type IV were analyzed in the kidney of diabetic rats. Treatment with PO-TRF and RBO-TRF significantly improved glycemic status, serum lipid profile and renal function in type-2 diabetic rats. In addition, TRF supplementation down-regulated the expression of TGF-?, fibronectin and collagen type IV in the kidney of diabetic rats. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) plays a critical role in progression of DN, but its modulation by tocotrienols in DN remains unexplored. TRF ameliorated lipid induced nephropathy in type-2 diabetes by its hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities as well as by modulation of TGF-? to prevent increased expression of collagen type IV and fibrinogen. We finally propose a mechanism for the expression of molecular markers that are significant in the events leading to diabetic nephropathy and its modulation by tocotrienols/TRF. - Highlights: The nephroprotective effect of TRF in type-2 diabetic rats was investigated. Treatment with TRF improved glycemic status, lipid profile and renal functions in rats. TRF down-regulated the expression of TGF-?, fibronectin and collagen in rats' kidney. TRF ameliorated nephropathy by hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity. Tocotrienols modulate the expression of TGF-? in DN in type-2 diabetic rats.

Siddiqui, Shabeena [Department of Biochemistry, Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi 110062 (India); Ahsan, Haseeb [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Khan, Mohammad Rashid [Department of Biochemistry, Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi 110062 (India); Siddiqui, Waseem A., E-mail: wasiddiqui01@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi 110062 (India)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Effect of freezing on the coupling of VIP receptors to adenylate cyclase in rat liver membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In fresh rat liver plasma membranes high affinity VIP receptors were specifically labelled with (/sup 125/I) helodermin and were well coupled to adenylate cyclase while low affinity VIP receptors were not. After freezing and thawing low affinity VIP receptors were also coupled to adenylate cyclase. This modification of adenylate cyclase activation was specific for the VIP response as freezing and thawing did not modify Gpp(NH)p, NaF and glucagon stimulations. 26 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Robberecht, P.; Waelbroeck, M.; De Neef, P.; Camus, J.C.; Gourlet, P.; Christophe, J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Comparative effects of sodium channel blockers in short term rat whole embryo culture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was undertaken to examine the effect on the rat embryonic heart of two experimental drugs (AZA and AZB) which are known to block the sodium channel Nav1.5, the hERG potassium channel and the L-type calcium channel. The sodium channel blockers bupivacaine, lidocaine, and the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine were used as reference substances. The experimental model was the gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryo cultured in vitro. In this model the embryonic heart activity can be directly observed, recorded and analyzed using computer assisted image analysis as it responds to the addition of test drugs. The effect on the heart was studied for a range of concentrations and for a duration up to 3 h. The results showed that AZA and AZB caused a concentration-dependent bradycardia of the embryonic heart and at high concentrations heart block. These effects were reversible on washout. In terms of potency to cause bradycardia the compounds were ranked AZB > bupivacaine > AZA > lidocaine > nifedipine. Comparison with results from previous studies with more specific ion channel blockers suggests that the primary effect of AZA and AZB was sodium channel blockage. The study shows that the short-term rat whole embryo culture (WEC) is a suitable system to detect substances hazardous to the embryonic heart. - Highlights: Study of the effect of sodium channel blocking drugs on embryonic heart function We used a modified method rat whole embryo culture with image analysis. The drugs tested caused a concentration dependent bradycardia and heart block. The effect of drugs acting on multiple ion channels is difficult to predict. This method may be used to detect cardiotoxicity in prenatal development.

Nilsson, Mats F, E-mail: Mats.Nilsson@farmbio.uu.se [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Skld, Anna-Carin; Ericson, Ann-Christin; Annas, Anita; Villar, Rodrigo Palma [AstraZeneca R and D Sdertlje (Sweden); Cebers, Gvido [AstraZeneca R and D, iMed, 141 Portland Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hellmold, Heike; Gustafson, Anne-Lee [AstraZeneca R and D Sdertlje (Sweden); Webster, William S [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney (Australia)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

X-ray intravital microscopy for functional imaging in rat hearts using synchrotron radiation coronary microangiography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An X-ray intravital microscopy technique was developed to enable in vivo visualization of the coronary, cerebral, and pulmonary arteries in rats without exposure of organs and with spatial resolution in the micrometer range and temporal resolution in the millisecond range. We have refined the system continually in terms of the spatial resolution and exposure time. X-rays transmitted through an object are detected by an X-ray direct-conversion type detector, which incorporates an X-ray SATICON pickup tube. The spatial resolution has been improved to 6 {mu}m, yielding sharp images of small arteries. The exposure time has been shortened to around 2 ms using a new rotating-disk X-ray shutter, enabling imaging of beating rat hearts. Quantitative evaluations of the X-ray intravital microscopy technique were extracted from measurements of the smallest-detectable vessel size and detection of the vessel function. The smallest-diameter vessel viewed for measurements is determined primarily by the concentration of iodinated contrast material. The iodine concentration depends on the injection technique. We used ex vivo rat hearts under Langendorff perfusion for accurate evaluation. After the contrast agent is injected into the origin of the aorta in an isolated perfused rat heart, the contrast agent is delivered directly into the coronary arteries with minimum dilution. The vascular internal diameter response of coronary arterial circulation is analyzed to evaluate the vessel function. Small blood vessels of more than about 50 {mu}m diameters were visualized clearly at heart rates of around 300 beats/min. Vasodilation compared to the control was observed quantitatively using drug manipulation. Furthermore, the apparent increase in the number of small vessels with diameters of less than about 50 {mu}m was observed after the vasoactive agents increased the diameters of invisible small blood vessels to visible sizes. This technique is expected to offer the potential for direct investigation of mechanisms of vascular dysfunctions.

Umetani, K. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukushima, K. [National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Hospital, Fujishirodai, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. Iron increased the levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? in lung tissues at high altitudes. Trolox alleviated the iron-induced histological and biochemical changes to the lungs.

Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

The postnatal development of the sex organs in prenatally and early postnatally irradiated male albino rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

days of age and a sub- sequent regeneration between 105 and 185 days of age. Beaumont (1962) reported that in males receiving 100r X-rays on gestational day 17. 5, which corresponds very closely with day 18 irradiates in this study, it 41 appeared.... Bagg concludes, "the results so far indicate that gamma-ray irradiation is a physical agent adapted to the study of experimentally produced developmental arrests in mammalian embryos. " Hanson (1922) reported that male albino rats which were...

Ricks, Robert Clinton

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Effects of chronic cadmium exposure on the conditioned reinforcing properties of morphine and fentanyl in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: ck R. Nation (C ir of Committee) Gerald D. Frye (Member) Paul J. Wellman (Member) Paul J. Wellman (Head of Department... the metal (Nation, Livermore, Bratton, & Schenk, 1996). A similar attenuation was shown with repeated cocaine exposure--the development of locomotor sensitization. Rats that received chronic cadmium exposure required more cocaine administration sessions...

Miller, Dennis K

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Effects of Nicotine Exposure on In Vitro Metabolism of Chlorpyrifos in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a common organophosphate (OP) insecticide which is metabolized by CYP450s to the neurotoxic metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and a non-toxic metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of repeated in vivo nicotine exposures on CPF in vitro metabolism and marker substrate activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed subcutaneously with 1 mg nicotine/kg/, for up to 10 days. Animals showed signs of cholinergic crisis after the initial nicotine doses, but exhibited adaptation after a couple days of treatment. Rats were sacrificed on selected days 4 or 24 hr after the last nicotine-treatment. While CYP450 reduced CO spectra were not different across the treatments, the single nicotine dose group showed a 2-fold increase in CYP2E1 marker substrate (p-nitrophenol) activity 24 hr after a single nicotine treatment compared to saline controls. Conversely, repeated nicotine treatments resulted in decreased EROD marker substrate activity 4 hr after the 7th day of treatment. CPF-oxon Vmax and Km did not show significant changes across the different nicotine treatment groups. The Vmax describing the metabolism of CPF to TCP was increased on all groups (days 1, 7, and 10) 24 hr after nicotine treatment but were unchanged 4 hr after nicotine treatment. Results of this in vitro study suggest that repeated nicotine exposure (i.e., from smoking) may result in altered metabolism of CPF. Future in vivo experiments based on these results will be conducted to ascertain the impact of in vivo nicotine exposures on CPF metabolism in rats.

Lee, Sookwang; Busby, Andrea L.; Timchalk, Charles; Poet, Torka S.

2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

209

Some histological manifestations in the early postnatal vitamin B?? deficient albino rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rats were slightly smeller in sine. Ilistologically the cortex was reduced in thickness ?nd therefore in total volume There was a considerable increase in intercellular space which was often filled with connective tissue and sometimes blood..., The renal corpus- cles were characterised by an increase in the space between Bowman's capsule and the glomerulus (I~'ig, 7). The loops of Henle in the medul- lary region showed reduoed lumina. The convoluted tubules (pr obably due to the fatty...

Johnson, Elmer Marshall

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Characterizing strain in the proximal rat tibia during electrical muscle stimulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of model EA-06-015SE-120 strain gage (23) . .................................... 16 Figure 8. Schematic diagram of the Wheatstone bridge circuit (23) ................................. 17 Figure 9. Diagram of a hindlimb unloaded rat (17... of the gage increases due to a reduction in cross-sectional area of the grid elements; however, the change in resistance is too small to measure directly. Therefore, the gage is connected to three known resistors in a Wheatstone Bridge circuit, to which...

Vyvial, Brent Aron

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

211

Rat lymphoma cell bioassay for prolactin: observations on its use and comparison with radioimmunoassay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rat Nb/sub 2/ node lymphoma cell bioassay (BA) for prolactin (PRL) was validated for use in our laboratories. During the course of this validation we observed that rat prolactin (NIAMDD-RP-1) stimulated cell division by as much as 16.5 fold over the range of 0.04 to 40.0 ng/ml at the end of 72 hours of incubation. We also observed a dose related increase in the size of the lymphoma cells. Prolactin concentrations in rat plasma, serum, anterior pituitary (AP) homogenates and milk were measured by both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and BA. In individual BA's there was parallelism between samples and standard; but when several dilutions of the same plasma and pituitary homogenates were assayed repeatedly, higher PRL levels were consistently observed for the more concentrated samples. At low or moderate levels of plasma PRL there was excellent agreement between RIA and BA; however, at high levels plasma PRL bioactivity exceeded radioimmunoactivity by a small, but significant, amount. A comparison of pituitary PRL concentrations measured by RIA and BA were in good agreement when homogenization was done at pH 10.6. However, when homogenization was done at pH 7.6, slightly but significantly more PRL was extracted when assayed by BA than when assayed by RIA.

Dawson, D.M.; Sensui, N.; Haisenleder, D.H.; Gala, R.R.

1982-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

212

Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: Since ephedra-containing dietary supplements were banned from the US market, manufacturers changed their formulations by eliminating ephedra and replacing with other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine. Since ephedrine may have cardiovascular effects, the goal of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of various doses of bitter orange extract and pure synephrine in rats. Method: Female SpragueDawley rats were dosed daily by gavage for 28 days with synephrine from two different extracts. One extract contained 6% synephrine, and the other extract contained 95% synephrine. Doses were 10 or 50 mg synephrine/kg body weight from each extract. Additionally, caffeine was added to these doses, since many dietary supplements also contain caffeine. Telemetry was utilized to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and QT interval in all rats. Results and conclusion: Synephrine, either as the bitter orange extract or as pure synephrine, increased heart rate and blood pressure. Animals treated with 95% synephrine showed minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure; more significant effects were observed with the bitter orange extract suggesting that other components in the botanical can alter these physiological parameters. The increases in heart rate and blood pressure were more pronounced when caffeine was added. None of the treatments affected uncorrected QT interval in the absence of caffeine.

Hansen, Deborah K., E-mail: deborah.hansen@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); George, Nysia I. [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, U.S. FDA/NCTR, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); White, Gene E. [Toxicological Pathology Associates, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)] [Toxicological Pathology Associates, 3900 NCTR Rd., Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Pellicore, Linda S. [Office of New Drugs, U.S. FDA/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20903 (United States)] [Office of New Drugs, U.S. FDA/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20903 (United States); Abdel-Rahman, Ali; Fabricant, Daniel [Office of Nutrition, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, U.S. FDA/Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, HFS-810, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)] [Office of Nutrition, Labeling and Dietary Supplements, U.S. FDA/Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, HFS-810, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation following small bowel transplantation in the rat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In addition to its role in absorbing nutrients, the intestinal mucosa provides an important barrier against toxins and bacteria in the bowel lumen. The present study evaluated gut barrier function following orthotopic (in continuity) intestinal grafting in rats. Graft histology, intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation to the grafted mesenteric lymph nodes, the host's liver, and the host's spleen were assessed on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th postoperative days. The study group received no immunosuppression after allotransplantation. The two control groups included rats with isografts and rats with cyclosporine-treated allografts. On the 7th POD, the study animals had moderate transmural inflammation due to rejection, with normal histology in the isografts and CsA-treated allografts; increased intestinal permeability, measured by urinary excretion of oral 51Cr-EDTA (P less than 0.01); and increased number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen (P less than 0.05). The number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen of the study group positively correlated with the changes in intestinal permeability (P less than 0.05). Rejection of the orthotopic intestinal graft leads to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the lumen of the graft to the host's reticuloendothelial system. Measures to improve gut barrier function and antibiotic therapy during rejection episodes may help reduce the incidence of septic complications after intestinal grafting.

Grant, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Zhong, R.; Wang, P.Z.; Chen, H.F.; Garcia, B.; Behme, R.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J. (University of Western Ontario (Canada))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Immunocompetent syngeneic cotton rat tumor models for the assessment of replication-competent oncolytic adenovirus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oncolytic adenoviruses as a treatment for cancer have demonstrated limited clinical activity. Contributing to this may be the relevance of preclinical animal models used to study these agents. Syngeneic mouse tumor models are generally non-permissive for adenoviral replication, whereas human tumor xenograft models exhibit attenuated immune responses to the vector. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is susceptible to human adenovirus infection, permissive for viral replication and exhibits similar inflammatory pathology to humans with adenovirus replicating in the lungs, respiratory passages and cornea. We evaluated three transplantable tumorigenic cotton rat cell lines, CCRT, LCRT and VCRT as models for the study of oncolytic adenoviruses. All three cells lines were readily infected with adenovirus type-5-based vectors and exhibited high levels of transgene expression. The cell lines supported viral replication demonstrated by the induction of cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in tissue culture, increase in virus particle numbers and assembly of virions seen on transmission electron microscopy. In vivo, LCRT and VCRT tumors demonstrated delayed growth after injection with replicating adenovirus. No in vivo antitumor activity was seen in CCRT tumors despite in vitro oncolysis. Adenovirus was also rapidly cleared from the CCRT tumors compared to LCRT and VCRT tumors. The effect observed with the different cotton rat tumor cell lines mimics the variable results of human clinical trials highlighting the potential relevance of this model for assessing the activity and toxicity of oncolytic adenoviruses.

Steel, Jason C.; Morrison, Brian J.; Mannan, Poonam [Cancer Gene Therapy Section, Metabolism Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, Room 4-5330, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-1457, National Institutes of Health, Maryland (United States); Abu-Asab, Mones S. [Ultrastructural Pathology, Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Maryland (United States); Wildner, Oliver [Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr University Bochum (Germany); Miles, Brian K.; Yim, Kevin C. [Virion Systems, Inc., Rockville, Maryland (United States); Ramanan, Vijay [Cancer Gene Therapy Section, Metabolism Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, Room 4-5330, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-1457, National Institutes of Health, Maryland (United States); Prince, Gregory A. [Virion Systems, Inc., Rockville, Maryland (United States); Morris, John C. [Cancer Gene Therapy Section, Metabolism Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, Room 4-5330, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-1457, National Institutes of Health, Maryland (United States)], E-mail: jmorris@mail.nih.gov

2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

215

Cardiac catecholamines in rats fed copper deficient or copper adequate diets containing fructose or starch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The symptoms of copper (Cu) deficiency are known to be more severe when rats are fed a diet with fructose (F) as the principal carbohydrate. Mortality, in males, due to cardiac abnormalities usually occurs after five weeks of a 62% F, 0.6 ppm Cu deficient diet. These effects are not observed if cornstarch (CS) is the carbohydrate (CHO) source. Studies with F containing diets have shown increased catecholamine (C) turnover rates while diets deficient in Cu result in decreased norepinephrine (N) levels in tissues. Dopamine B-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) is a Cu dependent enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of dopamine (D) to N. An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of CHO and dietary Cu on levels of three C in cardiac tissue. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Cu deficient or adequate diets with 60% of calories from F or CS for 6 weeks. N, epinephrine (E) and D were measured by HPLC. Statistical analysis indicates that Cu deficiency tends to decrease N levels, while having the reverse effect on E. D did not appear to change. These findings indicate that Cu deficiency but not dietary CHO can affect the concentration of N and E in rat cardiac tissue.

Scholfield, D.J.; Fields, M.; Beal, T.; Lewis, C.G.; Behall, K.M. (Dept. og Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (USA))

1989-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

216

PET Imaging of Brain 5-HT1A Receptors in Rat In Vivo with 18F-FCWAY and Improvement by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PET Imaging of Brain 5-HT1A Receptors in Rat In Vivo with 18F-FCWAY and Improvement by Successful)cyclohexanecarboxamide) is useful in clinical research with PET for measuring serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) re- ceptor densities in brain applicability to measuring brain regional 5-HT1A receptor densities. Methods: PET of rat head after

Shen, Jun

217

Highly accurate quantification of proton MR spectroscopy in rat brain in vivo at 16.4 T , D. Z. Balla1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly accurate quantification of proton MR spectroscopy in rat brain in vivo at 16.4 T S-T. Hong1, Minnesota, United States Introduction Localized 1 H MR spectroscopy is an efficient tool capable Wistar rats that were anaesthetized by inhalation of 1.5-2 % concentration of isoflurane. All MR

218

A STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO SILICA DUST FOR SIX MONTHS AT CONCENTRATIONS OF 0, 2, 10 OR 20 MG / M3.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major objective of this study was to relate the results of a series of functional tests to the compositional and structural alterations in the rat lung induced by subchronic exposure to silica dust. Fischer-344 rats were exposed for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 6 months to either 0, 2, 10, or 20 mg SiO{sub 2}/m{sup 3}. The general appearance of the exposed rats was not different from that of the controls. Interestingly, female rats exposed to silica dust, at all tested concentrations, gained more weight than the controls. The lung weight and the lung-to-body weight ratio was greater in the male rats exposed to the highest concentration of silica dust.

KUTZMAN,R.S.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Hepatic transcriptomic responses to TCDD in dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rats during the onset of toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes a wide range of toxic effects in rodent species, all of which are mediated by a ligand-dependent transcription-factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The Han/Wistar (Kuopio) (H/W) strain shows exceptional resistance to many TCDD-induced toxicities; the LD{sub 50} of > 9600 {mu}g/kg for H/W rats is higher than for any other wild-type mammal known. We previously showed that this resistance primarily results from H/W rats expressing a variant AHR isoform that has a substantial portion of the AHR transactivation domain deleted. Despite this large deletion, H/W rats are not entirely refractory to the effects of TCDD; the variant AHR in these animals remains fully competent to up-regulate well-known dioxin-inducible genes. TCDD-sensitive (Long-Evans, L-E) and resistant (H/W) rats were treated with either corn-oil (with or without feed-restriction) or 100 {mu}g/kg TCDD for either four or ten days. Hepatic transcriptional profiling was done using microarrays, and was validated by RT-PCR analysis of 41 genes. A core set of genes was altered in both strains at all time points tested, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, Nqo1, Aldh3a1, Tiparp, Exoc3, and Inmt. Outside this core, the strains differed significantly in the breadth of response: three-fold more genes were altered in L-E than H/W rats. At ten days almost all expressed genes were dysregulated in L-E rats, likely reflecting emerging toxic responses. Far fewer genes were affected by feed-restriction, suggesting that only a minority of the TCDD-induced changes are secondary to the wasting syndrome.

Boutros, Paul C.; Yao, Cindy Q.; Watson, John D.; Wu, Alexander H. [Informatics and Bio-computing Platform, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Moffat, Ivy D. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Smith, Ashley B. [Informatics and Bio-computing Platform, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Okey, Allan B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Pohjanvirta, Raimo, E-mail: raimo.pohjanvirta@helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Toxicology, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki (Finland)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Effect of intranasal manganese administration on neurotransmission and spatial learning in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of intranasal manganese chloride (MnCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O) exposure on spatial learning, memory and motor activity was estimated in Morris water maze task in adult rats. Three-month-old male Wistar rats received for 2 weeks MnCl{sub 2}4H{sub 2}O at two doses the following: 0.2 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.2) or 0.8 mg/kg b.w. (Mn0.8) per day. Control (Con) and manganese-exposed groups were observed for behavioral performance and learning in water maze. ANOVA for repeated measurements did not show any significant differences in acquisition in the water maze between the groups. However, the results of the probe trial on day 5, exhibited spatial memory deficits following manganese treatment. After completion of the behavioral experiment, the regional brain concentrations of neurotransmitters and their metabolites were determined via HPLC in selected brain regions, i.e. prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in the content of monoamines and metabolites between the treatment groups compared to the controls. Negative correlations between platform crossings on the previous platform position in Southeast (SE) quadrant during the probe trial and neurotransmitter turnover suggest that impairment of spatial memory and cognitive performance after manganese (Mn) treatment is associated with modulation of the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the brain. These findings show that intranasally applied Mn can impair spatial memory with significant changes in the tissue level and metabolism of monoamines in several brain regions. -- Highlights: ? Intranasal exposure to manganese in rats impairs spatial memory in the water maze. ? Regional changes in levels of neurotransmitters in the brain have been identified. ? Cognitive disorder correlates with modulation of 5-HT, NA and DA neurotransmission.

Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Piechal, Agnieszka; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa, E-mail: etyszkiewicz@wum.edu.pl

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

RatBot: anti-enumeration peer-to-peer botnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Botnets have emerged as one of the most severe cyber threats in recent years. To obtain high resilience against a single point of failure, the new generation of botnets have adopted the peer-to-peer (P2P) structure. One critical question regarding these P2P botnets is: how big are they indeed? To address this question, researchers have proposed both actively crawling and passively monitoring methods to enumerate existing P2P botnets. In this work, we go further to explore the potential strategies that botnets may have to obfuscate their true sizes. Towards this end, this paper introduces RatBot, a P2P botnet that applies some statistical techniques to defeat existing P2P botnet enumeration methods. The key ideas of RatBot are two-fold: (1) there exist a fraction of bots that are indistinguishable from their fake identities, which are spoofing IP addresses they use to hide themselves; (2) we use a heavy-tailed distribution to generate the number of fake identities for each of these bots so that the sum of observed fake identities converges only slowly and thus has high variation. We use large-scale high-fidelity simulation to quantify the estimation errors under diverse settings, and the results show that a naive enumeration technique can overestimate the sizes of P2P botnets by one order of magnitude. We believe that our work reveals new challenges of accurately estimating the sizes of P2P botnets, and hope that it will raise the awareness of security practitioners with these challenges. We further suggest a few countermeasures that can potentially defeat RatBot's anti-enumeration scheme.

Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Songqing [GEORGE MASON UNIV.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

The effects of a marginal intake of magnesium with soy protein concentrate on growth, gestation, and lactation in the rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF A MARGINAL INTAKE OF MAGNESIUM WITH SOY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE ON GROWTH, GESTATION, AND LACTATION IN THE RAT A Thesis by CYNTHIA ANNE MCLAUGHLIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 19B6 Major Subject: Nutrrtion THE EFFECTS OF A MARGINAL INTAKE OF MAGNESIUM WITH SOY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE ON GROWTH, GESTATION, AND LACTATION IN THE RAT A Thesis by CYNTHIA ANNE MCLAUGHLIN Approved...

McLaughlin, Cynthia Anne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

223

The effect of a prolonged magnesium restriction on the humoral immune response in maternal rats and their offspring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TIIE EFFECT 0F A PR0L0NGED MAGNESIUM RESTRI CTI0N ON THE HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN HATERHAL RATS AHD THEIR OFFSPRING A Thesis by DIANE T. COHILL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SC IENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECT OF A PROLONGED MAGNESIUM RESTRICTION ON THE HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN MATERNAL RATS AND THEIR OFFSPRING A Thesis by DIANE T. COHILL Approved as to sty le...

Cohill, Diane T

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

224

Effects of dietary fat and fiber on the oxidative status of the small intestine and colon of rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF DIETARY FAT AND FIBER ON THE OXIDATIVE STATUS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE AND COLON OF RATS A Dissertation by LISA MERLE SANDERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... and Fiber on the Oxidative Status of the Small Intestine and Colon of Rats. (May 2005) Lisa Merle Sanders, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Joanne R. Lupton Colon cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers...

Sanders, Lisa Merle

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

225

The effects of chronic dietary cobalt exposure on behavior and metallothionein levels in the adult rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are often inadequate. Yet, the neurochemical effects of heavy metal exposure do suggest some commonalities. For example, Pb (Shih and Hanin, 1978; Memo et al. , 1980; Silbergeld, 1982), Cd (Rastogi et al. , 1977), and Co (Shibuya et al. , 1978; Hasan... depletions of DA in the basal gang- lia, cerebellum, and brain stem, of' NE in the basal gang- lia, and of 5-HT in the cortex, basal ganglia, and brain stem (Hasan and Ali, 1980). Cobalt has also been shown to decrease GABA levels in rat brains (Shibuya...

Hare, Michael Francis

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

A study of the nutritive value of sorghum grain with rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. was conducted to study the digestibility aud nu" ritional uu lity ot serg!rum grain raith rats. Groups c f albiiio cats were fed 10 ~ arleties of so "gb?m grains arid 4 hybrids of. 4 of those varietses with varying sources and levels of amino acids.... . varieties and 4 !iybridc of 4 uf those soc- ghina grain vsr . i ties in this -useazcb i, 'ero fouiid to be i:one!ate~' ly deficie. . t in all ssential rumino acids emcept t. . ucine, bistidir. nd p!ienylalanliie. 1!ie. pro! "in content cf tbe 14 sorghuia...

Dohm, Carolee Kathryn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

227

Effect of dietary cysteine, methionine, and sterculic acid on fatty acid distribution in rat adipose tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Statistical Anal sis The data were treated according to the analysis of variance for data with a single criterion of classifica- tion(24). Each of the ratios for the triglyceride frac- tion were analyzed as: Source oi Variation De rees of Freedom Total... ACIDS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE OF THE RAT B. Free Fatty Acid Fraction Group No. Sterculia f~oa ao 1 Methionine level in diet Cysteine level in diet 16/16:1 18/18:1 18/18:2 18:1/18:2 III IV VI VII VIII 0. 2 0. 2 0. 2 0. 2 low low high...

Brotze, Mary Frances

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Effect of exercise training and dietary fat on rat adipose tissue lipolysis and morphology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

composition: control (corn oil), diets 1, 2, and 3 [test oil $1 (58. 58 18:2 and 0. 78 18:3 fatty acids), oil $2 (46. 4% 18:2 and 3. 68 18:3 fatty acids), and oil g 3 (55. 7% 18:2 and 18:3 fatty acids), respectively], and diet 4 which was fat...-free. The diets were initiated when the rats were 4 wk old. Body weight (p&0. 001), fat pad weight (p&0. 001), and adipocyte diameter (p&0. 05) were significantly less in the exercised group than in the sedentary group. Adipocyte number was not significantly...

Neale, Sonia Barstad

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Intracranial electrode implantation produces regional neuroinflammation and memory deficits in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The procedure entails intracranial implantation of an electrode in a specific brain structure followed by chronic stimulation. Although the beneficial effects of DBS on motor symptoms in PD are well known, it is often accompanied by cognitive impairments, the origin of which is not fully understood. To explore the possible contribution of the surgical procedure itself, we studied the effect of electrode implantation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on regional neuroinflammation and memory function in rats implanted bilaterally with stainless steel electrodes. Age-matched sham and intact rats were used as controls. Brains were removed 1 or 8 weeks post-implantation and processed for in vitro autoradiography with [(3)H]PK11195, an established marker of microglial activation. Memory function was assessed by the novel object recognition test (ORT) before surgery and 2 and 8 weeks after surgery. Electrode implantation produced region-dependent changes in ligand binding density in the implanted brains at 1 as well as 8 weeks post-implantation. Cortical regions showed more intense and widespread neuroinflammation than striatal or thalamic structures. Furthermore, implanted animals showed deficits in ORT performance 2 and 8 weeks post-implantation. Thus, electrode implantation resulted in a widespread and persistent neuroinflammation and sustained memory impairment. These results suggest that the insertion and continued presence of electrodes in the brain, even without stimulation, may lead to inflammation-mediated cognitive deficits in susceptible individuals, as observed in patients treated with DBS.

Kuttner-Hirshler, Y.; Biegon, A.; Kuttner-Hirshler, Y.; Polat, U.; Biegon, A.

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

230

Title : Time-dependent contribution of non neuronal cells to BDNF production after ischemic stroke in rats.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stroke in rats. Yannick Béjota,b,c,d , Anne Tessier a,b , Claire Cachia b , Maurice Giroudb,c,d , Claude in recovery after cerebral ischemia, little is known about cells involved in BDNF production after stroke stroke and that non neuronal-BDNF producing cells differ according to the delay after stroke induction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

Vibrissa Movement Elicited by Rhythmic Electrical Microstimulation to Motor Cortex in the Aroused Rat Mimics Exploratory Whisking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vibrissa Movement Elicited by Rhythmic Electrical Microstimulation to Motor Cortex in the Aroused elicited by rhythmic electrical microstimulation to motor cortex in the aroused rat mimics exploratory.2003. The rhythmic motor activity of the vibrissae that rodents use for the tactile local- ization of objects

Kleinfeld, David

232

The secretion of prolactin (PRL) from pituitary lactotrophs of the rat is predominantly under inhibitory control exerted by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The secretion of prolactin (PRL) from pituitary lactotrophs of the rat is predominantly under inhibitory control exerted by dopamine (DA) of hypothalamic origin (1). Other PRL-inhibit- ing substances from the Stojilkovic lab (3) and of this report. In addition to the PRL-inhibiting substances, a host

Bertram, Richard

233

Investigation of Transfer Function Analysis as a Means to Predict Strain on Rat Tibiae from Ankle Torque Waveforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for many years in our lab and others, few researchers have been able to quantify the levels of strain on rat tibiae during EMS and far fewer have investigated the causal relationship between torque produced at the ankle and strain on the tibia. This thesis...

Bouse, Scott

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

234

No age-related cell loss in three retinal nuclear layers of the Long-Evans rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and photoreceptor cells which are distributed in the ganglion cell layer ~GCL!, inner nuclear layer ~INL! and outer. In this study, thus, we wanted to test whether there is an age-related cell loss in the GCL, INL and ONL to INL to GCL was preserved. Keywords: Cell number, Retina, Aging, Long-Evans rat, Stereological method

Zhou, Yi-Feng

235

Beacon Training in a Water Maze Can Facilitate and Compete With Subsequent Room Cue Learning in Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beacon Training in a Water Maze Can Facilitate and Compete With Subsequent Room Cue Learning experiments in which rats completed a water-maze blocking procedure, experimental groups were trained to use location. A Room Test (landmarks and background cues only) showed that Stage 1 training with a fixed

Indiana University

236

Integrin Signaling at 2hr and 48hr Post-Eccentric Exercise in Heat Treated Rat Skeletal Muscle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and refolding proteins and by maintain actin structures of the cellular membrane. Methods: Heat shocked (HS+EE) and non-heat shocked (EE) male Wistar rats performed a two hour downhill treadmill exercise. The soleus (SOL), vastus lateralis white (VLW) and red...

Graham, Zachary Aaron

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

237

Preweanling Rats Solve the Morris Water Task via Directional Navigation Katherine G. Akers, Felicha T. Candelaria, and Derek A. Hamilton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T. Candelaria, and Derek A. Hamilton University of New Mexico Adult rats show a preference (Akers & Hamilton, 2007; Brown & Whishaw, 2000; Carman & Mactutus, 2001; Kraemer & Randall, 1995; Rudy, 1949; Hamilton, Akers, Weisend, & Sutherland, 2007; Skinner et al., 2003)--that may appear behaviorally

Hamilton, Derek

238

Changes in histamine and white blood cells in the blood, spleen and thymus of magnesium-deficient rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Changes in histamine and white blood cells in the blood, spleen and thymus of magnesium of rats were given either a control or a magnesium-deficient diet. The well-known allergy-like crisis, characterized by vasodilatation with redness of the ears and dermatosis, occurred spontaneously in the magnesium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

Hormonal regulation of Sertoli cell function in the rat V. HANSSON, K. PURVIS E. M. RITZN F. S. FRENCH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, there have until recently been few attempts to localize the FSH-sensitive target cells. In 1965 MurphyHormonal regulation of Sertoli cell function in the rat V. HANSSON, K. PURVIS E. M. RITZ?N F. S of Reproductive Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, U. S. A. Summary. The Sertoli cell is the main

Boyer, Edmond

240

EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA ON NEURAL ACTIVITY IN THE PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX OF THE RAT Benjamin L. White  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF ANESTHESIA ON NEURAL ACTIVITY IN THE PRIMARY VISUAL CORTEX OF THE RAT Benjamin L. White andJzsef Fiser. Recordings were made in six stimulus conditions under four levels of isoflurane anesthesia. Recordings from the same cells across conditions and levels of isoflurane are compared here. Anesthesia ranged from deep

Fiser, Jzsef

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Influence of photoperiod on the time of parturition in the rat. III. Comparison of different daily light lengths with changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of photoperiod on the time of parturition in the rat. III. Comparison of different daily light lengths with changes in light timing or light pulse given during darkness. M. J. BOSC Agnès to the light regime applied throughout pregnancy (day 1 : beginning of pregnancy). The majority of deliveries

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

242

Cross-talk between the calcium-sensing receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor in Rat-1 fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein coupled receptor that is activated by extracellular calcium (Ca2+o). Rat-1 fibroblasts have been shown to proliferate and increase ERK activity in response to elevation of [Ca2+]o, and these responses are dependent on functional CaR expression. In this report, we examined the role of cross-talk between the CaR and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mediating these responses in Rat-1 cells. This report shows that AG1478, a specific inhibitor of the EGFR kinase, significantly inhibits the increase in proliferation induced by elevated Ca2+o. Further, we show that AG1478 acts downstream or separately from G-protein subunit activation of phospholipase C. AG1478 significantly inhibits Ca2+o-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and in vitro kinase activity. A similar inhibition of ERK phosphorylation was observed in response to the inhibitor AG494. In addition, treatment with inhibitors of metalloproteases involved in shedding of membrane anchored EGF family ligands substantially inhibited the increase in ERK activation in response to elevated Ca2+o. This is consistent with the known expression of TGFa by Rat-1 cells. These results indicate that EGFR transactivation is an important component of the CaR mediated response to increased Ca2+o in Rat-1 fibroblasts, and most likely involves CaR-mediated induction of regulated proteolysis and ligand shedding.

Tomlins, Scott A.; Bollinger, Nikki; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Rodland, Karin D.

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Overexpression of the gene for transmembrane 4 superfamily member 4 accelerates liver damage in rats treated with CCl4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Carbon tetrachloride; Acute liver injury 1. Introduction Rat TM4SF4 (transmembrane 4 superfamily member 4). Abbreviations: TM4SF4, transmembrane 4 superfamily member 4; CCl4, carbon tetrachloride; ALT, alanine­13]. However, the in vivo function conferred by TM4SF4 is still largely unknown. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4

Tian, Weidong

244

HumanWildlife Interactions 5(1):100105, Spring 2011 A rat-resistant artificial nest box for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Human­Wildlife Interactions 5(1):100­105, Spring 2011 A rat-resistant artificial nest box for cavity-nesting birds WILLIAM C. PITT, USDA/APHIS/Wildlife Services' National Wildlife Research Center elevation areas of the Alakai Plateau. Puaiohi nest primarily on steep streamside cliffs

245

The Effects of Nerve Growth Factor on Spatial Recent Memory in Aged Rats Persist after Discontinuation of Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

21205 Nerve growth factor (NGF) infusion significantly reduces spatial recent memory deficits in aged examined. Four- and 22-month-old rats were tested preoper- atively, infused intraventricularly with recombinant human NGF or vehicle, and tested both during the 4 week infusion period and during the 4 weeks

Frick, Karyn M.

246

An Age-Dependent Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in the Preweanling Rat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and trichloropyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. In the current study, a modified physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model incorporating age-dependent changes in CYP450, PON-1, and tissue ChE levels for rats was developed. In this model, age was used as a dependent function to estimate body weight which was then used to allometrically scale both metabolism and tissue ChE levels. Model simulations suggest that preweanling rats are particularly sensitive to CPF toxicity, with levels of CPF-oxon in blood and brain disproportionately increasing, relative to the response in adult rats. This age-dependent non-linear increase in CPF-oxon concentration may potentially result from the depletion of non-target B-esterases, and a lower PON-1 metabolic capacity in younger animals. These results indicate that the PBPK/PD model behaves consistently with the general understanding of CPF toxicity, pharmacokinetics and tissue ChE inhibition in neonatal and adult rats. Hence, this model represents an important starting point for developing a computational model to assess the neurotoxic potential of environmentally relevant organophosphate exposures in infants and children.

Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Poet, Torka S.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 ? among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ? High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ? Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ? Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ? Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ? Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and oxidative stress of liver.

Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)] [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC INTERACTION FOR A BINARY MIXTURE OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND DIAZINON IN THE RAT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) are two commonly used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and potential exists for concurrent exposures. The primary neurotoxic effects from OP pesticide exposures result from the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by their oxon metabolites. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic impact of acute binary exposures to CPF and DZN in rats were evaluated in this study. Rats were orally administered CPF, DZN or a CPF/DZN mixture (0, 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg) and blood (plasma and RBC), and brain were collected at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-dosing, urine was also collected at 24 h. Chlorpyrifos, DZN and their respective metabolites 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP) were quantified in blood and/or urine and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition was measured in brain, RBCs and plasma. Co-exposure to CPF/DZN at 15/15 mg/kg, did not appreciably alter the pharmacokinetics of CPF, DZN or their metabolites in blood; whereas, a 60/60 mg/kg dose resulted in a transient increase in Cmax, AUC, and decreased clearance of both compounds, likely due to competition between CPF and DZN for CYP450 metabolism. At lower doses, most likely to be encountered in occupational or environmental exposures, the pharmacokinetics were linear. A dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was noted in tissues for both the single and co-exposures. The overall potency for ChE inhibition was greater for CPF than DZN and the binary mixture response appeared to be strongly influenced by CPF. A comparison of the ChE binary response at the low dose (15 mg/kg), where there were no apparent pharmacokinetic interactions, suggested that the overall ChE response was additive. These are the first reported experiments we are aware of that characterize both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between CPF and DZN in the rat, and will be used to further develop a binary physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model for mixtures.

Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Hinman, Melissa N.; Busby, Andrea L.; Kousba, Ahmed A.

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Luteinizing hormone signaling decreases cyclic GMP production in rat ovarian follicles by rapidly dephosphorylating the NPR2 guanylyl cyclase and by slowly decreasing its agonist CNP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Luteinizing hormone signaling decreases cyclic GMP production in rat ovarian follicles by rapidly),place on Millicell culture inserts No LH 20-30 min.LH Homogenize follicles,pellet crude membranes at 10,000 x g

Terasaki, Mark

250

Delay Discounting in Lewis and Fischer 344 Rats: Implications for the Use of an Adjusting-amount Procedure to Detect Between-strain Differences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strain-related behavioral differences may facilitate investigation of the genetic and neurochemical determinants of delay discounting. Previous researchers report that Lewis rats make more impulsive choices than Fischer ...

Stein, Jeff S.

2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

251

Differential Effects of HIF-1 Inhibition by YC-1 on the Overall Outcome and Blood-Brain Barrier Damage in a Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of cellular adaptation to hypoxia and has been suggested as a potent therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia. Here we show in an ischemic stroke model of rats that ...

Yan, Jingqi; Zhou, Bo; Taheri, Saeid; Shi, Honglian

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

252

Effect of inactivity and passive stretch on protein turnover in phasic and postural rat muscles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Muscle atrophy in humans can occur during prolonged bed rest, plaster cast immobilization, and space flight. In the present study, the suspension model used by Musacchia et al. (1983) is employed to investigate changes in protein synthesis and degradation in fast-twitch phasic (extensor digitorum longus) and slow-twitch postural (soleus) muscles in the rat, following hypokinesia and hypodynamia. In addition, the use of passive stretch was examined as a means of preventing atrophy. The obtained results suggest that the mechanisms controlling the processes of protein synthesis and protein breakdown during muscle disuse atrophy may be independent of each other. It appears, however, that the muscle atrophy due to hypokinesia and hypodynamia can be temporarily prevented by passively stretching a muscle. 38 references.

Loughna, P.; Goldspink, G.; Goldspink, D.F.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Different antagonist binding properties of rat pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The antagonist binding properties of rat pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptors were compared. In both tissues pirenzepine (PZ) had a low affinity for muscarinic receptors labelled by (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine ((/sup 3/)NMS) (K/sub D/ values of 140 and 280nM, respectively, in pancreatic and cardiac homogenates). The binding properties of pancreatic and cardiac receptors were, however, markedly different. This was indicated by different affinities for dicyclomine, (11-(/(2-((diethylamino)-methyl)-1-piperidinyl/acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4) benzodiazepin-6-on)(AFDX-116), 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methobromide (4-DAMP) and hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD). Pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptros also showed different (/sup 3/H)NMS association and dissociation rates. These results support the concept of M2 receptor subtypes have different binding kinetic properties. 20 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Waelbroeck, M.; Camus, J.; Winand, J.; Christophe, J.

1987-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

254

Increased contraction frequency in rat uterine strips treated in vitro with o,p prime -DDT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elevated levels of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides have been associated with spontaneous abortion and preterm birth in several species, including humans. Despite the prevalence of organochlorine pesticides in the environment, a mechanistic basis for this association has not been explored. Furthermore, while DDT has been associated with inhibition of calcium ATPases, altered gap junctional communication and electrophysiological changes, all of which could affect the excitation-contraction process characteristic of smooth muscle, direct effects of DDT on uterine smooth muscle have not been reported. This study was initiated to assess the direct effects of o,p{prime}-DDT (an estrogenic isomer present in the technical grade preparation) on pregnant rat uterine tissue.

Juberg, D.R.; Loch-Caruso, R. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Laser speckle-imaging of blood microcirculation in the brain cortex of laboratory rats in stress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of experimental approbation of the method of laser full-field speckle-imaging for monitoring the changes in blood microcirculation state of the brain cortex of laboratory rats under the conditions of developing stroke and administration of vasodilating and vasoconstrictive agents are presented. The studies aimed at the choice of the optimal conditions of speckle-image formation and recording were performed and the software implementing an adaptive algorithm for processing the data of measurements was created. The transfer of laser radiation to the probed region of the biotissue was implemented by means of a silica-polymer optical fibre. The problems and prospects of speckle-imaging of cerebral microcirculation of blood in laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.

Vilensky, M A; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V; Timoshina, P A; Kuznetsova, Jana V; Semyachkin-Glushkovskii, I A; Agafonov, Dmitry N; Tuchin, Valerii V

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

Dynamic Multiscale Boundary Conditions for 4D CT Images of Healthy and Emphysematous Rat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changes in the shape of the lung during breathing determine the movement of airways and alveoli, and thus impact airflow dynamics. Modeling airflow dynamics in health and disease is a key goal for predictive multiscale models of respiration. Past efforts to model changes in lung shape during breathing have measured shape at multiple breath-holds. However, breath-holds do not capture hysteretic differences between inspiration and expiration resulting from the additional energy required for inspiration. Alternatively, imaging dynamically without breath-holds allows measurement of hysteretic differences. In this study, we acquire multiple micro-CT images per breath (4DCT) in live rats, and from these images we develop, for the first time, dynamic volume maps. These maps show changes in local volume across the entire lung throughout the breathing cycle and accurately predict the global pressure-volume (PV) hysteresis.

Jacob, Rick E.; Carson, James P.; Thomas, Mathew; Einstein, Daniel R.

2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

257

Distribution of phospholipase C isozymes in various rat tissues and cultured cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monoclonal antibodies prepared against PLC-I or PLC-II enzyme did not cross-react with the other. Using a pair of antibodies which recognizes 2 different antigenic sites on the same molecule, radioimmunoassays were developed for the quantitation of PLC-I and PLC-II in homogenates of various tissues and cultured cells, prepared by homogenization in a 2 M KCl buffer. The contents of PLC enzymes were measured in 19 rat tissues, in human platelets and in 17 cultured cells. Results indicate that the concentration of PLC-I and PLC-II is very high in brain, PLC-I is localized mainly in brain and partly in seminal vesicles, PLC-II is found in most tissues and cells. PLC-I is highly localized even in brain: 5 different neuroblastoma did not contain PLC-I while 2 glioma and 1 astrocytoma contained significant amounts.

Suh, P.G.; Ryu, S.H.; Choi, W.C.; Lee, K.Y.; Rhee, S.G.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

The effect of iron chloride and glutamate on glutamine synthetase activity in primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes: a model for epileptic induction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF IRON CHLORIDE AND GLUTAMATE ON GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE ACTIVITY IN PRIMARY CULTURED RAT CORTICAL ASTROCYTES: A MODEL POR EPILEPTIC INDUCTION A Thesis by JULIE ANN ROBERTS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Veterinary Anatomy THE EFFECT OF IRON CHLORIDE AND GLUTAMATE ON GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE ACTIVITY IN PRIMARY CULTURED RAT CORTICAL ASTROCYTES: A...

Roberts, Julie Ann

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Losartan attenuates chronic cigarette smoke exposure-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats: Possible involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chronic cigarette smoking induces pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by largely unknown mechanisms. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is known to function in the development of PAH. Losartan, a specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist, is a well-known antihypertensive drug with a potential role in regulating angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), a recently found regulator of RAS. To determine the effect of losartan on smoke-induced PAH and its possible mechanism, rats were daily exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months in the absence and in the presence of losartan. Elevated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), thickened wall of pulmonary arteries with apparent medial hypertrophy along with increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased ACE2 levels were observed in smoke-exposed-only rats. Losartan administration ameliorated pulmonary vascular remodeling, inhibited the smoke-induced RVSP and Ang II elevation and partially reversed the ACE2 decrease in rat lungs. In cultured primary pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from 3- and 6-month smoke-exposed rats, ACE2 levels were significantly lower than in those from the control rats. Moreover, PASMCs from 6-month exposed rats proliferated more rapidly than those from 3-month exposed or control rats, and cells grew even more rapidly in the presence of DX600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Consistent with the in vivo study, in vitro losartan pretreatment also inhibited cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell proliferation and ACE2 reduction in rat PASMCs. The results suggest that losartan may be therapeutically useful in the chronic smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH and ACE2 may be involved as part of its mechanism. Our study might provide insight into the development of new therapeutic interventions for PAH smokers.

Han Suxia; He Guangming; Wang Tao; Chen Lei; Ning Yunye; Luo Feng; An Jin; Yang Ting; Dong Jiajia; Liao Zenglin; Xu Dan [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, and Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Wen Fuqiang, E-mail: wenfuqiang.scu@gmail.co [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, and Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in isolated rat heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of doxorubicin on left ventricular function and cellular energy state in intact isolated hearts, and, to test whether inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation would prevent doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial and myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial contractile performance and mitochondrial respiration were evaluated by left ventricular tension and its first derivatives and cardiac fiber respirometry, respectively. NADH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose uptake were monitored non-invasively via epicardial imaging of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Heart performance was reduced in a time-dependent manner in isolated rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 1 muM doxorubicin. Compared with controls, doxorubicin induced acute myocardial dysfunction (dF/dt{sub max} of 105 +- 8 mN/s in control hearts vs. 49 +- 7 mN/s in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). In cardiac fibers prepared from perfused hearts, doxorubicin induced depression of mitochondrial respiration (respiratory control ratio of 4.0 +- 0.2 in control hearts vs. 2.2 +- 0.2 in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05) and cytochrome c oxidase kinetic activity (24 +- 1 muM cytochrome c/min/mg in control hearts vs. 14 +- 3 muM cytochrome c/min/mg in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). Acute cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin was accompanied by NADH redox state, mitochondrial membrane potential, and glucose uptake reduction. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by cyclosporine A largely prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cardiac energy state and dysfunction. These results suggest that in intact hearts an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is involved in the development of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier [Department of Physiology (EA 2689), Faculty of Medicine, University Lille 2, IFR 114 (IMPRT), Lille (France); Baccouch, Riadh [Department of Pharmacy CHRU Lille (France); Modine, Thomas [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital, Lille (France); Preau, Sebastien [Department of Physiology (EA 2689), Faculty of Medicine, University Lille 2, IFR 114 (IMPRT), Lille (France); Zannis, Konstantinos [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital, Lille (France); Marchetti, Philippe [INSERM U 837 Faculty of Medicine, University Lille 2, Lille (France); Lancel, Steve [Department of Physiology (EA 2689), Faculty of Medicine, University Lille 2, IFR 114 (IMPRT), Lille (France); Neviere, Remi, E-mail: rneviere@univ-lille2.f [Department of Physiology (EA 2689), Faculty of Medicine, University Lille 2, IFR 114 (IMPRT), Lille (France)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male SpragueDawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LCMSMS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC{sub 0t} and C{sub max} of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart.

Zhou, Zhi-yong [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Guo, Cheng, E-mail: guochengphd@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao, E-mail: lixiao3326@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Sixth people's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Age-dependent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response in preweanling rats following oral exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to CPF-oxon and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. The pharmacokinetics of CPF, TCP, and the extent of blood (plasma/RBC), and brain ChE inhibition in rats were determined on postnatal days (PND) -5, -12, and -17 following oral gavage administration of 1 and 10 mg CPF/kg of body weight. For all neonatal ages the blood TCP exceeded the CPF concentration, and within each age group there was no evidence of non-linear kinetics over the dose range evaluated. Younger animals demonstrated a greater sensitivity to ChE inhibition as evident by the dose- and age-dependent inhibition of plasma, RBC, and brain ChE. Of particular importance was the observation that even in rats as young as PND-5, the CYP450 metabolic capacity was adequate to metabolize CPF to both TCP and CPF-oxon based on the detection of TCP in blood and extensive ChE inhibition (biomarker of CPF-oxon) at all ages. In addition, the increase in the blood TCP concentration ({approx}3-fold) in PND-17 rats relative to the response in the younger animals, and the higher blood concentrations of CPF in neonatal rats (1.7 to 7.5-fold) relative to adults was consistent with an increase in CYP450 metabolic capacity with age. This is the first reported study that evaluated both the pharmacokinetics of the parent pesticide, the major metabolite and the extent of ChE inhibition dynamics in the same animals as a function of neonatal age. The results suggest that in the neonatal rat, CPF was rapidly absorbed and metabolized, and the extent of metabolism was age-dependent.

Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Protective Effects of Repetitive Injections of Radiographic Contrast Media on the Subsequent Tolerance to Ischemia in the Isolated Rat Heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Despite detailed knowledge of the effects of X-ray contrast media on cardiac function, no studies have examined the effect of contrast media injections on the subsequent tolerance to ischemia in the heart.Methods: Isolated perfused rat hearts were exposed to repetitive injections of iohexol, iodixanol, or ioxaglate before 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. These groups were compared with control (no pretreatment) and ischemic preconditioning known to reduce infarct size. Physiologic variables and infarct size were measured. Results: Pretreatment with iodixanol reduced infarct size significantly compared with control and thus afforded protection against ischemia. Injections with iohexol and ioxaglate reduced infarct size, although not significantly, compared with control.Conclusion: Pretreatment of the isolated rat heart with commonly used contrast media enhances the cardiac tolerance to subsequent ischemia. The mechanism behind this protective effect could not be determined, but could involve stretching of the heart and/or generation of nitric oxide.

Falck, Geir; Bruvold, Morten [Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Medisinsk Teknisk Senter, N-7489 Trondheim (Norway); Schjott, Jan [Experimental Cardiology Unit, RELIS VEST, Haukeland Hospital, N-5021 Bergen (Norway); Jynge, Per [Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Medisinsk Teknisk Senter, N-7489 Trondheim (Norway)

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

A Novel Method for the Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Cancellous Bone in the Rat Distal Femur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Walton Lucas, B.S., Lipscomb University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Harry Hogan Dr. Susan Bloomfield The mechanical properties of the cancellous bone in the laboratory rat animal model... the cortical shell for 50 slices in a region starting ~0.5 mm below the most proximal portion of the growth plate for each animal. Images were binarized (threshold of 100 on a 0-255 scale) and the following parameters were assessed for the three- dimensional...

Lucas, Matthew W.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

265

Atrazine-induced reproductive tract alterations after transplacental and/or lactational exposure in male Long-Evans rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies showed that early postnatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) delayed preputial separation (PPS) and increased incidence of prostate inflammation in adult Wistar rats. A cross-fostering paradigm was used in this study to determine if gestational exposure to ATR would also result in altered puberty and reproductive tissue effects in the male rat. Timed-pregnant Long-Evans (LE) rats were dosed by gavage on gestational days (GD) 15-19 with 100 mg ATR/kg body weight (BW) or 1% methylcellulose (controls, C). On postnatal day (PND)1, half litters were cross-fostered, creating 4 treatment groups; C-C, ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR (transplacental-milk as source, respectively). On PND4, male offspring in the ATR-ATR group weighed significantly less than the C-C males. ATR-ATR male pups had significantly delayed preputial separation (PPS). BWs at PPS for C-ATR and ATR-ATR males were reduced by 6% and 9%, respectively, from that of C-C. On PND120, lateral prostate weights of males in the ATR-ATR group were significantly increased over C-C. Histological examination of lateral and ventral prostates identified an increased distribution of inflammation in the lateral prostates of C-ATR males. By PND220, lateral prostate weights were significantly increased for ATR-C and ATR-ATR, but there were no significant changes in inflammation in either the lateral or ventral prostate. These results suggest that in LE rats, gestational ATR exposure delays PPS when male offspring suckle an ATR dam, but leads to increased lateral prostate weight via transplacental exposure alone. Inflammation present at PND120 does not increase in severity with time.

Rayner, Jennifer L. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Reproductive Toxicology Division, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Enoch, Rolondo R. [Reproductive Toxicology Division, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Wolf, Douglas C. [Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Fenton, Suzanne E. [Reproductive Toxicology Division, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)]. E-mail: fenton.suzanne@epa.gov

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Metabolic Rate Constants for Hydroquinone in F344 Rat and Human Liver Isolated Hepatocytes: Application to a PBPK model.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydroquinone (HQ) is an important industrial chemical that also occurs naturally in foods and in the leaves and bark of a number of plant species. Exposure of laboratory animals to HQ may result in a species-, sex-, and strain-specific nephrotoxicity. The sensitivity of male F344 vs. female F344 and Sprague-Dawley rats or B6C3F1 mice appears to be related to differences in the rates of formation and further metabolism of key nephrotoxic metabolites. Metabolic rate constants for the conversion of HQ through several metabolic steps to the mono-glutathione conjugate and subsequent detoxification via mercapturic acid were measured in suspension cultures of hepatocytes isolated from male F344 rats and humans. An in vitro mathematic kinetic model was used to analyze each metabolic step by simultaneously fitting the disappearance of each substrate and the appearance of subsequent metabolites. An iterative, nested approach was used whereby downstream metabolites were considered first and the model was constrained by the requirement that rate constants determined during analysis of individual metabolic steps must also satisfy the complete, integrated metabolism scheme, including competitive pathways. The results from this study indicated that the overall capacity for metabolism of HQ and its mono-glutathione conjugate is greater in hepatocytes from humans than those isolated from rats, suggesting a greater capacity for detoxification of the glutathione conjugates. Metabolic rate constants were applied to an existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the model was used to predict total glutathione metabolites produced in the liver. The results showed that body burdens of these metabolites will be much higher in rats than humans.

Poet, Torka S.; Wu, Hong; English, J C.; Corley, Rick A.

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Biochemical and behavioral effects of phospholipase A/sub 2/ and morphine microinjections in the periaqueductal gray of the rat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to characterize the in vivo action of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) on opiate receptors and opiate-induced behaviors, the effects of injections of PLA/sub 2/ into the periaqueductal gray region (PAG) of the rat were assessed on free fatty acid (FFA) release, opiate-binding levels, and morphine-induced behaviors. Rats received bilateral PAG injections of 2 ..mu..g of PLA/sub 2/ while anesthetized. One hour later, regions around the cannulae tracts in PLA/sub 2/-treated rats contained over 2.5 times more FFA than saline-injected controls, and /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine binding was reduced on average more than 70%. In another series of experiments, conscious rats were given 2 ..mu..g of PLA/sub 2/ prior to 10 ..mu..g of morphine through cannulae chronically implanted into the PAG. PLA/sub 2/ did not significantly attenuate morphine-induced analgesia as measured by the tail-flick test to radiant heat, but did prevent the explosive motor behavior observed following morphine injections alone. PLA/sub 2/ by itself did not induce analgesia, but did cause explosive motor behavior 2 hr after the injections. Neither lysophosphatidylcholine nor trypsin resulted in motor seizures following PAG injections. It was concluded that the behavioral effects of PLA/sub 2/ result from the unique properties of the enzyme, rather than generalized membrane damage, and that the opioid sites and mechanisms that mediate analgesia are different from those associated with explosive motor behavior. 36 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Reichman, M.; Abood, L.G.; Costanzo, M.

1985-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

268

Dietary long-chain, but not medium-chain, triglycerides impair exercise performance and uncouple cardiac mitochondria in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH Open Access Dietary long-chain, but not medium-chain, triglycerides impair exercise performance and uncouple cardiac mitochondria in rats Andrew J Murray*, Nicholas S Knight, Sarah E Little, Lowri E Cochlin, Mary Clements and Kieran Clarke... mitochondria were mea- sured using a Clark-type oxygen electrode (Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd, Glasgow, UK), as described previously [18]. The chambers were treated identically throughout the experiment, except that one contained 1 ?mol GDP added...

Murray, Andrew J; Knight, Nicholas S; Little, Sarah E; Cochlin, Lowri E; Clements, Mary; Clarke, Kieran

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Cross-talk between the calcium-sensing receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor in Rat-1 fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is activated by extracellular calcium (Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}). Rat-1 fibroblasts have been shown to proliferate and increase ERK activity in response to elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}] {sub o}, and these responses are dependent on functional CaR expression. In this report, we examined the role of cross-talk between the CaR and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mediating these responses in Rat-1 cells. This report shows that AG1478, a specific inhibitor of the EGFR kinase, significantly inhibits the increase in proliferation induced by elevated Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}. Furthermore, we show that AG1478 acts downstream or separately from G protein subunit activation of phospholipase C. AG1478 significantly inhibits Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and in vitro kinase activity. A similar inhibition of ERK phosphorylation was observed in response to the inhibitor AG494. In addition, treatment with inhibitors of metalloproteases involved in shedding of membrane anchored EGF family ligands substantially inhibited the increase in ERK activation in response to elevated Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}. This is consistent with the known expression of TGF{alpha} by Rat-1 cells. These results indicate that EGFR transactivation is an important component of the CaR-mediated response to increased Ca {sub o} {sup 2+} in Rat-1 fibroblasts and most likely involves CaR-mediated induction of regulated proteolysis and ligand shedding.

Tomlins, Scott A. [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bolllinger, Nikki [Biological Sciences Division, Battelle for the US DOE, PO Box 999, 790 Sixth Street, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Creim, Jeffrey [Biological Sciences Division, Battelle for the US DOE, PO Box 999, 790 Sixth Street, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division, Battelle for the US DOE, PO Box 999, 790 Sixth Street, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)]. E-mail: Karin.rodland@pnl.gov

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Enhanced neocortical neural sprouting, synaptogenesis, and behavioral recovery with D-amphetamine therapy after neocortical infarction in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background and PurposeD-Amphetamine administration increases behavioral recovery after various cortical lesions including cortical ablations, contusions, and focal ischemia in animals and after stroke in humans. The purpose of the present study was to test the enhanced behavioral recovery and increased expression of proteins involved in neurite growth and synaptogenesis in D-amphetaminetreated rats compared with vehicle-treated controls after a focal neocortical infarct. MethodsUnilateral neocortical ischemia was induced in male spontaneously hypertensive Wistar rats (n?8 per time point per group) by permanently occluding the distal middle cerebral artery and ipsilateral common carotid artery in 2 groups of rats: D-amphetamine treated (2 mg/kg IP injections) and vehicle treated (saline IP injections). To determine the spatial and temporal distribution of neurite growth and/or synaptogenesis, growth-associated protein (GAP-43), a protein expressed on axonal growth cones, and synaptophysin, a calcium-binding protein found on synaptic vesicles, were examined by immunohistochemical techniques, and both density and distribution of reaction product were measured. Since the resulting infarction included a portion of the forelimb neocortex, behavioral assessments of forelimb function using the foot-fault test of Hernandez and Schallert were performed on the same rats used for immunohistochemical studies during the period of drug action and 24 hours later. A Morris water maze and other indices of behavioral assays were also measured similarly. Recovery times were 3, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days postoperatively. ResultsBoth GAP-43 and synaptophysin proteins demonstrated statistically significant increases in density and

R. Paul Stroemer; Phd Thomas; A. Kent; Md Claire; E. Hulsebosch

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

The effects of exogenously administered pineal gland extract and melatonin on some reproductive aspects in the albino rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUSLY ADMINISTERED PINEAL GLAND EXTRACT AND MELATONIN ON SOME REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS IN THE ALBINO RAT A Thesis by MILTON J. HERNANDEZ-PEREZ Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial... by MILTON J. HERNANDEZ-PEREZ Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman o'f Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) (Member) May 1967 ACKNOWLEDGEHENTS I sincerely thank Dr. George M. Krise, Dr. Sidney 0. Brown, and Dr. H. R. Crookshank...

Hernandez-Perez, Milton John

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Amifostine, a radioprotectant agent, protects rat brain tissue lipids against ionizing radiation induced damage: An FTIR microspectroscopic imaging study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amifostine is the only approved radioprotective agent by FDA for reducing the damaging effects of radiation on healthy tissues. In this study, the protective effect of amifostine against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) regions of the rat brain were investigated at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 800 cGy, decapitated after 24 h and the brain tissues of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The results revealed that the total lipid content and CH{sub 2} groups of lipids decreased significantly and the carbonyl esters, olefinic=CH and CH{sub 3} groups of lipids increased significantly in the WM and GM after exposure to ionizing radiation, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. These changes were more prominent in the WM of the brain. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In addition, this study indicated that FTIRM provides a novel approach for monitoring ionizing radiation induced-lipid peroxidation and obtaining different molecular ratio images can be used as biomarkers to detect lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

Cakmak G.; Miller L.; Zorlu, F.; Severcan, F.

2012-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

273

Chronic graft-versus-host disease in the rat radiation chimera. III. Immunology and immunopathology in rapidly induced models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) frequently develops in the long-term rat radiation chimera, we present three additional models in which a histologically similar disease is rapidly induced. These include adoptive transfer of spleen and bone marrow from rats with spontaneous chronic GVHD into lethally irradiated rats of the primary host strain; sublethal irradiation of stable chimeras followed by a booster transplant; and transfer of spleen cells of chimeras recovering from acute GVHD into second-party (primary recipient strain) or third-party hosts. Some immunopathologic and immune abnormalities associated with spontaneous chronic GVHD were not observed in one or more of the induced models. Thus, IgM deposition in the skin, antinuclear antibodies, and vasculitis appear to be paraphenomena. On the other hand, lymphoid hypocellularity of the thymic medulla, immaturity of splenic follicles, and nonspecific suppressor cells were consistently present in the long term chimeras, and in all models. These abnormalities therefore may be pathogenetically important, or closely related to the development of chronic GVHD.

Beschorner, W.E.; Tutschka, P.J.; Santos, G.W.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Comparison of 60-Hz electric fields and incandescent light as aversive stimuli controlling the behavior of rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rats were exposed to two procedures which enabled them to press a lever to turn off a 90 or 100 kV/m 60-Hz electric field or, later in the study, illumination from an incandescent lamp. Under one procedure, a response turned off the stimulus for a fixed duration, after which the stimulus was turned on again. A response during the off-period restarted the fixed duration. None of the rats turned the field off reliably. Next, under an alternative procedure, pressing one lever turned the field off; pressing the other lever turned it back on; responding under those conditions differed little from that seen at 0 kV/m. Under both procedures, when illumination from an incandescent lamp served as the stimulus, each rat did turn the stimulus off, and performances varied with stimulus intensity. The results show that a 100 kV/m 60-Hz electric field is not sufficient to function as an aversive stimulus under two procedures where illumination from a lamp does function as an aversive stimulus.

Stern, S.; Laties, V.G.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Cysteamine, zinc, and thiols modify detectability of rat pituitary prolactin: a comparison with effects on bovine prolactin suggests differences in hormone storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Little is known about the structure of prolactin (PRL) within secretory granules. Evidence from our previous studies in bovine tissue preparations suggests that control of secretion may reside, in part, in the conversion of storage hormone to releasable PRL. The conversion can be monitored by measuring changes in immunodetectability since the oligomeric, storage form is poorly recognized by antisera raised against monomeric PRL. Since many investigators use rats to study the secretory process and changes in detectability of rat pituitary PRL occur during lactation (depletion-transformation), we undertook the present immunodetectability studies to gain insight into the storage structure of rat (r) PRL. Cysteamine and zinc inhibited tissue PRL immunoassayability in male rat pituitary homogenates and also in partially purified secretory granules as they had inhibited bovine (b) PRL; however, zinc inhibited the rodent hormone less potently than the bovine. In vitro incubation of rat tissue samples without additions resulted in increases in rPRL detectability of up to 84% after 180 minutes; such incubation of bovine samples had no significant effect. A striking additional difference between the species was that exposure to reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine, homocysteine, mercaptoethanol, and dithiothreitol inhibited rPRL by up to 44%. This compared to thiol stimulation of bPRL by as much as 450%. The inhibitory GSH effect on rPRL was abolished when 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was included; in contrast, the stimulatory GSH effect on bPRL did not change with added SDS. SDS alone had no effect on rat homogenate PRL, and only increased rat granule rPRL by 23% compared to its ability to increase bPRL assayability by 44%.

Jacobs, L.S.; Lorenson, M.Y.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. Blockade of ?- as well as ?-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Activation of the canonical nuclear factor-?B pathway is involved in isoflurane-induced hippocampal interleukin-1? elevation and the resultant cognitive deficits in aged rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Isoflurane induces hippocampal IL-1? elevation and cognitive deficits in aged rats. Isoflurane transiently activates the canonical NF-?B pathway in aged rat hippocampus. NF-?B inhibitor mitigates isoflurane-induced IL-1? elevation and cognitive deficits. We report a linkage between NF-?B signaling, IL-1? expression, and cognitive changes. -- Abstract: Although much recent evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation contributes to volatile anesthetic-induced cognitive deficits, there are few existing mechanistic explanations for this inflammatory process. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane on canonical nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling, and to explore its association with hippocampal interleukin (IL)-1? levels and anesthetic-related cognitive changes in aged rats. After a 4-h exposure to 1.5% isoflurane in 20-month-old rats, increases in I?B kinase and I?B phosphorylation, as well as a reduction in the NF-?B inhibitory protein (I?B?), were observed in the hippocampi of isoflurane-exposed rats compared with control rats. These events were accompanied by an increase in NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation at 6 h after isoflurane exposure and hippocampal IL-1? elevation from 1 to 6 h after isoflurane exposure. Nevertheless, no significant neuroglia activation was observed. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-?B activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate markedly suppressed the IL-1? increase and NF-?B signaling, and also mitigated the severity of cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze task. Overall, our results demonstrate that isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits may stem from upregulation of hippocampal IL-1?, partially via activation of the canonical NF-?B pathway, in aged rats.

Li, Zheng-Qian; Rong, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Ya-Jie; Ni, Cheng [Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Tian, Xiao-Sheng [Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Mo, Na [Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100021 (China)] [Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100021 (China); Chui, De-Hua, E-mail: dchui@bjmu.edu.cn [Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Key Laboratory for Neuroscience, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Guo, Xiang-Yang, E-mail: puthmzk@163.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)] [Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

278

TCDD dysregulation of 13 AHR-target genes in rat liver  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite several decades of research, the complete mechanism by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other xenobiotic agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) cause toxicity remains unclear. While it has been shown that the AHR is required for all major manifestations of toxicity, the specific downstream changes involved in the development of toxic phenotypes remain unknown. Here we examine a panel of 13 genes that are AHR-regulated in many species and tissues. We profiled their hepatic mRNA abundances in two rat strains with very different sensitivities to TCDD: the TCDD-sensitive LongEvans (Turku/AB; LE) and the TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W). We evaluated doses ranging from 0 to 3000 ?g/kg at 19 h after TCDD exposure and time points ranging from 1.5 to 384 h after exposure to 100 ?g/kg TCDD. Twelve of 13 genes responded to TCDD in at least one strain, and seven of these showed statistically significant inter-strain differences in the time course analysis (Aldh3a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Cyp2a1, Fmo1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1). Cyp2s1 did not respond to TCDD in either rat strain. Five genes exhibited biphasic responses to TCDD insult (Ahrr, Aldh3a1, Cyp1b1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1), suggesting a secondary event, such as association with additional transcriptional modulators. Of the 12 genes that responded to TCDD during the doseresponse analysis, none had an ED{sub 50} equivalent to that of Cyp1a1, the most sensitive gene in this study, while nine genes responded to doses at least 10100 fold higher, in at least one strain (Ahrr (LE), Aldh3a1 (both), Cyp1a2 (both), Cyp1b1 (both), Cyp2a1 (LE), Inmt (both), Nfe2l2 (LE), Nqo1 (LE) and Tiparp (both)). These data shed new light on the association of the AHR target genes with TCDD toxicity, and in particular the seven genes exhibiting strain-specific differences represent strong candidate mediators of Type-II toxicities. - Highlights: NanoString measured hepatic mRNA molecules following TCDD treatment. TCDD-sensitive LongEvans and TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar rats were compared. Time courses and dose responses were analyzed for AHR-core gene changes. 7 genes displayed inter-strain mRNA differences at times after TCDD exposure. 2 of the AHR-core genes had significant inter-strain differences in their TCDD ED{sub 50}.

Watson, John D., E-mail: john.watson@oicr.on.ca [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Prokopec, Stephenie D., E-mail: stephenie.prokopec@oicr.on.ca [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Smith, Ashley B., E-mail: ashleyblaines@gmail.com [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Okey, Allan B., E-mail: allan.okey@utoronto.ca [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Pohjanvirta, Raimo, E-mail: raimo.pohjanvirta@helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Toxicology, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boutros, Paul C., E-mail: paul.boutros@oicr.on.ca [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Effects of cysteamine on pituitary, MTTW15 tumor, and serum prolactin levels measured by rat lymphoma cell bioassay and radioimmunoassay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cysteamine (CSH), a sulfhydryl compound, reduces both serum and anterior pituitary (AP) PRL measured by RIA. We have used the Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay (BIO) for PRL to evaluate possible CSH-related changes in PRL levels in sera and tissues of male and MtTW15 mammosomatotropic tumor-bearing female rats. Experimental animals received a single sc injection of CSH (300 mg/kg), and samples were collected 0.5-24 h later. Since CSH and serum from CSH rats were toxic in BIO, samples were dialyzed before assay. All samples were evaluated for PRL and GH by RIA as well. A significant decrease (P less than 0.05) in BIO serum PRL was evident in male rats 0.5 h after CSH; levels remained low for 24 h. Serum PRL by RIA was significantly depressed at 4 h but not at 0.5 h or 24 h. PRL in AP extracts was decreased (60-90%) at all times by BIO and RIA. Significant decreases of BIO- and RIA-detectable PRL were recorded in serum and tissues (AP and tumors) at 4 h in tumor rats. Sequentially bled (0.5-4 h) CSH-treated tumor-bearing rats showed 50% and 80% reductions in serum PRL at 1 and 4 h by both BIO and RIA. CSH had no effect on GH levels in sera and tissues of any animal studied at any time interval. Our results substantiate earlier reports on CSH-induced decreases in RIA-detectable PRL. They show that such changes cannot be attributed to assay effects alone, as significant decreases in circulating and stored PRL (both AP and tumor) were evident by BIO. Results with tissue extracts were the most dramatic. They suggest an action of CSH or a metabolic intermediate with stored PRL which reduces both extractable PRL and hormone release. Such an effect of CSH on PRL extraction has been suggested by others. Whatever the mechanism, it appears to be relatively specific, since GH cells were not affected.

Parsons, J.A.; Peterson, E.K.; Hartfel, M.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Proximal renal tubular injury in rats sub-chronically exposed to low fluoride concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluoride is usually found in groundwater at a very wide range of concentration between 0.5 and 25 ppm. At present, few studies have assessed the renal effects of fluoride at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, most of these studies have used insensitive and nonspecific biomarkers of kidney injury. The aim of this study was to use early and sensitive biomarkers to evaluate kidney injury after fluoride exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations. Recently weaned male Wistar rats were exposed to low (15 ppm) and high (50 ppm) fluoride concentrations in drinking water for a period of 40 days. At the end of the exposure period, kidney injury biomarkers were measured in urine and renal mRNA expression levels were assessed by real time RT-PCR. Our results showed that the urinary kidney injury molecule (Kim-1), clusterin (Clu), osteopontin (OPN) and heat shock protein 72 excretion rate significantly increased in the group exposed to the high fluoride concentration. Accordingly, fluoride exposure increased renal Kim-1, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Moreover, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in urinary ?-2-microglobulin and cystatin-C excretion rate. Additionally, a tendency towards a dose dependent increase of tubular damage in the histopathological light microscopy findings confirmed the preferential impact of fluoride on the tubular structure. All of these changes occurred at early stages in which, the renal function was not altered. In conclusion using early and sensitive biomarkers of kidney injury, we were able to found proximal tubular alterations in rats sub-chronically exposed to fluoride. - Highlights: Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride induced proximal tubular injury Increase in urinary Kim-1, Clu, OPN and Hsp72 in 50 ppm fluoride-exposed group Increase in urinary B2M and CysC in 15 and 50 ppm fluoride-exposed groups Fluoride exposure increased renal Kim, Clu and OPN mRNA expression levels. Fluoride increased kidney injury biomarkers at stages where eGFR was unaltered.

Crdenas-Gonzlez, Mariana C.; Del Razo, Luz M. [Departmento de Toxicologa, Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mxico, D. F., Mxico (Mexico); Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan [Unidad de Fisiologa Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomdicas, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico and Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Mdicas y Nutricin Salvador Zubirn, Mxico, D. F., Mxico (Mexico); Jacobo-Estrada, Tania [Departmento de Toxicologa, Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mxico, D. F., Mxico (Mexico); Lpez-Bayghen, Esther [Departamento de Gentica y Biologa Molecular, Centro de Investigacin y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politcnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mxico, D. F., Mxico (Mexico); and others

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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281

Effect of in vivo nicotine exposure on chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most studied and widely used broad spectrum organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. The neurotoxicity of CPF results from inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) by its metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon), which subsequently leads to cholinergic hyperstimulation. The routine consumption of alcoholic beverages and tobacco products will modify a number of metabolic and physiological processes which may impact the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of other xenobiotics including pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of repeated ethanol and nicotine co-exposure on in vivo CPF pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The major CPF metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in blood and urine along with changes in plasma and brain AChE activities were measured in male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. Animals were repeatedly treated with either saline or ethanol (1 g/kg/day, po) and nicotine (1 mg/kg/day, sc) in addition to CPF (1 or 5 mg/kg/day, po) for 7 days. Rats were sacrificed at times from 1 to 24 hr post-last dosing of CPF. There were apparent differences in blood TCPy pharmacokinetics following ethanol and nicotine pretreatments in both CPF dose groups, which showed higher TCPy peak concentrations and increased blood TCPy AUC in ethanol and nicotine groups over CPF-only (~1.8- and 3.8-fold at 1 and 5 mg CPF doses, respectively). Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities from both ethanol and nicotine-treated groups showed substantially less inhibition following repeated 5 mg CPF/kg dosing compared to CPF-only controls (96 13 and 66 7% of nave at 4 hr post-last CPF dosing, respectively). Inhibition of brain AChE activities was minimal in both 1 mg CPF/kg/day dosing groups, but a similar trend indicating less inhibition following ethanol/nicotine pretreatment was apparent. No differences were observed in plasma ChE activities due to the combined alcohol and nicotine treatments. In vitro, CPF metabolism was not affected by repeated treatments with ethanol or both ethanol and nicotine. When compared with a previous study of nicotine and CPF exposure, there were no apparent additional exacerbating effects due to ethanol co-exposure.

Lee, Soo Kwang; Poet, Torka S.; Smith, Jordan N.; Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Timchalk, Charles

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

282

Imaging Nicotine in Rat Brain Tissue by Use of Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Imaging mass spectrometry offers simultaneous detection of drugs, drug metabolites and endogenous substances in a single experiment. This is important when evaluating effects of a drug on a complex organ system such as the brain, where there is a need to understand how regional drug distribution impacts function. Nicotine is an addictive drug and its action in the brain is of high interest. Here we use nanospray desorption electrospray ionization, nano-DESI, imaging to discover the localization of nicotine in rat brain tissue after in vivo administration of nicotine. Nano-DESI is a new ambient technique that enables spatially-resolved analysis of tissue samples without special sample pretreatment. We demonstrate high sensitivity of nano-DESI imaging that enables detection of only 0.7 fmole nicotine per pixel in the complex brain matrix. Furthermore, by adding deuterated nicotine to the solvent, we examined how matrix effects, ion suppression, and normalization affect the observed nicotine distribution. Finally, we provide preliminary results suggesting that nicotine localizes to the hippocampal substructure called dentate gyrus.

Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Thomas, Mathew; Carson, James P.; Smith, Jordan N.; Timchalk, Charles; Laskin, Julia

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Deterioration in brain and heart functions following a single sub-lethal (0.8 LCt{sub 50}) inhalation exposure of rats to sarin vapor:  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main injuries among victims of the terrorist act in the Tokyo subway resulted from sub-lethal inhalation and whole body exposure to sarin vapor. In order to study the long term effects of such exposure and to simulate these conditions, freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (27.2 {+-} 1.7 {mu}g/l) for 10 min. About 50% of the rats showed no overt symptoms and the rest had mild to moderate clinical symptoms that subsided within 4 h following exposure. A reduction of weight was noted during the first 3 days with full recovery on the 4th day. Rat's heart was challenged with epinephrine 1 and 6 months post exposure. A significant reduction in the threshold for epinephrine-induced arrhythmia (EPIA) was noted in rats exposed to sarin. A time dependent increase in the kD and Bmax values of muscarinic auto receptors (M2) was recorded in the rat's cortex and striatum. No changes were recorded in the rats' brain trans locator protein (TSPO) levels, concomitant with no observed changes in the animals' performance in A Morris water maze test. A significant increase in open field activity was noted 6 months following exposure to sarin vapor as well as a significant decrease in prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production in the brain. It is speculated that down regulation of the M2 auto receptor function, caused hyper reactivity of the cholinergic system which leads to the changes described above. The continuous reduction in M2 auto-receptor system through an unknown mechanism may be the cause for long lasting decline in sarin-exposed casualties' health.

Allon, N., E-mail: nahuma@iibr.gov.il; Chapman, S.; Egoz, I.; Rabinovitz, I.; Kapon, J.; Weissman, B.A.; Yacov, G.; Bloch-Shilderman, E.; Grauer, E.

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Prevention and Treatment of Functional and Structural Radiation Injury in the Rat Heart by Pentoxifylline and Alpha-Tocopherol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a severe side effect of thoracic radiotherapy. This study examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) and {alpha}-tocopherol on cardiac injury in a rat model of RIHD. Methods and Materials: Male Sprague-Dawley rats received fractionated local heart irradiation with a daily dose of 9 Gy for 5 days and were observed for 6 months after irradiation. Rats were treated with a combination of PTX, 100 mg/kg/day, and {alpha}-tocopherol (20 IU/kg/day) and received these compounds either from 1 week before until 6 months after irradiation or starting 3 months after irradiation, a time point at which histopathologic changes become apparent in our model of RIHD. Results: Radiation-induced increases in left ventricular diastolic pressure (in mm Hg: 35 {+-} 6 after sham-irradiation, 82 {+-} 11 after irradiation) were significantly reduced by PTX and {alpha}-tocopherol (early treatment: 48 {+-} 7; late treatment: 53 {+-} 6). PTX and {alpha}-tocopherol significantly reduced deposition of collagen types I (radiation only: 3.5 {+-} 0.2 {mu}m{sup 2} per 100 {mu}m{sup 2}; early treatment: 2.7 {+-} 0.8; late treatment: 2.2 {+-} 0.2) and III (radiation only: 13.9 {+-} 0.8; early treatment: 11.0 {+-} 1.2; late treatment: 10.6 {+-} 0.8). On the other hand, radiation-induced alterations in heart/body weight ratios, myocardial degeneration, left ventricular mast cell densities, and most echocardiographic parameters were not significantly altered by PTX and {alpha}-tocopherol. Conclusions: Treatment with PTX and {alpha}-tocopherol may have beneficial effects on radiation-induced myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular function, both when started before irradiation and when started later during the process of RIHD.

Boerma, Marjan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)], E-mail: mboerma@uams.edu; Roberto, Kerrey A. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Departments of Surgery and Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, and Surgical Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR (United States)

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Effect of in vivo heart irradiation on the development of antioxidant defenses and cardiac functions in the rat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During radiotherapy of thoracic tumors, the heart is often included in the primary treatment volume, and chronic impairment of myocardial function occurs. The cellular biomolecules are altered directly by radiation or damaged indirectly by free radical production. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the biochemical and functional response of the rat heart to a single high dose of radiation. The effect of 20 Gy local X irradiation was determined in the heart of Wistar rats under general anesthesia. Mechanical performances were measured in vitro using an isolated perfused working heart model, and cardiac antioxidant defenses were also evaluated. Hearts were studied at 1 and 4 months after irradiation. This single dose of radiation induced a marked drop in the mechanical activity of the rat heart: aortic output was significantly reduced (18% less than control values) at 1 month postirradiation and remained depressed for the rest of the experimental period (21% less than control 4 months after treatment). This suggests the development of myocardial failure after irradiation. The decline of functional parameters was associated with changes in antioxidant defenses. The decrease in cardiac levels of vitamin E (-30%) was associated with an increase in the levels of Mn-SOD and glustathione peroxidase (+45.5% and +32%, respectively, at 4 months postirradiation). However, cardiac vitamin C and catalase levels remained constant. Since these antioxidant defenses were activated relatively long after irradiation, it is suggested that this was probable due to the production of free radical species associated with the development of inflammation. 49 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Benderitter, M.; Assem, M.; Maupoil, V. [Facultes de Medecine et de Pharmacie, Dijon (France)] [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Interactive toxicity of inorganic mercury and trichloroethylene in rat and human proximal tubules: Effects on apoptosis, necrosis, and glutathione status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous or prior exposure to one chemical may alter the concurrent or subsequent response to another chemical, often in unexpected ways. This is particularly true when the two chemicals share common mechanisms of action. The present study uses the paradigm of prior exposure to study the interactive toxicity between inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and trichloroethylene (TRI) or its metabolite S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) in rat and human proximal tubule. Pretreatment of rats with a subtoxic dose of Hg{sup 2+} increased expression of glutathione S-transferase-{alpha}1 (GST{alpha}1) but decreased expression of GST{alpha}2, increased activities of several GSH-dependent enzymes, and increased GSH conjugation of TRI. Primary cultures of rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells exhibited both necrosis and apoptosis after incubation with Hg{sup 2+}. Pretreatment of human proximal tubular (hPT) cells with Hg{sup 2+} caused little or no changes in GST expression or activities of GSH-dependent enzymes, decreased apoptosis induced by TRI or DCVC, but increased necrosis induced by DCVC. In contrast, pretreatment of hPT cells with TRI or DCVC protected from Hg{sup 2+} by decreasing necrosis and increasing apoptosis. Thus, whereas pretreatment of hPT cells with Hg{sup 2+} exacerbated cellular injury due to TRI or DCVC by shifting the response from apoptosis to necrosis, pretreatment of hPT cells with either TRI or DCVC protected from Hg{sup 2+}-induced cytotoxicity by shifting the response from necrosis to apoptosis. These results demonstrate that by altering processes related to GSH status, susceptibilities of rPT and hPT cells to acute injury from Hg{sup 2+}, TRI, or DCVC are markedly altered by prior exposures.

Lash, Lawrence H. [Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 East Canfield Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)]. E-mail: l.h.lash@wayne.edu; Putt, David A. [Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 East Canfield Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Hueni, Sarah E. [Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 East Canfield Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Payton, Scott G. [Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 East Canfield Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Zwickl, Joshua [Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 East Canfield Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Pulmonary endothelium response after brain and cutaneous exposure to ND-Yag and CO/sub 2/ laser in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and Plasminogen Activator (PLA), two enzymes regulating blood pressure and coagulation and secreted by lung endothelial cells are affected by indirect injuries (cutaneous burn, hemorrhagic shock and bleomycin administration). Reported here are the results of lung metabolic response to CO/sub 2/, and ND-Yag laser and heat application. Lung ACE, PLA and protein, and serum ACE and protein were measured. Through left parietal craniectomy two groups, each of 10 anesthetized male rats (200 g) were exposed one to ND-Yag and the other to CO/sub 2/ laser application (both set at 35 watts/1/10 second 1.5 mm spot), on the brain surface. A third group had only craniectomy and a fourth only anesthesia. Sacrifice was 24 hours later. No significant differences in serum and lung ACE, PLA and protein were observed in the last 2 groups of rats and in those ones treated with CO/sub 2/ laser. ND-Yag laser caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) of lung PLA. Similar groups of rats were exposed to cutaneous application of CO/sub 2/ laser, and to contact heat of 100/sup 0/C and 270/sup 0/C for 10'' (a total of 40 animals including controls). CO/sub 2/ laser caused a moderate increase (p < 0.05) of lung protein and ACE with no PLA changes. Cutaneous burn caused a marked decline (p < 0.01) of lung ACE and protein and an increase of lung PLA (p < 0.05). Both CO/sub 2/ laser and burn decreased serum ACE (p < 0.05). Brain exposure to ND-Yag caused marked metabolic changes in lung endothelium. Cutaneous application of CO/sub 2/ laser had a modest influence on the studied enzymes, while the effect of skin burn on lung endothelium was somewhat similar to that of ND-Yag laser.

Brizio-Molteni, L.; Quigley, M.; Cerullo, L.; Solliday, N.; Molteni, A.

1986-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

288

The bulking effect of dietary fiber in the rat large intestine: an in vivo study of cellulose, guar, pectin, wheat bran and oat bran  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE BULKING EFFECT OF DIETARY FIBER IN THE RAT LARGE INTESTINE: AN IN VIVO STUDY OF CELLULOSE, GUAR, PECTIN, WHEAT BRAN AND OAT BRAN A Thesis by JEANNE MARIE GAZZANIGA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition THE BULKING EFFECT OF DIETARY FIBER IN THE RAT LARGE INTESTINE: AN IN VIVO STUDY OF CELLULOSE, GUAR, PECTIN, WHEAT BRAN AND OAT BRAN A Thesis...

Gazzaniga, Jeanne Marie

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Comparison of benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and mutation induction in CHO cells using rat liver homogenate (S9) or Syrian hamster embryonic cell-mediated activation systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mutagenesis in CHO cells has been studied by the addition of an ezymatically active liver homogenate (S9) fraction. However, the metabolism of procarcinogens, such as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), by rat liver homogenate differs from that in intact cellular activation systems. Consequently, B(a)P-induced mutation frequencies in mammalian cells may vary when different activation systems are used. This study attempts to compare B(a)P metabolism and conjugation in rat liver homogenate (S9 preparation) and in Syrian hamster embryonic (SHE) cells. Furthermore, a CHO mutation assay incorporating either of the activation systems is being used to measure the mutation induction frequency.

Chen, D.J.; Okinaka, R.T.; Strniste, G.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Comparative study of genotoxicity and tissue distribution of nano and micron sized iron oxide in rats after acute oral treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Though nanomaterials (NMs) are being utilized worldwide, increasing use of NMs have raised concerns over their safety to human health and environment. Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) NMs have important applications. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxicity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk in female Wistar rats. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm was characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and surface area analysis. The rats were treated orally with the single doses of 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg bw of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} bulk. The genotoxicity was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h by the comet assay in leucocytes, 48 and 72 h by micronucleus test (MNT) in peripheral blood cells, 18 and 24 h by chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and 24 and 48 h by MNT in bone marrow cells. The biodistribution of iron (Fe) was carried out at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in liver, spleen, kidney, heart, brain, bone marrow, urine and feces by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The % tail DNA, frequencies of micronuclei and CAs were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) at all doses. These results suggest that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk was not genotoxic at the doses tested. Bioavailability of Fe was size and dose dependent in all the tissues from the groups exposed to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs were able to enter in the organs and the rats are biocompatible with much higher concentration of Fe. However, the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicity. This study provides additional knowledge about the toxicology of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NMs. -- Highlights: ? Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30 nm and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-bulk were orally administered to rats with single doses. ? The nano and bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed insignificant results with MNT, comet and CA assays. ? The bulk was excreted via feces whereas the NMs were found both in urine and feces. ? The NMs mainly accumulated in the liver, spleen, kidney, heart and bone marrow. ? However the accumulated Fe did not cause significant genotoxicological effects.

Singh, Shailendra Pratap; Rahman, M.F.; Murty, U.S.N.; Mahboob, M.; Grover, Paramjit, E-mail: paramgrover@gmail.com

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Fermentation of pectin and cellulose to short chain fatty acids: a comparative study with humans, baboons, pigs, and rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

digestibility to the human results. SCFA were measured using gas chromatography. The pH was measured before and after the fermentations. The percent fiber remaining after fermentation was assayed colorimetrically. The greatest interspecies differences were...%I@ W, W, '. '" yW~, t . . . M~~~)~ '1 r FERMENTATION OF PECTIN AND CELLULOSE TO SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH HUMANS, BABOONS, PIGS, AND RATS A Thesis by LEONILDE NONITA VILLALBA IL W I Z IJ Z 4 Z 4 2 5 V Z I...

Villalba, Leonilde Nonita

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

On-Off Intermittency in Time Series of Spontaneous Paroxysmal Activity in Rats with Genetic Absence Epilepsy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic behavior of complex neuronal ensembles is a topic comprising a streamline of current researches worldwide. In this article we study the behavior manifested by epileptic brain, in the case of spontaneous non-convulsive paroxysmal activity. For this purpose we analyzed archived long-term recording of paroxysmal activity in animals genetically susceptible to absence epilepsy, namely WAG/Rij rats. We first report that the brain activity alternated between normal states and epilepsy paroxysms is the on-off intermittency phenomenon which has been observed and studied earlier in the different nonlinear systems.

A. E. Hramov; A. A. Koronovskii; I. S. Midzyanovskaya; E. Sitnikova; C. M. van Rijn

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

293

Comparative effects of parathion and chlorpyrifos on extracellular endocannabinoid levels in rat hippocampus: Influence on cholinergic toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parathion (PS) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) that elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Endocannabinoids (eCBs, N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA; 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2AG) can modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. We proposed that differential inhibition of eCB-degrading enzymes (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH, and monoacylglycerol lipase, MAGL) by PS and CPF leads to differences in extracellular eCB levels and toxicity. Microdialysis cannulae were implanted into hippocampus of adult male rats followed by treatment with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg, sc), PS (27 mg/kg) or CPF (280 mg/kg) 67 days later. Signs of toxicity, AChE, FAAH and MAGL inhibition, and extracellular levels of AEA and 2AG were measured 2 and 4 days later. Signs were noted in PS-treated rats but not in controls or CPF-treated rats. Cholinesterase inhibition was extensive in hippocampus with PS (8990%) and CPF (7883%) exposure. FAAH activity was also markedly reduced (8891%) by both OPs at both time-points. MAGL was inhibited by both OPs but to a lesser degree (3550%). Increases in extracellular AEA levels were noted after either PS (about 2-fold) or CPF (about 3-fold) while lesser treatment-related 2-AG changes were noted. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 (3 mg/kg, ip) had no influence on functional signs after CPF but markedly decreased toxicity in PS-treated rats. The results suggest that extracellular eCBs levels can be markedly elevated by both PS and CPF. CB1-mediated signaling appears to play a role in the acute toxicity of PS but the role of eCBs in CPF toxicity remains unclear. - Highlights: Chlorpyrifos and parathion both extensively inhibited hippocampal cholinesterase. Functional signs were only noted with parathion. Chlorpyrifos and parathion increased hippocampal extracellular anandamide levels. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol levels were lesser affected. The CB1 antagonist AM251 had no effect on chlorpyrifos but reduced parathion toxicity.

Liu, Jing [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); Parsons, Loren [Committee on Neurobiology of Affective Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Pope, Carey, E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The effect of temperature and oxygen level on the production of testosterone, androstenedione and progesterone by rat testis in vitro  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND OXYGEN LEVEL ON THE PRODUCTION OF TESTOSTERONE, ANDROSTFNEDIONE AND PROGESTERONE BY RAT TESTIS IN VITRO A Thesis by PETER ANTHONY DUDLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A%M University in partial... IN VITRO A Thesis by PETER ANTHONY DUDLEY Approved as to style and content by: (C irman of Committee) (Head of Department) &, 'Mcmbe r ) ' M c'm b e r ) AC KN OW LEDG MENTS The author i'eels extremely fortunate to have had as the chair- man...

Dudley, Peter Anthony

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin. Final progress report, May 1, 1990--April 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The multistage theory of carcinogenesis specifies that cells progress to cancer through a series of discrete, irreversible genetic alterations, but data on radiation-induced cancer incidence in rat skin suggests that an intermediate repairable alteration may occur. Data are presented on cancer induction in rat skin exposed to an electron beam (LET=0.34 keV/{mu}), a neon ion beam (LET=45) or an argon ion beam (LET=125). The rats were observed for tumors at least 78 weeks with squamous and basal cell carcinomas observed. The total cancer yield was fitted by the quadratic equation, and the equation parameters were estimated by linear regression for each type of radiation. Analysis of the DNA from the electron-induced carcinomas indicated that K-ras and/or c-myc oncogenes were activated. In situ hybridization indicated that the cancers contain subpopulations of cells with differing amounts of c-myc and H-ras amplification. The results are consistent with the idea that ionizing radiation produces stable, carcinogenically relevant lesions via 2 repairable events at low LET and via a non-repairable linked event pathway at high LET; either pathway may advance the cell by 1 stage. The proliferative response of rat epidermis following exposure to ionizing radiation was quantified by injection of {sup 14}C-thymidine. The return of these cells to S-phase a second time was detected by a second label ({sup 3}H). When the labeled cells were in G1-phase, the dorsal skin was irradiated with X-rays. All labeling indices were determined. The {sup 14}C labeling index was constant and unaffected by the radiation. The proportion of all cells entering S-phase averaged 3.5% at 18 hr and increased after 44, 52 and 75 hr to average levels of 11.8%, 5. 3%, and 6.6% at 0, 10 and 25 Gy respectively. The proportion of S-phase cells labeled with {sup 14}C increased after 42 hr and remained relatively constant thereafter.

Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

296

Effects of naloxone and immobilization stress upon the pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone in the ovariectomized rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hormone se- cretion has been described as having two modes of release; a basal or tonic mode found in both males and females and a preovulatory LH surge found in adult females at the time of ovulation (Kalra and Kalra, 1983; Reeves, 1980; McCann, 1977... believed to act through use of cANP (Ganong, 1981c). The effect of DA upon LHRH or LH release is the sub- ject of much study. Kalra and Kalra (1983) stated that only a minor role of DA upon LH release in the male rat exists and in the ovariectomized...

Crawford, Kimberly Ann

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Effect of dietary magnesium and calcium on blood lipids and minerals in tissues in rats fed a high fat diet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT OF DIETARY MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM ON BLOOD LIPIDS AND MINERALS ZN TISSUES IN BATS FED A HIGH FAT DIET A Thesis by JEAN CONBOY-DONNS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECT OF DIETARY MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM ON BLOOD LIPZDS AND MZNERALS ZN TISSUES IN RATS FED A BIGS FAT DIET A Thesis by JEAN CONBOY-DOWNS Approved as to style...

Conboy-Downs, Jean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

298

Calcium-sensing receptor activation contributed to apoptosis stimulates TRPC6 channel in rat neonatal ventricular myocytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capacitative calcium entry (CCE) refers to the influx of calcium through plasma membrane channels activated on depletion of endoplasmic sarcoplasmic/reticulum (ER/SR) Ca{sup 2+} stores, which is performed mainly by the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. TRP channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and plays an important role in mediating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, there are no data regarding the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart. In this study, in rat neonatal myocytes, by Ca{sup 2+} imaging, we found that the depletion of ER/SR Ca{sup 2+} stores by thapsigargin (TG) elicited a transient rise in cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}), followed by sustained increase depending on extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. But, TRP channels inhibitor (SKF96365), not L-type channels or the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger inhibitors, inhibited [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} relatively high. Then, we found that the stimulation of CaR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) or by an increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+}([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}) increased the concentration of intracelluar Ca{sup 2+}, whereas, the sustained elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was reduced in the presence of SKF96365. Similarly, the duration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase was also shortened in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Western blot analysis showed that GdCl{sub 3} increased the expression of TRPC6, which was reversed by SKF96365. Additionally, SKF96365 reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by GdCl{sub 3}. Our results suggested that CCE exhibited in rat neonatal myocytes and CaR activation induced Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cationic channels TRPCs to gate the CCE, for which TRPC6 was one of the most likely candidates. TRPC6 channel was functionally coupled with CaR to enhance the cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

Sun, Yi-hua [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Li, Yong-quan [Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)] [Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Feng, Shan-li [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Li, Bao-xin; Pan, Zhen-wei [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Xu, Chang-qing [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)] [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Li, Ting-ting [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Yang, Bao-feng, E-mail: syh200415@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)

2010-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

299

Effects of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase inhibitors on uptake and release of norepinephrine and dopamine from rat brain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inhibitors of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and amphetamine were evaluated for their effects on the uptake of (TH)-norepinephrine (TH-NE) and the release of endogenous NE and dopamine (DA) from chopped rat brain tissues. Unlike amphetamine, all of PNMT inhibitors tested produced only slight inhibition of (TH)-NE uptake into chopped cerebral cortex. 2,3-Dichloro-alpha-methylbenzylamine (DCMB) and 7,8-dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (SKF64139), but not 2-cyclooctyl-2-hydroxyethylamine (CONH) and 1-aminomethylcycloundecanol (CUNH) produced slight release of endogenous NE and DA from chopped hypothalami, but their effects were less pronounced than those produced by amphetamine.

Liang, N.Y.; Hower, J.A.; Borchardt, R.T.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Effect of graded hypoxia on retention of technetium-99m-nitroheterocycle in perfused rat heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of graded hypoxia on the retention of a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled nitroimidazole. Rat hearts were perfused retrogradely with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37{degrees}C and paced at 5 Hz. After a 20-min stabilization period, coronary flow was maintained at 8 ml/min/g wet wt and the hearts were perfused with media equilibrated with gas mixtures containing 5% CO{sub 2} and various levels of O{sub 2}, from 544 to 29 Torr. Technetium-99m-O(PnAO-1-(2-nitroimidazole)), BMS-181321, was infused for 20 min into a side port of the aortic cannula. Perfusion continued for an additional 40 min to allow for compound clearance. Each decrease of perfusate PO{sub 2} brought about an increase in the retention of BMS-181321, resulting in a good correlation between its retention and perfusate PO{sub 2} (r=0.97). Myocardial oxygen consumption was independent of oxygen delivery when the perfusate oxygen pressure was greater than 350 Torr. Below this value, oxygen consumption declined markedly as influent PO{sub 2}. A good correlation was obtained between retention of the nitroheterocycle and the cytosolic lactate/pyruvate ratio (r=0.98). When glucose was omitted from the perfusate (PO{sub 2}=27 Torr), retention of the nitroheterocycle was increased by about 25% as compared to hearts perfused in the presence of this substrate. These results indicate that myocardial retention of BMS-181321 is coupled to the level of tissue oxygenation and that hypoxic retention may be affected by substrate input. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Rumsey, W.L.; Patel, B.; Linder, K.E. [Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Inst., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

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301

The Impact of Heart Irradiation on Dose-Volume Effects in the Rat Lung  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that heart irradiation increases the risk of a symptomatic radiation-induced loss of lung function (SRILF) and that this can be well-described as a modulation of the functional reserve of the lung. Methods and Materials: Rats were irradiated with 150-MeV protons. Dose-response curves were obtained for a significant increase in breathing frequency after irradiation of 100%, 75%, 50%, or 25% of the total lung volume, either including or excluding the heart from the irradiation field. A significant increase in the mean respiratory rate after 6-12 weeks compared with 0-4 weeks was defined as SRILF, based on biweekly measurements of the respiratory rate. The critical volume (CV) model was used to describe the risk of SRILF. Fits were done using a maximum likelihood method. Consistency between model and data was tested using a previously developed goodness-of-fit test. Results: The CV model could be fitted consistently to the data for lung irradiation only. However, this fitted model failed to predict the data that also included heart irradiation. Even refitting the model to all data resulted in a significant difference between model and data. These results imply that, although the CV model describes the risk of SRILF when the heart is spared, the model needs to be modified to account for the impact of dose to the heart on the risk of SRILF. Finally, a modified CV model is described that is consistent to all data. Conclusions: The detrimental effect of dose to the heart on the incidence of SRILF can be described by a dose dependent decrease in functional reserve of the lung.

Luijk, Peter van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: p.van.luijk@rt.umcg.nl; Faber, Hette [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Meertens, Harm [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Schippers, Jacobus M. [Accelerator Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switerland (Switzerland); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Kampinga, Harm H. [Department of Cell Biology, Section Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. Ph.D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Cell Biology, Section Radiation and Stress Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-{kappa}B expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

Ronco, Ana Maria, E-mail: amronco@inta.cl [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Montenegro, Marcela; Castillo, Paula; Urrutia, Manuel [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Saez, Daniel [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Hirsch, Sandra [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Zepeda, Ramiro [Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Llanos, Miguel N. [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: Influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3} 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO{sub 3}. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ?}). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O{sub 2}{sup ?} may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O{sub 2}{sup ?} may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium?related diseases. -- Highlights: ? Uranyl nitrate effect on cultured macrophages is linked to the doses and independent of its solubility. ? At low doses uranyl nitrate induces generation of superoxide anion. ? At high doses uranyl nitrate provokes secretion of TNF?. ? Uranyl nitrate induces apoptosis through all the range of doses tested.

Orona, N.S. [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martn, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martn, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martn, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martn, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D.R., E-mail: deborah.tasat@unsam.edu.ar [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martn, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martn, Buenos Aires (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, M. T. de Alvear 2142 (1122), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-?), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

Nagib, Marwa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Tadros, Mariane G., E-mail: mirogeogo@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); ELSayed, Moushira I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Khalifa, Amani E. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Effect of In Vivo Nicotine Exposure on Chlorpyrifos Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Routine use of tobacco products may modify physiological and metabolic functions, including drug metabolizing enzymes, which may impact the pharmacokinetics of environmental contaminants. Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is bioactivated to chlorpyrifos-oxon, and manifests its neurotoxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of repeated nicotine exposure on the pharmacokinetics of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its major metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in blood and urine and also to determine the impact on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in plasma and brain. Animals were exposed to 7-daily doses of either 1 mg nicotine/kg or saline (sc), and to either a single oral dose of 35 mg CPF/kg or a repeated dose of 5 mg CPF/kg/day for 7 days. Groups of rats were then sacrificed at multiple time-points after receiving the last dose of CPF. Repeated nicotine and CPF exposures resulted in enhanced metabolism of CPF to TCPy, as evidenced by increases in the measured TCPy concentration and AUC in blood. However, there was no significant difference in the amount of TCPy (free or total) excreted in the urine. The extent of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition was reduced due to nicotine co-exposure consistent with an increase in CYP450-mediated dearylation (detoxification) versus desulfuration. It was of interest to note that the impact of nicotine co-exposure was experimentally observed only after repeated CPF doses. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model simulations of CPF-oxon concentrations in blood and brain were predicted to be lower in nicotine treated groups, which were simulated by increasing the dearylation Vmax based upon previously conducted in vitro metabolism studies. These results were consistent with the experimental data. The current study demonstrated that repeated nicotine exposure could alter CPF metabolism in vivo, further modulating brain AChE inhibition.

Lee, Sookwang; Poet, Torka S.; Smith, Jordan N.; Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Timchalk, Charles

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

306

/sup 51/Cr-EDTA: a marker of early intestinal rejection in the rat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intestinal permeability was studied after accessory intestinal transplantation in Lewis rats. Five groups were evaluated: Group 1--isografts (N = 6); Group 2--Lewis X Brown Norway F1 (LBN-F1) allografts (N = 6); Group 3--isografts treated with CsA 2 mg/kg/day X 10 days (N = 6); Group 4--LBN-F1 allografts treated with CsA 2 mg/kg/day X 10 days (N = 6); Group 5--LBN-F1 allografts treated with CsA 4 mg/kg/day X 28 days (N = 6). Chromium-labeled ethylenedimianetetraacetate (/sup 51/Cr-EDTA) was given through the proximal stoma of the graft. Renal clearance of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA and mucosal biopsies were followed post-transplant. The biopsies of the intestinal graft showed no rejection in Groups 1, 3, and 5; fulminant rejection in Group 2; and mild atypical rejection in Group 4. /sup 51/Cr-EDTA clearance was elevated in all groups during the first 7 days post-transplant. Thereafter, /sup 51/Cr-EDTA excretion fell to lower levels in the animals with histologically normal grafts (Groups 1, 3, and 5). /sup 51/Cr-EDTA excretion in Group 4 was increased with the first histological evidence of rejection on Day 14 and remained elevated until sacrifice (P less than 0.02 compared to Groups 3 and 5). A transient permeability defect occurs after intestinal grafting. Once the graft has recovered from this injury, /sup 51/Cr-EDTA is a sensitive marker for intestinal rejection.

Grant, D.; Lamont, D.; Zhong, R.; Garcia, B.; Wang, P.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Stimulation of dopamine synthesis and activation of tyrosine hydroxylase by phorbol diesters in rat striatum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In rat striatal synaptosomes, 4..beta..-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and 4 ..beta..-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), two activators of Ca/sup 2 +/-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) increased dopamine (DA) synthesis measured by following the release of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(1-/sup 14/C) tyrosine. Maximal stimulation (21-28% increase of basal rate) was produced by 0.5 ..mu..M PMA and 1 ..mu..M PDBu. 4 ..beta..-Phorbol and 4 ..beta..-phorbol 13-acetate, which are not activators of protein kinase C, were ineffective at 1 ..mu..M. PMA did not change the release of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(1-/sup 14/C)DOPA. Addition of 1 mM EGTA to a Ca/sup 2 +/-free incubation medium failed to affect PMA stimulation. KCl (60 mM) enhanced DA synthesis by 25%. Exposure of synaptosomes to either PMA or PDBu prior to KCl addition resulted in a more than additive increase (80-100%) of DA synthesis. A similar synergistic effect was observed when the phorbol diesters were combined with either veratridine or d-amphetamine but not with forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Pretreatment of striatal synaptosomes with phorbol diesters produced an activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) associated with a 60% increase of the Vmax and a decrease of the Km for the pterine cofactor 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin. These results indicate that protein kinase C participates in the regulation of striatal TH in situ and that its activation may act synergistically with DA releasing agents in stimulating DA synthesis. 37 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Onali, P.; Olianas, M.C.

1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

308

Involvement of calcium-sensing receptor in ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor, which activates intracellular effectors, for example, it causes inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation to increase the release of intracellular calcium. Although intracellular calcium overload has been implicated in the cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced apoptosis, the role of CaR in the induction of apoptosis has not been fully understood. This study tested the hypothesis that CaR is involved in I/R cardiomyocyte apoptosis by increasing [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. The isolated rat hearts were subjected to 40-min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion, meanwhile GdCl{sub 3} was added to reperfusion solution. The expression of CaR increased at the exposure to GdCl{sub 3} during I/R. By laser confocal microscopy, it was observed that the intracellular calcium was significantly increased and exhibited a collapsed {delta}{psi} {sub m}, as monitored by 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'- tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) during reperfusion with GdCl{sub 3}. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased as shown by TUNEL assay. Typical apoptotic cells were observed with transmission electron microscopy in I/R with GdCl{sub 3} but not in the control group. The expression of cytosolic cytochrome c and activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 was significantly increased whereas the expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c significantly decreased in I/R with GdCl{sub 3} in comparison to the control. In conclusion, these results suggest that CaR is involved in the induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis during ischemia/reperfusion through activation of cytochrome c-caspase-3 signaling pathway.

Zhang Weihua [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Fu Songbin [Department of Genetics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Bio-pharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150086 (China); Lu Fanghao [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China)]. E-mail: lufanghao1973@yahoo.com.cn; Wu Bo [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Gong Dongmei [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Pan, Zhen-wei [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Lv Yanjie [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhao Yajun [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Li Quanfeng [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Wang Rui [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ont., P7B5E1 (Canada); Yang Baofeng [Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Bio-pharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150086 (China); Xu Changqing [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China) and Bio-pharmaceutical Key Laboratory of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150086 (China)]. E-mail: xucq@163.com

2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

309

Morphine-6-glucuronide: analgesic effects and receptor binding profile in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The antinociceptive effects of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were examined in two animal models of pain, the tail immersion test (reflex withdrawal to noxious heat) and the formalin test (behavioral response to minor tissue injury). In the tail immersion test, M6G produced and increase in withdrawal latency that rose rapidly between 0.01 and 0.025 ug ICV or 1 and 2 mg/kg SC. A further increase occurred at doses greater than 0.2 ug ICV or 4 mg/kg SC and was associated with marked catelepsy and cyanosis. Naloxone, 0.1 mg/kg SC, shifted the lower component of the dose-effect relation by a factor of 24. In the formalin test, 0.01 ug M6G ICV produced hyperalgesia, while between 0.05 and 0.2 ug ICV, antinociception increased rapidly without toxicity. The dose effect relations for hyperalgesia and antinociception were shifted to the right by factors of 20- and 3-fold, respectively. By comparison, ICV morphine was 60 (formalin test) to 145-200 (tail immersion test) times less potent than M6G. At sub-nanomolar concentrations, M6G enhanced the binding of (/sup 3/H)-etorphine, (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine and (/sup 3/H)-naloxone to rat brain membrane receptors by 20-40%. At higher concentrations, M6G displaced each ligand from binding sites, with K/sub i/ values of about 30 nM, as compared to morphine K/sub i/ values of about 3 nM.

Abbott, F.V.; Palmour, R.M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Neurogenic period of ascending tract neurons in the upper lumbar spinal cord of the rat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although the neurogenic period for neurons in the lumbar spinal cord has been clearly established (Days 12 through 16 of gestation), it is not known when the neurogenesis of ascending tract neurons is completed within this period. The purpose of the present study was to determine the duration of the neurogenic period for projection neurons of the ascending tracts. To label neurons undergoing mitosis during this period, tritiated thymidine was administered to fetal rats on Embryonic (E) Days E13 through E16 of gestation. Ascending tract neurons of the lumbar cord were later (Postnatal Days 40-50) labeled in each animal with a retrograde tracer, Fluoro-Gold, applied at the site of a hemisection at spinal cord segment C3. Ascending tract neurons which were undergoing mitosis in the upper lumbar cord were double labeled, i.e., labeled with both tritiated thymidine and Fluoro-Gold. On Day E13, 89-92% of the ascending tract neurons were double labeled; on Day E14, 35-37%; and on Day E15, 1-4%. Results showed, then, that some ascending tract neurons were double labeled through Day E15 and were, therefore, proliferating in the final one-third of the neurogenic period. Ascending tract neurons proliferating on Day E15 were confined to laminae III, IV, V, and X and the nucleus dorsalis. Long tract neurons in the superficial dorsal horn (laminae I and II), on the other hand, were found to have completed neurogenesis on Day E14 of gestation. Results of the present study show that spinal neurogenesis of ascending projection neurons continues throughout most of the neurogenic period and does not completely follow the well-established ventral to dorsal gradient.

Nandi, K.N.; Beal, J.A.; Knight, D.S. (Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

1989-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

312

Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in rat cranial parasympathetic neurons: coexistence with vasoactive intestinal peptide and choline acetyltransferase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely distributed in the sympathetic nervous system, where it is colocalized with norepinephrine. The authors report here that NPY-immunoreactive neurons are also abundant in three cranial parasympathetic ganglia, the otic, sphenopalatine, and ciliary, in the rat measured by radioimmunoassay. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the immunoreactive material present in the otic ganglion indicates that this material is very similar to porcine NPY and indistinguishable from the NPY-like immunoreactivity present in rat sympathetic neurons. These findings raise the possibility that NPY acts as a neuromodulator in the parasympathetic as well as the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast to what had been observed for sympathetic neurons, NPY-immunoreactive neurons in cranial parasympathetic ganglia do not contain detectable catecholamines or tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, and many do contain immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide and/or choline acetyltransferase. These findings suggest that there is no simple rule governing coexpression of NPY with norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or vasoactive intestinal peptide in autonomic neurons. Further, while functional studies have indicated that NPY exerts actions on the peripheral vasculature which are antagonistic to those of acetylcholine and vasoactive intestinal peptide, the present results raise the possibility that these three substances may have complementary effects on other target tissues.

Leblanc, G.C.; Trimmer, B.A.; Landis, S.C.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Immunization with FSH? fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal ? and ? estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSH? fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSH? antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen, E-mail: liven@nwu.edu.cn; Chen, Fulin, E-mail: chenfl@nwu.edu.cn

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

314

Technical Aspects of an Impact Acceleration Traumatic Brain Injury Rat Model with Potential Suitability for both Microdialysis and PtiO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

molecules are now conceivable to ameliorate severe head-injury treatment. Keywords: Traumatic Brain Injury of anaesthesia and/or neuroprotection, a traumatic brain injury (TBI) animal model, similar to human head injury1 Technical Aspects of an Impact Acceleration Traumatic Brain Injury Rat Model with Potential

Boyer, Edmond

315

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 527 (2004) 166170 RatCAP: a small, head-mounted PET tomograph for imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electronics, as well as studies with live animals to evaluate their behavior when using the device. of an awake rat. This device will permit neurophysiological studies to be carried out on small animals without of the animal. In order to minimize the weight of the ring, and to keep all of the front end readout electronics

316

Effect of HZE radiation and diets rich in fiber and n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on colon cancer in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

weeks earlier and at the end of the study had morbidity/mortality rate 14.2% higher (P=0.0005) than non-irradiated rats. There was no significant effect of HZE radiation on colon cancer incidence. The effects of dietary fibers and oils on health state...

Glagolenko, Anna Anatolievna

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

317

Effects on food intake following stimulation of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of dietary-obese and dietary-resistant rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-obesity) following intra-PVN injections of the adrenergic compounds norepinephrine (25 nmol), cirazoline (10, 20, and 30 nmol), and phenylpropanolamine (160 nmol) . Experiment 2 investigates food intake of DIO-prone and DR-prone rats (pre-obesity) following intra...

McMahon, Lance Richard

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Localized In Vivo 1H NMR Detection of Neurotransmitter Labeling in Rat Brain During Infusion of [1-13C] D-Glucose  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Localized In Vivo 1H NMR Detection of Neurotransmitter Labeling in Rat Brain During Infusion of [1 infusions of 13C-labeled glucose. Magn Reson Med 41:1077­1083, 1999. 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words] glucose infusion In vivo 13C NMR spectroscopy with localization is emerg- ing as an important tool

Jegelka, Stefanie

319

INteRNatIONal BuSINeSS BuSINeSS adMINIStRatION Students will gain critical insights into business operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MINORS INteRNatIONal BuSINeSS BuSINeSS adMINIStRatION Students will gain critical insights into business operations and strategy from accounting, finance, management and marketing coursework. The Business Administration Minor will provide students with fundamental knowledge and exposure to key business

Maxwell, Bruce D.

320

Role of MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 in the development of breast cancer brain and lung metastasis in a syngeneic rat model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to study the expression of MMP2, MMP 3 and MMP9 in breast cancer brain and lung metastasis, we used a syngeneic rat model of distant metastasis of ENU1564, a carcinogen-induced mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. At six weeks post inoculation...

Mendes, Odete Rodrigues

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Technical Report TR_003 Technical report produced for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................................12 3.2.5 Norway pout .......................................................................................................17 3.2.15 Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus).....................................................17

322

Combined contributions of over-secreted glucagon-like peptide 1 and suppressed insulin secretion to hyperglycemia induced by gatifloxacin in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accumulating evidences have showed that gatifloxacin causes dysglycemia in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Our preliminary study demonstrated that gatifloxacin stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion from intestinal cells. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release and dysglycemia in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and explore the possible mechanisms. Oral administration of gatifloxacin (100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day) for 3 and 12 days led to marked elevation of GLP-1 levels, accompanied by significant decrease in insulin levels and increase in plasma glucose. Similar results were found in normal rats treated with 3-day gatifloxacin. Gatifloxacin-stimulated GLP-1 release was further confirmed in NCI-H716 cells, which was abolished by diazoxide, a K{sub ATP} channel opener. QT-PCR analysis showed that gatifloxacin also upregulated expression of proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA. To clarify the contradiction on elevated GLP-1 without insulinotropic effect, effects of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin on insulin release were investigated using INS-1 cells. We found that short exposure (2 h) to GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion and biosynthesis, whereas long exposure (24 h and 48 h) to high level of GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. Moreover, we also confirmed gatifloxacin acutely stimulated insulin secretion while chronically inhibited insulin biosynthesis. All the results gave an inference that gatifloxacin stimulated over-secretion of GLP-1, in turn, high levels of GLP-1 and gatifloxacin synergistically impaired insulin release, worsening hyperglycemia. -- Highlights: ? Gatifloxacin induced hyperglycemia both in diabetic rats and normal rats. ? Gatifloxacin enhanced GLP-1 secretion but inhibited insulin secretion in rats. ? Long-term exposure to high GLP-1 inhibited insulin secretion and biosynthesis. ? GLP-1 over-secretion may be involved in gatifloxacin-induced hyperglycemia.

Yu, Yunli, E-mail: chrisyu1255@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004 (China) [Department of Pharmaceutics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215004 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Xinting, E-mail: wxinting1986@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Can, E-mail: ltsan@163.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yao, Dan, E-mail: erinyao@126.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China) [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai 201203 (China); Hu, Mengyue, E-mail: juliahmy@126.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Jia, E-mail: ljbzd@163.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Hu, Nan, E-mail: hn_324@163.com [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Li, E-mail: liulee@cpu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu, Xiaodong, E-mail: xdliu@cpu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

Anderson, Timothy J. [Ames Laboratory; Jones, Roger W. [Ames Laboratory; Ai, Yongfeng [Iowa State University; Houk, Robert S. [Ames Laboratory; Jane, Jay-lin [Iowa State University; Zhao, Yinsheng [Iowa State University; Birt, Diane F. [Iowa State University; McClelland, John F. [Ames Laboratory

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

324

Exposure to As, Cd and Pb-mixture impairs myelin and axon development in rat brain, optic nerve and retina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are the major metal contaminants of ground water in India. We have reported the toxic effect of their mixture (metal mixture, MM), at human relevant doses, on developing rat astrocytes. Astrocyte damage has been shown to be associated with myelin disintegration in CNS. We, therefore, hypothesized that the MM would perturb myelinating white matter in cerebral cortex, optic nerve (O.N.) and retina. We observed modulation in the levels of myelin and axon proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein, 2?-, 3?-cyclic-nucleotide-3?-phosphodiesterase, myelin-associated glycoprotein and neurofilament (NF) in the brain of developing rats. Dose and time-dependent synergistic toxic effect was noted. The MBP- and NF-immunolabeling, as well as luxol-fast blue (LFB) staining demonstrated a reduction in the area of intact myelin-fiber, and an increase in vacuolated axons, especially in the corpus-callosum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of O.N. revealed a reduction in myelin thickness and axon-density. The immunolabeling with MBP, NF, and LFB staining in O.N. supported the TEM data. The hematoxylin and eosin staining of retina displayed a decrease in the thickness of nerve-fiber, plexiform-layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) count. Investigating the mechanism revealed a loss in glutamine synthetase activity in the cerebral cortex and O.N., and a fall in the brain derived neurotrophic factor in retina. An enhanced apoptosis in MBP, NF and Brn3b-containing cells justified the diminution in myelinating axons in CNS. Our findings for the first time indicate white matter damage by MM, which may have significance in neurodevelopmental-pediatrics, neurotoxicology and retinal-cell biology. - Highlights: As, Cd and Pb-mixture, at human relevant dose, demyelinate developing rat CNS. The attenuation in myelin and axon is synergistic. The optic nerve and brain demonstrate reduced glutamine synthetase. The retina exhibits diminished neurotrophin levels and cellular differentiation. The toxic effect is apoptotic.

Rai, Nagendra Kumar; Ashok, Anushruti [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (India); Developmental Toxicology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR) (India); Rai, Asit; Tripathi, Sachin [Developmental Toxicology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR) (India); Nagar, Geet Kumar [Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI) (India); Mitra, Kalyan [Electron Microscopy Unit, CSIR-CDRI, Lucknow 226001 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra, E-mail: sanghmitra@iitr.res.in [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (India); Developmental Toxicology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR) (India)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Characterization of the In Vitro Kinetic Interaction of Chlorpyrifos-Oxon with Rat Salivary Cholinesterase: A Potential Biomonitoring Matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP). The primary mechanism of action for CPF involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by the active metabolite, CPF-oxon, with subsequent accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) resulting in a wide range of neutotoxicity. CPF-oxon, can likewise inhibit other non-target cholinesterases (ChE) such as butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which represents a detoxification mechanism and a potential biomarker of exposure/response. Biological monitoring for OPs has focused on measuring parent chemical or metabolite in blood and urine or blood ChE inhibition. Salivary biomonitoring has recently been explored as a practical method for examination of chemical exposure; however, there are a limited number of studies exploring its use for OPs. To evaluate the use of salivary ChE as a biological monitor for OP exposure, the current study characterized salivary ChE activity in Sprague-Dawley rats through its comparison with brain and plasma ChE using BW284C51 and iso-OMPA as selective inhibitors of AChE and BuChE, respectively. The study also estimated the kinetic constants describing BuChE interaction with CPF-oxon. A modified Ellman assay in conjunction with pharmacodynamic (PD) modeling was used to characterize the in vitro titration of diluted rat salivary ChE enzyme with CPF-oxon. The results indicated that, more than 95% of rat salivary ChE activity was associated with BuChE activity, total BuChE active site concentration was 0.0012 0.00013 nmol/ml saliva, reactivation rate constant (Kr) was 0.068 0.008 h-1 and inhibitory (Ki) rate constant of 8.825 and 9.80 nM-1h-1 determined experimentally and using model optimization respectively. These study results would be helpful for further evaluating the potential utility of salivary ChE as a practical tool for biological monitor of OP exposures.

Kousba, Ahmed A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Poet, Torka S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Timchalk, Charles (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2003-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

Reduction of liver fructokinase expression and improved hepatic inflammation and metabolism in liquid fructose-fed rats after atorvastatin treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Consumption of beverages that contain fructose favors the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome alterations in humans, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although the only effective treatment for NAFLD is caloric restriction and weight loss, existing data show that atorvastatin, a hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, can be used safely in patients with NAFLD and improves hepatic histology. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of atorvastatin's therapeutic effect on NAFLD, we used an experimental model that mimics human consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages. Control, fructose (10% w/v solution) and fructose + atorvastatin (30 mg/kg/day) Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed after 14 days. Plasma and liver tissue samples were obtained to determine plasma analytes, liver histology, and the expression of liver proteins that are related to fatty acid synthesis and catabolism, and inflammatory processes. Fructose supplementation induced hypertriglyceridemia and hyperleptinemia, hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation, increased the expression of genes related to fatty acid synthesis and decreased fatty acid {beta}-oxidation activity. Atorvastatin treatment completely abolished histological signs of necroinflammation, reducing the hepatic expression of metallothionein-1 and nuclear factor kappa B binding. Furthermore, atorvastatin reduced plasma (x 0.74) and liver triglyceride (x 0.62) concentrations, decreased the liver expression of carbohydrate response element binding protein transcription factor (x0.45) and its target genes, and increased the hepatic activity of the fatty acid {beta}-oxidation system (x 1.15). These effects may be related to the fact that atorvastatin decreased the expression of fructokinase (x 0.6) in livers of fructose-supplemented rats, reducing the metabolic burden on the liver that is imposed by continuous fructose ingestion. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: >Fructose administration as a liquid solution to Sprague-Dawley male rats induced hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia, hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation. >Atorvastatin administration: >Abolished histological sings of necroinflammation and reduced plasma and liver triglyceride concentrations. >Reduced the expression of phospho-I{kappa}B >Reduced the expression of fructokinase, a key enzyme controlling fructose metabolism

Vila, Laia; Rebollo, Alba; Adalsteisson, Gunnar S. [Pharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Alegret, Marta; Merlos, Manuel; Roglans, Nuria [Pharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); IBUB - Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); CIBERobn (Center for Biomedical Investigation Network in Obesity and Nutrition Physiopathology) (Spain); Laguna, Juan C., E-mail: jclagunae@ub.edu [Pharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); IBUB -Institute of Biomedicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); CIBERobn (Center for Biomedical Investigation Network in Obesity and Nutrition Physiopathology) (Spain)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

SOME EFFECTS OF CYPROTERONE ACETATE ON EPIDIDYMAL FUNCTION IN RATS. T. D. GLOVER, D. J. BLACK, J. C. SHENTON, P. BOYD. Univer-T. D. GLOVER, D. J. BLACK J. C. SHENTON P. BOYD. Univer-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOME EFFECTS OF CYPROTERONE ACETATE ON EPIDIDYMAL FUNCTION IN RATS. T. D. GLOVER, D. J. BLACK, J. C. SHENTON, P. BOYD. Univer-T. D. GLOVER, D. J. BLACK J. C. SHENTON P. BOYD. Univer- site de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

328

Prolactin-stimulated ornithine decarboxylase induction in rat hepatocytes: Coupling to diacylglycerol generation and protein kinase C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The trophic effects of prolactin (PRL) in rat liver have been linked to activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Since alterations in PKC activity imply its activation by 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG), we tested whether PRL treatment stimulated DAG generation coupled to induction of a growth response in primary hepatocytes. Addition of PRL to hepatocyte cultures significantly increased ({sup 3}H)-glycerol incorporation into DAG within 5 minutes which was followed by a loss of cytosolic PKC activity by 10 minutes. Prolactin also significantly enhanced radiolabel incorporation into triacylglycerol and phospholipids within 10 minutes and induced ODC activity at 6 hours. Therefore, prolactin-stimulated alterations in PKC activity are preceded by enhanced DAG generation. Moreover, these events appear to be coupled to PRL-stimulated entry of hepatocytes into cell cycle.

Buckley, A.R.; Buckley, D.J. (Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, MO (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of cyclopiazonic acid using H?y?d?r?a? a?t?t?e?n?u?a?t?a? and postimplantation rat whole embryo bioassays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF CYCLOPIAZONIC ACID USING HYDRA ATTENUATA AND POSTIMPLANTATION RAT WHOLE EMBRYO BIOASSAYS A Thesis by CATHERINE JEANE' DRYDEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF CYCLOPIAZONIC ACID USING HYDRA A?TENUATA AND POSTIMPLANTATION RAT WHOLE EMBRYO...

Dryden, Catherine Jeane.?

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Lactational exposure to hexavalent chromium delays puberty by impairing ovarian development, steroidogenesis and pituitary hormone synthesis in developing Wistar rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) is used in a wide range of industries. Cr-VI from chromate industries and atmospheric emissions contribute to the Cr contamination in the environment. Cr is a reproductive metal toxicant that can traverse the placental barrier and cause a wide range of fetal effects including ovotoxicity. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the basic mechanisms involved in Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity, and the protective role of vitamin C on ovarian follicular development and function in Cr(VI)-induced reproductive toxicity using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Lactating rats received potassium dichromate (200 mg/L) with or without vitamin C (500 mg/L), through drinking water from postpartum days 1-21. During postnatal days (PND) 1-21 the pups received Cr(VI) via the mother's milk. Pups from both control and treatment groups were continued on regular diet and water from PND-21 onwards, and euthanized on PND-21, -45 and -65. Cr(VI) decreased steroidogenesis, GH and PRL, increased FSH and did not alter LH. Cr(VI) delayed puberty, decreased follicle number, and extended estrous cycle. Spontaneously immortalized rat granulosa cells were treated with 12.5 {mu}M (IC{sub 50}) potassium dichromate for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment. Cr(VI) decreased the mRNA expressions of StAR, SF-1, 17{beta}-HSD-1, 17{beta}-HSD-2, FSHR, LHR, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. Vitamin C pre-treatment protected ovary and granulosa cells from the deleterious effects of Cr(VI) toxicity, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, Cr(VI) toxicity could be a potential risk to the reproductive system in developing females, and vitamin C plays a protective role against Cr(VI)-induced ovotoxicity.

Banu, Sakhila K. [Reproductive Endocrinology and Cell Signaling Laboratory, Texas A and M University, TAMU 4458, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, TAMU 4458, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Interdisciplinary Faculties of Toxicology and Reproductive Biology, Texas A and M University, TAMU 4458, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)], E-mail: skbanu@cvm.tamu.edu; Samuel, Jawahar B. [Department of Zoology, St. John's College, Palayamkottai, 627 002 (India); Arosh, Joe A. [Reproductive Endocrinology and Cell Signaling Laboratory, Texas A and M University, TAMU 4458, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, TAMU 4458, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Burghardt, Robert C. [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A and M University, TAMU 4458, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Interdisciplinary Faculties of Toxicology and Reproductive Biology, Texas A and M University, TAMU 4458, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Aruldhas, Michael M. [Department of Endocrinology, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai 600113 (India)], E-mail: aruldhasmm@yahoo.com

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on regulation of thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically related developmental processes in young rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neonatal exposure to the toxic chemical polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induces hypothyroidism and retarded growth. Neonatal rats made hypothyroid by chemical or surgical means experience retarded growth and subnormal activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) This study compared thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically-related processes altered by hypothyroidism induced by other means, with PCB-induced hypothyroidism: (1) titers of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); (2) titers of hormones that regulate growth [growth hormone (GH), insulin-growth like factor-I (IGF-1), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS)]; or (3) brain ChAT activity. Whether PCB-induced growth retardation and other alterations are secondary to accompanying hypothyroidism rather than or in addition to a direct effect of PCB was also examined. Pregnant rats were fed chow containing 0 (controls), 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm PCB (entering offspring through placenta and milk) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Neonates exposed to PCB displayed many alterations similar to those made hypothyroid by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating T[sub 4] levels and ChAT activity, and no change in hypothalamic GHRH and SS concentrations. Differences included a paradoxical increase in circulating GH levels, and no significant alteration of circulation IGF-1 and TSH levels and pituitary GH and TSH levels (although trends were in the expected direction). Thus, PCB-induced hypothyroidism may partially cause altered skeletal growth, circulating GH and TSH concentrations, and ChAT activity. Both T[sub 4] and T[sub 3] injections returned circulating TSH and GH levels and pituitary TSH content toward control levels; T[sub 3] restored skeletal, but not overall growth; and T[sub 4] elevated ChAT activity.

Juarez de Ku, L.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a two-programming hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is the first programming, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as the second programming. - Highlights: Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal livers glucose and lipid metabolism . Prenatal ethanol exposure cause the adaptive change of glucocorticoid-IGF1 axis.

Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Universit, Facult de Mdicine, Vandoeuvre-ls-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Combination of /sup 60/Co. gamma. -radiation, misonidazole, and maltose tetrapalmitate in the treatment of Dunning prostatic tumor in the rat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Maltose tetrapalmitate (MTP), a synthetic nontoxic immunoadjuvant, the radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO), and /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-radiation, alone or in combination, were used in the management of Dunning prostatic tumor in the rat. Nine groups of 10 rats each were used to assess the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities. Tumor growth rates and animal survival times were determined for each group. Radiation was more effective when combined with MTP, but the adjuvant must be present when radiation is given for synergism to occur. MISO was as effective as MTP when used with radiation, but combining them cancels out their individual effects. In a clinical situation it would be advantageous to use separately the synergisms existing between MISO and radiation on the one hand and MTP and radiation on the other hand.

Pageau, R.; Nigam, V.N.; Fisher, G.J.; Brailovsky, C.A.; Fathi, M.A.; Corcos, J.; Tahan, T.W.; Elhilali, M.M.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NF?B in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NF?B translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ? Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic ? cells in diabetic rat. ? Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ? Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling pathways in diabetic conditions. ? Taurine exerts antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antiinflammatory activities. ? It protects cardiac apoptosis by regulating Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins.

Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Differential cardiotoxicity in response to chronic doxorubicin treatment in male spontaneous hypertension-heart failure (SHHF), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Life threatening complications from chemotherapy occur frequently in cancer survivors, however little is known about genetic risk factors. We treated male normotensive rats (WKY) and strains with hypertension (SHR) and hypertension with cardiomyopathy (SHHF) with 8 weekly doses of doxorubicin (DOX) followed by 12 weeks of observation to test the hypothesis that genetic cardiovascular disease would worsen delayed cardiotoxicity. Compared with WKY, SHR demonstrated weight loss, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased kidney weights, greater cardiac and renal histopathologic lesions and greater mortality. SHHF showed growth restriction, increased kidney weights and renal histopathology but no effect on systolic blood pressure or mortality. SHHF had less severe cardiac lesions than SHR. We evaluated cardiac soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) content and arachidonic acid metabolites after acute DOX exposure as potential mediators of genetic risk. Before DOX, SHHF and SHR had significantly greater cardiac sEH and decreased epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (4 of 4 isomers in SHHF and 2 of 4 isomers in SHR) than WKY. After DOX, sEH was unchanged in all strains, but SHHF and SHR rats increased EETs to a level similar to WKY. Leukotriene D4 increased after treatment in SHR. Genetic predisposition to heart failure superimposed on genetic hypertension failed to generate greater toxicity compared with hypertension alone. The relative resistance of DOX-treated SHHF males to the cardiotoxic effects of DOX in the delayed phase despite progression of genetic disease was unexpected and a key finding. Strain differences in arachidonic acid metabolism may contribute to variation in response to DOX toxicity. - Highlights: Late doxorubicin toxicity evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and cardiomyopathic rats. Hypertension enhances the delayed toxicity of doxorubicin. Genetic predisposition to cardiomyopathy did not further enhance toxicity. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids increased in response to doxorubicin in SHR and SHHF. Altered leukotriene metabolism may contribute greater toxicity in SHR vs. SHHF rats.

Sharkey, Leslie C., E-mail: shark009@umn.edu [Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Radin, M. Judith, E-mail: radin.1@osu.edu [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, 1925 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Heller, Lois, E-mail: lheller@d.umn.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical SchoolDuluth, 1035 University Drive, Duluth, MN 55812-3031 (United States); Rogers, Lynette K., E-mail: Lynette.Rogers@nationwidechildrens.org [Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Childrens Drive, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Tobias, Anthony [Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, University of Minnesota, 1352 Boyd Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Matise, Ilze, E-mail: imatise.vh@gmail.com [Veterinary Population Medicine Department, University of Minnesota, 1365 Gortner Ave, St Paul, MN (United States); Wang, Qi, E-mail: wangx890@umn.edu [Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI), University of Minnesota, 717 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Apple, Fred S., E-mail: apple004@umn.edu [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Hennepin County Medical Center and University of Minnesota, 701 Park Ave S, Minneapolis, MN USA (United States); McCune, Sylvia A., E-mail: sylvia.mccune@skybeam.com [Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 354 UCB, Clare Small 114, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

DETERMINATION OF AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THE DISPOSITION OF 2-BUTOXYETHANOL AND ITS METABOLITES IN MICE AND RATS TO IMPROVE PBPK MODELING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

2-Butoxyethanol (BE) is the most widely used glycol ether solvent. BE's major metabolite, butoxyacetic acid (BAA), causes hemolysis with significant species differences in sensitivity. Several PBPK models have been developed over the past two decades to describe the disposition of BE and BAA in male rats and humans to refine health risk assessments. More recent efforts by Lee et al. (1998) to describe the kinetics of BE and BAA in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) chronic inhalation studies required the use of several assumptions to extrapolate model parameters from earlier PBPK models developed for young male rats to include female F344 and both sexes of B6C3F1 mice and the effects of aging. To replace these assumptions, studies were conducted to determine the impact of age, gender and species on the metabolism of BE, and the tissue partitioning, renal acid transport and plasma protein binding of BAA. In the current study, the Lee et al. PBPK model was updated and expanded to include the further metabolism of BAA and the salivary excretion of BE and BAA which may contribute to the forestomach irritation observed in mice in the NTP study. The revised model predicted that peak blood concentrations of BAA achieved following 6-hr inhalation exposures are greatest in young adult female rats at concentrations up to 300 ppm. This is not the case predicted for old (>18 months) animals, where peak blood concentrations of BAA in male and female mice were similar to or greater than female rats. The revised model serves as a quantitative tool for integrating an extensive pharmacokinetic and mechanistic database into a format that can readily be used to compare internal dosimetry across dose, route of exposure and species.

Corley, Rick A.; Grant, Donna M.; Farris, Elizabeth; Weitz, Karl K.; Soelberg, Jolen J.; Thrall, K D.; Poet, Torka S.

2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

337

Single voxel MR spectroscopy with echo times below 2 ms at 16.4 T in the rat brain: first in vivo results D. Z. Balla1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

results D. Z. Balla1 , S-T. Hong1 , G. Shajan1 , R. Pohmann1 , and K. Ugurbil1,2 1 High-Field MR Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States Introduction In vivo 1H MR spectroscopySingle voxel MR spectroscopy with echo times below 2 ms at 16.4 T in the rat brain: first in vivo

338

Threshold of trichloroethylene contamination in maternal drinking waters affecting fetal heart development in the rat. Environ Health Perspect 111(3):289?292  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Halogenated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) are among the most common water supply contaminants in the United States and abroad. Epidemiologic studies have found an association but not a cause-and-effect relation between halogenated hydrocarbon contamination and increased incidence of congenital cardiac malformations or other defective birth outcomes. Avian and rat studies demonstrated statistically significant increases in the number of congenital cardiac malformations in those treated with high doses of TCE, either via intrauterine pump or in maternal drinking water, compared with controls. This study attempts to determine if there is a threshold dose exposure to TCE above which the developing heart is more likely to be affected. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly placed in test groups and exposed to various concentrations of TCE (2.5 ppb, 250 ppb, 1.5 ppm, 1,100 ppm) in drinking water or distilled water (control group) throughout pregnancy. The percentage of abnormal hearts in the treated groups ranged from 0 to 10.48%, with controls having 2.1 % abnormal hearts, and the number of litters with fetuses with abnormal hearts ranged from 0 to 66.7%, and the control percentage was 16.4%. The data from this study indicate not only that there is a statistically significant probability overall of a dose response to increasing levels of TCE exposure, but also that this trend begins to manifest at relatively low levels of exposure (i.e., < 250 ppb). Maternal rats exposed to more than this level of TCE during pregnancy showed an associated increased incidence of cardiac malformations in their developing rat fetuses. Key words: cardiac malformations, cardiac teratogenicity, environmental contaminants, halogenated hydrocarbon, heart defects, heart development, TCE, trichloroethylene. Environ Health Perspect 111:289292 (2003). doi:10.1289/ehp.5125 available via

Paula D. Johnson; Stanley J. Goldberg; Mary Z. Mays; Brenda V. Dawson

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Kinetic properties of C-11 phenylephrine in isolated rat heart: Effects of di-deuterium substitution, age, MAO inhibition, and reserpine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elimination of the {alpha}-carbon CH{sub 3} group from C-11 hydroxyephedrine (HED) yields a new radiotracer for cardiac sympathetic neurons: C-11 phenylephrine (PHEN). This small structural change has profound effects on the tracer kinetics - HED is not metabolized by neuronal monoamine oxidase (MAO), while PHEN is an excellent MAO substrate. To assess the influence of MAO metabolism and vesicular storage on PHEN kinetics a series of constant infusion studies were performed. Isolated working rat hearts were perfused under control conditions for 25 min, then switched to a second perfusate circuit containing PHEN at tracer concentrations. PHEN was infused for 10 min then the heart switched back to normal perfusate to effect washout of PHEN. The amount of PHEN in the heart was externally measured using coinsidence detection. The data between 1 and 4 min were used to estimate an uptake constant, K{sub up} (ml/min/g wet). Washout data were fit to multiple exponentials. Several studies were done: (1) To slow MAO metabolism, the dideuterium substituted analog C-11 D{sub 2-}PHEN was made and studied as described above. (2) For both tracers, the effect of age on washout kinetics was studied as rat heart MAO levels steadily increase throughout the animal`s life. (3) The effect of MAO inhibition was studied using 100 {mu}M pargyline throughout the experiment. (4) Reserpine pretreated rats were used to assess the influence of vesicular storage on tracer kinetics.

Raffel, D.M.; Rosario, R.B. del; Tluczek, L. [Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

Stanko, Jason [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Enoch, Rolondo [North Carolina Central University, Durham; Rayner, Jennifer L [ORNL; Davis, Christine [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Wolf, Douglas [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Malarkey, David [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Fenton, Suzanne [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-?B and PKC signaling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-?B and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ? Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ? D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ? It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ? DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress via NF-kB and PKC signaling. ? DSL may act as a beneficial agent in hyperglycemia induced renal disorder.

Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Expression of the multifunctional Y-box protein, YB-1, in myofibroblasts of the infarcted rat heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intracellular signaling mechanisms regulating the turnover of {alpha}-SMA-positive myofibroblasts (myoFbs) at the site of myocardial infarction (MI) are poorly understood. Y-Box (YB)-1, a multifunctional protein, may be involved in regulation of proliferation, migration and apoptosis of myoFbs. Our objective was to study the expression of YB-1 in the infarcted rat heart and its localization in myoFbs. On days 3-28 following MI, we monitored YB-1 expression and its colocalization with {alpha}-SMA, and proliferation markers PCNA and Ki-67 in infarcted tissue by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescent double-labeling. YB-1 is barely detectable in normal myocardium. At the infarct site, however, YB-1 is markedly elevated from day 3 post-MI concomitant with the induction of cell proliferation. MyoFbs are the major source of YB-1 and retain it up to day 28 post-MI. We suggest early expression of YB-1 promotes proliferation and migration of myoFbs, whereas prolonged expression may be responsible for scar formation.

Kamalov, German [Department of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Varma, Balwantkumar R. [Department of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Lu Li [Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Sun Yao [Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Weber, Karl T. [Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States); Guntaka, Ramareddy V. [Department of Molecular Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163 (United States)]. E-mail: rguntaka@utmem.edu

2005-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

343

Z-(R,R)-IQNP shows higher brain and heart uptake in rats than IDEX and 4IQNB  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Z-(R)-1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl (R)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (Z-(R,R)-IQNP) shows potential for the in vivo imaging of muscarinic receptors (mAChR) by SPECT. In vivo biodistribution studies show high uptake and prolonged retention in areas of the brain containing mAChR. We compared the biodistribution of Z-(R,R)-IQNP with 4-iodoexetimide (IDEX) and R-3 quinuclidinyl S-4-iodobenzilate (41QNB), two established muscarinic imaging agents. IDEX was labeled with iodine-125, 4IQNB was labeled with iodine-131 and IQNP was labeled with iodine-123. A solution containing the three compounds was injected in the same rat (n=5/time point). Animals were sacrificed at 30, 120, and 240 minutes and the levels of the three radioisotopes determined in various tissues. Z-(R,R)-IQNP was retained at twice the level as compared to IDEX and significantly higher than 4-IQNB in the hear and regions of the brain (Table). Z-(R,R)-IQNP also demonstrated low liver uptake as compared to IDEX. These data indicate that Z-(R,R)-IQNP is an attractive candidate for the imaging of mAChR by SPECT.

McPherson, D.W.; Ambrose, K.R.; Luo, H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in hydra attenuata and in rat whole-embryo culture. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are a class of biaryl compounds that have little commercial application, but appear to be widespread in the environment. They have been found in wood preservative waste dumpsites and in fly ash from municipal waste incinerators. They have been detected in bird eggs and tissues, fish, and other edible marine organisms in the United States, Canada, and Europe. There are limited reports in the extant literature on the toxicity of PCDEs. This study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of selected PCDEs in cultures of Hydra attenuata and post-implantation rat whole embryos. The toxicity of several closely related polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated in both cultures and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated in whole embryo culture. Embryonic growth and development parameters (yolk sac diameter, crown-rump length, somite count, and DNA and protein content) and gross morphology were determined. Findings indicated that these chemicals were neither embryotoxic nor teratogenic. Thus, the PCDEs, which elicit other diverse toxic and biochemical responses in rodents, are relatively inactive in these bioassays for developmental toxicity.

Becker, M.C.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Development of tyrosine aminotransferase in perinatal rat liver: changes in function messenger RNA and the role of inducing hormones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expression of the hepatic enzyme tyrosine aminotranferase was analyzed in the perinatal period of development in the rat, when this expression undergoes significant changes associated with hepatocyte differentiation. In late prenatal liver both enzyme and functional mRNA gene products are present at levels 10- to 15-fold below those in the fully differentiated adult liver. This low level of expression in fetal liver is refractory to induction by glucocorticoids, but both gene products are increased to a limited extent by cyclic AMP. This induction by cyclic AMP (cAMP) does not confer glucocorticoid-responsiveness on expression. By 3 hr after birth both functional mRNA and enzyme levels are significantly increased, an increase which continues until a peak is reached at 12 hr that is appreciably above the adult levels. Both gene products then decline until adult levels are reached by 24 hr. The postnatal shift in aminotransferase expression is accompanied by acquisition of the capacity to respond to glucocorticoids. Treatment of newborns with an antiglucocorticoid steroid or with glucose suppresses the postnatal overshoot of expression, but neither treatment affects the increase from fetal to adult levels of expression. The results indicate that prior to birth, expression of the aminotransferase gene is partially repressed, a repression that is lifted essentially immediately upon birth. The hormones capable of inducing aminotranferase synthesis have no apparent necessary role in this process.

Perry, S.T.; Rothrock, R.; Isham, K.R.; Lee, K.L.; Kenney, F.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Modulation of rat testes lipid composition by hormones: Effect of PRL (prolactin) and hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of prolactin (PRL) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration for 7 days on the composition and function of rat testicular plasma membrane was investigated. Refractory state in Leydig cells desensitized by hCG decreased the binding capacity for {sup 125}I-labeled hCG and also luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and testosterone production. In testicular membranes of hCG-treated animals, a depletion of cholesterol and an increase in total phospholipid content was observed after gonadotropin injection, thereby decreasing the cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratio. Injection of high doses of PRL had no effect on the binding capacity or affinity of the LH-hCG receptor but decreased the response of Leydig cells to LH in terms of cAMP and testosterone synthesis. PRL also increased total and esterified cholesterol and decreased free cholesterol and membrane phospholipid content. The fatty acid composition of testicular lipids was significantly and selectively influenced by both hormonal treatments. These observations suggest that metabolism of cholesterol and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in testicular tissue is affected by chorionic gonadotropin and PRL and may provide the mechanism for regulating steroidogenic functions.

Sebokova, E.; Wierzbicki, A.; Clandinin, M.T. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Beta-adrenergic modulation of the release of atrial natriuretic factor from rat cardiac atria in vitro  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several stimulatory factors for the release of atrial natriuretic factor, such as atrial stretch, atrial pacing and vasopressin, have been reported. We studied the effects of the adrenergic nervous system on the release of ANF using an in vitro perfusion system. Right and left atria from Sprague-Dawley rats were quartered and perfused with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution gassed with 95% CO/sub 2//5% O/sub 2/ at 37/sup 0/C. Perfusate factions were collected every 2 minutes. Fractions were collected 20 minutes before and for 2 hours during the administration of test agents. ANF was measured by radioimmunoassay. Within 10 minutes of exposure to 10/sup -6/M isoproterenol, ANF secretion fell to less than 50% of its baseline level. However, beta agonists showed a stimulatory effect of 4-5 fold. Carbachol, in a concentration of 10/sup -2/M was used to demonstrate the viability of the atria exposed to isoproterenol, and produced a stimulation of ANF release of 4-6 times the basal level. The adrenergic nervous system can modulate ANF release in vitro. Further studies are being performed with selective beta agonists and antagonists to elucidate these results.

Brown, A.; Imada, T.; Takayanagi, B.; Inagami, T.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Differential Regulation of Granule-to-Granule and Granule-to-Plasma Membrane Fusion during Secretion from Rat Pituitary Lactotrophs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract. We used fluorescence imaging of individual exocytic events together with electron microscopy to study the regulation of dense core granule-to-plasma membrane fusion and granule-to-granule fusion events that occur during secretion from rat pituitary lactotrophs. Stimulating secretion with elevated extracellular potassium, with the calcium ionophore ionomycin, or with thyrotropin releasing hormone or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide resulted in abundant exocytic structures. Approximately 67 % of these structures consisted of multiple granules fused together sharing a single exocytic opening with the plasma membrane, i.e., compound exocytosis. For all of these stimulation conditions there appeared to be a finite number of plasma membrane fusion sites, ?11 sites around each cellular equator. However, a granule could fuse directly with another granule that had already fused with the plasma membrane even before all plasma membrane sites were occupied. Granule-to-plasma membrane and granuleto-granule fusion events were subject to different regulations. Forskolin, which can elevate cAMP, increased the number of granule-to-granule fusion events without altering the number of granule-to-plasma membrane fusion events. In contrast, the phorbol ester PMA, which activates protein kinase C increased both granule-to-granule and granule-to-plasma membrane fusion events. These results provide a cellular mechanism that can account for the previously demonstrated potentiation of secretion from lactotrophs by cAMP- and PKCdependent pathways. Key words: FM1-43 fluorescence homotypic fusion compound exocytosis phorbol ester

A J. Cochilla; Joseph K. Angleson; William J. Betz

349

o-p?-DDT-mediated uterotrophy and gene expression in immature C57BL/6 mice and SpragueDawley rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(2-chlorophenyl-4-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p?-DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide and endocrine disruptor known to activate the estrogen receptor. Comprehensive ligand- and species-comparative dose- and time-dependent studies were conducted to systematically assess the uterine physiological, morphological and gene expression responses elicited by o,p?-DDT and ethynyl estradiol (EE) in immature ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice and SpragueDawley rats. Custom cDNA microarrays were used to identify conserved and divergent differential gene expression responses. A total of 1256 genes were differentially expressed by both ligands in both species, 559 of which exhibited similar temporal expression profiles suggesting that o,p?-DDT elicits estrogenic effects at high doses when compared to EE. However, 51 genes exhibited species-specific uterine expression elicited by o,p?-DDT. For example, carbonic anhydrase 2 exhibited species- and ligand-divergent expression as confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The identification of comparable temporal phenotypic responses linked to gene expression demonstrates that systematic comparative gene expression assessments are valuable for elucidating conserved and divergent estrogen signaling mechanisms in rodent uterotrophy. - Highlights: o,p?-DDT and enthynyl estradiol (EE) both elicit uterotrophy in mice and rats. o,p?-DDT and EE have different kinetics in uterine wet weight induction. o,p?-DDT elicited stromal hypertrophy in rats but myometrial hypertrophy in mice. 1256 genes were differentially expressed by both ligands in both species. Only 51 genes had species-specific uterine expression.

Kwekel, Joshua C.; Forgacs, Agnes L. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Williams, Kurt J. [Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DAN damage in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. - Highlights: DPAA, an environmental neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats. DPAA is an activator of AhR signaling pathway. DPAA promoted oxidative DNA damage in rat livers. AhR target gene CYP 1B1 might be involved in the metabolism of DPAA.

Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Chronic graft-versus-host disease in the rat radiation chimera: I. clinical features, hematology, histology, and immunopathology in long-term chimeras  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The clinical features, pathology, and immunopathology of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developing in the long-term rat radiation chimera are described. At 6 to 12 months post-transplant, the previously stable ACI/LEW chimeras developed patchy to diffuse severe hair loss and thickened skin folds, and had microscopic features resembling scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, and chronic hepatitis. Skin histology showed dermal inflammation and acanthosis with atrophy of the appendages, with progression to dermal sclerosis. The liver revealed chronic hepatitis with bile duct injury and proliferation and periportal piecemeal necrosis. The tongue had considerable submucosal inflammation, muscular necrosis, and atrophy and arteritis. The serous salivary glands, lacrimal glands, and bronchi had lymphocytic inflammation and injury to duct, acinar, and mucosal columnar epithelium. The thymus had lymphocyte depletion of the medulla with prominent epithelium. The spleen and lymph nodes had poorly developed germinal centers but increased numbers of plasma cells. IgM was observed along the basement membrane and around the basal cells of the skin and tongue and along the basement membrane of the bile ducts. IgM was present also in the arteries of the tongue. Immunoglobulins eluted from the skin, cross-reacted with the bile duct epithelium and usually with both ACI and Lewis skin. Increased titers of speckled antinuclear antibodies were present in the serum of rats with chronic (GVHD). Chronic GVHD in the long-term rat radiation chimera is very similar to human chronic GVHD and is a potentially excellent model for autoimmune disorders including scleroderma, Sjorgren's syndrome, and chronic hepatitis.

Beschorner, W.E.; Tutschka, P.J.; Santos, G.W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of ?3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. Attenuated levels of ?3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. SpragueDawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved by separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 1015 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), ?3-adrenergic receptor (?3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through ?3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the ?3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.

Miki, Takanori, E-mail: mikit@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Shingo [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Kusaka, Takashi [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Warita, Katsuhiko [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Yokoyama, Toshifumi [Department of Bioresource and Agrobiosciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan)] [Department of Bioresource and Agrobiosciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan); Jamal, Mostofa [Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Ueki, Masaaki [Department of Anesthesia, Nishiwaki Municipal Hospital (Japan)] [Department of Anesthesia, Nishiwaki Municipal Hospital (Japan); Yakura, Tomiko; Tamai, Motoki [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Sumitani, Kazunori [Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Hosomi, Naohisa [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (Japan); Takeuchi, Yoshiki [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

353

DDT (2,2,bis(p-chlorophenyl) 1,1,1-trichloroethane) induced structural changes in adrenal glands of rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oldest chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, DDT was used widely to control pest and vector borne diseases in developing countries. Malaria and vector borne diseases can be econometrically controlled by DDT. Chronic and acute exposures to DDT result in systemic disorders in human as well as this confirmed in animals. Experimental study revealed that DDT caused the structural and functional changes in thyroid and reproductive system. The effects of DDT on adrenal glands are not well documented. Therefore this experimental investigation was undertaken to evaluate the histomorphological changes of adrenal gland after the treatment with DDT in rats.

Chowdhury, A.R.; Gautam, A.K.; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H. (National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad (India))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be used as a potential treatment method to alleviate the late diabetic complications.

Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)] [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

2012-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

355

Quantified regional and laminar distribution of the noradrenaline innervation in the anterior half of the adult rat cerebral cortex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The regional and laminar distribution of the noradrenaline (NA) innervation in the adult rat cerebral cortex was quantified in radioautographs of semithin sections from whole hemisphere slices incubated with tritiated catecholamines and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Uptake-labeled axonal varicosities (aggregates of silver grains) were counted with the help of a computerized image analyzer in seven cytoarchitectonic areas of the rostral half of the cortex: Cg3, rostral AID, Cg2, Fr1, Par1, caudal AID, and Pir (prepiriform) according to Zilles's nomenclature. Both dopamine (DA) and NA terminals were detected after incubation with (3H)DA and citalopram or with (3H)NA alone. In the presence of desipramine (DMI), DA terminals alone were demonstrated; the number of NA terminals was then obtained by subtraction from counts in adjacent slices incubated with or without DMI. These counts suggested that DA and NA varicosities were fully visualized only after labeling with their respective tritiated amine. Similar numbers of labeled NA varicosities as inferred after (3H)NA incubation with or without DMI were observed after (3H)NA incubation in the presence of benztropine (BZ). This indicated that NA terminals were then maximally detected to the exclusion of the DA ones, and the latter approach was adopted for the acquisition of normative data. Since the average diameter of the labeled NA varicosities was known from earlier measurements in electron microscope radioautographs, the initial counts of labeled sites/mm2 of histological section could be expressed as numbers of varicosities/mm3 of tissue following a double correction for incomplete detection at the chosen duration of radioautographic exposure and section thickness.

Audet, M.A.; Doucet, G.; Oleskevich, S.; Descarries, L.

1988-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Synergistic acceleration of thyroid hormone degradation by phenobarbital and the PPAR{alpha} agonist WY14643 in rat hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy balance is maintained by controlling both energy intake and energy expenditure. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in regulating energy expenditure. Their levels are adjusted by a tight feedback-controlled regulation of thyroid hormone production/incretion and by their hepatic metabolism. Thyroid hormone degradation has previously been shown to be enhanced by treatment with phenobarbital or other antiepileptic drugs due to a CAR-dependent induction of phase II enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism. We have recently shown, that PPAR{alpha} agonists synergize with phenobarbital to induce another prototypical CAR target gene, CYP2B1. Therefore, it was tested whether a PPAR{alpha} agonist could enhance the phenobarbital-dependent acceleration of thyroid hormone elimination. In primary cultures of rat hepatocytes the apparent half-life of T3 was reduced after induction with a combination of phenobarbital and the PPAR{alpha} agonist WY14643 to a larger extent than after induction with either compound alone. The synergistic reduction of the half-life could be attributed to a synergistic induction of CAR and the CAR target genes that code for enzymes and transporters involved in the hepatic elimination of T3, such as OATP1A1, OATP1A3, UGT1A3 and UGT1A10. The PPAR{alpha}-dependent CAR induction and the subsequent induction of T3-eliminating enzymes might be of physiological significance for the fasting-induced reduction in energy expenditure by fatty acids as natural PPAR{alpha} ligands. The synergism of the PPAR{alpha} agonist WY14643 and phenobarbital in inducing thyroid hormone breakdown might serve as a paradigm for the synergistic disruption of endocrine control by other combinations of xenobiotics.

Wieneke, N.; Neuschaefer-Rube, F. [University of Potsdam, Institute of Nutrition Science, Biochemistry of Nutrition, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, D14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Bode, L.M. [University of Potsdam, Institute of Nutrition Science, Food Chemistry, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, D14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Kuna, M. [University of Potsdam, Institute of Nutrition Science, Biochemistry of Nutrition, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, D14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Andres, J. [Charite - Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Carnevali, L.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Biologia Celular e Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hirsch-Ernst, K.I. [Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Institute of Pharmakology and Toxikology, Molekular Pharmakology, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, D-37075 Goettingen (Germany); Pueschel, G.P. [University of Potsdam, Institute of Nutrition Science, Biochemistry of Nutrition, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, D14558 Nuthetal (Germany)], E-mail: gpuesche@uni-potsdam.de

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Plasminogen activator activity in lung and alveolar macrophages of rats exposed to graded single doses of. gamma. rays to the right hemithorax  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Male rats were sacrificed 2 or 6 months after a single dose of 0-30 Gy of /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays to the right hemithorax. At autopsy, macrophages were lavaged from the right lung, counted, and frozen. The right (irradiated) and the left (shielded) lungs were frozen, then assayed for plasminogen activator (PLA) activity by the fibrin plate lysis method. Freeze-thawed macrophages were assayed for both PLA activity (/sup 125/I-fibrin clot lysis method) and fibrinolytic inhibitor activity (inhibition of urokinase-induced fibrin lysis). There was a linear, dose-dependent decrease in right lung PLA activity over the dose range of 10-30 Gy at 2 and 6 months postirradiation, reductions of 3.1 and 2.6% per Gy, respectively. PLA activity at all radiation doses was 10-15% higher at 6 months than at 2 months indicative of a partial recovery of this endothelial function in the irradiated lung. PLA activity per 10/sup 6/ macrophages decreased with increasing radiation dose at both autopsy times, closely paralleling lung PLA activity. This radiation-induced decrease in macrophage PLA activity was not due to increased fibrinolytic inhibitor activity in the irradiated macrophages. These data quantitate the dose response and time course of radiation-induced fibrinolytic defects in rat lung and suggest that information obtained from a minimally invasive procedure such as bronchoalveolar lavage may serve as an index of the degree of pulmonary fibrinolytic dysfunction after irradiation.

Ts'ao, C.; Ward, W.F.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Etude biochimique et morphologique des particules lipoprotiques de la lymphe intestinale de rat au cours de l'absorption d'acide olique ou de son isomre trans, l'acide tadique,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, iso- mère trans de l'acide oléique. On infuse dans une anse intestinale de rat, 90 Ilmoles d'absorption se situe au cours de la seconde demi-heure qui suit l'infusion du régime « acide olëique» (37 + 3

Boyer, Edmond

359

Transient oxidative stress and inflammation after intraperitoneal administration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with single strand DNA in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used for nanotechnology. Their impact on living organisms is, however, not entirely clarified. Oxidative stress and inflammation seem to be the key mechanisms involved in MWCNTs' cytotoxicity. Until present, pulmonary and skin models were the main tested experimental designs to assess carbon nanotubes' toxicity. The systemic administration of MWCNTs is essential, with respect for future medical applications. Our research is performed on Wistar rats and is focused on the dynamics of oxidative stress parameters in blood and liver and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, after single dose (270 mg l{sup ?1}) ip administration of MWCNTs (exterior diameter 1525 nm, interior diameter 1015 nm, surface 88 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}) functionalized with single strand DNA (ss-DNA). The presence of MWCNTs in blood was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, while in liver histological examination and confocal microscopy were used. It was found that ss-DNA-MWCNTs induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver, with the return of the tested parameters to normal values, 6 h after ip injection of nanotubes, with the exception of reduced glutathione in plasma. The inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?) had a similar pattern of evolution. We also assessed the level of ERK1/2 and the phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NF-kB in liver that had a transient increase and returned to normal at the end of the tested period. Our results demonstrate that ss-DNA-MWCNTs produce oxidative stress and inflammation, but with a transient pattern. Given the fact that antioxidants modify the profile not only for oxidative stress, but also of inflammation, the dynamics of these alterations may be of practical importance for future protective strategies. -- Highlights: ? ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration induce oxidative stress in plasma and liver. ? ss-DNA-MWCNTs ip administration determine liver inflammation. ? ERK1/2 and p65 phosphorylated NF-KB increase in liver after MWCNTs ip injection. ? All the alterations, except plasma GSH, return to normal within 6 days.

Clichici, Simona, E-mail: simonaclichici@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Biris, Alexandru Radu [National R and D Institute of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National R and D Institute of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tabaran, Flaviu [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Filip, Adriana [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Department of Physiology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Effect of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neurite outgrowth in primary rat cortical neurons following ischemic insult  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 710 nm wavelength light (LED) has a protective effect in the stroke animal model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined the effects of LED irradiation in vitro stroke model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LED treatment promotes the neurite outgrowth through MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The level of synaptic markers significantly increased with LED treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LED treatment protects cell death in the in vitro stroke model. -- Abstract: Objective: We previously reported that 710 nm Light-emitting Diode (LED) has a protective effect through cellular immunity activation in the stroke animal model. However, whether LED directly protects neurons suffering from neurodegeneration was entirely unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neuronal protection and neuronal outgrowth in an in vitro stroke model. Materials and methods: Primary cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation and normal conditions. An LED array with a peak wavelength of 710 nm was placed beneath the covered culture dishes with the room light turned off and were irradiated accordingly. LED treatments (4 min at 4 J/cm{sup 2} and 50 mW/cm{sup 2}) were given once to four times within 8 h at 2 h intervals for 7 days. Mean neurite density, mean neurite diameter, and total fiber length were also measured after microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunostaining using the Axio Vision program. Synaptic marker expression and MAPK activation were confirmed by Western blotting. Results: Images captured after MAP2 immunocytochemistry showed significant (p < 0.05) enhancement of post-ischemic neurite outgrowth with LED treatment once and twice a day. MAPK activation was enhanced by LED treatment in both OGD-exposed and normal cells. The levels of synaptic markers such as PSD 95, GAP 43, and synaptophysin significantly increased with LED treatment in both OGD-exposed and normal cells (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our data suggest that LED treatment may promote synaptogenesis through MAPK activation and subsequently protect cell death in the in vitro stroke model.

Choi, Dong-Hee [Center for Neuroscience Research, SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Neuroscience Research, SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Moon Young [Center for Neuroscience Research, SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Neuroscience Research, SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jeong Hoon [Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rehabilitation Medicine, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, National University Health System (Singapore); Lee, Jongmin, E-mail: leej@kuh.ac.kr [Center for Neuroscience Research, SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Neuroscience Research, SMART Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Positron emission tomography study on pancreatic somatostatin receptors in normal and diabetic rats with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide: A potential PET tracer for beta cell mass measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: PET images showed high uptake of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide in the normal pancreas. {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide specifically binds to somatostatin receptors in the pancreas. The pancreatic uptake of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide was decreased in the diabetic rats. {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide could be a candidate PET probe to measure the beta cell mass. -- Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, and the loss or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells has been reported before the appearance of clinical symptoms and hyperglycemia. To evaluate beta cell mass (BCM) for improving the detection and treatment of DM at earlier stages, we focused on somatostatin receptors that are highly expressed in the pancreatic beta cells, and developed a positron emission tomography (PET) probe derived from octreotide, a metabolically stable somatostatin analog. Octreotide was conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), a chelating agent, and labeled with {sup 68}Gallium ({sup 68}Ga). After intravenous injection of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide, a 90-min emission scan of the abdomen was performed in normal and DM model rats. The PET studies showed that {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide radioactivity was highly accumulated in the pancreas of normal rats and that the pancreatic accumulation was significantly reduced in the rats administered with an excess amount of unlabeled octreotide or after treatment with streptozotocin, which was used for the chemical induction of DM in rats. These results were in good agreement with the ex vivo biodistribution data. These results indicated that the pancreatic accumulation of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide represented specific binding to the somatostatin receptors and reflected BCM. Therefore, PET imaging with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-octreotide could be a potential tool for evaluating BCM.

Sako, Takeo [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan) [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Division of Molecular Imaging, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Hasegawa, Koki; Nishimura, Mie; Kanayama, Yousuke; Wada, Yasuhiro; Hayashinaka, Emi; Cui, Yilong; Kataoka, Yosky [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan)] [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Senda, Michio [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan) [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Division of Molecular Imaging, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 2-2 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Watanabe, Yasuyoshi, E-mail: yywata@riken.jp [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan)] [Division of Bio-function Dynamics Imaging, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan)

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

362

DHA down-regulates phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 2B1 gene expression in rat primary hepatocytes by attenuating CAR translocation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role in regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes, including cytochrome P450 2B (CYP 2B). Phenobarbital (PB) induction of human CYP 2B6 and mouse CYP 2b10 has been shown to be mediated by CAR. Our previous study showed that PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes is down-regulated by both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the mechanism for this down-regulation by DHA was previously unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether change in CAR translocation is involved in the down-regulation by n-6 and n-3 PUFAs of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes. We used 100 {mu}M arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA to test this hypothesis. PB triggered the translocation of CAR from the cytosol into the nucleus in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in our hepatocyte system, and the CAR distribution in rat primary hepatocytes was significantly affected by DHA. DHA treatment decreased PB-inducible accumulation of CAR in the nuclear fraction and increased it in the cytosolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CYP 2B1 expression by DHA occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and a similar pattern was found for the nuclear accumulation of CAR. The results of immunoprecipitation showed a CAR/RXR heterodimer bound to nuclear receptor binding site 1 (NR-1) of the PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) of the CYP 2B1gene. The EMSA results showed that PB-induced CAR binding to NR-1 was attenuated by DHA. Taken together, these results suggest that attenuation of CAR translocation and decreased subsequent binding to NR-1 are involved in DHA's down-regulation of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression.

Li, C.-C.; Lii, C.-K.; Liu, K.-L. [Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yang, J.-J. [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.-W. [Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hawwen@csmu.edu.tw

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Enhancement of Raman Light Scattering in Dye-Labeled Rat Glioma Cells by Langmuir-Blodgett CNT-Bundles Arranged on Metal-Containing Conducting Polymer Film  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have fabricated layered nanocomposite consisting of a nanoporous anodic alumina sublayer (AOA), an ultrathin metal-containing polymer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film coating AOA, and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MCNT) - bundles which are arranged on the LB-film. MCNTs were preliminarily chemically modified by carboxyl groups and functionalized by stearic acid. We have experimentally observed an enhancement of Raman light scattering on surface plasmons in the LB-monolayers. This enhancement is due to charge and energy transfer. We demonstrate that propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence is quenched by the MCNT-bundles. A method of two-dimensional system imaging based on the MCNT-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been proposed. This method has been applied to visualize focal adhesion sites on membranes of living PI-labeled rat glioma cells.

Egorov, A S; Grushevskaya, H V; Krot, V I; Krylova, N G; Lipnevich, I V; Orekhovskaya, T I; Shulitsky, B G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Inhalation anesthesia in experimental radiotherapy: a reliable and time-saving system for multifractionation studies in a clinical department. [Rats; Mice  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inhalation anesthesia system has been employed to overcome several of the limitations associated wih the use of sodium pentobarbital and other i.p. administered anesthetics in experimental radiotherapy. The described method is reliable and time-saving. The depth and duration of anesthesia are easily controllable. Only 4 deaths have occurred with more than 6000 animal exposures. The use of polystyrene jigs is shown to provide adequate thermal isolation. Oxygen as a carrier of the anesthetic agent is expected to prevent a reduced tissue oxygenation and its radiobiologial consequences. The whole system is constructed as a mobile unit in which up to 16 mice or rats can be anesthetized simultaneously and irradiated in a single field with clinical treatment equipment during short time intervals between patient irradiations. The described advantages of this method make it specially suited for experiments with protracted fractionation schedules.

Ang, K.K. (Univ. Hospital, Leuven, Belgium); Van Der Kogel, A.J.; Van Der Schueren, E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

The In Vivo Quantitation of Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and Their Major Metabolites in Rat Blood for the Refinement of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chlorpyrifos (CPF)(O,O-diethyl-O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl]-phosphorothioate, CAS 2921-88-2), and diazinon (DZN)(O,O-diethyl-O-2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidyl thiophosphate, CAS 333-41-5) are commonly encountered organophosphorus insecticides whose oxon metabolites (CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon) have the ability to strongly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine at nerve synapses. Chlorpyrifos-oxon and DZN-oxon are highly unstable compounds that degrade via hepatic, peripheral blood, and intestinal metabolism to the more stable metabolites, TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, CAS not assigned) and IMHP (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol, CAS 2814-20-2), respectively. Studies have been performed to understand and model the chronic and acute toxic effects of CPF and DZN individually but little is known about their combined effects. The purpose of this study was to improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) computational models by quantifying concentrations of CPF and DZN and their metabolites TCP and IMHP in whole rat blood, following exposure to the chemicals individually or as a mixture. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with 60 mg/kg of CPF, DZN, or a mixture of these two pesticides. When administered individually DZN and CPF were seen to reach their maximum concentration at ~3 hours post-dosing. When given as a mixture, both DZN and CPF peak blood concentrations were not achieved until ~6 hours post-dosing and the calculated blood area under the curve (AUC) for both chemicals exceeded those calculated following the single dose. Blood concentrations of IMHP and TCP correlated with these findings. It is proposed that the higher AUC obtained for both CPF and DZN as a mixture resulted from competition for the same metabolic enzyme systems.

Busby, A.; Kousba, A.; Timchalk, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through reninangiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase?mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ? Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ? RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation. ? Translocation of p47phox and MAPKs phosphorylation are downstream effectors. ? Acute ethanol consumption increases the risk for acute vascular injury.

Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, Andr S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo (USP), Ribeiro Preto, SP (Brazil)] [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo (USP), Ribeiro Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalho, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeiro Preto, USP, So Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeiro Preto, USP, So Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, Jos [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo (USP), Ribeiro Preto, SP (Brazil)] [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo (USP), Ribeiro Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, So Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, So Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeiro Preto, USP, Ribeiro Preto, SP (Brazil)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates early renal injury through its anti-inflammatory action in a rat model of type 1 diabetes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: DPP-4 inhibitor decreased urinary albumin excretion in a rat of type 1 diabetes. DPP-4 inhibitor ameliorated histlogical changes of diabetic nephropathy. DPP-4 inhibitor has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. DPP-4 inhibitor is beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose. -- Abstract: Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are incretin-based drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, we showed that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitor is different from that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. It is not obvious whether DPP-4 inhibitor prevents the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy through anti-inflammatory effects besides lowering blood glucose or not. The purpose of this study is to clarify the reno-protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitor through anti-inflammatory actions in the early diabetic nephropathy. Materials and methods: Five-week-old male SpragueDawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups; non-diabetes, diabetes and diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (PKF275-055; 3 mg/kg/day). PKF275-055 was administered orally for 8 weeks. Results: PKF275-055 increased the serum active GLP-1 concentration and the production of urinary cyclic AMP. PKF275-055 decreased urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated histological change of diabetic nephropathy. Macrophage infiltration was inhibited, and inflammatory molecules were down-regulated by PKF275-055 in the glomeruli. In addition, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity was suppressed in the kidney. Conclusions: These results indicate that DPP-4 inhibitor, PKF275-055, have reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. The endogenous biological active GLP-1 might be beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose.

Kodera, Ryo, E-mail: kodera@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)] [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Shikata, Kenichi [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan) [Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Takatsuka, Tetsuharu; Oda, Kaori; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Kajitani, Nobuo; Hirota, Daisho; Ono, Tetsuichiro [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Usui, Hitomi Kataoka [Department of Primary Care and Medical Education, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)] [Department of Primary Care and Medical Education, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Makino, Hirofumi [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)] [Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

368

Asparagine metabolism in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-scintillation counting. Except for monitoring column effluent, sll C assays were done in a Nuclear-Chicago Modular 4 Mark I Liquid Scintillation System using the published liquid scintillation counting technique of Bruno and Christian (26). In i all cases, samples...

Harper, John Colquitt

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

369

Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: Evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To elucidate possible mode of action (MOA) and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), male F344 rats were administered ETBE at doses of 0, 150 and 1000 mg/kg body weight twice a day by gavage for 1 and 2 weeks. For comparison, non-genotoxic carcinogen phenobarbital (PB) was applied at a dose of 500 ppm in diet. Significant increase of P450 total content and hydroxyl radical levels by low, high doses of ETBE and PB treatments at weeks 1 and 2, and 8-OHdG formation at week 2, accompanied accumulation of CYP2B1/2B2, CYP3A1/3A2 and CYP2C6, and downregulation of DNA oxoguanine glycosylase 1, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatocytes, respectively. Up-regulation of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 at weeks 1 and 2, and peroxisome proliferation at week 2 were found in high dose ETBE group. Results of proteome analysis predicted activation of upstream regulators of gene expression altered by ETBE including constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). These results indicate that the MOA of ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats may be related to induction of oxidative stress, 8-OHdG formation, subsequent cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis, suggesting regenerative cell proliferation after week 2, predominantly via activation of CAR and PXR nuclear receptors by a mechanism similar to that of PB, and differentially by activation of PPARs. The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans. - Highlights: We focus on MOA and human relevance of hepatotumorigenicity in rats for ETBE. ETBE was administered to F344 rats for 1 and 2 weeks. Oxidative stress formation, proliferation and apoptosis in the liver are analyzed. ETBE-induced changes of gene and protein expression in the liver are examined. The effects are compared with those induced by non-genotoxic carcinogen PB.

Kakehashi, Anna, E-mail: anna@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Hagiwara, Akihiro; Imai, Norio [DIMS Institute of Medical Science, Inc., 64 Goura, Nishiazai, Azai-cho, Ichinomiya, Aichi 491-0113 (Japan); Nagano, Kasuke [Nagano Toxicologic-Pathology Consulting, Ochiai, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0025 (Japan); Nishimaki, Fukumi [Biofuel Assessment Group, New Fuels Dept., Japan Petroleum Energy Center (JPEC), 4-3-9 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Banton, Marcy [Toxicology and Risk Assessment, LyondellBasell Industries, LyondellBasell Corporate HSE/Product Safety, One Houston Center, Suite 700, 1221 McKinney Street, Houston, TX 770 10 (United States); Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0011 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

A triple-resonant RF coil setup for 1H, 23Na and 39K MR imaging of the rat brain at 9.4T M. A. Augath1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A triple-resonant RF coil setup for 1H, 23Na and 39K MR imaging of the rat brain at 9.4T M. A. Augath1,2 , P. Heiler1 , S. Kirsch1 , and L. R. Schad1 1 Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Faculty concentrations of 23 Na and 39 K offers a very promising approach in clinical diagnostics. For MR imaging of both

371

Excretion of radioactivity following the intraperitoneal administration of /sup 14/C-DDT, /sup 14/C-DDD, /sup 14/C-DDE and /sup 14/C-DDMU to the rat and Japanese Quail  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study in progress to examine the metabolic fate of DDT in birds and mammals is discussed. The first phase of the study, which is reported in this article, has been to establish the rate of excretion of ratioactivity following the intraperitoneal administrations of /sup 14/C-DDT, /sup 14/C-DDE, /sup 14/C-DDD, and /sup 14/C-DDMU to male rats and male Japanese quail. The mean values from the three animals in each experimental group for the amount of radioactivity excreted daily are given, and it was found that the rats excreted the radioactivity administered as DDT, DDD, and DDE substantially faster than did the quail. DDMU was excreted relatively rapidly and at similar rates. This finding suggests that apparent differences in the rates of excretion of DDT by birds and mammals probably arise from differences in the conversion of DDT to DDD or DDE or in the degradation of these metabolites to DDMU. The Japanese quail differ from the rats in excreting substantial amounts of unchanged DDT, DDE, and DDD, which probably reflects the inability of the Japanese quail to readily metabolise these compounds.

Fawcett, S.C. (Univ. of Surrey, Guildford, England); Bunyan, P.J.; Huson, L.W.; King, L.J.; Stanley, P.I.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Intermittent hypoxia induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell with the increases in epidermal growth factor family and erbB2 receptor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), and associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke and heart failure. These cardiovascular diseases have a relation to atherosclerosis marked by the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In this study, we investigated the influence of IH on cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC). The proliferation of RASMC was significantly increased by IH without changing the level of apoptosis. In order to see what induces RASMC proliferation, we investigated the influence of normoxia (N)-, IH- and sustained hypoxia (SH)-treated cell conditioned media on RASMC proliferation. IH-treated cell conditioned medium significantly increased RASMC proliferation compared with N-treated cell conditioned medium, but SH-treated cell conditioned medium did not. We next investigated the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family as autocrine growth factors. Among the EGF family, we found significant increases in mRNAs for epiregulin (ER), amphiregulin (AR) and neuregulin-1 (NRG1) in IH-treated cells and mature ER in IH-treated cell conditioned medium. We next investigated the changes in erbB family receptors that are receptors for ER, AR and NRG1, and found that erbB2 receptor mRNA and protein expressions were increased by IH, but not by SH. Phosphorylation of erbB2 receptor at Tyr-1248 that mediates intracellular signaling for several physiological effects including cell proliferation was increased by IH, but not by SH. In addition, inhibitor for erbB2 receptor suppressed IH-induced cell proliferation. These results provide the first demonstration that IH induces VSMC proliferation, and suggest that EGF family, such as ER, AR and NRG1, and erbB2 receptor could be involved in the IH-induced VSMC proliferation. - Highlights: ?In vitro system for intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH). ?IH, but not SH, induces the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cell. ?Epiregulin mRNA and protein are up-regulated in IH, but not in SH. ?IH-induced erbB2 phosphorylation is attenuated by erbB2 inhibitor. ?EGF family and erbB2 receptor may be involved in IH-induced cell proliferation.

Kyotani, Yoji, E-mail: cd147@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Pharmacy, Nara Medical University Hospital, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Ota, Hiroyo [Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Itaya-Hironaka, Asako; Yamauchi, Akiyo; Sakuramoto-Tsuchida, Sumiyo [Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Zhao, Jing; Ozawa, Kentaro; Nagayama, Kosuke; Ito, Satoyasu [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Takasawa, Shin [Department of Biochemistry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroshi [Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Uno, Masayuki [Department of Pharmacy, Nara Medical University Hospital, Kashihara 634-8522 (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masanori [Department of Pharmacology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara 634-8521 (Japan)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

4-Hydroxyestradiol is conjugated with thiols primarily at C-2: evidence from regiospecific displacement of tritium by rat liver microsomes or tyrosinase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

4-Hydroxyestradiol bearing a 3H label specifically at C-2 was prepared chemically and incubated with male rat liver microsomes or mushroom tyrosinase. A very high proportion (80-90%) of the 3H was displaced from the labeled steroid when either glutathione or N-acetylcysteine was present, and tyrosinase was shown not to require NADPH as cofactor for this reaction. In either case, only negligible amounts (less than 3%) of the 3H radioactivity were found associated with water-soluble adducts in contrast to 3H-labeled 2-hydroxyestradiol, which gave rise to about 25% of such products. The effect of ascorbic acid on the microsomal reaction with regiospecifically labeled estradiol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and 4-hydroxyestradiol was also investigated, and the results are discussed in terms of the reactivity at different carbon atoms in ring A of the catechol estrogens. All the evidence points to conjugation of 4-hydroxyestradiol with glutathione or N-acetylcysteine at C-2 but not C-1 of this highly reactive catechol estrogen. Measuring the displacement of 3H as 3H2O from specific positions in the steroid ring provides a useful and sensitive method to assess the formation of adducts in cases where their isolation and characterization is particularly difficult.

Jellinck, P.H.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Suppression of Akt1 phosphorylation by adenoviral transfer of the PTEN gene inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent findings identify the role of proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine kinase (Akt) proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) has been identified as a negative regulator of cytokine signaling that inhibits the PI3K-Akt pathway. However, little is known about the role of PTEN/Akt signaling in hypoxia-associated vascular remodeling. In this study, we found that hypoxia-induced the expression of Akt1 mRNA and phosphorylated protein by at least twofold in rat PASMCs. Phospho-PTEN significantly decreased in the nuclei of PASMCs after hypoxic stimulation. After forcing over-expression of PTEN by adenovirus-mediated PTEN (Ad-PTEN) transfection, the expression of phospho-Akt1 was significantly suppressed in PASMCs at all time-points measured. Additionally, we showed here that hypoxia increased proliferation of PASMCs by nearly twofold and over-expression of PTEN significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation. These findings suggest that phospho-PTEN loss in the nuclei of PASMCs under hypoxic conditions may be the major cause of aberrant activation of Akt1 and may, therefore, play an important role in hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling. Finally, the fact that transfection with Ad-PTEN inhibits the phosphorylation of Akt1 in PASMCs suggests a potential therapeutic effect on hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling.

Luo, Chunxia [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yi, Bin, E-mail: yibin1974@163.com [Department of Anesthesia, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China) [Department of Anesthesia, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Bai, Li [Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)] [Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Xia, Yongzhi [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang, Guansong; Qian, Guisheng [Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)] [Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Feng, Hua [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)] [Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

375

Regulation of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase expression and activity in the hypophysectomized rat ovary: Interactions between the stimulatory effect of human chorionic gonadotropin and the luteolytic effect of prolactin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The enzyme 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase (3 beta-HSD) catalyzes an obligatory step in the conversion of pregnenolone and other 5-ene-3 beta-hydroxysteroids into progesterone as well as precursors of all androgens and estrogens in the ovary. Since 3 beta-HSD is likely to be an important target for regulation by pituitary hormones, we have studied the effect of chronic treatment with LH (hCG), FSH, and PRL on ovarian 3 beta-HSD expression and activity in hypophysectomized adult female rats. Human CG (hCG) (10 IU, twice a day (bid)), ovine FSH (0.5 microgram, bid), and ovine PRL (1 mg, bid) were administered, singly or in combination, for a period of 10 days starting 15 days after hypophysectomy. In hypophysectomized rats, PRL exerted a potent inhibitory effect on all the parameters studied. In fact, PRL caused a 81% decrease in ovarian 3 beta-HSD mRNA content accompanied by a similar decrease in 3 beta-HSD activity and protein levels. In addition, ovarian weight decreased by 40% whereas serum progesterone fell dramatically from 1.92 nmol/liter to undetectable levels after treatment with PRL. Whereas hCG alone had only slight stimulatory effects on 3 beta-HSD mRNA, protein content and activity levels, treatment with the gonadotropin partially or completely reversed the potent inhibitory effects of oPRL on all the parameters measured. FSH, on the other hand, had no significant effect on 3 beta-HSD expression and activity. In situ hybridization experiments using the 35S-labeled rat ovary 3 beta-HSD cDNA probe show that the inhibitory effect of PRL is exerted primarily on luteal cell 3 beta-HSD expression and activity. On the other hand, it can be seen that hCG stimulates 3 beta-HSD mRNA accumulation in interstitial cells.

Martel, C.; Labrie, C.; Dupont, E.; Couet, J.; Trudel, C.; Rheaume, E.; Simard, J.; Luu-The, V.; Pelletier, G.; Labrie, F. (CHUL Research Center, Quebec (Canada))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Inhibition of aminoacylase 3 protects rat brain cortex neuronal cells from the toxicity of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal mercapturate and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) and acrolein (ACR) are highly reactive neurotoxic products of lipid peroxidation that are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Conjugation with glutathione (GSH) initiates the 4HNE and ACR detoxification pathway, which generates the mercapturates of 4HNE and ACR that can be excreted. Prior work has shown that the efficiency of the GSH-dependent renal detoxification of haloalkene derived mercapturates is significantly decreased upon their deacetylation because of rapid transformation of the deacetylated products into toxic compounds mediated by ?-lyase. The enzymes of the GSH-conjugation pathway and ?-lyases are expressed in the brain, and we hypothesized that a similar toxicity mechanism may be initiated in the brain by the deacetylation of 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate. The present study was performed to identify an enzyme(s) involved in 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate deacetylation, characterize the brain expression of this enzyme and determine whether its inhibition decreases 4HNE and 4HNE-mercapturate neurotoxicity. We demonstrated that of two candidate deacetylases, aminoacylases 1 (AA1) and 3 (AA3), only AA3 efficiently deacetylates both 4HNE- and ACR-mercapturate. AA3 was further localized to neurons and blood vessels. Using a small molecule screen we generated high-affinity AA3 inhibitors. Two of them completely protected rat brain cortex neurons expressing AA3 from the toxicity of 4HNE-mercapturate. 4HNE-cysteine (4HNE-Cys) was also neurotoxic and its toxicity was mostly prevented by a ?-lyase inhibitor, aminooxyacetate. The results suggest that the AA3 mediated deacetylation of 4HNE-mercapturate may be involved in the neurotoxicity of 4HNE.

Tsirulnikov, Kirill; Abuladze, Natalia [Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bragin, Anatol [Department of Neurology, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) [Department of Neurology, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Brain Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Faull, Kym [Brain Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) [Brain Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Pasarow Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cascio, Duilio [Institute of Genomics and Proteomics, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Institute of Genomics and Proteomics, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Damoiseaux, Robert; Schibler, Matthew J. [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [California NanoSystems Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Pushkin, Alexander, E-mail: apushkin@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Tyrosine hydroxylase is activated and phosphorylated at different sites in rat pheochromocytoma PC 12 cells treated with phorbol ester and forskolin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of phorbol ester (4..beta..-phorbol, 12..beta..-myristate, 13..cap alpha..-acetate; TPA), an activator of Ca/sup + +//phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PK-C), and forskolin, which stimulates adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-PK), on the activation and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells were examined. Incubation of the cells with TPA (0.01-1 ..mu..M) or forskolin (0.01-0.1 ..mu..M) produces increases in activation and phosphorylation of TH in a concentration-dependent manner. The stimulatory effects of TPA are dependent on extracellular Ca/sup + +/ and are inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with trifluoperazine (TFP). The effects of forskolin are independent of Ca/sup + +/ and are not inhibited by TFP. In cells treated with forskolin, the time course of the increase in cAMP correlates with the increases in TH activity and phosphorylation. cAMP levels do not increase in cells treated with TPA. There is an increase in the phosphorylation of only one tryptic phosphopeptide derived from TH in cells treated with either forskolin or TPA. The peptide phosphorylated in TPA-treated cells exhibits different elution characteristics on HPLC from that in forskolin-treated cells. The authors conclude that TH in PC 12 cells is phosphorylated on different sites by cAMP-PK and PK-C. Phosphorylation of either of these sites is associated with enzyme activation.

Tachikawa, E.; Tank, A.W.; Weiner, D.H.; Mosimann, W.F.; Yanagihara, N.; Weiner, N.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Low doses of ochratoxin A upregulate the protein expression of organic anion transporters Oat1, Oat2, Oat3 and Oat5 in rat kidney cortex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic in various animal species. In rodents, OTA intoxication impairs various proximal tubule (PT) functions, including secretion of p-aminohippurate (PAH), possibly via affecting the renal organic anion (OA) transporters (Oat). However, an effect of OTA on the activity/expression of specific Oats in the mammalian kidney has not been reported. In this work, male rats were gavaged various doses of OTA every 2nd day for 10 days, and in their kidneys we studied: tubule integrity by microscopy, abundance of basolateral (rOat1, rOat3) and brush-border (rOat2, rOat5) rOat proteins by immunochemical methods, and expression of rOats mRNA by RT-PCR. The OTA treatment caused: a) dose-dependent damage of the cells in S3 segments of medullary rays, b) dual effect upon rOats in PT: low doses (50-250 {mu}g OTA/kg b.m.) upregulated the abundance of all rOats, while a high dose (500 {mu}g OTA/kg b.m.) downregulated the abundance of rOat1, and c) unchanged mRNA expression for all rOats at low OTA doses, and its downregulation at high OTA dose. Changes in the expression of renal Oats were associated with enhanced OTA accumulation in tissue and excretion in urine, whereas the indicators of oxidative stress either remained unchanged (malondialdehyde, glutathione, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) or became deranged (microtubules). While OTA accumulation and downregulation of rOats in the kidney are consistent with the previously reported impaired renal PAH secretion in rodents intoxicated with high OTA doses, the post-transcriptional upregulation of Oats at low OTA doses may contribute to OTA accumulation and development of nephrotoxicity.

Zlender, Vilim [Unit of Toxicology, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Breljak, Davorka; Ljubojevic, Marija [Molecular Toxicology, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10001, Zagreb (Croatia); Flajs, Dubravka [Unit of Toxicology, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Balen, Daniela; Brzica, Hrvoje [Molecular Toxicology, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10001, Zagreb (Croatia); Domijan, Ana-Marija; Peraica, Maja; Fuchs, Radovan [Unit of Toxicology, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Anzai, Naohiko [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sabolic, Ivan [Molecular Toxicology, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska cesta 2, HR-10001, Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: sabolic@imi.hr

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Repair of O sup 6 -ethylguanine in DNA protects rat 208F cells from tumorigenic conversion by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

O{sup 6}-Ethylguanine (O{sup 6}-EtGua) is one of about a dozen different alkylation products formed in the DNA of cells exposed to the alkylating N-nitroso carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). The authors have evaluated selectively the relative capacity of cells for the specific enzymatic repair of O{sup 6}-EtGua as a determinant for the probability of malignant conversion. Eleven O{sup 6}-EtGua-repair-proficient (R{sup +}) variant subclones were isolated from the O{sup 6}-EtGua-repair-deficient (R{sup {minus}}) clonal rat fibroblast line 208F by selection for resistance to 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. Contrary to the 208F wild-type cells, all variants expressed O{sup 6}-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity, while both kinds of cells were deficient for repair of the DNA ethylation products O{sup 2}- and O{sup 4}-ethylthymine. After exposure to EtNU cells were analyzed for the formation of piled-up foci in monolayer culture and of anchorage-independent colonies in semisolid agar medium. No significant differences in the frequencies of piled-up foci were found between wild-type and variant cells after exposure to the major reactive metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene, (+)-7{beta},8{alpha}-dihydroxy-9,10{alpha}-epoxy7,8,9,10{alpha}-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene, for which stable binding to guanine O{sup 6} in cellular DNA has not been observed. The relative capacity of cells for repair of O{sup 6}-alkylguanine is, therefore, a critical determinant for their risk of malignant conversion by N-nitroso carcinogens.

Thomale, J.; Huh, Namho; Nehls, P.; Eberle, G.; Rajewsky, M.F. (Univ. of Essen Medical School (West Germany))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

{gamma}-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABA{sub A} receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABA{sub A} receptor {alpha}1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABA{sub A} receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

Zheng Gang; Zhang Wenbin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Zhang Yun [465 Hospital, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132001 (China); Chen Yaoming; Liu Mingchao; Yao Ting; Yang Yanxia; Zhao Fang [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Li Jingxia; Huang Chuanshu [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, New York 10987 (United States); Luo Wenjing [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn; Chen Jingyuan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)], E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

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381

Effets de l'administration chronique d'insuline sur la prise alimentaire et le gain de poids chez le rat, par Christiane LARUE-ACHAGIOTIS, J. LE MAGNEN, Collge de France, 11 placeChristiane LARUE-ACHAGIOTIS, J. LE MAGNEN Collge de France, 11 place  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intraventricular insulin infusion reduces food intake and body weight in rats. Abstr. Soc. Neurosci. 7, 655. Vanderweele D. A., Pi-Sunyer, F. X., Novin D., Bush M. J., 1980. Chronic insulin infusion suppresses food Kay L. D., Porte Jr. D., 1979. Chronic intra-cerebroventricular infusion of insulin reduces food

Boyer, Edmond

382

NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent PYK2 activation is involved in TNF-?-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat heart-derived H9c2 cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

TNF-? plays a mediator role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure contributing to cardiac remodeling and peripheral vascular disturbances. The implication of TNF-? in inflammatory responses has been shown to be mediated through up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). However, the detailed mechanisms of TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression in rat embryonic-heart derived H9c2 cells are largely not defined. We demonstrated that in H9c2 cells, TNF-? induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression associated with an increase in the secretion of pro-MMP-9. TNF-?-mediated responses were attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitor of ROS (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC), NADPH oxidase [apocynin (APO) or diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)], MEK1/2 (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), NF-?B (Bay11-7082), or PYK2 (PF-431396) and transfection with siRNA of TNFR1, p47{sup phox}, p42, p38, JNK1, p65, or PYK2. Moreover, TNF-? markedly induced NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation in these cells. TNF-?-enhanced p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and in vivo binding of p65 to the MMP-9 promoter were inhibited by U0126, SB202190, SP600125, NAC, DPI, or APO. In addition, TNF-?-mediated PYK2 phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC, DPI, or APO. PYK2 inhibition could reduce TNF-?-stimulated MAPKs and NF-?B activation. Thus, in H9c2 cells, we are the first to show that TNF-?-induced MMP-9 expression is mediated through a TNFR1/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PYK2/MAPKs/NF-?B cascade. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS generation is involved in TNF-?-induced PYK2 activation in these cells. Understanding the regulation of MMP-9 expression and NADPH oxidase activation by TNF-? on H9c2 cells may provide potential therapeutic targets of chronic heart failure. - Highlights: TNF-? induces MMP-9 secretion and expression via a TNFR1-dependent pathway. TNF-? induces ROS/PYK2-dependent MMP-9 expression in H9c2 cells. TNF-? induces MMP-9 expression via a NADPH oxidase/ROS-dependent NF-?B signaling. TNF-? activates MAPK phosphorylation through NADPH oxidase/ROS generation.

Yang, Chuen-Mao, E-mail: chuenmao@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Heart Failure Center, Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Lee, I-Ta [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthetics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ru-Chun; Chi, Pei-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Health Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Role of the nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR in induction of cytochromes P450 by non-dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls in cultured rat hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most ubiquitously detectable persistent organic pollutants. In contrast to dioxinlike (DL) PCBs, less is known about the molecular mode of action of the larger group of the non-dioxinlike (NDL) PCBs. Owing to the life-long exposure of the human population, a carcinogenic, i.e., tumor-promoting potency of NDL-PCBs has to be considered in human risk assessment. A major problem in risk assessment of NDL-PCBs is dioxin-like impurities that can occur in commercially available NDL-PCB standards. In the present study, we analyzed the induction of CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 in primary rat hepatocytes using a number of highly purified NDL-PCBs with various degrees of chlorination and substitution patterns. Induction of these enzymes is mediated by the nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR (Constitutive androstane receptor) and PXR (Pregnane X receptor). For CYP2B1 induction, concentrationresponse analysis revealed a very narrow window of EC{sub 50} estimates, being in the range of 14 ?M for PCBs 28 and 52, and between 0.4 and 1 ?M for PCBs 101, 138, 153 and 180. CYP3A1 induction was less sensitive to NDL-PCBs, the most pronounced induction being achieved at 100 ?M with the higher chlorinated congeners. Using okadaic acid and small interfering RNAs targeting CAR and PXR, we could demonstrate that CAR plays a major role and PXR a minor role in NDL-PCB-driven induction of CYPs, both effects showing no stringent structureactivity relationship. As the only obvious relevant determinant, the degree of chlorination was found to be positively correlated with the inducing potency of the congeners. - Highlights: We analyzed six highly purified NDL-PCBs for CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 expression. CAR plays a major, PXR a minor role in NDL-PCB-driven induction of CYPs. The degree of chlorination seems to be the major parameter for the inducing potency. There exists a competition between CAR and PXR. Activated PXR may antagonize CAR binding to the CYP2B1 promoter.

Ghrs, Maike; Roos, Robert [University of Kaiserslautern, Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Erwin-Schroedinger-Str. 52, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Andersson, Patrik L. [Ume University, Department of Chemistry, Linnaeus vg 6, SE-901 87 Ume (Sweden); Schrenk, Dieter, E-mail: schrenk@rhrk.uni-kl.de [University of Kaiserslautern, Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Erwin-Schroedinger-Str. 52, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

The H{sub 1}H{sub 2} domain of the ?{sub 1} isoform of Na{sup +}K{sup +}ATPase is involved in ouabain toxicity in rat ventricular myocytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The composition of different isoforms of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase (NKA, Na/K pump) in ventricular myocytes is an important factor in determining the therapeutic effect and toxicity of cardiac glycosides (CGs) on heart failure. The mechanism whereby CGs cause these effects is still not completely clear. In the present study, we prepared two site-specific antibodies (SSA78 and WJS) against the H{sub 1}H{sub 2} domain of ?{sub 1} and ?{sub 2} isoforms of NKA in rat heart, respectively, and compared their influences on the effect of ouabain (OUA) in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. SSA78 or WJS, which can specifically bind with the ?{sub 1} or ?{sub 2} isoform, were assessed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot and immunofluorescent staining methods. Preincubation of myocytes with SSA78 inhibited low OUA affinity pump current but not high OUA affinity pump current, reduced the rise in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}), attenuated mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} overload, restored mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, and delayed the decrease of the myocardial contractile force as well as the occurrence of arrhythmic contraction induced by high concentrations (1 mM) but not low concentrations (1 ?M) of OUA. Similarly, preincubation of myocytes with WJS inhibited high OUA affinity pump current, reduced the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and the contractility induced by 1 ?M but not that induced by 1 mM OUA. These results indicate that the H{sub 1}H{sub 2} domain of the NKA ?{sub 1} isoform mediates OUA-induced cardiac toxicity in rat ventricular myocytes, and inhibitors for this binding site may be used as an adjunct to CGs treatment for cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ? We prepared two antibodies against the H{sub 1}-H{sub 2} domain of ?{sub 1} and ?{sub 2} isoforms of NKA. ? The H{sub 1}-H{sub 2} domain of the NKA ?{sub 1} isoform mediates OUA-induced cardiac toxicity. ? The H{sub 1}-H{sub 2} domain of the NKA ?{sub 2} isoform mediates OUA-induced positive inotropic.

Xiong, Chen; Li, Jun-xia; Guo, Hui-cai; Zhang, Li-nan; Guo, Wei; Meng, Jing; Wang, Yong-li, E-mail: wangyongli@gmail.com

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20-120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries disturbed due to alloxan toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL inhibits pancreatic {beta}-cells apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL could be a promising approach for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India)] [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)] [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India)] [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated ?-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-? and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ? NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ? Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a CSAA diet. ? Fibrosis is sustained, possibly due to continuing hypoxia and oxidative stress.

Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano, E-mail: ayano.takeuchi@astellas.com [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Noto, Takahisa [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi [Drug Safety Research Division, Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Pulldown from rat brain cytosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interaction partners found in this Mass Spec analysis AP180(27),Eps15(6) Dynamin1,2,3 (89,30,24),Amph1(24) Eps15R(52),AP180(5),Dynamin1(1) Amph1(15),Eps15R(2) Amph2(40),Epsin1(1) GST-2 Amph1(39),Eps15R(8) HivRevBP(8),Myb1-like2(14),Epsin2(4),Tom1 (17) Keratin Hsc70(22),Epsin1(17) Amph1(8),-synergin(5),Eps15R(3

McMahon, Harvey

388

Preparation and evaluation of 3-methyl isomers of 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP): 3R-BMIPP shows greater heart uptake than 3S-BMIPP in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iodine-123 racemic (3-R,S) BMIPP is of widespread interest for evaluation of myocardial viability. To evaluate the effects of the asymmetric C-3 center of BMIPP on heart uptake/clearance we have resolved and characterized 3R- and 3S-BMIPP (H-1 and C-13 NMR, MS, HPLC, [{alpha}], m.p.) and evaluated the radioiodinated isomers in rats. A thiophene {open_quotes}template{close_quotes} approach using ethyl 3R-methylglutarate was used to synthesize the authentic 3R-BMPPA substrate (mp 41-42 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] + 1.45 {degrees}). Reaction of racemic 3-R, S-BNPPA with S-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine gave the diastereomeric amides, separated by TLC, column or HPLC. The more polar isomer was identical to the amide prepared from the 3R-isomer. HCI cleavage of the purified diastereomers provided 3R- and 3S-BMPPA (mp 40-41 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] - 3.90 {degrees}). Iodination (TTFAA/KI) gave 3R-BMIPP (mp 51-52 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] + 0.74 {degrees}) and 3S-BMIPP (mp 45-46 {degrees}C, [{alpha}] - 1.67 {degrees}), which formed amides identical with the two amides separated from the 3-R, S-BMIPP amide mixture. A [I-125]-3R-BMIPP and [I-131]-3S-BMIPP mixture was administered to groups of fasted rats (n = 5/group) sacrificed at 5, 15, 60 and 180 minutes. While blood levels and uptake and clearance from liver, lungs and kidney were nearly identical for both isomers, 3R-BMIPP had higher heart uptake at all periods evaluated (%ID/gram, i.e., 15 min: 3R = 5.25 {plus_minus} 0.77, 3S= 4.51 {plus_minus} 0.50; 180 min: 3R = 2.31 {plus_minus} 0.51, 3S = 1.98 {plus_minus} 0.26), suggesting that transport into the myocytes is different for the isomers. Higher heart uptake suggests that the 3R-BMIPP isomer should be further evaluated.

Knapp, F.F.R. Jr.; Lin, Q.; Luo, H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Exposure to di(n-butyl)phthalate and benzo(a)pyrene alters IL-1{beta} secretion and subset expression of testicular macrophages, resulting in decreased testosterone production in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Di(n-butyl)phthalate (DBP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental endocrine disruptors that are potentially hazardous to humans. These chemicals affect testicular macrophage immuno-endocrine function and testosterone production. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not fully understood. It is well known that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1{beta}), which is secreted by testicular macrophages, plays a trigger role in regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of co-exposure to DBP and BaP on testicular macrophage subset expression, IL-1{beta} secretion and testosterone production. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into seven groups; two groups received DBP plus BaP (DBP + BaP: 50 + 1 or 250 + 5 mg/kg/day) four groups received DBP or BaP alone (DBP: 50 or 250 mg/kg/day; BaP: 1 or 5 mg/kg/day), and one group received vehicle alone (control). After co-exposure for 90 days, the relative expression of macrophage subsets and their functions changed. ED2{sup +} testicular macrophages (reactive with a differentiation-related antigen present on the resident macrophages) were activated and IL-1{beta} secretion was enhanced. DBP and BaP acted additively, as demonstrated by greater IL-1{beta} secretion relative to each compound alone. These observations suggest that exposure to DBP plus BaP exerted greater suppression on testosterone production compared with each compound alone. The altered balance in the subsets of testicular macrophages and the enhanced ability of resident testicular macrophages to secrete IL-1{beta}, resulted in enhanced production of IL-1{beta} as a potent steroidogenesis repressor. This may represent an important mechanism by which DBP and BaP repress steroidogenesis.

Zheng Shanjun [Department of High Altitude Military Hygiene, College of High Altitude Military Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Medicine, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Physiology and High Altitude Disease, PLA, Chongqing 400038 (China); Tian Huaijun, E-mail: huaijunt@sohu.co [Department of High Altitude Military Hygiene, College of High Altitude Military Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Medicine, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Physiology and High Altitude Disease, PLA, Chongqing 400038 (China); Cao Jia [Department of Hygienic Toxicology, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Gao Yuqi, E-mail: yanhua007_007@hotmail.co [Department of High Altitude Military Hygiene, College of High Altitude Military Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Medicine, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400038 (China); Key Laboratory of High Altitude Physiology and High Altitude Disease, PLA, Chongqing 400038 (China)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Sequential Causal Learning in Humans and Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 2 shows simulations of learning of weight for cue A (a previous simulation of sequential learning based on thesimulations are in good agreement with experimental findings. Keywords: Bayesian inference; model selection; sequential causal learning;

Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R.; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Sequential Causal Learning in Humans and Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 2 shows simulations of learning of weight for cue A (a previous simulation of sequential learning based on thesimulations are in good agreement with experimental findings. Keywords: Bayesian inference; model selection; sequential causal learning;

Hongjing Lu; Randall R. Rojas; Tom Beckers; Alan Yuille

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Purification of sulfide oxidase from rat liver  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of sulfide oxidase, provided an initial precipitation of sulfide oxidase, and after chromatographic procedures a 21 fold purification of the enzyme was obtained....

Pu, Lixia

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

adolescent rats anxiety: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

social anxiety in 47 high trait social anxiety (HTSA) and 50 low trait social anxiety (LTSA) participants using an impromptu speech paradigm. We assessed anxiety experience,...

394

Exercise training modulates apoptotic signaling in the aging rat heart  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robert B. Armstrong (Chair of Committee) (Member) ____________________________ ____________________________ David M. Hood Steve M... thanks are extended to the members of my committee, Dr. Robert Armstrong and Dr. David Hood, who have made significant contributions to my professional experience during my graduate study. Their comments and encouragement are greatly appreciated...

Kwak, Hyo Bum

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

abrasion tool rat: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CMP Based on the Contact Mechanics of Pad, Abrasives, and Wafer Diner. Published October 7, 2009. Chemical mechanical polishing CMP is a polishing method commonly used...

396

Mechanical properties of normotensive and hypertensive female rat carotid arteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

filament involved in muscle contraction, forms the thick filament. No slip condition ? boundary condition enforcing the theory that the fluid layer in direct contact with a surface is moving with the same velocity as the surface. Opening Angle Tests... methodology. Chapter II presents biomechanics theory that is fundamental to device design, experimental protocols, and quantitative analysis of results. Chapter III describes two systems fabricated to answer questions posed in response to the above stated...

Smith, Katherine Elizabeth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

397

atrophic fetal rat: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compared with untreated TPTX mothers or sham-operated normal females. The treated (+ 1.6- 2.0 g) occurred at term with doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.25 Lgkg of body weight ;...

398

Blocking long term consolidation of extinction in rats with puromycin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

days on a FR-30 schedule of reinforcement and divided into four groups on the basis of number of responses over the training period. All groups were given one extinction session. Following extinction the PUR group was given bilateral intracranial... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 31 V11 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. =xperimental Treatments ~ . . . . ~ 2. Subjects and Response Scores During Page ~ 13 Days on an FR-$0 Schedule . . . ~ . . . . 16 Analysis of Variancei Time Scores {in Ninutes) on Test Days 4. Analysis...

Broussard, William Joseph

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Meeting the oxygen requirements of an isolated perfused rat liver  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liver perfusion systems can be used as organ culture platforms for metabolic, genetic and systems engineering, tissue regeneration, pharmacokinetics, organ storage and marginal donor reconditioning for transplantation. The ...

Izamis, Maria-Louisa, 1979-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

anaesthetized female rat: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a 16-mg lead or a control solution for 30 days... Rocha, Angelica 2009-05-15 55 Perception of Conspecific Female Pheromone Stimulates Female Calling in an Arctiid Moth,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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401

adult rats subjected: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the idea of creating a subjectivity classifier that uses lists of subjective nouns learned by bootstrapping algorithms. The goal of our research is to develop a system that can...

402

Radiobiology of normal rat lung in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary cancer radiation therapy that utilizes biochemical tumor cell targeting and provides a mixed field of high and low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation with differing ...

Kiger, Jingli Liu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

aged rat erectile: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

98504-3144 An age-length key (ALK) is the tra- ditional method for estimating age-stage length samples for relatively costly age determination (age subsamplel. Age...

404

adult rats fed: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: mover speed is variable, such as in wind turbines. For variable speed operation one of the machine's stator windings is connected to the fixed frequency...

405

Melatonin modulates intercellular communication among immortalized rat suprachiasmatic nucleus cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the influence of melatonin on calcium waves was studied in the presence of endogenously accumulated or exogenously supplemented ATP. 12 CHAPTER II MATERIALS AND METHODS Cell culture Cultures of SCN2.2 cells were grown on laminin-coated culture dishes (60... to cross gap junctions when introduced intracellularly. The dye solution was supplemented with melatonin or CBX as appropriate. Confluent cells on glass-bottom dishes were then damaged with a fresh, sterile scalpel blade or a pulled glass pipette tip...

Cox, Kimberly Yvonne

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Quantifying non-axial deformations in rat myocardium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanics. In a study of transgenic mice, Karlon et al. (2000) found that myofiber disarray is associated with reduced septal torsion and reduced systolic shortening on the septal surface. Altered myofiber orientation has also been observed in pressure...

Aghassibake, Kristina Diane

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

407

The role of spatial context in rat vision  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007) to control standard OpenGL capable graphics cards (2007) to control standard OpenGL capable graphics cards (

Meier, Philip Martin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Distribution of ochratoxin A in the pregnant rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-derived radioactivity fr om plasma was bi phasic. The distribution (alpha) half life was 3, 09 hr. The overall elimination (beta) half life was 55. 88 hr. Fecal elimination of radioactivity accounted for 29. 1% of the total radioactivity in the first 24 hours and 44.... 7X in 48 hours. Radioactivity in the urine accounted for 6. 7% of the total at 24 hours and 8. 6%at 48 hours. Thin-layer chromatography of fetal extracts demonstrated the presence of the parent compound 12 hours after maternal dosing, with peak...

Ballinger, Michael Brent

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Lymphocyte depletion in peripheral blood of gamma irradiated rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

38. F. H. Hager, A study of the effect of partial-body irradiation on the early reduction of circulating lymphocytes. (Thesis) Texas AKM University, 1969. 39. G. D'Angelo and M. Lacombe, A practical diluent for electz onic white cell counts. Amer...

Goldin, Eric Michael

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

adult rat optic: Topics by E-print Network  

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Thesis By BOBBY IAMAR CARAWAY Approved as to yle and content by: (Cha rman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Coordinator... Caraway, Bobby Lamar 1966-01-01 2 Thyroid hormone...

411

Altered placental development in undernourished rats: role of maternal glucocorticoids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interaction of maternal, pla- cental, and fetal endocrineinactive GCs within the pla- centa as there is an influx ofgestations. We separated pla- centas from mid and proximal-

Belkacemi, Louiza; Jelks, Andrea; Chen, Chun-Hung; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The behavioral effects of immunologically induced lesions in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the mnemonic phenomena, since both "experience" and "retention" are involved. When the antigen first enters the organism, a short period of time must elapse before the appropriate antibody reaction takes place. Thereafter, the immunogenic response is much... more rapid and massive. This high degree of speci- ficity in the antigen-antibody reaction provides a technique which may make possible a chemical differentiation between neurons and nuclei of various regions of the brain (Corning & Balaban, 1968...

McCunney, William Dennis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

413

aged male rats: Topics by E-print Network  

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Locker Half Male Varun Aggarwala Daniel Stringer Noah Benson John Philbin Michael Campbell Michael Nathan Lawrence Brown Theodor Oxholm John Jackson Jeffrey Haymaker Keith...

414

adolescent male rats: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Locker Half Male Varun Aggarwala Daniel Stringer Noah Benson John Philbin Michael Campbell Michael Nathan Lawrence Brown Theodor Oxholm John Jackson Jeffrey Haymaker Keith...

415

adult male rats: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Locker Half Male Varun Aggarwala Daniel Stringer Noah Benson John Philbin Michael Campbell Michael Nathan Lawrence Brown Theodor Oxholm John Jackson Jeffrey Haymaker Keith...

416

adult male rat: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Locker Half Male Varun Aggarwala Daniel Stringer Noah Benson John Philbin Michael Campbell Michael Nathan Lawrence Brown Theodor Oxholm John Jackson Jeffrey Haymaker Keith...

417

anesthetized male rats: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Locker Half Male Varun Aggarwala Daniel Stringer Noah Benson John Philbin Michael Campbell Michael Nathan Lawrence Brown Theodor Oxholm John Jackson Jeffrey Haymaker Keith...

418

aging male rats: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Locker Half Male Varun Aggarwala Daniel Stringer Noah Benson John Philbin Michael Campbell Michael Nathan Lawrence Brown Theodor Oxholm John Jackson Jeffrey Haymaker Keith...

419

adolescent female rats: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

authors 48 Female Leadership Raises Aspirations and Educational Attainment for Girls: A Policy Experiment in India MIT - DSpace Summary: Exploiting a randomized natural...

420

Numerical Analysis of Ca2+ Signaling in Rat Ventricular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was supported by the National Biomedical Computational Resource (NIH grant 5P41 RR08605-16, http://www.nih.gov/). Dr. McCammon acknowledges additional support from NIH (R01 GM31749, http://www.nih.gov/), NSF (MCB

Holst, Michael J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Population dynamics of the cotton rat (genus Sigmodon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ie doeesdbe4 in the towt, iaAher eowee of infasaahhsas tho teak etndiees swyCreo esne diameefea et thie point, la Psbreary 195ls sa aaLo and tea foaelo eAton rato mse ineleeod in e aLa by eesen feet, tesh4Qa eego, %de iswloesssa eoneiete4 of ~ lae... of the gs?nai ~ hs& ns oewr. k foa eyeeios eith flan~@ming~ Largo sos&Lings sash ss ysseioa fleeer es& batten ensL 4 sero able 4e gmee ia this typo bst nseaQg it sse bassa see&a& peeped alone Whish ws fbnn& those, TLN asst Wai&stieaUp &iws?o typo oa tbs...

Inglis, Jack Morton

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Behavioral contrast and local rate-of-response in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to maintain the proper perspective throughout the years. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE METHODS Page ~Sb ~~~At Procedure 10 RESULTS DISCUSSION 12 18 Conclusions REFERENCES VITA 21 23 26 vii LIST OF FIGURES.... The frequency of reinforcement was determined by variable-interval (VI) schedules in which reinforcement is available after a variable period of time providing a key-peck occurs after the time has elapsed. Variable- interval schedules are typically specified...

Dreyfus, Leon Richard

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Recent Advances in Genetics of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of blood pressure and hypertension. Nat Genet 2009, 41:677identifies STK39 as a hypertension susceptibility gene. Procfactors in spontaneous hypertension. J Clin Invest 1999,

Pravenec, Michal; Kurtz, Theodore W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

The influence of biotin on reproduction in the white rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?i?? ??G???? G? Af??GAi? ????? ??? 06? ?i?i ?i???i?? 23 ?5?98??5r6 ?6? 9r6978?5r6? Y?i ???? ??i?i??i? ??G? ???? ? ??????f ??G?????i????i??? ?? ??i ?f???G ??? ?i??f?? ?? ?i???i? f???i?? G? ???ff G???????A ???? ? ??A? ?i??i???Ai G? ????GfGA???f ???G...?GfiArlY & M ?GffiAi rl Y2 Y34 56l784694 rl 15rY56 r6 04?0r?89Y5r6 56 Y34 ?35Y4 0?Y ? ????i?????G? 1? ?5775?? ?6?40?r6 9rr?40? ?0? ???????i? ?G ??i ???????i ???GGf G? ??i ?A????f????f ??? ?i???????f 9GffiAi G? Yi??? ?? ??????f ??f??ff?i?? G...

Cooper, William Anderson

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

425

Acceleration of wound healing in young and aged rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in senescence, and that macrophage activation or supplementation may yield an acceleration in wound closure. This thesis focuses on the ability of Acemannan (ACM), a complex plant carbohydrate and macrophage stimulator, to accelerate wound healing in both young...

Maxwell, Bryan Douglas

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

adult rat lung: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: . The correlation between LS alterations and airway obstruction in asthma has long been recognized in clinical). The LS signals were...

427

adult rat ventricular: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

pattern, although some minor discrepancies were observed in the morphology of the 12-lead electrocardiogram. Keywords: Bidomain theory, hybrid model, anisotropy, ventricles,...

428

Replay of memories of extended behavior in the rat hippocampus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hippocampus is a highly conserved structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain that is known to be critical for spatial learning in rodents, and spatial and episodic memory in humans. During pauses in exploration, ...

Davidson, Thomas James Damon Cheakamus

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Hemorrhagic stress effects on blood in irradiated rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conditions the leukocyte, platelet and reticulo- cyte counts in the circulating blood of the human are back to norsml within two weeks following hemorrhage (26). Because of the gradual readjustment of circulatory volume and the general vasoconstriction...

Elissalde, Marcel Howell

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Of pungency, pain, and naked mole rats: chili peppers revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the chili pepper genus Capsicum within the plant family Solanaceae. The family is also known for species that produce powerful alkaloids such as nicotine (tobacco) and atropine (Atropa). This is the same family considerable survival value since they signal the presence of extreme external and internal threats; internally

Borges, Renee M

431

Propofol and sevoflurane induce distinct burst suppression patterns in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Burst suppression is an EEG pattern characterized by alternating periods of high-amplitude activity (bursts) and relatively low amplitude activity (suppressions). Burst suppression can arise from several different pathological ...

Westover, M. Brandon

432

The effects of alcohol and irradiation on the albino rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

below: Table VX. Survival Data and Peak Death Days Expt. IXl ix'st D ea o ~ Survi?? Death ~1( Death mals Dead val' zime (days Dl d (days (peak ( e~kdd ) s os o g$ PtoH 8. 8 e6 2 g 10$ Zt0H 10. 4. 9 5 58-5 1 ' 2 1 2 20/? Lt0H 11. 4 6 ?. 8 l~ 2 7... 5 Controls 6 10 8 10 2 ?Some survivors after thixtieth day postirradiation. 15, 4 58. 5 1 58. 5 $0. 8 1 . 4 iso significant protective effect was afforded by pretreatment with ethyl alcohol. yith the exceptior cf the tenth day pxeirxadiation...

Klobukowski, Christopher John

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

The opponent consequences of intermittent and continuous stimulation within the rat spinal cord  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

information, as compared to intact animals. In addition, pharmacological manipulations were employed to identify the opioid receptors activated by continuous shock, and to decipher at what synaptic level (e.g. pre or post synaptically) intermittent shock...

Puga, Denise Alejandra

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

BLADDER AND CUTANEOUS SENSORY NEURONS OF THE RAT EXPRESS DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL P2X RECEPTORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, UK b Neurobiology Unit, Roche Palo Alto, 3431 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA c Autonomic), in contrast to strong P2X3-IR observed in a sub-population of cutaneous afferents. Whole-cell patch- clamp

Burnstock, Geoffrey

435

Cardiac dysfunction in the ZDF rat: Possible mechanisms and benefits of exercise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

correlates of left ventricular mass. Of the 24 hemodynamic parameters tested, 15 were negatively affected by diabetes. The debility of diabetic heart disease was evident in the diastolic filling, isovolumic contraction, ejection, and isovolumic relaxation...

VanHoose, Lisa

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Development of imaging methods to quantify the laminar microstructure in rat hearts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

particular condition, congestive heart failure (CHF), presently afflicts 5 million Americans (American Heart Association, 2003). As with most medical conditions, treatments for this disease will improve as knowledge of the pathophysiology progresses... Heart Failure In congestive heart failure (CHF), the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body, or it is only able to do so as a result of an abnormally high filling pressure or diastolic volume. The heart tries...

Hudson, Kristen Kay

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

E-Print Network 3.0 - analogue dementia rats Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dementia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 70, ... Source: Hickman, Mark - Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Canterbury Collection:...

438

E-Print Network 3.0 - anomalies uua rat Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Statistical Analysis Data were... to UUA) steadily declined (P 0.003) with urea infusion, and on an absolute basis, UUA ... Source: Bequette, Brian J. - Department of Animal...

439

E-Print Network 3.0 - adult sprague-dawley rats Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine 71 Kidney International, Vol. 63 (2003), pp. 17851790 Effect of green tea extract on cardiac hypertrophy following Summary: in cardiac myocytes isolated...

440

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha transgenic rats Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

were all... Germ-line transmission of transgenes in Xenopus laevis Nicholas Marsh-Armstrong, Haochu Huang... transgenic by restriction enzyme- mediated integration were bred to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rat rattus norvegicus" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid-challenged rat stomach Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University of Florida Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 9 Effects of alien rodents on Hawaiian mesic forest Army Environmental Annual Report (Aug 2006-June 2007)...

442

Beneficial effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation to diabetic rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Fukushima and Nixon (64). EC were lysed in 0.3 ml of 0.1 M phosphoric acid containing 5mM dithioerythritol (an antioxidant) and 35ul of 2M trichloroacetic acid. Cell debris was removed by centrifugation. Extracts were oxidized with acidic or basic iodine... release of endothelium-derived constricting factors (17); or (3) decreased release or production of nitric oxide (NO) (13,18). Hyperglycemia contributes directly to above mentioned factors and thus to endothelial dysfunction. There is substantial...

Kohli, Ripla

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

443

Blast-Induced Biomechanical Loading of the Rat: An Experimental and Anatomically Accurate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Blast Injury Model Aravind Sundaramurthy, Aaron Alai, Shailesh Ganpule, Aaron Holmberg, Erwan head injuries. This has led to an increased number of blast studies of animal models, head surrogates traumatic brain injury (TBI) in soldiers and civilians. In vivo animal models that use shock tubes

Farritor, Shane

444

Nanofabricated collagen-inspired synthetic elastomers for primary rat hepatocyte culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthetic substrates that mimic the properties of extracellular matrix proteins hold significant promise for use in systems designed for tissue engineering applications. In this report, we designed a synthetic polymeric ...

Bettinger, Christopher J.

445

The effects of ethanol on strychnine sensitive glycine receptors in the rat basolateral amygdala  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The major relationship between ethanol and the behavioral response to environmental stressors indicates that ethanol functions to reduce the effects of stress. The most classical presentation of the anxiety-reduction hypothesis of alcoholism...

Botting, Shaleen Kaye

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Cocaine hypophagia and hyperlocomotion in rats before and after exposure to a high-fat diet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as body weight gain increased. In contrast, after high-fat exposure and weight gain, increased body weight gain was associated with an increased magnitude of suppression in food intake after cocaine administration. Similar patterns of differential...

Ho, Dao Hong

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

447

Early Adversity Alters Attention and Locomotion in Adult SpragueDawley Rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as orphanages and institutions (Kreppner, O'Connor, Rutter, & The English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team, 2001

Sokolowski, Marla

448

Rat colonic reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage are mediated by diet and age  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is based on the theory of decreased ROS in response to respiratory chain suppression and utilizes diphenyliodonium chloride to determine if ROS production is altered in response to a mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibitor. Although... mitochondria are thought to be a major source of ROS, literature regarding this theory is inconclusive [37]. Other sites of free radical production have been identified, each generating ROS at levels that may be specific to certain tissues. For instance, Hid...

Henderson, Cara Aletha Everett

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

449

Longitudinal transcriptional analysis of developing neointimal vascular occlusion and pulmonary hypertension in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-7232 Submitted 1 December

Storey, John D.

450

E-Print Network 3.0 - african giant rat Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Medicine 38 Journal of East African Natural History 99(1): 18 (2010) SENGI (ELEPHANT-SHREW) OBSERVATIONS FROM Summary: Journal of East African Natural History 99(1): 1-8...

451

The gestation-dependent variation in aflatoxin B? activation by rat liver microsomes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

females activated AFBt 21'/o to 28/o more, respectively, than male and female controls at the 100uM AFBt dose. In the Salmonella mediated mutagenicity assay, microsomes from the 10-day pregnant female activated AFB& only 2/o greater than the female... control and 71/o less than the male control at the lowest level of activation and highest AFB~ dose tested; microsomes from the 20-day pregnant female produced a nonmutagenic response. When AFBt was used as a test toxin in the embryo culture assay...

Wall, Florence Elizabeth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

452

Three-Dimensional Left and Right Ventricular Strain Distributions in The Rat Heart /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ventricular Function." Heart 94.7 (2008): 855-59. Print. 35)our control and hypertensive heart results to publishedhuman control and hypertensive hearts. Peak systolic !! ,

Barrio, Martin J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Effects of acute pramipexole on preference for gambling-like schedules in male Wistar rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contrast: p = .02). None of the interactions involving dose were significant (p?s ? .09). Latency differences depended upon the dosing series and baseline condition (series x baseline interaction: F(2,12) = 6.99, p = .01, ? p 2 = .54). Follow-up ANOVAs... < .01, ? p 2 = .83). A significant dose x baseline interaction was also detected (F(4, 24) = 3.78, p < .02, ? p 2 = .39). Further investigation of this interaction using a paired samples t-test revealed significant differences in latency differences...

Johnson, Patrick Steven

2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z