National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rare isotope beams

  1. Physics with Rare Isotope Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Segel, Ralph E. [Northwestern University] [Northwestern University

    2013-11-08

    Using stable and radioactive beams provided by ATLAS nuclear reactions of special interest in astrophysics have been studied with emphasis on breakout from the hot CNO cycle to the rp-process. The masses of nuclear fragments provided by a strong fission source have been measured in order to help trace the path of the r process. 8Li ions produced by the d(7Li,8Li)n reaction have been trapped and the electrons and alphas emitted in the ensuing beta-decay measured. The neutrino directions were therefore determined, which leads to a measurement of the electron-neutrino correlation. The energies and kinematics are such that a sensitive search for any tensor admixture could be performed and an upper limit of 0.6% was placed on any such admixture. Earlier work on the electromagnetic form factors of the proton was extended. Graduate students were active participants in all of these eperiments, which formed the basis for six PhD theses.

  2. Rare Isotope Beams for the 21st Century

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    James Symons

    2010-01-08

    In a scientific keynote address on Friday, June 12 at Michigan State University (MSU) in East Lansing, James Symons, Director of Berkeley Labs Nuclear Science Division (NSD), discussed the exciting research prospects of the new Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be built at MSUs National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory.

  3. Mikhail Avilov Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    and Fluid Flow Challenges of the FRIB Primary Beam Dump #12;M. Avilov, May 2014 5th HP Targetry Workshop Challenges Chemical Challenges Radiation Challenges Summary #12; World-leading heavy ion accelerator and amplitude of temperature changes · 60 gpm water flow to provide cooling and gas bubble removal Primary Beam

  4. Remote Handling and Maintenance in the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, Thomas W; Aaron, Adam M; Carroll, Adam J; DeVore, Joe R; Giuliano, Dominic R; Graves, Van B; Bennett, Richard P; Bollen, Georg; Cole, Daniel F.; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Schein, Mike E; Zeller, Albert F

    2011-01-01

    Michigan State University (MSU) in East Lansing, MI was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to design and establish a Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), a cutting-edge research facility to advance the understanding of rare nuclear isotopes and the evolution of the cosmos. The research conducted at the FRIB will involve experimentation with intense beams of rare isotopes within a well-shielded target cell that will result in activation and contamination of components. The target cell is initially hands-on accessible after shutdown and a brief cool-down period. Personnel are expected to have hands-on access to the tops of shielded component modules with the activated in-beam sections suspended underneath. The modules are carefully designed to include steel shielding for protecting personnel during these hand-on operations. However, as the facility has greater levels of activation and contamination, a bridge mounted servomaniputor may be added to the cell, to perform the disconnecting of services to the component assemblies. Dexterous remote handling and exchange of the modularized activated components is completed at a shielded window workstation with a pair of master-slave manipulators. The primary components requiring exchange or maintenance are the production target, the beam wedge filter, the beam dump, and the beam focusing and bending magnets. This paper provides an overview of the FRIB Target Facility remote handling and maintenance design requirements, concepts, and techniques.

  5. Tracking rare-isotope beams with microchannel plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Rogers; A. Sanetullaev; W. G. Lynch; M. B. Tsang; J. Lee; D. Bazin; D. Coupland; V. Henzl; D. Henzlova; M. Kilburn; M. S. Wallace; M. Youngs; F. Delaunay; M. Famiano; D. Shapira; K. L. Jones; K. T. Schmitt; Z. Y. Sun

    2013-09-11

    A system of two microchannel-plate detectors has been successfully implemented for tracking projectile-fragmentation beams. The detectors provide interaction positions, angles, and arrival times of ions at the reaction target. The current design is an adaptation of an assembly used for low-energy beams ($\\sim$1.4 MeV/nucleon). In order to improve resolution in tracking high-energy heavy-ion beams, the magnetic field strength between the secondary-electron accelerating foil and the microchannel plate had to be increased substantially. Results from an experiment using a 37-MeV/nucleon ${}^{56}$Ni beam show that the tracking system can achieve sub-nanosecond timing resolution and a position resolution of $\\sim$1 mm for beam intensities up to $5\\times10^{5}$ pps.

  6. An ion guide laser ion source for isobar-suppressed rare isotope beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raeder, Sebastian Ames, Friedhelm; Bishop, Daryl; Bricault, Pierre; Kunz, Peter; Mjøs, Anders; Heggen, Henning; Institute of Applied Physics, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 7, 64289 Darmstadt ; Lassen, Jens Teigelhöfer, Andrea; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2

    2014-03-15

    Modern experiments at isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities like ISAC at TRIUMF often depend critically on the purity of the delivered rare isotope beams. Therefore, highly selective ion sources are essential. This article presents the development and successful on-line operation of an ion guide laser ion source (IG-LIS) for the production of ion beams free of isobaric contamination. Thermionic ions from the hot ISOL target are suppressed by an electrostatic potential barrier, while neutral radio nuclides effusing out are resonantly ionized by laser radiation within a quadrupole ion guide behind this barrier. The IG-LIS was developed through detailed thermal and ion optics simulation studies and off-line tests with stable isotopes. In a first on-line run with a SiC target a suppression of surface-ionized Na contaminants in the ion beam of up to six orders of magnitude was demonstrated.

  7. A nuclear physics program at the Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator Facility in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Chang-Bum

    2014-04-15

    This paper outlines the new physics possibilities that fall within the field of nuclear structure and astrophysics based on experiments with radioactive ion beams at the future Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator facility in Korea. This ambitious multi-beam facility has both an Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) and fragmentation capability to produce rare isotopes beams (RIBs) and will be capable of producing and accelerating beams of wide range mass of nuclides with energies of a few to hundreds MeV per nucleon. The large dynamic range of reaccelerated RIBs will allow the optimization in each nuclear reaction case with respect to cross section and channel opening. The low energy RIBs around Coulomb barrier offer nuclear reactions such as elastic resonance scatterings, one or two particle transfers, Coulomb multiple-excitations, fusion-evaporations, and direct capture reactions for the study of the very neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclides. In contrast, the high energy RIBs produced by in-flight fragmentation with reaccelerated ions from the ISOL enable to explore the study of neutron drip lines in intermediate mass regions. The proposed studies aim at investigating the exotic nuclei near and beyond the nucleon drip lines, and to explore how nuclear many-body systems change in such extreme regions by addressing the following topics: the evolution of shell structure in areas of extreme proton to neutron imbalance; the study of the weak interaction in exotic decay schemes such as beta-delayed two-neutron or two-proton emission; the change of isospin symmetry in isobaric mirror nuclei at the drip lines; two protons or two neutrons radioactivity beyond the drip lines; the role of the continuum states including resonant states above the particle-decay threshold in exotic nuclei; and the effects of nuclear reaction rates triggered by the unbound proton-rich nuclei on nuclear astrophysical processes.

  8. The ReA electron-beam ion trap charge breeder for reacceleration of rare isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapierre, A.; Schwarz, S.; Kittimanapun, K.; Fogleman, J.; Krause, S.; Nash, S.; Rencsok, R.; Tobos, L.; Perdikakis, G.; Portillo, M.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Wittmer, W.; Wu, X.; Bollen, G.; Leitner, D.; Syphers, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 South Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Collaboration: ReA Team

    2013-04-19

    ReA is a post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. ReA is designed to reaccelerate rare isotopes to energies of a few MeV/u following production by projectile fragmentation and thermalization in a gas cell. The facility consists of four main components: an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) charge breeder, an achromatic charge-over-mass (Q/A) separator, a radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator, and a superconducting radio-frequency linear accelerator. The EBIT charge breeder was specifically designed to efficiently capture continuous beams of singly charged ions injected at low energy (<60 keV), charge breed in less than 50 ms, and extract highly charged ions to the Q/A separator for charge-state selection and reacceleration through the accelerator structures. The use of highly charged ions to reach high beam energies is a key aspect that makes ReA a compact and cost-efficient post-accelerator. The EBIT is characterized by a high-current electron gun, a long multi-electrode trap structure and a dual magnet to provide both the high electron-beam current density necessary for fast charge breeding of short-lived isotopes as well as the high capture probability of injected beams. This paper presents an overview and the status of the ReA EBIT, which has extracted for reacceleration tests stable {sup 20}Ne{sup 8+} ion beams produced from injected gas and more recently {sup 39}K{sup 16+} beams by injecting stable {sup 39,41}K{sup +} ions from an external ion source.

  9. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Pikin, A. I.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P.

    2015-08-28

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstrate stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this study, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz.

  10. Fast and efficient charge breeding of the Californium rare isotope breeder upgrade electron beam ion source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C. A.; Perry, A.; Pikin, A. I.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Zinkann, G. P.

    2015-08-28

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), developed to breed Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) radioactive beams at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is being tested off-line. A unique property of the EBIS is a combination of short breeding times, high repetition rates, and a large acceptance. Overall, we have implemented many innovative features during the design and construction of the CARIBU EBIS as compared to the existing EBIS breeders. The off-line charge breeding tests are being performed using a surface ionization source that produces singly charged cesium ions. The main goal of the off-line commissioning is to demonstratemore »stable operation of the EBIS at a 10 Hz repetition rate and a breeding efficiency into single charge state higher than 15%. These goals have been successfully achieved and exceeded. We have measured (20% ± 0.7%) breeding efficiency into the single charge state of 28+ cesium ions with the breeding time of 28 ms. In general, the current CARIBU EBIS operational parameters can provide charge breeding of any ions in the full mass range of periodic table with high efficiency, short breeding times, and sufficiently low charge-to-mass ratio, 1/6.3 for the heaviest masses, for further acceleration in ATLAS. In this study, we discuss the parameters of the EBIS and the charge breeding results in a pulsed injection mode with repetition rates up to 10 Hz.« less

  11. Development of a fast cyclotron gas stopper for intense rare isotope beams from projectile fragmentation: Study of ion extraction with a radiofrequency carpet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bollen, Georg; Morrissey, David

    2011-01-16

    Research and development has been performed in support of the design of a future rare isotope beam facility in the US. An important aspect of plans for earlier RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) and a requirement of FRIB (Facility of Rare Isotope Beams) to be built at Michigan State University are the availability of so-called “stopped beams” for research that contributes to answering questions like how elements in the universe are created and to provide better insight into the nature of Fundamental Interactions. In order to create “stopped beams” techniques are required that transform fast rare isotopes beams as they are available directly after addresses questions like the origin of that will allow and High priority is given to the evaluation of intensity limitations and the efficiency of stopping of fast fragment beams in gas cells and to the exploration of options to increase the efficiency and the reduction of space charge effects. Systematic studies performed at MSU as part of the RIA R&D with a linear gas cell under conditions close to those expected at RIA and related simulations confirm that the efficiency of stopping and extracting ions decreases with increasing beam intensity. Similar results have also been observed at RIKEN in Japan. These results indicate the concepts presently under study will not be able to cover the full range of intensities of fast beams expected at RIA without major losses. The development of a more robust concept is therefore critical to the RIA concept. Recent new beam simulation studies performed at the NSCL show that the stopping of heavy ions in a weakly focusing gas-filled magnetic field can overcome the intensity limitation of present systems while simultaneously providing a much faster ion extraction. We propose to design and build such a cyclotron gas stopper and to test it at the NSCL under conditions as close as possible to those found at RIA.

  12. Facility for Rare Isotope Beams: The Journey Has Begun on DOE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Instead, they're created in extreme conditions such as the centers of exploding supernovae. These isotopes decay into the elements that we're more familiar with and by...

  13. Development of a high-density gas-jet target for nuclear astrophysics and reaction studies with rare isotope beams. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uwe, Greife

    2014-08-12

    The purpose of this project was to develop a high-density gas jet target that will enable a new program of transfer reaction studies with rare isotope beams and targets of hydrogen and helium that is not currently possible and will have an important impact on our understanding of stellar explosions and of the evolution of nuclear shell structure away from stability. This is the final closeout report for the project.

  14. Rare Isotopes in Cosmic Explosions and Accelerators on Earth

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schatz, Hendrick [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States

    2010-01-08

    Rare isotopes are nature?s stepping stones to produce the heavy elements, and they are produced in large quantities in stellar explosions. Despite their fleeting existence, they shape the composition of the universe and the observable features of stellar explosions. The challenge for nuclear science is to produce and study the very same rare isotopes so as to understand the origin of the elements and a range of astronomical observations. I will review the progress that has been made to date in astronomy and nuclear physics, and the prospects of finally addressing many of the outstanding issues with the future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), which DOE will build at Michigan State University.

  15. Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draayer, Jerry P.

    2014-09-28

    We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  16. Final Report "Structure of Rare Isotopes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2012-05-09

    The Junior Investigator grant 'Structure of Rare Isotopes' (DE-FG02-07ER41529) supported research in low-energy nuclear theory from September 1, 2007 to August 31, 2010. It was the main goal of the proposed research to develop and optimize an occupation-number-based energy functional for the computation of nuclear masses, and this aim has been reached. Furthermore, progress was made in linking two and three-body forces from low-momentum interactions to pairing properties in nuclear density functionals, and in the description of deformed nuclei within an effective theory.

  17. An EBIS system for rare isotope science project in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jongwon E-mail: jehan@ibs.re.kr E-mail: khyi@ibs.re.kr; Han, Jae-Eun E-mail: jehan@ibs.re.kr E-mail: khyi@ibs.re.kr; Son, Hyock-Jun E-mail: jehan@ibs.re.kr E-mail: khyi@ibs.re.kr; Yi, Kun-Hui E-mail: jehan@ibs.re.kr E-mail: khyi@ibs.re.kr; Zhao, Liangji E-mail: kim@far-tech.com; Kim, Jin-Soo E-mail: kim@far-tech.com

    2015-01-09

    An EBIS system has been designed to be used as a charge breeder for the post accelerator of an ISOL system. An electron gun, which is designed to produce a maximum current of 3 A at the beam energy of 20 kV, will be acquired from the Budker Institute, Novosibirsk. Electron beam optics calculations of the EBIS system as well as of the gun assembly have been performed using PBGUNS and TRAK. A superconducting solenoid with a maximum field of 6 T is to be used to compress the electron beam. A test stand, which includes the gun assembly and a high-power electron beam collector, is being designed and will be ready for the gun test in the end of this year. Charge breeding simulation using EBIS0D and CBSIM has been performed for a few key isotopes.

  18. The beam diagnostic instruments in Beijing radioactive ion-beam facilities isotope separator on-line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Y., E-mail: yjma@ciae.ac.cn; Cui, B.; Ma, R.; Tang, B.; Chen, L.; Huang, Q.; Jiang, W. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)] [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2014-02-15

    The beam diagnostic instruments for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facilities Isotope Separator On-Line are introduced [B. Q. Cui, Z. H. Peng, Y. J. Ma, R. G. Ma, B. Tang, T. Zhang, and W. S. Jiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 266, 4113 (2008); T. J. Zhang, X. L. Guan, and B. Q. Cui, in Proceedings of APAC 2004, Gyeongju, Korea, 2004, http://www.jacow.org , p. 267]. For low intensity ion beam [30–300 keV/1 pA–10 ?A], the beam profile monitor, the emittance measurement unit, and the analyzing slit will be installed. For the primary proton beam [100 MeV/200 ?A], the beam profile scanner will be installed. For identification of the nuclide, a beam identification unit will be installed. The details of prototype of the beam diagnostic units and some experiment results will be described in this article.

  19. COLLOQUIUM: Facility for Rare Isotope Beams - Scientific Opportunities and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &Bradbury ScienceComplexPlasmaPhysics LabTechnical

  20. Fact Sheet: Facility For Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) Applicant Selection |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPLforLDRD Report to Congress MoreHyd rog enOffice|DOE and

  1. Fact Sheet: Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) Applicant Selection |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesofExtransScientific User Facility |Fact SheetNatural GasofU.S.

  2. Resolving the stellar sources of isotopically rare presolar silicate grains through Mg and Fe isotopic analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ann N.; Messenger, Scott, E-mail: lan-anh.n.nguyen@nasa.gov [Robert M. Walker Laboratory for Space Science, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We conducted multi-element isotopic analyses of 11 presolar silicate grains from the Acfer 094 meteorite having unusual O isotopic compositions. Eight grains are {sup 18}O-rich, one is {sup 16}O-rich, and two are extremely {sup 17}O-rich. We constrained the grains' stellar sources by measuring their Si and Mg isotopic ratios, and also the {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios for five grains. The Mg and Fe isotopic measurements were conducted after surrounding matrix grains were removed for more accurate ratios. Most of the {sup 18}O-rich silicates had anomalous Mg isotopic ratios, and their combined isotopic constraints are consistent with origins in low-mass Type II supernovae (SNe II) rather than high-metallicity stars. The isotopic ratios of the {sup 16}O-rich silicate are also consistent with an SN origin. Mixing small amounts of interior stellar material with the stellar envelope replicated all measured isotopic ratios except for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si and {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe in some grains. The {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si ratios of all SN-derived grains are matched by doubling the {sup 29}Si yield in the Ne- and Si-burning zones. The {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios of the grains imply elemental fractionation in the Si/S zone, or introduction of isotopically solar Fe by secondary processing. The two highly {sup 17}O-rich silicates exhibited significant {sup 25}Mg and/or {sup 26}Mg enrichments and their isotopic ratios are best explained by strong dilution of 1.15 M {sub ?} CO nova matter. We estimate that ?12% and 1% of presolar silicates have SN and nova origins, respectively, similar to presolar SiC and oxides. This implies that asymptotic giant branch stars are the dominant dust producers in the galaxy.

  3. Principal physical problems in laser separation of weighable amounts of a rare ytterbium isotope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlenko, Sergei I

    1998-11-30

    A review is provided of the work on laser separation of Yb isotopes, carried out at the Institute of General Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and at the 'Lad' Scientific - Production Enterprise during the last 4 - 5 years. The processes of Yb isotope separation by the AVLIS (atomic vapour laser isotope separation) method were investigated both theoretically (by computer simulation) and experimentally. The main topics considered in the review are the ionisation selectivity, the formation of laser beams and of vapour flow in the cavity, and the extraction of ions from a plasma. A facility for producing highly enriched {sup 168}Yb on an industrial scale is described. The rate of production of the enriched ytterbium is now 5 - 10 mg h{sup -1} (over 1 g per month). Commercially viable production of the enriched {sup 168}Yb isotope by the AVLIS method was achieved for the first time anywhere in the world. (review)

  4. Deformation of the very neutron-deficient rare-earth nuclei produced with the SPIRAL 76Kr radioactive beam and studied with EXOGAM + DIAMANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redon, N.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph.; Meyer, M.; Rosse, B.; Stezowski, O. [IPN Lyon, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Prevost, A. [IPN Lyon, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); CSNSM Orsay, IN2P3/CNRS, Bat 104, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Nolan, P.J.; Andreoiu, C.; Boston, A.J.; Descovich, M.; Evans, A.O.; Gros, S.; Norman, J.; Page, R.D.; Paul, E.S.; Rainovski, G.; Sampson, J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); France, G. de; Casandjian, J. M. [GANIL, B.P. 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France)] [and others

    2004-02-27

    The structure of the very neutron-deficient rare-earth nuclei has been investigated in the first experiment with the EXOGAM gamma array coupled to the DIAMANT light charged particle detector using radioactive beam of 76Kr delivered by the SPIRAL facility. Very neutron-deficient Pr, Nd and Pm isotopes have been populated at rather high spin by the reaction 76Kr + 58Ni at a beam energy of 328 MeV. We report here the first results of this experiment.

  5. BEAMing up for detection and quantification of rare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    for producing the water-in-oil emulsions used for BEAMing (Supplementary Figs. 1 and 2 online). In the third, water-in-oil emulsions are formed in which single DNA molecules within each aqueous compartment Comprehensive Cancer Center, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and Department of Pharmacology and Molecular

  6. Isotopic studies of rare gases in terrestrial samples and natural nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This project is concerned with research in rare gas mass spectrometry. We read the natural record that isotopes of the rare gases provide. We study fluids using a system (RARGA) that is sometimes deployed in the field. In 1990 there was a strong effort to reduce the backlog of RARGA samples on hand, so that it was a year of intensive data gathering. Samples from five different areas in the western United States and samples from Guatemala and Australia were analyzed. In a collaborative study we also began analyzing noble gases from rocks associated with the fluids. An important objective, continuing in 1991, is to understand better the reasons for somewhat elevated {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in regions where there is no contemporary volcanism which could produce the effect by addition of mantle helium. Our helium data have given us and our collaborators some insights, which are to be followed up, into gold mineralization in geothermal regions. Our DOE work in calibrating a sensitive laser microprobe mass spectrometer for noble gases in fluid inclusions continues. Having completed a series of papers on noble gases in diamonds, we next will attempt to make precise isotopic measurements on xenon from mantle sources, in search of evidence for terrestrially elusive {sup 244}Pu decay.

  7. Isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Physics Isotopes Isotopes Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Get Expertise...

  8. From the subtropics to the central equatorial Pacific Ocean: Neodymium isotopic composition and rare earth element

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    From the subtropics to the central equatorial Pacific Ocean: Neodymium isotopic composition, and S. Cravatte (2013), From the subtropics to the central equatorial Pacific Ocean: Neodymium isotopic waters (112 samples) in the Southern Tropical Pacific. The relatively detailed picture of these tracer

  9. On the usage of electron beam as a tool to produce radioactive isotopes in photo-nuclear reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. G. Bunatian; V. G. Nikolenko; A. B. Popov

    2010-12-22

    We treat the bremsstrahlung induced by initial electron beam in converter, and the production of a desirable radio-isotope due to the photo-nuclear reaction caused by this bremsstrahlung. By way of illustration, the yield of a number of some, the most in practice applicable, radio-isotopes is evaluated. The acquired findings persuade us that usage of modern electron accelerators offers a practicable way to produce the radio-isotopes needful nowadays for various valuable applications in the nuclear medicine.

  10. Production cross section measurements of radioactive isotopes by BigRIPS separator at RIKEN RI Beam Factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Suzuki; T. Kubo; N. Fukuda; N. Inabe; D. Kameda; H. Takeda; K. Yoshida; K. Kusaka; Y. Yanagisawa; M. Ohtake; H. Sato; Y. Shimizu; H. Baba; M. Kurokawa; T. Ohnishi; K. Tanaka; O. B. Tarasov; D. Bazin; D. J. Morrissey; B. M. Sherrill; K. Ieki; D. Murai; N. Iwasa; A. Chiba; Y. Ohkoda; E. Ideguchi; S. Go; R. Yokoyama; T. Fujii; D. Nishimura; H. Nishibata; S. Momota; M. Lewitowicz; G. DeFrance; I. Celikovic; K. Steiger

    2013-10-22

    We have measured the production rates and production cross sections for a variety of radioactive isotopes which were produced from 124Xe, 48Ca, and 238U beams at an energy of 345 MeV/nucleon using the BigRIPS separator at the RIKEN Nishina Center RI Beam Factory (RIBF). Proton-rich isotopes with atomic numbers Z = 40 to 52 and neutron-rich isotopes with Z = 5 to 16 were produced by projectile fragmentation of the 124Xe and 48Ca beam on Be targets, respectively. Neutron-rich isotopes with Z = 20 to 59 were produced by in-flight fission of the 238U beam, in which both Be and Pb were used as production targets. The measured production rates and production cross sections were compared with those of the LISE++ calculations, and overall fairly good agreement has been obtained. Furthermore, in the measurements with the 124Xe beam, we have discovered four new isotopes on the proton-drip line, 85,86Ru and 81,82Mo, and obtained the clear evidence that 103Sb is particle unbound with an upper limit of 49 ns for the half-life. The measurements of projectile-fragment momentum distributions have been also performed with the 124Xe beam, in which the low-momentum tails of the distributions have been measured for the first time at the energy of 345 MeV/nucleon.

  11. Ion beam measurement of deuterium in palladium and calculation of hydrogen isotope separation factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gullinger, T.R.; Kelly, M.J.; Knapp, J.A.; Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L. )

    1991-08-01

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a new technique for measuring hydrogen isotope separation factors in hydrogen-absorbing metals. Using external ion beam nuclear reaction analysis of metal electrodes in an operating electrochemical cell, the authors monitor in situ the deuterium content of the electrode. changing the deuterium/hydrogen ratio in the electrolyte changes the observed deuterium content of the metal electrode, and, assuming identical ultimate total metal loading for deuterium, hydrogen, and any mixture of deuterium and hydrogen, a simple calculation yields the separation factor.

  12. Facility for Rare Isotope Beams: The Journey Has Begun on DOE...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    level. New knowledge in this arena will yield exciting applications for society in medicine, homeland security, industry, and beyond. Acting Provost June Youatt kicked off the...

  13. Facility for Rare Isotope Beams: The Journey Has Begun on DOE's latest

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services » Program ManagementAct4Facility Safety Policy,Scientific

  14. OXYGEN ISOTOPE MEASUREMENTS OF A RARE MURCHISON TYPE A CAI AND ITS RIM. J. E. P. , J. I. Simon2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites. MUM-1 Petrography: The petrography

  15. Temperature dependence of ion-beam mixing in crystalline and amorphous germanium isotope multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radek, M.; Bracht, H., E-mail: bracht@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Materials Physics, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany); Posselt, M.; Liedke, B.; Schmidt, B. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Bougeard, D. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    Self-atom mixing induced by 310 keV gallium (Ga) ion implantation in crystalline and preamorphized germanium (Ge) at temperatures between 164 K and 623 K and a dose of 1?×?10{sup 15}?cm{sup ?2} is investigated using isotopic multilayer structures of alternating {sup 70}Ge and {sup nat}Ge layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The distribution of the implanted Ga atoms and the ion-beam induced depth-dependent self-atom mixing was determined by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry. Three different temperature regimes of self-atom mixing, i.e., low-, intermediate-, and high-temperature regimes are observed. At temperatures up to 423 K, the mixing is independent of the initial structure, whereas at 523?K, the intermixing of the preamorphized Ge structure is about twice as high as that of crystalline Ge. At 623?K, the intermixing of the initially amorphous Ge structure is strongly reduced and approaches the mixing of the crystalline material. The temperature dependence of ion-beam mixing is described by competitive amorphization and recrystallization processes.

  16. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, E. W., E-mail: magee1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ?10{sup ?7} Torr at ?1000?°C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

  17. Beam dynamics at the main LEBT of RAON accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Hyunchang

    2015-01-01

    The high-intensity rare-isotope accelerator (RAON) of the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Daejeon, Korea, has been designed to accelerate multiple-charge-state beams. The ion beams, which are generated by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECR-IS), will be transported through the main Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) system to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). While passing the beams through LEBT, we should keep the transverse beam size and longitudinal emittance small. Furthermore, the matching of required twiss parameter at the RFQ entrance will be performed by using electro-static quadrupoles at the main LEBT matching section which is from the multi-harmonic buncher (MHB) to the entrance of RFQ. We will briefly review the new aspects of main LEBT lattice and the beam matching at the main LEBT matching section will be presented. In addition, the effects of various errors on the beam orbit and the correction of distorted orbit will be discussed.

  18. Neutron Scattering Science User Office, neutronusers@ornl.gov or (865) 574-4600. Proposals for beam time at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Neutron Scattering Science User Office, neutronusers@ornl.gov or (865) 574-4600. Proposals for beam Wildgruber, wildgrubercu@ornl.gov. VISION CallforProposals neutrons.ornl.gov Neutron Scattering Science - Oak time at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Spallation Neutron Source

  19. Development of Parallel Computing Framework to Enhance Radiation Transport Code Capabilities for Rare Isotope Beam Facility Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostin, Mikhail [FRIB, MSU] [FRIB, MSU; Mokhov, Nikolai [FNAL] [FNAL; Niita, Koji [RIST, Japan] [RIST, Japan

    2013-09-25

    A parallel computing framework has been developed to use with general-purpose radiation transport codes. The framework was implemented as a C++ module that uses MPI for message passing. It is intended to be used with older radiation transport codes implemented in Fortran77, Fortran 90 or C. The module is significantly independent of radiation transport codes it can be used with, and is connected to the codes by means of a number of interface functions. The framework was developed and tested in conjunction with the MARS15 code. It is possible to use it with other codes such as PHITS, FLUKA and MCNP after certain adjustments. Besides the parallel computing functionality, the framework offers a checkpoint facility that allows restarting calculations with a saved checkpoint file. The checkpoint facility can be used in single process calculations as well as in the parallel regime. The framework corrects some of the known problems with the scheduling and load balancing found in the original implementations of the parallel computing functionality in MARS15 and PHITS. The framework can be used efficiently on homogeneous systems and networks of workstations, where the interference from the other users is possible.

  20. Cost Estimate for Laser Isotope Separation for RIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibner, K

    2004-11-01

    Isotope enrichment of some elements is required in support of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) in order to obtain the beam intensities, source efficiencies and/or source lifetime required by RIA. The economics of using Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology as well as ElectroMagnetic (EM) separation technology has been evaluated. It is concluded that such an AVLIS would be about 10 times less expensive than a facility based on electromagnetic separation - $17 M versus $170 M. In addition, the AVLIS facility footprint would be about 10 times smaller, and operations would require about 4 years (including 2 years of startup) versus about 11 years for an EM facility.

  1. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harney, Robert C. (5665 Charlotte Way, No. 80, Livermore, CA 94550); Bloom, Stewart D. (141 Via Serena, Alamo, CA 94507)

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances.

  2. Initial commissioning results with the NSCL Electron Beam Ion Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, S.; Kittimanapun, K.; Lapierre, A.; Leitner, D.; Ottarson, J.; Portillo, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Bollen, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kester, O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The ReA reaccelerator is being added to the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) fragmentation facility in order to provide exotic rare-isotope beams, not available at the Isotope Separation On-Line facilities, in the several-MeV/u energy range. The first stage of the NSCL reaccelerator complex, consisting of an EBIT charge breeder, a room-temperature radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and superconducting linear accelerator modules, has been completed and is being put into operation. Commissioning of the EBIT has started by extracting charge-bred residual gas ions, ions created from a Ne gas jet directed across the EBIT's electron beam and ions captured from an external test ion source. Charge-bred ions from the Ne gas jet have been extracted as a pulse and accelerated through the RFQ and the two cryomodules.

  3. Mass measurements of rare isotopes with SHIPTRAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dworschak, M.

    2010-06-01

    The Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP was set up with the aim to perform high-precision mass measurements. Since autumn 2005, the masses of 63 neutron-deficient nuclides in the mass range from A = 80 to A = 254 have been determined with relative uncertainties of down to 10{sup -8}. Nuclides with half-lives down to 580 ms and production rates of less than one atom per minute were investigated. The results are valuable for nuclear structure investigations and nuclear astrophysics. The most remarkable successes were the first direct mass measurements beyond the proton drip line and in the region above Z = 100.

  4. Determination of the ReA Electron Beam Ion Trap electron beam radius and current density with an X-ray pinhole camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, Thomas M. Lapierre, Alain Kittimanapun, Kritsada; Schwarz, Stefan; Leitner, Daniela; Bollen, Georg

    2014-07-15

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University is used as a charge booster and injector for the currently commissioned rare isotope re-accelerator facility ReA. This EBIT charge breeder is equipped with a unique superconducting magnet configuration, a combination of a solenoid and a pair of Helmholtz coils, allowing for a direct observation of the ion cloud while maintaining the advantages of a long ion trapping region. The current density of its electron beam is a key factor for efficient capture and fast charge breeding of continuously injected, short-lived isotope beams. It depends on the radius of the magnetically compressed electron beam. This radius is measured by imaging the highly charged ion cloud trapped within the electron beam with a pinhole camera, which is sensitive to X-rays emitted by the ions with photon energies between 2 keV and 10 keV. The 80%-radius of a cylindrical 800 mA electron beam with an energy of 15 keV is determined to be r{sub 80%}=(212±19)?m in a 4 T magnetic field. From this, a current density of j = (454 ± 83)A/cm{sup 2} is derived. These results are in good agreement with electron beam trajectory simulations performed with TriComp and serve as a test for future electron gun design developments.

  5. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  6. Laser separation of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eerkens, J.W.; Puglishi, D.A.; Miller, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    There is an increasing demand for different separated isotopes as feed material for reactor and cyclotron-produced radioisotopes used by a fast-growing radiopharmaceutical industry. One new technology that may meet future demands for medical isotopes is molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS). This method was investigated for the enrichment of uranium in the 1970`s and 1980s by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Isotope Technologies, and others around the world. While South Africa and Japan have continued the development of MLIS for uranium and are testing pilot units, around 1985 the United States dropped the LANL MLIS program in favor of AVLIS (atomic vapor LIS), which uses electron-beam-heated uranium metal vapor. AVLIS appears difficult and expensive to apply to most isotopes of medical interest, however, whereas MLIS technology, which is based on cooled hexafluorides or other gaseous molecules, can be adapted more readily. The attraction of MLIS for radiopharmaceutical firms is that it allows them to operate their own dedicated separators for small-quantity productions of critical medical isotopes, rather than having to depend on large enrichment complexes run by governments, which are only optimal for large-quantity productions. At the University of Missouri, the authors are investigating LIS of molybdenum isotopes using MoF{sub 6}, which behaves in a way similar to UF{sub 6}, studied in the past.

  7. Direct mass measurements of Cd isotopes show strong shell gap at N=82

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Knöbel; M. Diwisch; F. Bosch; D. Boutin; L. Chen; C. Dimopoulou; A. Dolinskii; B. Franczak; B. Franzke; H. Geissel; M. Hausmann; C. Kozhuharov; J. Kurcewicz; S. A. Litvinova; G. Martínez-Pinedo; M. Matoš; M. Mazzocco; G. Münzenberg; S. Nakajima; C. Nociforo; F. Nolden; T. Ohtsubo; A. Ozawa; Z. Patyk; W. R. Plaß; C. Scheidenberger; J. Stadlmann; M. Steck; B. Sun; T. Suzuki; P. Walker; H. Weick; M. -R. Wu; M. Winkler; T. Yamaguchi

    2015-07-16

    A $^{238}$U projectile beam was used to create cadmium isotopes via abrasion-fission at 410 MeV/u in a beryllium target at the entrance of the in-flight separator FRS at GSI. The fission fragments were separated with the FRS and injected into the isochronous storage ring ESR for mass measurements. The Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) was performed under two different experimental conditions, with and without B$\\rho$-tagging at the dispersive central focal plane of the FRS. In the experiment with B$\\rho$-tagging the magnetic rigidity of the injected fragments was determined by an accuracy of $2\\times 10^{-4}$. A new method of data analysis, using a correlation matrix for the combined data set from both experiments, has provided mass values for 25 different isotopes for the first time. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the experiment and analysis has given access even to rare isotopes detected with a few atoms per week. In this letter we present for the $^{129,130,131}$Cd isotopes mass values directly measured for the first time. The Cd results clearly show a very pronounced shell effect at $N=82$ which is in agreement with the conclusion from $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy of $^{130}$Cd and confirms the assumptions of modern shell-model calculations.

  8. Direct mass measurements of Cd isotopes show strong shell gap at N=82

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knöbel, R; Bosch, F; Boutin, D; Chen, L; Dimopoulou, C; Dolinskii, A; Franczak, B; Franzke, B; Geissel, H; Hausmann, M; Kozhuharov, C; Kurcewicz, J; Litvinova, S A; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Matoš, M; Mazzocco, M; Münzenberg, G; Nakajima, S; Nociforo, C; Nolden, F; Ohtsubo, T; Ozawa, A; Patyk, Z; Plaß, W R; Scheidenberger, C; Stadlmann, J; Steck, M; Sun, B; Suzuki, T; Walker, P; Weick, H; Wu, M -R; Winkler, M; Yamaguchi, T

    2015-01-01

    A $^{238}$U projectile beam was used to create cadmium isotopes via abrasion-fission at 410 MeV/u in a beryllium target at the entrance of the in-flight separator FRS at GSI. The fission fragments were separated with the FRS and injected into the isochronous storage ring ESR for mass measurements. The Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) was performed under two different experimental conditions, with and without B$\\rho$-tagging at the dispersive central focal plane of the FRS. In the experiment with B$\\rho$-tagging the magnetic rigidity of the injected fragments was determined by an accuracy of $2\\times 10^{-4}$. A new method of data analysis, using a correlation matrix for the combined data set from both experiments, has provided mass values for 25 different isotopes for the first time. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the experiment and analysis has given access even to rare isotopes detected with a few atoms per week. In this letter we present for the $^{129,130,131}$Cd isotopes mass values directly ...

  9. EA-1684: Final Environmental Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Construction And Operation Of The Facility For Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan

  10. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  11. Production of radioactive isotopes through cosmic muon spallation in KamLAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abe, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Terashima, A.; Watanabe, H.

    2010-02-15

    Radioactive isotopes produced through cosmic muon spallation are a background for rare-event detection in nu detectors, double-beta-decay experiments, and dark-matter searches. Understanding the nature of cosmogenic backgrounds is particularly important for future experiments aiming to determine the pep and CNO solar neutrino fluxes, for which the background is dominated by the spallation production of {sup 11}C. Data from the Kamioka liquid-scintillator antineutrino detector (KamLAND) provides valuable information for better understanding these backgrounds, especially in liquid scintillators, and for checking estimates from current simulations based upon MUSIC, FLUKA, and GEANT4. Using the time correlation between detected muons and neutron captures, the neutron production yield in the KamLAND liquid scintillator is measured to be Y{sub n}=(2.8+-0.3)x10{sup -4} mu{sup -1} g{sup -1} cm{sup 2}. For other isotopes, the production yield is determined from the observed time correlation related to known isotope lifetimes. We find some yields are inconsistent with extrapolations based on an accelerator muon beam experiment.

  12. Study of the Production of Radioactive Isotopes through Cosmic Muon Spallation in KamLAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KamLAND Collaboration; Abe, S.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.; Gando, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kibe, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Koga, M.; Minekawa, Y.; Mitsui, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Shimizu, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suekane, F.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Terashima, A.; Watanabe, H.; Yonezawa, E.; Yoshida, S.; Kozlov, A.; Murayama, H.; Busenitz, J.; Classen, T.; Grant, C.; Keefer, G.; Leonard, D. S.; McKee, D.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Bloxham, T.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Gray, F.; Guardincerri, E.; Hsu, L.; Ichimura, K.; Kadel, R.; Lendvai, C.; Luk, K.-B.; O'Donnell, T.; Steiner, H. M.; Winslow, L. A.; Dwyer, D. A.; Jillings, C.; Mauger, C.; McKeown, R. D.; Vogel, P.; Zhang, C.; Berger, B. E.; Lane, C. E.; Maricic, J.; Miletic, T.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Pakvasa, S.; Foster, J.; Horton-Smith, G. A.; Tang, A.; Dazeley, S.; Downum, K. E.; Gratta, G.; Tolich, K.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Perevozchikov, O.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Heeger, K. M.; Piquemal, F.; Ricol, J.-S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2009-06-30

    Radioactive isotopes produced through cosmic muon spallation are a background for rare event detection in {nu} detectors, double-beta-decay experiments, and dark-matter searches. Understanding the nature of cosmogenic backgrounds is particularly important for future experiments aiming to determine the pep and CNO solar neutrino fluxes, for which the background is dominated by the spallation production of {sup 11}C. Data from the Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) provides valuable information for better understanding these backgrounds, especially in liquid scintillator, and for checking estimates from current simulations based upon MUSIC, FLUKA, and Geant4. Using the time correlation between detected muons and neutron captures, the neutron production yield in the KamLAND liquid scintillator is measured to be (2.8 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -4} n/({mu} {center_dot} (g/cm{sup 2})). For other isotopes, the production yield is determined from the observed time correlation related to known isotope lifetimes. We find some yields are inconsistent with extrapolations based on an accelerator muon beam experiment.

  13. Science with Beams of Radioactive Isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment Top LDRDUniversitySchedulesScienceProjectionsScience

  14. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  15. A rare opportunity beckons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, K

    2011-02-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty for the future of rare-earth production. Rare-earths are a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, which include scandium and yttrium as well as the 15 lanthanides, such as dysprosium and ytterbium. China has a stranglehold on today's rare-earth market, which was worth about $3bn in 2010, with the country accounting for about 95% of worldwide production. Yet China's future actions can only be guessed at best. In September it halted shipments of rare-earth elements to Japan over a diplomatic spat concerning the detention of a Chinese trawler captain. Although the ban was later lifted, the episode raised concerns around the world about China's rare-earth monopoly and its use in diplomacy. China has already warned that it will not export any rare-earth material in the coming years as it expects its own consumption of rare-earth metals to increase. The country has introduced export taxes as well as production and export quotas, and also refused to grant any new rare-earth mining licences. Furthermore, because its reserves are limited and China's internal markets are growing so rapidly, the country has suggested it will no longer export products that require rare-earth elements, especially those that need heavy rare-earth elements, such as terbium and dysprosium. China's actions have led to huge rises in the cost of rare-earth materials and products. Dysprosium oxide, for example, has shot up from $36 per kilogram in 2005 to a massive $305 per kilogram by late last year. This could have a huge impact on much of today's electronics industry, given that rare-earth elements are ubiquitous in electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) and mobile phones. Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets, for example, are used as computer spindle drives. The question is: what can be done to ensure that China's dominance of the rare-earth industry does not affect the military and energy security of the US and other nations? Rare-earth elements are relatively plentiful in the Earth's crust but they are widely dispersed, which makes mining them economically nonviable. The rare-earth industry first took off in the early 1960s with the discovery of the intense red luminescence of europium when excited by electrons. This was quickly utilized by TV manufacturers in the US, which used the material to produce the colour red. Indeed, many of the rare-earth applications arise because each element is unique and so certain elements exhibit behaviours that match a particular application, such as neodymium for lasers and magnets or europium and terbium for the red and green colours in TVs. In the 1960s annual production of rare-earth elements was about 2000 tonnes, with the US company Molycorp supplying 50% of the rare-earth oxides from the Mountain Pass mine in California. This monopoly was broken in the early 1990s when China first began to export separated rare-earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s China was moving up the supply chain to higher-value products such as magnets and phosphors. Since the turn of the century it has supplied finished products including computers, LCDs and mobile phones. Production of rare-earth elements, which has been increasing by about 10% every year since the 1960s, reached 97,000 tonnes by 2009. Fortunately, new deposits of rare-earths are being discovered all over the world, which means that China now accounts for about 30% of worldwide deposits, rather than 70% as widely thought in the 1980s. But to take advantage of this and break the monopoly, governments outside China need to open new rare-earth deposits, especially those with high concentrations of the heavier rare-earth elements. They also need to expand and open new manufacturing facilities for products that need rare-earths, as well as train scientists to replace the intellectual capital lost during the last 20-30 years because of the Chinese monopoly. The bottom line is that to reduce the rest of the world's dependence on China for a sufficient and continuous supply of rare-ear

  16. Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography of Stable Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the development of a new molecular imaging technique using inelastic scattering of fast neutrons. Earlier studies characteristic gamma photons through inelastic scattering of an external neutron beam. These stable isotopes canNeutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography of Stable Isotopes Carey E. Floyd Jr.*ab , Calvin

  17. Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals is the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Info Sheet Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals isolated. Actually, most rare earth elements exist in the Earth's crust in higher concentrations than though most people have never heard of rare earth elements, sev- eral of them govern mankind's modern

  18. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing theActivation byIs a SmallIsotope

  19. RARE EARTHS--2003 60.1 RARE EARTHS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . U.S. imports of cerium compounds and rare-earth metals and alloys decreased (table 5). YttriumRARE EARTHS--2003 60.1 RARE EARTHS By James B. Hedrick Domestic survey data and tables were, geographic information specialist. The rare earths are a moderately abundant group of 17 elements comprising

  20. RARE EARTHS--2002 61.1 RARE EARTHS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of rare earths are iron gray to silvery lustrous metals that are typically soft, malleable, ductile decreased as imports of rare-earth alloys, compounds, and metals declined. Production of bastnäsiteRARE EARTHS--2002 61.1 RARE EARTHS By James B. Hedrick Domestic survey data and tables were

  1. RARE BOOKS DIVISION SPECIAL COLLECTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Dale H.

    . The Rare Books Division holds materials totaling approximately 80,000 items including books, pamphlets

  2. Rare Hadronic B Decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevan, A.J.

    2006-06-07

    Rare hadronic B-meson decays allow us to study CP violation. The class of B-decays final states containing two vector mesons provides a rich set of angular correlation observables to study. This article reviews some of the recent experimental results from the BABAR and Belle collaborations.

  3. Isotopic Anomalies in CP Stars: Helium, Mercury, Platinum, and Calcium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. R. Cowley; S. Hubrig; F. Castelli

    2007-11-15

    We review the classical observational results for isotopic abundance variations for several elements in CP stars. We concentrate on the "newest" anomaly, in calcium. The cosmically very rare isotope, Ca-48 can rival and even dominate the more common, alpha nuclide, Ca-40. Relevant examples are found in the hot, non-magnetic HgMn stars, and the field horizontal-branch star, Feige 86. The calcium anomaly is also present in cool, magnetic stars, including the notorious HD 101065, Przybylski's star.

  4. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2010-01-01

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  5. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2012-08-29

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  6. Rare B Decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, P.D.; /Victoria U.

    2006-02-24

    Recent results from Belle and BaBar on rare B decays involving flavor-changing neutral currents or purely leptonic final states are presented. Measurements of the CP asymmetries in B {yields} K*{gamma} and b {yields} s{gamma} are reported. Also reported are updated limits on B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}, B{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu} and the recent measurement of B {yields} X{sub s}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  7. Uranium accountancy in Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carver, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The AVLIS program pioneers the large scale industrial application of lasers to produce low cost enriched uranium fuel for light water reactors. In the process developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, normal uranium is vaporized by an electron beam, and a precisely tuned laser beam selectively photo-ionizes the uranium-235 isotopes. These ions are moved in an electromagnetic field to be condensed on the product collector. All other uranium isotopes remain uncharged and pass through the collector section to condense as tails. Tracking the three types of uranium through the process presents special problems in accountancy. After demonstration runs, the uranium on the collector was analyzed for isotopic content by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Their results were checked at LLNL by analysis of parallel samples. The differences in isotopic composition as reported by the two laboratories were not significant.

  8. Dual isotope notch observer for isotope identification, assay and imaging with mono-energetic gamma-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2013-02-05

    A dual isotope notch observer for isotope identification, assay and imaging with mono-energetic gamma-ray sources includes a detector arrangement consists of three detectors downstream from the object under observation. The latter detector, which operates as a beam monitor, is an integrating detector that monitors the total beam power arriving at its surface. The first detector and the middle detector each include an integrating detector surrounding a foil. The foils of these two detectors are made of the same atomic material, but each foil is a different isotope, e.g., the first foil may comprise U235 and second foil may comprise U238. The integrating detectors surrounding these pieces of foil measure the total power scattered from the foil and can be similar in composition to the final beam monitor. Non-resonant photons will, after calibration, scatter equally from both foils.

  9. BEAM PROPAGATOR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003691MLTPL00 Beam Propagator for Weather Radars, Modules 1 and 2  http://www.exelisvis.com/ProductsServices/IDL.aspx 

  10. Phase stable rare earth garnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2013-06-11

    A transparent ceramic according to one embodiment includes a rare earth garnet comprising A.sub.hB.sub.iC.sub.jO.sub.12, where h is 3.+-.10%, i is 2.+-.10%, and j is 3.+-.10%. A includes a rare earth element or a mixture of rare earth elements, B includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, and C includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, where A is at a dodecahedral site of the garnet, B is at an octahedral site of the garnet, and C is at a tetrahedral site of the garnet. In one embodiment, the rare earth garment has scintillation properties. A radiation detector in one embodiment includes a transparent ceramic as described above and a photo detector optically coupled to the rare earth garnet.

  11. Searches for very rare decays of kaons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The physics motivation for searches for very rare kaon decays, either forbidden or suppressed within the Standard Model, is briefly discussed. Simple arguments conclude that such searches probe possible new forces at a 200 TeV mass scale or constitute a precision test of the electroweak model. The examples of such process are decays of K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu} {sup {+-}}e{sup -+}, K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {mu}{sup +} e{sup -}, K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -}, and K{sup +} {yields} {pi} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}. We present the current experimental status and describe the new efforts to reach sensitivities down to one part in 10{sup 12}. The discussion is focused on the experimental program at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, where intense beams make such studies possible.

  12. Hybrid isotope separation scheme

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus. 2 figures.

  13. Stable isotope enrichment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian

    2014-07-15

    Brian Egle is working to increase the nation's capacity to produce stable isotopes for use including medicine, industry and national security.

  14. Stable isotope enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian

    2014-07-14

    Brian Egle is working to increase the nation's capacity to produce stable isotopes for use including medicine, industry and national security.

  15. Price Quotes and Isotope Ordering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ordering Price Quotes and Isotope Ordering Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Isotope...

  16. Discovery of the Indium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Thirty-eight indium isotopes (A = 98-135) have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Discovery of the Titanium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Twentyfive titanium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  18. Discovery of the Mercury Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Forty mercury isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  19. Discovery of the Cobalt Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Szymanski; M. Thoennessen

    2009-09-04

    Twenty-six cobalt isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  20. Discovery of the Tin Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Thirty-eight tin isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  1. Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2009-10-22

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Rare Earth ? See Rare Earth, by Ward and Brownlee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Rare Earth ? See Rare Earth, by Ward and Brownlee #12;N to date N = N* fs fGHZfp nH fl fi fc L/T ·N Earth is "Just Right" Yes, life on Earth has adapted to Earth, but ... Earth has just the right mass to be ·Tectonically-active ·Retain an atmosphere Earth has had a stable climate The Sun is particularly inactive

  3. Apparatus and method for monitoring of gas having stable isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clegg, Samuel M; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna E

    2013-03-05

    Gas having stable isotopes is monitored continuously by using a system that sends a modulated laser beam to the gas and collects and transmits the light not absorbed by the gas to a detector. Gas from geological storage, or from the atmosphere can be monitored continuously without collecting samples and transporting them to a lab.

  4. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  5. Photochemical isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Greiner, N.R.; Boyer, K.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium. 8 figs.

  6. Laser isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cotter, Theodore P. (Munich, DE); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM); Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  7. Collectivity evolution in the neutron-rich Pd isotopes towards the N=82 shell closure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, H; Takeuchi, S; Matsushita, M; Doornenbal, P; Motobayashi, T; Steppenbeck, D; Yoneda, K; Baba, H; Caceres, L; Dombradi, Zs; Kobayashi, K; Kondo, Y; Lee, J; Li, K; Liu, H; Minakata, R; Nishimura, D; Otsu, H; Sakaguchi, S; Sakurai, H; Scheit, H; Sohler, D; Sun, Y; Tian, Z; Tanaka, R; Togano, Y; Vajta, Zs; Yang, Z; Yamamoto, T; Ye, Y; Yokoyama, R

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-rich, even-even 122,124,126Pd isotopes has been studied via in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Excited states at 499(9), 590(11), and 686(17) keV were found in the three isotopes, which we assign to the respective 2+ -> 0+ decays. In addition, a candidate for the 4+ state at 1164(20) keV was observed in 122Pd. The resulting Ex(2+) systematics are essentially similar to those of the Xe (Z=54) isotopic chain and theoretical prediction by IBM-2, suggesting no serious shell quenching in the Pd isotopes in the vicinity of N=82.

  8. Beam History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits & Inspections AuditsBarbara McClintockSecurity ComplexBeamBeam

  9. Beam Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits & Inspections AuditsBarbara McClintockSecurityBeam Transport Beam

  10. Beam Status

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActTools toBadging, Badge OfficeBeam Request ToBeam

  11. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  12. Beams 92: Proceedings. Volume 2, Ion beams, electron beams, diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosher, D.; Cooperstein, G. [eds.] [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [eds.; Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics. Ion beam papers; electron beam papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

  13. Center for Beam Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    2010-01-01

    UV Laser Ionization and Electron Beam Diagnostics for Plasmaradiation based electron beam diagnostics, fast beamdiagnostic instru- mentation for electron and photon beams

  14. Center for Beam Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    2010-01-01

    1231 (1990). "Relativistic Klystron Version of the Two-BeamDesign of a Relativiatic Klystron Two-Beam AcceleratorSource for a Relativistic Klystron Two- Beam Accelerator" (

  15. Perchlorate Isotope Forensics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohlke, J. K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA; Sturchio, N. C. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Horita, Juske [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL; Jackson, W. Andrew [Tennessee Technological University; Batista, Jacimaria [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate has been detected recently in a variety of soils, waters, plants, and food products at levels that may be detrimental to human health. These discoveries have generated considerable interest in perchlorate source identification. In this study, comprehensive stable isotope analyses ({sup 37}Cl/{sup 35}Cl and {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O/{sup 16}O) of perchlorate from known synthetic and natural sources reveal systematic differences in isotopic characteristics that are related to the formation mechanisms. In addition, isotopic analyses of perchlorate extracted from groundwater and surface water demonstrate the feasibility of identifying perchlorate sources in contaminated environments on the basis of this technique. Both natural and synthetic sources of perchlorate have been identified in water samples from some perchlorate occurrences in the United States by the isotopic method.

  16. Plasma isotope separation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, M.W. ); Shepp, T.A. )

    1991-12-01

    Isotope separation has many important industrial, medical, and research applications. Large-scale processes have typically utilized complex cascade systems; for example, the gas centrifuge. Alternatively, high single-stage enrichment processes (as in the case of the calutron) are very energy intensive. Plasma-based methods being developed for the past 15 to 20 years have attempted to overcome these two drawbacks. In this review, six major types of isotope separation methods which involve plasma phenomena are discussed. These methods are: plasma centrifuge, AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotope separation), ion wave, ICR (ion-cyclotron resonance), calutron, and gas discharge. The emphasis of this paper is to describe the plasma phenomena in these major categories. An attempt was made to include enough references so that more detailed study or evaluation of a particular method could readily be pursued. A brief discussion of isotope separation using mass balance concepts is also carried out.

  17. An after-market, five-port vertical beam line extension for the PETtrace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Severin, G. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Gagnon, K.; Nickles, R. J.

    2012-12-19

    Most commercial cyclotrons intended for medical isotope production provide a limited number of beam ports crowded into a minimal vault space. Taking advantage of our new lab construction, we planned and installed a beam-line on port Music-Sharp-Sign 2 of our GEMS PETtrace to bring beam to an additional 5 target positions. These are oriented in the vertical plane, with the downward directed beam well suited for molten target substrates.

  18. RARE EARTHS By James B. Hedrick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), a wholly earths are iron gray to silvery lustrous metals; rare-earth tariffs for Canada and Mexico were1 RARE EARTHS By James B. Hedrick The rare earths are a relatively abundant enacted on November 30, 1993, and covered of rare earths for the second consecutive year. group of elements that range

  19. {sup 18}Ne production for the Beta beams project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodák, Rastislav [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, CTU in Prague, Horská 3/22a, CZ-12800 Prague (Czech Republic); Mendonça, Tania M. [IFIMUP and IN - Institute of Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal and CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Swaziland); Stora, Thierry [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2013-12-30

    Intense relativistic (anti)neutrino beams are an unique tool required to study fundamental properties of neutrinos such as neutrino oscillation parameters, as well as their Majorana or Dirac nature, the lepton number conservation hypothesis and the absolute neutrino mass scale. Such beams originate from acceleration of ?-decaying radioactive ions (“Beta beams”). A molten fluoride salt target has been developed for the production of the required rates of low-Q baseline isotope {sup 18}Ne for the Beta beams project. The prototyped unit has been tested on-line at ISOLDE-CERN. In this contribution an overview of the prototyping and on-line tests is presented.

  20. Monolithic integration of rare-earth oxides and semiconductors for on-silicon technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dargis, Rytis, E-mail: dargis@translucentinc.com; Clark, Andrew; Erdem Arkun, Fevzi [Translucent, Inc., 952 Commercial St., Palo Alto, California 94303 (United States); Grinys, Tomas; Tomasiunas, Rolandas [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); O'Hara, Andy; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Several concepts of integration of the epitaxial rare-earth oxides into the emerging advanced semiconductor on silicon technology are presented. Germanium grows epitaxially on gadolinium oxide despite lattice mismatch of more than 4%. Additionally, polymorphism of some of the rare-earth oxides allows engineering of their crystal structure from hexagonal to cubic and formation of buffer layers that can be used for growth of germanium on a lattice matched oxide layer. Molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride on the rare-earth oxide buffer layers on silicon is discussed.

  1. Advancement of isotope separation for the production of reference standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Horkley; Christopher McGrath; Andrew Edwards; Gaven Knighton; Kevin Carney; Jacob Davies; James Sommers; Jeffrey Giglio

    2012-03-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) operates a mass separator that is currently producing high purity isotopes for use as internal standards for high precision isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In 2008, INL began the revival of the vintage 1970’s era instrument. Advancements thus far include the successful upgrading and development of system components such as the vacuum system, power supplies, ion-producing components, and beam detection equipment. Progress has been made in the separation and collection of isotopic species including those of Ar, Kr, Xe, Sr, and Ba. Particular focuses on ion source improvements and developments have proven successful with demonstrated output beam currents of over 10 micro-amps 138Ba and 350nA 134Ba from a natural abundance source charge (approximately 2.4 percent 134Ba). In order to increase production and collection of relatively high quantities (mg levels) of pure isotopes, several advancements have been made in ion source designs, source material introduction, and beam detection and collection. These advancements and future developments will be presented.

  2. NOVEL CONCEPTS FOR ISOTOPIC SEPARATION OF 3HE/4HE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, L.; Nigg, H.; Watson, H.

    2012-09-04

    The research outlined below established theoretical proof-of-concept using ab initio calculations that {sup 3}He can be separated from {sup 4}He by taking advantage of weak van der Waals interactions with other higher molecular weight rare gases such as xenon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only suggested method that exploits the physical differences of the isotopes using a chemical interaction.

  3. Rare decays at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, S.M.; /Liverpool U.

    2006-01-01

    The confidence level limits of the CDF and D0 searches for the B{sub s}{sup 0}, B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{phi} rare decays are presented.

  4. Center for Beam Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    2010-01-01

    Krishnagopal of CAT, Indore, India, we are also developing aon Beam Physics at CAT, Indore, India and Telecourse on Beam

  5. RARE-EARTH METALS--1997 61.1 RARE-EARTH METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RARE-EARTH METALS--1997 61.1 RARE-EARTH METALS By James B. Hedrick The rare earths are a relatively million, to thulium and lutetium, the least abundant rare-earth elements at about 0.5 parts per million. Scandium, atomic number 21, is the lightest rare-earth element. It is the 31st most abundant element

  6. Upgrading scientific capabilities at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, C.D.; Farrar, M.B.

    1997-07-14

    Following termination of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project, a program of upgrades to the Department of Energy`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was devised by a team of researchers and reactor operators and has been proposed to the department. HFIR is a multipurpose research reactor, commissioned in 1965, with missions in four nationally important areas: isotope production, especially transuranic isotopes; neutron scattering; neutron activation analysis; and irradiation testing of materials. For neutron scattering, there are two major enhancements and several smaller ones. The first is the installation of a small, hydrogen cold neutron source in one of the four existing beam tubes: because of the high reactor power, and the use of new design concepts developed for ANS, the cold source will be as bright as, or brighter than, the Institute Laue Langevin liquid deuterium vertical cold source, although space limitations mean that there will be far fewer cold beams and instruments at HFIR. This project is underway, and the cold source is expected to come on line following an extended shutdown in 1999 to replace the reactor`s beryllium reflector. The second major change proposed would put five thermal neutron guides at an existing beam port and construct a new guide hall to accommodate instruments on these very intense beams.

  7. Transportation of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF EMITTANCE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR ION BEAM CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padilla, M. J.; Liu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Transverse beam emittance is a crucial property of charged particle beams that describes their angular and spatial spread. It is a fi gure of merit frequently used to determine the quality of ion beams, the compatibility of an ion beam with a given beam transport system, and the ability to suppress neighboring isotopes at on-line mass separator facilities. Generally a high quality beam is characterized by a small emittance. In order to determine and improve the quality of ion beams used at the Holifi eld Radioactive Ion beam Facility (HRIBF) for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research, the emittances of the ion beams are measured at the off-line Ion Source Test Facilities. In this project, emittance analysis software was developed to perform various data processing tasks for noise reduction, to evaluate root-mean-square emittance, Twiss parameters, and area emittance of different beam fractions. The software also provides 2D and 3D graphical views of the emittance data, beam profi les, emittance contours, and RMS. Noise exclusion is essential for accurate determination of beam emittance values. A Self-Consistent, Unbiased Elliptical Exclusion (SCUBEEx) method is employed. Numerical data analysis techniques such as interpolation and nonlinear fi tting are also incorporated into the software. The software will provide a simplifi ed, fast tool for comprehensive emittance analysis. The main functions of the software package have been completed. In preliminary tests with experimental emittance data, the analysis results using the software were shown to be accurate.

  9. Spectral statistics of rare-earth nuclei: Investigation of shell model configuration effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Sabri

    2015-06-11

    The spectral statistics of even-even rare-earth nuclei are investigated by using all the available empirical data for Ba, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb and Hf isotopes. The Berry- Robnik distribution and Maximum Likelihood estimation technique are used for analyses. An obvious deviation from GOE is observed for considered nuclei and there are some suggestions about the effect due to mass, deformation parameter and shell model configurations.

  10. Laser separation of uranium chosen for scaleup. [Atomic vapor laser isotope separation, molecular laser isotope separation, and plasma separation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, R.L.

    1982-05-17

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) has been selected by the Department of Energy to go into large-scale engineering development and demonstration over two other advanced technologies, molecular laser isotope separation and plasma separation. DOE will continue to support development of another uranium enrichment technology, gas centrifugation. By or around 1990, the most promising gas centrifuge technique will be compared to the further developed AVLIS process, and a selection will be made between the two to replace the current technology, gaseous diffusion. The AVLIS process, plasma separation, and molecular laser isotope separation use the elective absorption of radiation of a particular energy level by the /sup 235/U isotope. The plasma separation process selectively energizes /sup 235/U by ion cyclotron resonance. The AVLIS and molecular laser isotope separation processes both use a carefully tuned laser to excite /sup 235/U isotope selectively. In the AVLIS process, uranium metal feed material is melted and vaporized to form an atomic uranium vapor stream. When this vapor stream passes through the beam of copper vapor lasers, the /sup 235/U atoms absorb the light and become ionized. These ionized atoms are collected by electromagnetic fields while the neutral /sup 238/U atoms pass through the magnetic field and are collected as tailings. The AVLIS process has the potential for significantly reducing the cost of enriching uranium. The status of dvelopment, cost, advantages and drawbacks of the five processes, (gaseous diffusion, gas centrifugation, AVLIS, molecular laser separation, plasma separation) are discussed. (ATT)

  11. Laser separation of uranium chosen for scaleup. [Atomic vapor laser isotope separation, molecular laser isotope separation plasma separation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, R.L.

    1982-05-17

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) has been selected by the Department of Energy to go into large-scale engineering development and demonstration over two other advanced technologies, molecular laser isotope separation and plasma separation. DOE will continue to support development of another uranium enrichment technology, gas centrifugation. By or around 1990, the most promising gas centrifuge technique will be compared to the further developed AVLIS process, and a selection will be made between the two to replace the current technology, gaseous diffusion. The AVLIS process, plasma separation, and molecular laser isotope separation use the selective absorption of radiation of a particular energy level by the /sup 235/U isotope. The plasma separation process selectively energizes /sup 235/U by ion cyclotron resonance. The AVLIS and molecular laser isotope separation processes both use a carefully tuned laser to excite /sup 235/U isotope selectively. In the AVLIS process, uranium metal feed material is melted and vaporized to from an atomic uranium vapor stream. When this vapor stream passes through the beam of copper vapor lasers, the /sup 235/U atoms absorb the light and become ionized. These ionized atoms are collected by electromagnetic fields while the neutral /sup 238/U atoms pass through the magnetic field and are collected as tailings. The AVLIS process has the potential for significantly reducing the cost of enriching uranium. The status of development, cost, advantages and drawbacks of the five processes (gaseous diffusion, gas centrifugation, AVLIS, molecular laser separation, plasma separation) are discussed. (ATT)

  12. Beam History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits & Inspections AuditsBarbara McClintockSecurity ComplexBeam

  13. Beam Schedule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActTools toBadging, Badge OfficeBeam Request To

  14. Beam Status

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActTools toBadging, Badge OfficeBeam Request

  15. Beam geometry selection using sequential beam addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popple, Richard A. Brezovich, Ivan A.; Fiveash, John B.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The selection of optimal beam geometry has been of interest since the inception of conformal radiotherapy. The authors report on sequential beam addition, a simple beam geometry selection method, for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Methods: The sequential beam addition algorithm (SBA) requires definition of an objective function (score) and a set of candidate beam geometries (pool). In the first iteration, the optimal score is determined for each beam in the pool and the beam with the best score selected. In the next iteration, the optimal score is calculated for each beam remaining in the pool combined with the beam selected in the first iteration, and the best scoring beam is selected. The process is repeated until the desired number of beams is reached. The authors selected three treatment sites, breast, lung, and brain, and determined beam arrangements for up to 11 beams from a pool comprised of 25 equiangular transverse beams. For the brain, arrangements were additionally selected from a pool of 22 noncoplanar beams. Scores were determined for geometries comprised equiangular transverse beams (EQA), as well as two tangential beams for the breast case. Results: In all cases, SBA resulted in scores superior to EQA. The breast case had the strongest dependence on beam geometry, for which only the 7-beam EQA geometry had a score better than the two tangential beams, whereas all SBA geometries with more than two beams were superior. In the lung case, EQA and SBA scores monotonically improved with increasing number of beams; however, SBA required fewer beams to achieve scores equivalent to EQA. For the brain case, SBA with a coplanar pool was equivalent to EQA, while the noncoplanar pool resulted in slightly better scores; however, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that the differences were not clinically significant. Conclusions: For situations in which beam geometry has a significant effect on the objective function, SBA can identify arrangements equivalent to equiangular geometries but using fewer beams. Furthermore, SBA provides the value of the objective function as the number of beams is increased, allowing the planner to select the minimal beam number that achieves the clinical goals. The method is simple to implement and could readily be incorporated into an existing optimization system.

  16. Method for separating boron isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  17. Review: Rare Plants of Washington State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Ryder W.

    2013-01-01

    to the Rare Plants of Washington Pamela Camp and John G.John G. , eds. Field Guide to the Rare Plants of Washington.Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2011. 408pp.

  18. Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Print Friday, 26 September 2014 14:37 Jian ware (or Tenmoku) ceramic bowls, famous for their...

  19. Isotop kl. B Supportlab.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isotop kl. B lab. Nærlager Supportlab. Supportlab. Supportlab. Lab. GMO1/BSL2 Supportlab. Supportlab. Supportlab. Supportlab. Lab. GMO1/BSL2 Vareindlevering post/frost Kontor Sofastue / Thekøkken. GMO1/BSL2 Supportlab. �velseslab, eksist. �velseslab, eksist. Forberedelseslab. Rum, køl/ centrifuge

  20. Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences by Greta J. Orris1 and Richard I. Grauch2 Open Table 1. Rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names.......................................................................................6 Table 2. Non-rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names

  1. Imestigation ol" Maenons in Rare Earth Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imestigation ol" Maenons in Rare Earth Metals b\\ Inelastic Neutron Scattering tL Bjerrum Moiler #12;BLANK PAGE #12;Riso Report No. 178 Investigation of Magnons in Rare Earth Metals by Inelastic NeutronN LANGF h. a. dec. #12;Contents Page PREFACE 7 I. INTRODUCTION *> 1. Magnetism of Rare Earth Metals 10 2

  2. Colliding Crystalline Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, J.

    2008-01-01

    6] J. Wei, et ai, Crystalline Beams and Related Issues,LABORATORY Colliding Crystalline Beams Jie Wei and A.M.CBP Note-262 Colliding Crystalline Beams* Jie Wei Brookhaven

  3. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R. William (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Dennis, Kevin W. (Ames, IA); Hofer, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Branagan, Daniel J. (Ames, IA)

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  4. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  5. Understanding of Rare Earth Metals from Theory | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Rare Earth Metals from Theory The rare earth metals are becoming increasingly applicable in our everyday life. The enormous importance of rare earths in the technology,...

  6. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-08-22

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

  7. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynam, Christopher A. (3035 Ferdale Ct., Pleasanton, CA 94566); Worden, Earl F. (117 Vereda del Ciervo, Diablo, CA 94528)

    1995-01-01

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

  8. Thermal modeling of an indirectly heated E-beam gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jallouk, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    Uranium atomic vapor for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) process is produced by magnetically steering a high-power electron beam to the surface of the uranium melt. The electron beam is produced by a Pierce-type axial E-beam gun with an indirectly heated emitter (IDHE)-the industry standard for high-power melting and vaporization. AVLIS process design requirements for the E-beam gun are stringent, particularly in the areas of modularity, compactness, and lifetime. The gun assembly details are complex, geometric clearances are tight, and operating temperatures and stress levels are at the upper limits of acceptability. Detailed three-dimensional finite-element thermal models of the E-beam gun have been developed to address this challenging thermal packaging issue. These models are used in conjunction with design and testing activities to develop a gun exhibiting a high level of reliability for acceptable operation in a plant environment.

  9. Electron Beam Lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandini, Giulio

    Electron Beam Lithography Marco Salerno #12;Outline · general lithographic concepts · EBL www.cnf.cornell.edu/SPIEBook/SPIE1.HTM #12;Typical Electron Beam Column Zeiss GeminiTM column Types of Electron Beam Columns · no e- cross over no Boersch-effect (additional energy spread) · beam booster

  10. Isotopically labeled compositions and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Jurgen G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kimball, David B. (Los Alamos, NM); Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM); Williams, Robert F. (Los Alamos, NM); Martinez, Rudolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-07-12

    Compounds having stable isotopes .sup.13C and/or .sup.2H were synthesized from precursor compositions having solid phase supports or affinity tags.

  11. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Scime, Earl E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  12. Improved method for preparing rare earth sesquichalcogenides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takeshita, T.; Beaudry, B.J.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1982-04-14

    An improved method for the preparation of high purity rare earth sesquichalcogenides is described. The rare earth, as one or more pieces of the metal, is sealed under a vacuum with a stoichiometric amount of sulfur or selenium and a small amount of iodine into a quartz reaction vessel. The sealed vessel is then heated to above the vaporization temperature of the chalcogen and below the melting temperature of the rare earth metal and maintained until the product has been formed. The iodine is then vaporized off leaving a pure product. The rare earth sulfides and selenides thus formed are useful as semiconductors and as thermoelectric generators. 3 tables.

  13. RADIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF NEUTRON DEFICIENT ACTINIDE ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Kimberly Eve

    2011-01-01

    Isotope Targets and Foils, AERE-R 5097, Paper 10 (1965). V.Isotope Targets and Foils, AERE-R 5097 Paper 12 (1965). K.M.Isotope Targets and Foils, AERE-R-5097 Paper 11 (1965). M.

  14. Advanced isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-04

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems.

  15. The marine biogeochemistry of zinc isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Seth G

    2007-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) stable isotopes can record information about important oceanographic processes. This thesis presents data on Zn isotopes in anthropogenic materials, hydrothermal fluids and minerals, cultured marine phytoplankton, ...

  16. Isotope Research 229 Th production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isotope Research ­ 229 Th production We recently completed an ARRA-funded project of this type on 229 Th production reactions [Str11]. This long-lived isotope is important as a precursor to 225 Ac of accelerator production of 229 Th via the 230 Th(p,2n)229 Pa reaction. The 229 Pa decays primarily by electron

  17. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan Ott

    2012-09-05

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  18. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ryan Ott

    2013-06-05

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  19. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  20. Shell structure of potassium isotopes deduced from their magnetic moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Papuga; M. L. Bissell; K. Kreim; C. Barbieri; K. Blaum; M. De Rydt; T. Duguet; R. F. Garcia Ruiz; H. Heylen; M. Kowalska; R. Neugart; G. Neyens; W. Nortershauser; M. M. Rajabali; R. Sanchez; N. Smirnova; V. Soma; D. T. Yordanov

    2014-10-03

    \\item[Background] Ground-state spins and magnetic moments are sensitive to the nuclear wave function, thus they are powerful probes to study the nuclear structure of isotopes far from stability. \\item[Purpose] Extend our knowledge about the evolution of the $1/2^+$ and $3/2^+$ states for K isotopes beyond the $N = 28$ shell gap. \\item[Method] High-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy on bunched atomic beams. \\item[Results] From measured hyperfine structure spectra of K isotopes, nuclear spins and magnetic moments of the ground states were obtained for isotopes from $N = 19$ up to $N = 32$. In order to draw conclusions about the composition of the wave functions and the occupation of the levels, the experimental data were compared to shell-model calculations using SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions. In addition, a detailed discussion about the evolution of the gap between proton $1d_{3/2}$ and $2s_{1/2}$ in the shell model and {\\it{ab initio}} framework is also presented. \\item[Conclusions] The dominant component of the wave function for the odd-$A$ isotopes up to $^{45}$K is a $\\pi 1d_{3/2}^{-1}$ hole. For $^{47,49}$K, the main component originates from a $\\pi 2s_{1/2}^{-1}$ hole configuration and it inverts back to the $\\pi 1d_{3/2}^{-1}$ in $^{51}$K. For all even-$A$ isotopes, the dominant configuration arises from a $\\pi 1d_{3/2}^{-1}$ hole coupled to a neutron in the $\

  1. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imports:3 Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- -- -- 22 Rare-earth metals, alloys 271 352 235 284 406 Cerium Exports:3 Thorium ore, monazite -- -- 3 27 -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 71 44 194 329 456 Cerium compounds. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad val. 31.3% ad val

  2. Cosmogenic Production as a Background in Searching for Rare Physics Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. -M. Mei; Z. -B. Yin; S. R. Elliott

    2009-03-12

    We revisit calculations of the cosmogenic production rates for several long-lived isotopes that are potential sources of background in searching for rare physics processes such as the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. Using updated cosmic-ray neutron flux measurements, we use TALYS 1.0 to investigate the cosmogenic activation of stable isotopes of several detector targets and find that the cosmogenic isotopes produced inside the target materials and cryostat can result in large backgrounds for dark matter searches and neutrinoless double-beta decay. We use previously published low-background HPGe data to constrain the production of $^{3}H$ on the surface and the upper limit is consistent with our calculation. We note that cosmogenic production of several isotopes in various targets can generate potential backgrounds for dark matter detection and neutrinoless double-beta decay with a massive detector, thus great care should be taken to limit and/or deal with the cosmogenic activation of the targets.

  3. BEAMS: Curiosity | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BEAMS: Curiosity January 9, 2013 BEAMS, Becoming Excited About Math and Science, is one of our education programs. In particular, it is the only one in which I participate with...

  4. Isotope separation with the RICH detector of the AMS Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arruda, Luísa; Borges, João; Carmo, Fernando; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Pereira, Rui; Pimenta, Mário

    2007-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2008, is a cosmic ray detector with several subsystems, one of which is a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. This detector will be equipped with a dual radiator (aerogel+NaF), a lateral conical mirror and a detection plane made of 680 photomultipliers and light guides, enabling precise measurements of particle electric charge and velocity. Combining velocity measurements with data on particle rigidity from the AMS Tracker it is possible to obtain a measurement for particle mass, allowing the separation of isotopes. A Monte Carlo simulation of the RICH detector, based on realistic properties measured at ion beam tests, was performed to evaluate isotope separation capabilities. Results for three elements -- H (Z=1), He (Z=2) and Be (Z=4) -- are presented.

  5. Isotope separation with the RICH detector of the AMS Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luísa Arruda; Fernando Barão; João Borges; Fernando Carmo; Patrícia Gonçalves; Rui Pereira; Mário Pimenta

    2007-10-03

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2008, is a cosmic ray detector with several subsystems, one of which is a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. This detector will be equipped with a dual radiator (aerogel+NaF), a lateral conical mirror and a detection plane made of 680 photomultipliers and light guides, enabling precise measurements of particle electric charge and velocity. Combining velocity measurements with data on particle rigidity from the AMS Tracker it is possible to obtain a measurement for particle mass, allowing the separation of isotopes. A Monte Carlo simulation of the RICH detector, based on realistic properties measured at ion beam tests, was performed to evaluate isotope separation capabilities. Results for three elements -- H (Z=1), He (Z=2) and Be (Z=4) -- are presented.

  6. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  7. Apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K; Sessions, Henry T; Xiao, Xin

    2013-06-25

    The apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes is provided using dual columns, each column having an opposite hydrogen isotopic effect such that when a hydrogen isotope mixture feedstock is cycled between the two respective columns, two different hydrogen isotopes are separated from the feedstock.

  8. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine, pharmaceuticals, and biology, (2) physical sciences and engineering, and (3) national security and other applications. In each area, compelling research opportunities were considered and the subcommittee as a whole determined the final priorities for research opportunities as the foundations for the recommendations. While it was challenging to prioritize across disciplines, our order of recommendations reflect the compelling research prioritization along with consideration of time urgency for action as well as various geopolitical market issues. Common observations to all areas of research include the needs for domestic availability of crucial stable and radioactive isotopes and the education of the skilled workforce that will develop new advances using isotopes in the future. The six recommendations of NSACI reflect these concerns and the compelling research opportunities for potential new discoveries. The science case for each of the recommendations is elaborated in the respective chapters.

  9. Search for rare nuclear decays with HPGe detectors at the STELLA facility of the LNGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belli, P.; Di Marco, A.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Incicchitti, A.; Cerulli, R.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Kovtun, G. P.; Kovtun, N. G.; Shcherban, A. P.; Solopikhin, D. A.; Polischuk, O. G.; and others

    2013-12-30

    Results on the search for rare nuclear decays with the ultra low background facility STELLA at the LNGS using gamma ray spectrometry are presented. In particular, the best T{sub 1/2} limits were obtained for double beta processes in {sup 96}Ru and {sup 104}Ru. Several isotopes, which potentially decay through different 2? channels, including also possible resonant double electron captures, were investigated for the first time ({sup 156}Dy, {sup 158}Dy, {sup 184}Os, {sup 192}Os, {sup 190}Pt, {sup 198}Pt). Search for resonant absorption of solar {sup 7}Li axions in a LiF crystal gave the best limit for the mass of {sup 7}Li axions (< 8.6 keV). Rare alpha decay of {sup 190}Pt to the first excited level of {sup 186}Os(E{sub exc}?=?137.2keV) was observed for the first time.

  10. Source Terms for HFIR Beam Tube Shielding Analyses, and a Complete Shielding Analysis of the HB-3 Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    2000-07-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is in the midst of a massive upgrade program to enhance experimental facilities. The reactor presently has four horizontal experimental beam tubes, all of which will be replaced or redesigned. The HB-2 beam tube will be enlarged to support more guide tubes, while the HB-4 beam tube will soon include a cold neutron source.

  11. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: The {sup 132}Sn{sup +} case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osswald, F. Bouquerel, E.; Boutin, D.; Dinkov, A.; Sellam, A.

    2014-12-15

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards.

  12. Rare isotope production in statistical multifragmentation Scott Pratt, Wolfgang Bauer, Christopher Morling, and Patrick Underhill*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    the Mekjian method for exact solutions of the canonical ensemble. Both the initial fragmentation, or at highest energy transfer, multifragmenta- tion. This last mechanism, which assumes temperatures of a few Me energies in the range of a few MeV per nucleon 1,2 . It is our aim to apply simple statistical calculations

  13. Stable isotope and Rare Earth Element evidence for recent ironstone pods within the Archean Barberton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hren, Michael

    (up to $200 m long) hematite and goethite ironstone bodies within the 3.2 to 3.5 Ga Barberton of goethite and hematite components of the ironstones to determine whether these deposits reflect formation. Goethite d18 O values range from À0.7 to +1.0& and dD from À125 to À146&, which is consistent

  14. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Magnets

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McCallum, Bill

    2012-08-29

    Senior Scientist, Bill McCallum, briefly discusses rare-earth magnets and their uses and how Ames Lab is research new ways to save money and energy using magnets.

  15. Novel hybrid isotope separation scheme and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which the specific isotope is to be isolated, radiating the gas with frequencies characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photoionization reaction of the desired isotope, and collecting the specific isotope ion by suitable ion collection means. 3 figures.

  16. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takeshita, Takuo (Omiya, JP); Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Beaudry, Bernard J. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-06

    A new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula: La.sub.3-x M.sub.x S.sub.4 where M is a rare earth element selected from the group europium, samarium and ytterbium and x=0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000.degree. C.

  17. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haller, E. E., E-mail: eehaller@lbl.gov [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  18. Characteristics of neutrons and proton beams arising from two different Beam Nozzles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Yeon-Gyeong

    2015-01-01

    Tandem or Van de Graaff accelerator with an energy of 3-MeV is typically used for PIXE analysis. In this study, the beam line design used in PIXE analysis was used to increase the production of isotopes instead of the typical low-energy accelerator from a 13-MeV cyclotron. For PIXE analysis, the proton beam should be focused at the target through the use of a nozzle after degrading the proton beam energy from 13-MeV to 3-MeV using an energy degrader. Previous studies have been conducted to determine the most appropriate material and thickness of the energy degrader. Based on the energy distribution of the degraded proton beam and the neutron occurrence rate at the degrader an aluminum nozzle of X thickness was determined to be the most appropriate nozzle construction. Neutrons are created by the collision of 3-MeV protons into the nozzle after passage through energy degrader. In addition, a sufficient intensity of proton beam is required for non-destructive analysis of PIXE. Therefore, in order to optimize no...

  19. Electronic structure of rare-earth metals | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of rare-earth metals The rare-earth metals are becoming increasingly applicable in our everyday life. The enormous importance of rare-earths in the technology,...

  20. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-01-01

    300-500°C. Doping rare earth phosphate glasses with Ce, andRare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Protonconductivity of alkaline-earth doped rare earth phosphate

  1. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA)

    1986-09-16

    An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  2. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections of the Palladium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    CROSS SECTIONS OF THE PALLADIUM ISOTOPES R.B. Firestone ? ,? ? for all stable Palladium isotopes with the guidedscheme is complete. The Palladium isotope decay schemes are

  3. Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer therapy gets a boost from new isotope Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium A new medical isotope project shows promise for rapidly producing major...

  4. Methods of Beam Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessler, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    of Optical Stochastic Cooling", presented at PAC, (1995).1991). Hangst, J. , "Laser Cooling of a Stored Ion Beam - ATheorem and Phase Space Cooling", Proceedings of the

  5. Center for Beam Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    2010-01-01

    presented at APS Division of Plasma Physics, Denver,of Division of Physics of Beams of APS, InternationalLinear Colliders," APS New Directions in High Energy Physics

  6. Rare earth phosphors and phosphor screens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Maple, T. Grant (Sunnyvale, CA); Sklensky, Alden F. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth phosphor screens for converting image carrying incident radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation and to the rare earth phosphor materials utilized in such screens. The invention further relates to methods for converting image carrying charged particles to image carrying radiation principally in the blue and near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum and to stabilized rare earth phosphors characterized by having a continuous surface layer of the phosphors of the invention. More particularly, the phosphors of the invention are oxychlorides and oxybromides of yttrium, lanthanum and gadolinium activated with trivalent cerium and the conversion screens are of the type illustratively including x-ray conversion screens, image amplifier tube screens, neutron imaging screens, cathode ray tube screens, high energy gamma ray screens, scintillation detector screens and screens for real-time translation of image carrying high energy radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation.

  7. Isotope separation by selective charge conversion and field deflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickman, Robert G. (Livermore, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A deuterium-tritium separation system wherein a source beam comprised of positively ionized deuterium (D.sup.+) and tritium (T.sup.+) is converted at different charge-exchange cell sections of the system to negatively ionized deuterium (D.sup.-) and tritium (T.sup.-). First, energy is added to the beam to accelerate the D.sup.+ ions to the velocity that is optimum for conversion of the D.sup.+ ions to D.sup.- ions in a charge-exchange cell. The T.sup.+ ions are accelerated at the same time, but not to the optimum velocity since they are heavier than the D.sup.+ ions. The T.sup.+ ions are, therefore, not converted to T.sup.- ions when the D.sup.+ ions are converted to D.sup.- ions. This enables effective separation of the beam by deflection of the isotopes with an electrostatic field, the D.sup.- ions being deflected in one direction and the T.sup.+ ions being deflected in the opposite direction. Next, more energy is added to the deflected beam of T.sup.+ ions to bring the T.sup.+ ions to the optimum velocity for their conversion to T.sup.- ions. In a particular use of the invention, the beams of D.sup.- and T.sup.- ions are separately further accelerated and then converted to energetic neutral particles for injection as fuel into a thermonuclear reactor. The reactor exhaust of D.sup.+ and T.sup.+ and the D.sup.+ and T.sup.+ that was not converted in the respective sections is combined with the source beam and recycled through the system to increase the efficiency of the system.

  8. Submicro and Nano Structured Porous Materials for the Production of High-Intensity Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    ISOLDE, the CERN Isotope Separator On-line DEvice is a unique source of low energy beams of radioactive isotopes - atomic nuclei that have too many or too few neutrons to be stable. The facility is like a small ‘chemical factory’, giving the possibility of changing one element to another, by selecting the atomic mass of the required isotope beam in the mass separator, rather as the ‘alchemists’ once imagined. It produces a total of more than 1000 different isotopes from helium to radium, with half-lives down to milliseconds, by impinging a 1.4 GeV proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) onto special targets, yielding a wide variety of atomic fragments. Different components then extract the nuclei and separate them according to mass. The post-accelerator REX (Radioactive beam EXperiment) at ISOLDE accelerates the radioactive beams up to 3 MeV/u for many experiments. A wide international user radioactive ion beam (RIB) community investigates fundamental aspects of nuclear physics, particle...

  9. ONDES DE SPIN MAGNETISM IN THE LIGHT RARE EARTH 'METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ONDES DE SPIN MAGNETISM IN THE LIGHT RARE EARTH 'METALS A. R. MACKINTOSH H. C. Mrsted Institute terres rares Ikgeres. Abstract. -The magnetic properties of the light rare earth metals are reviewed the last decade, the magnetism of the heavy rare earth metals is now rather well understood. The magnetic

  10. AVLIS enrichment of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynam, C.A.; Scheibner, K.F.; Stern, R.C.; Worden, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Under the Sponsorship of the United states Enrichment Corporation (USEC), we are currently investigating the large scale separation of several isotopes of medical interest using atomic vapor isotope separation (AVLIS). This work includes analysis and experiments in the enrichment of thallium 203 as a precursor to the production of thallium 201 used in cardiac imaging following heart attacks, on the stripping of strontium 84 from natural strontium as precursor to the production of strontium 89, and on the stripping of lead 210 from lead used in integrated circuits to reduce the number of alpha particle induced logic errors.

  11. Online Catalog of Isotope Products from DOE's National Isotope Development Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The Isotope subprogram supports the production, and the development of production techniques of radioactive and stable isotopes that are in short supply for research and applications. Isotopes are high-priority commodities of strategic importance for the Nation and are essential for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research; a goal of the program is to make critical isotopes more readily available to meet domestic U.S. needs. This subprogram is steward of the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) facility at BNL, and hot cell facilities for processing isotopes at ORNL, BNL and LANL. The subprogram also coordinates and supports isotope production at a suite of university, national laboratory, and commercial accelerator and reactor facilities throughout the Nation to promote a reliable supply of domestic isotopes. The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) at ORNL coordinates isotope production across the many facilities and manages the business operations of the sale and distribution of isotopes.

  12. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1994-02-15

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus is described. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 7 figures.

  13. Beam Diagnostics for FACET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

  14. Laser beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Duncan, D.B.

    1993-12-28

    Laser beam generating apparatus including a septum segment disposed longitudinally within the tubular structure of the apparatus. The septum provides for radiatively dissipating heat buildup within the tubular structure and for generating relatively uniform laser beam pulses so as to minimize or eliminate radial pulse delays (the chevron effect). 11 figures.

  15. Brookhaven-Built Magnet Will Catch Subatomic Debris

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Wanderer

    2013-07-22

    Peter Wanderer, head of Brookhaven's Superconducting Magnet Division, describes the magnet that's being built for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams at Michigan State University

  16. University Partners Panel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Matt Tirrell, Pritzker Director and Professor, Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago Thomas Glasmacher, Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) Project Manager, Michigan State University

  17. Isotope Development & Production | Nuclear Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Separation & Processing Strategic Isotope Production Super Heavy Element Discovery Nuclear Security Science & Technology Nuclear Systems Modeling, Simulation & Validation...

  18. Search for rare and forbidden eta ' decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ammar, Raymond G.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Davis, Robin E. P.; Kotov, S.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, Nowhan; Zhou, X.

    2000-01-01

    We have searched for rare and forbidden decays of the eta' meson in hadronic events at the CLEO II detector. The search is conducted on 4.80 fb(-1) of e(+)e(-) collisions at 10.6 GeV center-of-mass energy at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. We...

  19. Replacing the Rare Earth Intellectual Capital

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl

    2011-04-01

    The rare earth crisis slowly evolved during a 10 to 15 year period beginning in the mid-1980s, when the Chinese began to export mixed rare earth concentrates. In the early 1990s, they started to move up the supply chain and began to export the individual rare earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s the Chinese exported higher value products, such as magnets, phosphors, polishing compounds, catalysts; and in the 21st century they supplied finished products including electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), TVs and monitors, mobile phones, iPods and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. As they moved to higher value products, the Chinese slowly drove the various industrial producers and commercial enterprises in the US, Europe and Japan out of business by manipulating the rare earth commodity prices. Because of this, the technically trained rare earth engineers and scientists who worked in areas from mining to separations, to processing to production, to manufacturing of semifinished and final products, were laid-off and moved to other fields or they retired. However, in the past year the Chinese have changed their philosophy of the 1970s and 1980s of forming a rare earth cartel to control the rare earth markets to one in which they will no longer supply the rest of the world (ROW) with their precious rare earths, but instead will use them internally to meet the growing demand as the Chinese standard of living increases. To this end, they have implemented and occasionally increased export restrictions and added an export tariff on many of the high demand rare earth elements. Now the ROW is quickly trying to start up rare earth mines, e.g. Molycorp Minerals in the US and Lynas Corp. in Australia, to cover this shortfall in the worldwide market, but it will take about five years for the supply to meet the demand, even as other mines in the ROW become productive. Unfortunately, today there is a serious lack of technically trained personnel to bring the entire rare earth industry, from mining to original equipment manufacturers (OEM), up to full speed in the next few years. Accompanying this decline in technical expertise, innovation and new products utilizing rare earth elements has slowed dramatically, and it may take a decade or more to recapture America's leading role in technological advancements of rare earth containing products. Before the disruption of the US rare earth industry, about 25,000 people were employed in all aspects of the industry from mining to OEM. Today, only about 1,500 people are employed in these fields. The ratio of non-technically trained persons to those with college degrees in the sciences or engineering varies from about 8 to 1 to about 4 to 1, depending on the particular area of the industry. Assuming an average of 6 to 1, the number of college degree scientists and engineers has decreased from about 4,000 to 250 employed today. In the magnetic industry the approximate numbers are: 6,000 total with 750 technically trained people in the 1980s to 500 totally employed today of which 75 have degrees. The paucity of scientists and engineers with experience and/or training in the various aspects of production and commercialization of the rare earths is a serious limitation to the ability of the US to satisfy its own needs for materials and technologies (1) to maintain our military strength and posture, (2) to assume leadership in critical energy technologies, and (3) to bring new consumer products to the marketplace. The lack of experts is of even greater national importance than the halting in the 1990s and the recent restart of the mining/benification/separation effort in the US; and thus governmental intervention and support for at least five to 10 years will be required to ameliorate this situation. To respond quickly, training programs should be established in conjunction with a national research center at an educational institution with a long tradition in multiple areas of rare earth and other critical elements research and technology. This center should

  20. Crystalline rare-earth activated oxyorthosilicate phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClellan, Kenneth J.; Cooke, D. Wayne

    2004-02-10

    Crystalline, transparent, rare-earth activated lutetium oxyorthosilicate phosphor. The phosphor consists essentially of lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Gd.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of gadolinium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Gd(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor may be optically coupled to a photodetector to provide a radiation detector.

  1. First Beam to FACET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, R.; Clarke, C.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.; Kalsi, S.; Lipkowitz, N.; Nelson, J.; Phinney, N.; Schuh, P.; Sheppard, J.; Smith, H.; Smith, T.; Stanek, M.; Turner, J.; Warren, J.; Weathersby, S.; Wienands, U.; Wittmer, W.; Woodley, M.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    The SLAC 3km linear electron accelerator has been reconfigured to provide a beam of electrons to the new Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) while simultaneously providing an electron beam to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). On June 23, 2011, the first electron beam was transported through this new facility. Commissioning of FACET is in progress. On June 23, 2011, an electron beam was successfully transported through the new FACET system to a dump in Sector 20 in the linac tunnel. This was achieved while the last third of the linac, operating from the same control room, but with a separate injector system, was providing an electron beam to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), demonstrating that concurrent operation of the two facilities is practical. With the initial checkout of the new transport line essentially complete, attention is now turning toward compressing the electron bunches longitudinally and focusing them transversely to support a variety of accelerator science experiments.

  2. Isotope Cancer Treatment Research at LANL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Weidner, John; Nortier, Meiring

    2014-06-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced medical isotopes for diagnostic and imaging purposes for more than 30 years. Now LANL researchers have branched out into isotope cancer treatment studies. New results show that an accelerator-based approach can produce clinical trial quantities of actinium-225, an isotope that has promise as a way to kill tumors without damaging surrounding healthy cells.

  3. STOCHASTIC COOLING OF BUNCHED BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bisognano, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    March 11-13, 1981 STOCHASTIC COOLING OF BUNCHED BEAMS J.J.W-7406-BW-48 STOCHASTIC COOLING OF BUNCHED BEAMS* J.J.longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched particle beams.

  4. Atomic-scale characterization of germanium isotopic multilayers by atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimizu, Y.; Takamizawa, H.; Toyama, T.; Inoue, K.; Nagai, Y. [Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2145-2 Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Kawamura, Y.; Uematsu, M.; Itoh, K. M. [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Haller, E. E. [University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-01-14

    We report comparison of the interfacial sharpness characterization of germanium (Ge) isotopic multilayers between laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). An alternating stack of 8-nm-thick naturally available Ge layers and 8-nm-thick isotopically enriched {sup 70}Ge layers was prepared on a Ge(100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The APT mass spectra consist of clearly resolved peaks of five stable Ge isotopes ({sup 70}Ge, {sup 72}Ge, {sup 73}Ge, {sup 74}Ge, and {sup 76}Ge). The degree of intermixing at the interfaces between adjacent layers was determined by APT to be around 0.8 {+-} 0.1 nm which was much sharper than that obtained by SIMS.

  5. Preparation and characterisation of isotopically enriched Ta$_2$O$_5$ targets for nuclear astrophysics studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Caciolli; D. A. Scott; A. Di Leva; A. Formicola; M. Aliotta; M. Anders; A. Bellini; D. Bemmerer; C. Broggini; M. Campeggio; P. Corvisiero; R. Depalo; Z. Elekes; Zs. Fülöp; G. Gervino; A. Guglielmetti; C. Gustavino; Gy. Gyürky; G. Imbriani; M. Junker; M. Marta; R. Menegazzo; E. Napolitani; P. Prati; V. Rigato; V. Roca; C. Rolfs; C. Rossi Alvarez; E. Somorjai; C. Salvo; O. Straniero; F. Strieder; T. Szücs; F. Terrasi; H. P. Trautvetter; D. Trezzi

    2012-10-01

    The direct measurement of reaction cross sections at astrophysical energies often requires the use of solid targets of known thickness, isotopic composition, and stoichiometry that are able to withstand high beam currents for extended periods of time. Here, we report on the production and characterisation of isotopically enriched Ta$_2$O$_5$ targets for the study of proton-induced reactions at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics facility of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. The targets were prepared by anodisation of tantalum backings in enriched water (up to 66% in $^{17}$O and up to 96% in $^{18}$O). Special care was devoted to minimising the presence of any contaminants that could induce unwanted background reactions with the beam in the energy region of astrophysical interest. Results from target characterisation measurements are reported, and the conclusions for proton capture measurements with these targets are drawn.

  6. Energy level effects during multiphoton dissociation and the laser separation of closely spaced isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreou, D.

    1996-09-01

    A novel approach for enhancing the selectivity of the desired isotope in the molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) process is presented. The scheme consists of simultaneously applying two laser beams with frequencies corresponding to those between the ground and the first energy excitation level and the ground and the second energy excitation level, respectively. Practical relations on the properties of the spherical-top molecules are derived and a semiclassical analysis of the electromagnetic interaction within the limits of the experimental conditions applied in actual MLIS experiments shows that the selectivity, defined as the ratio of the absorption cross sections of the two isotopes, increases by a factor of 10{endash}20 times in the case of the uranium isotopes. In addition, it is demonstrated that during the multiphoton absorption process energy-level splittings due to induced magnetic dipoles and induced electric quadrupoles are by no means negligible. They become significant during multiphoton processes where two or more photons are lost during the interaction process. At high pumping powers they become dominant and inhibit selectivity. They cancel out during interaction processes where there is no change in the total number of photons, such as scattering. These effects can be avoided by applying the laser beams to the molecular gas in arrangements which in principle are equivalent to a Mach{endash}Zehnder interferometer with the molecules substituted for the reuniting beam splitter. Moreover, the induced electric quadrupoles (E2) are fully exploited. The application of the results and the concepts described herein can render the MLIS process the most economic and practical method for the commercial separation of the uranium isotopes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. ?-decay of neutron-rich Z?60 nuclei and the origin of rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan and School of Physics and State key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University (China); Nishimura, S.; Lorusso, G.; Baba, H.; Doornenbal, P.; Isobe, T.; Söderström, P. A.; Sakurai, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Xu, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033 Tokyo (Japan); Browne, F. [School of Computing Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton (United Kingdom); Daido, R.; Fang, Y. F.; Yagi, A.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Yamamoto, T. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-machi 1-1, Osaka 560-0043 Toyonaka (Japan); Ideguchi, E.; Aoi, N.; Tanaka, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University (Japan); Collaboration: EURICA Collaboration; and others

    2014-05-02

    A large fraction of the rare-earth elements observed in the solar system is produced in the astrophysical rapid neutron capture process (r-process). However, current stellar models cannot completely explain the relative abundance of these elements partially because of nuclear physics uncertainties. To address this problem, a ?-decay spectroscopy experiment was performed at RI Beam Factory (RIBF) at RIKEN, aimed at studying a wide range of very neutron-rich nuclei with Z?60 that are progenitors of the rare-earth elements with mass number A?460. The experiment provides a test of nuclear models as well as experimental inputs for r-process calculations. This contribution presents the experimental setup and some preliminary results of the experiment.

  8. Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji; Izawa, Yasukazu [ARCBS, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) and Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements (Sc, Y, and Gd) in the impact energy range of 30 to 1000 eV were measured for the first time. The experiments were performed with a crossed-beam apparatus that featured primary ion production by photoionization with a tunable dye laser. Comparing the cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements ({sigma}{sub Sc}, {sigma}{sub Y}, and {sigma}{sub Gd}) with those of alkali metals or helium {sigma}{sub 0}, we found that {sigma}{sub 0{approx_equal}{sigma}Sc}<{sigma}{sub Y}<{sigma}{sub Gd{approx_equal}}2{sigma}{sub 0}at an impact energy of 1000 eV.

  9. MULTIMEGAWATT NEUTRAL BEAMS FOR TOKAMAKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, W.B.

    2010-01-01

    NEUTRAL BEAMS FOR TOKAMAKS Wulf B. Kunkel March 1979NEUTRAL BEAMS FOR TOKAMAKS* Wulf 6. Kunkel AV « tract Mostit seems probable that tokamaks will achieve "scientific"

  10. Challenges in Accelerator Beam Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, M.

    2009-12-01

    The challenges in beam instrumentation and diagnostics for present and future particle accelerator projects are presented. A few examples for advanced hadron and lepton beam diagnostics are given.

  11. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  12. Electron Beam for LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mieczyslaw Witold Krasny

    2004-05-13

    A method of delivering a monochromatic electron beam to the LHC interaction points is proposed. In this method, heavy ions are used as carriers of the projectile electrons. Acceleration, storage and collision-stability aspects of such a hybrid beam is discussed and a new beam-cooling method is presented. This discussion is followed by a proposal of the Parasitic Ion-Electron collider at LHC (PIE@LHC). The PIE@LHC provides an opportunity, for the present LHC detectors, to enlarge the scope of their research program by including the program of electron-proton and electron-nucleuscollisions with minor machine and detector investments.

  13. LEDA BEAM DIAGNOSTICS INSTRUMENTATION: BEAM POSITION MONITORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. BARR; ET AL

    2000-05-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  14. Heavy Oil Upgrading from Electron Beam (E-Beam) Irradiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Daegil

    2011-02-22

    to upgrade. This thesis demonstrates that electron beam (E-Beam) heavy oil upgrading, which uses unique features of E-Beam irradiation, may be used to improve conventional heavy oil upgrading. E-Beam processing lowers the thermal energy requirements and could...

  15. Focused ion beam system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Gough, Richard A. (Kensington, CA); Ji, Qing (Berkeley, CA); Lee, Yung-Hee Yvette (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 .mu.m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 .mu.m or less.

  16. Focused ion beam system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.; Gough, R.A.; Ji, Q.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1999-08-31

    A focused ion beam (FIB) system produces a final beam spot size down to 0.1 {mu}m or less and an ion beam output current on the order of microamps. The FIB system increases ion source brightness by properly configuring the first (plasma) and second (extraction) electrodes. The first electrode is configured to have a high aperture diameter to electrode thickness aspect ratio. Additional accelerator and focusing electrodes are used to produce the final beam. As few as five electrodes can be used, providing a very compact FIB system with a length down to only 20 mm. Multibeamlet arrangements with a single ion source can be produced to increase throughput. The FIB system can be used for nanolithography and doping applications for fabrication of semiconductor devices with minimum feature sizes of 0.1 m or less. 13 figs.

  17. LHC Beam Loss Monitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arauzo-Garcia, A; Ferioli, G; Gschwendtner, E

    2001-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) a beam loss system will be installed for a continuous surveillance of particle losses. These beam particles deposit their energy in the super-conducting coils leading to temperature increase, possible magnet quenches and damages. Detailed simulations have shown that a set of six detectors outside the cryostats of the quadrupole magnets in the regular arc cells are needed to completely diagnose the expected beam losses and hence protect the magnets. To characterize the quench levels different loss rates are identified. In order to cover all possible quench scenarios the dynamic range of the beam loss monitors has to be matched to the simulated loss rates. For that purpose different detector systems (PIN-diodes and ionization chambers) are compared.

  18. Beam! Magic! | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with all the changes, the accelerator can be made to work. Beam Since my first serious introduction to nuclear and particle physics - when I worked for a few weeks one summer at...

  19. Beam/seam alignment control for electron beam welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkhardt, Jr., James H. (Knoxville, TN); Henry, J. James (Oak Ridge, TN); Davenport, Clyde M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a dynamic beam/seam alignment control system for electron beam welds utilizing video apparatus. The system includes automatic control of workpiece illumination, near infrared illumination of the workpiece to limit the range of illumination and camera sensitivity adjustment, curve fitting of seam position data to obtain an accurate measure of beam/seam alignment, and automatic beam detection and calculation of the threshold beam level from the peak beam level of the preceding video line to locate the beam or seam edges.

  20. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Raparia, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by worker due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  1. The plasma centrifuge: A compact, low cost, stable isotope separator. Phase 2 final technical report, September 15, 1991--September 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, W.

    1996-09-05

    Enriched stable isotopes are required for production of radionuclides as well as for research and diagnostic uses. Science Research Laboratory (SRL) has developed a plasma centrifuge for moderate throughput of enriched stable isotopes, such as {sup 13}C, {sup 17}O, {sup 18}O, and {sup 203}Tl, for medical as well as other applications. Dwindling isotope stocks have restricted the use of enriched isotopes and their associated labeled organic molecules in medical imaging to very few research facilities because of high costs of isotope separation. With the introduction of the plasma centrifuge separator, the cost per separated gram of even rarely occurring isotopes ({le} 1% natural abundance) is potentially many times lower than with other separation technologies (cryogenic distillation and calutrons). The centrifuge is a simple, robust, pulsed electrical discharge device that has successfully demonstrated isotope separation of small (mg) quantities of {sup 26}Mg. Based on the results of the Phase 2 program, modest enhancements to the power supplies and cooling systems, a centrifuge separator will have high repetition rate (60 pps) and high duty cycle (60%) to produce in one month kilogram quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes. The centrifuge may be used in stand-alone operation or could be used as a high-throughput pre-separation stage with calutrons providing the final separation.

  2. Photon beam position monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  3. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeedingConnect PulseSummary (Programbatteries as(Journal Article) |

  4. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeedingConnect PulseSummary (Programbatteries as(Journal Article)

  5. Scientific Upgrades at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, Douglas L [ORNL; Jones, Amy [ORNL; Crow, Lowell [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy is sponsoring a number of projects that will provide scientific upgrades to the neutron science facilities associated with the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Funding for the first upgrade project was initiated in 1996 and all presently identified upgrade projects are expected to be completed by the end of 2003. The upgrade projects include: (1) larger beam tubes, (2) a new monochromator drum for the HB-1 beam line, (3) a new HB-2 beam line system that includes one thermal guide and a new monochromator drum, (4) new instruments for the HB-2 beamline, (5) a new monochromator drum for the HB-3 beam line, (6) a supercritical hydrogen cold source system to be retrofitted into the HB-4 beam tube, (7) a 3.5 kW refrigeration system at 20 K to support the cold source and a new building to house it, (8) a new HB-4 beam line system composed of four cold neutron guides with various mirror coatings and associated shielding, (9) a number of new instruments for the cold beams including two new SANS instruments, and (10) construction of support buildings. This paper provides a short summary of these projects including their present status and schedule.

  6. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA)

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  7. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  8. Single element laser beam shaper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Shukui (Yorktown, VA); Michelle D. Shinn (Newport News, VA)

    2005-09-13

    A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.

  9. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 4

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 4 of 4.

  10. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 2

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 2 of 4.

  11. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 1

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 1 of 4.

  12. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 1 of 4.

  13. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 2 of 4.

  14. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 3 of 4.

  15. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 4 of 4.

  16. 10 Questions for a Materials Scientist: Mr. Rare Earth -- Dr...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 Questions for a Materials Scientist: Mr. Rare Earth -- Dr. Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr. 10 Questions for a Materials Scientist: Mr. Rare Earth -- Dr. Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr. April...

  17. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.

    1985-10-28

    Disclosed is an improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  18. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 3

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 3 of 4.

  19. Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

  20. Beam Characterizations at Femtosecond Electron Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimjaem, S.; Jinamoon, V.; Kangrang, M.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Saisut, J.; Thongbai, C.; Vilaithong, T.; Rhodes, M.W.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC

    2006-03-17

    The SURIYA project at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF) has been established and is being commissioning to generate femtosecond (fs) electron bunches. Theses short bunches are produced by a system consisting of an S-band thermionic cathode RF-gun, an alpha magnet (a-magnet) serving as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a SLAC-type linear accelerator (linac). The characteristics of its major components and the beam characterizations as well as the preliminary experimental results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. Behaviour of zirconium, niobium, yttrium and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare-metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behaviour of zirconium, niobium, yttrium and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare in the Northwest Territories of Canada represents one of the largest resources of zirconium, niobium, yttrium

  2. Crossed molecular beam studies of proton transfer, unimolecular decay, and isotope scrambling in the reactions H/sub 2//sup +/ + H/sub 2/O, H/sub 2//sup +/ + D/sub 2/O, and D/sub 2//sup +/ + H/sub 2/O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilotta, R.M.; Farrar, J.M.

    1981-05-28

    An experimental study of the title reactions over the collision energy range from 0.7 to 6.9 eV is presented. Over the entire collision energy range, a significant fraction of the products have internal excitation sufficiently high to undergo unimolecular decay to H/sub 2/O/sup +/ or an isotopically substituted water cation. An examination of the reactions D/sub 2//sup +/ + H/sub 2/O and H/sub 2//sup +/ + D/sub 2/O and observation of H/sub 2/O/sup +/ and HOD/sup +/ products of unimolecular decay at 3.0 and 6.3 eV suggest that, at the lower collision energy, the recoil energy distributions are consistent with the results of phase space calculations including all vibrations of the H/sub 2/O/sup +/ or HOD/sup +/ product. At this collision energy, the unimolecular decay products have barycentric angular distributions with sharp forward-backward symmetry, suggesting that planar scattering with concomitant angular momentum polarization is an important dynamical feature in these reactions. At the higher collision energy, the complex osculates with a lifetime too short for rapid intramolecular energy transfer. We also present evidence for a direct reaction between H/sub 2//sup +/ and D/sub 2/O yielding HOD/sup +/ and a bound HD molecule, proceeding through a four-center exchange reaction rather than through unimolecular decay of HD/sub 2/O/sup +/.

  3. LHC beam-beam compensation studies at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer,W.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Luo, Y.; Montag, C.

    2009-05-04

    Long-range and head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. To mitigate long-range effects current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. To reduce the head-on beam-beam effect electron lenses were proposed for both the LHC and RHIC. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program and report on head-on compensations studies at RHIC, which are based on simulations.

  4. Beam-beam study of ERL based eRHIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Y; Ptitsyn, V

    2014-01-01

    Beam-beam effects in eRHIC, the proposed ERL-based Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) at BNL, have several unique features distinguishing them from those in hadron-colliders and lepton-colliders. Taking the advantage of the fact that the electron beam is used only once, we expect the luminosity to be 10 times greater than for the ring-ring collision scheme with similar parameters. However, without instituting proper treatments, the quality of electron and hadron beams can undergo degradation or even beam loss, driven by the beam-beam interactions. We will discuss the harmful effects, including the disruption and mismatch effect of the electron beam, the kink instability and the noise heating of the ion beam and the possible countermeasures.

  5. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al

    2012-07-01

    The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.

  6. The Low-Energy State of Circulating Stored Ion Beams: Crystalline Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, J.

    2008-01-01

    Proc. of the Workshop on Crystalline Ion Beams, Werheim,Critical Temperatures for Crystalline Beams", Proc. of theCirculating Stored Ion Beams: Crystalline Beams J. Wei, X. -

  7. Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian; Aaron, W Scott; Hart, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

  8. Finite amplitude method applied to giant dipole resonance in heavy rare-earth nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oishi, Tomohiro; Hinohara, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), within the framework of the nuclear density functional theory (DFT), has been a standard tool to access the collective excitations of the atomic nuclei. Recently, finite amplitude method (FAM) has been developed, in order to perform the QRPA calculations efficiently without any truncation on the two-quasiparticle model space. Purpose: We discuss the nuclear giant dipole resonance (GDR) in heavy rare-earth isotopes, for which the conventional matrix diagonalization of the QRPA is numerically demanding. A role of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule enhancement factor, connected to the isovector effective mass, is also investigated. Methods: The electric dipole photoabsorption cross section was calculated within a parallelized FAM-QRPA scheme. We employed the Skyrme energy density functional self-consistently in the DFT calculation for the ground states and FAM-QRPA calculation for the excitations. Results: The mean GDR frequency and width are mo...

  9. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at Mountain Pass were further processed into rare-earth compounds and metal products. The United States,980 3,770 2,840 5,800 Rare-earth metals, alloy 226 525 468 240 390 Exports: 2 Cerium compounds 840 1,350 1,640 992 730 Rare-earth metals, alloys 4,930 1,380 3,030 2,080 1,000 Other rare-earth compounds 455

  10. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 867 784 564 188 250 Cerium compounds 2,590 2,680 2,080 1,500 1,400 Mixed REOs (monazite or various thorium materials) -- 1 61 18 1 Rare-earth metals, alloys 733 1,470 1,390 4,920 640 categories increased when compared with those of 2009--the categories "Rare-earth metals, alloy" and "Rare-earth

  11. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- 20 Rare-earth metals, alloy 880 867 784 679 210 Cerium compounds 2,170 2,590 2,680 2,080 1,190 Mixed (monazite or various thorium materials) -- -- 1 61 23 Rare-earth metals, alloys 636 733 1,470 1,390 6128 RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

  12. Rare b hadron decays at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, T; Hiller, G

    2015-01-01

    With the completion of Run~I of the CERN Large Hadron Collider, particle physics has entered a new era. The production of unprecedented numbers of heavy-flavoured hadrons in high energy proton-proton collisions allows detailed studies of flavour-changing processes. The increasingly precise measurements allow to probe the Standard Model with a new level of accuracy. Rare $b$ hadron decays provide some of the most promising approaches for such tests, since there are several observables which can be cleanly interpreted from a theoretical viewpoint. In this article, the status and prospects in this field are reviewed, with a focus on precision measurements and null tests.

  13. Scintillation of rare earth doped fluoride nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsohn, L. G.; McPherson, C. L.; Sprinkle, K. B.; Ballato, J. [Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Yukihara, E. G. [Physics Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-3072 (United States); DeVol, T. A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0905 (United States)

    2011-09-12

    The scintillation response of rare earth (RE) doped core/undoped (multi-)shell fluoride nanoparticles was investigated under x-ray and alpha particle irradiation. A significant enhancement of the scintillation response was observed with increasing shells due: (i) to the passivation of surface quenching defects together with the activation of the REs on the surface of the core nanoparticle after the growth of a shell, and (ii) to the increase of the volume of the nanoparticles. These results are expected to reflect a general aspect of the scintillation process in nanoparticles, and to impact radiation sensing technologies that make use of nanoparticles.

  14. Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProton DeliveryRadioactiveRare Iron Oxide in Ancient

  15. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- -- 22 -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 352 235 284 905 442 Cerium compounds 806 1:3 Thorium ore, monazite -- 3 27 -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 44 194 329 444 272 Cerium compounds.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad val. 31

  16. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -- -- -- -- Imports: Thorium ore (monazite) -- 22 56 11 --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 284 905 429 529 760 Cerium 121 123 Exports: Thorium ore, monazite 27 -- -- -- --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 329 444 250 991 856 (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805

  17. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- 22 56 --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 235 284 905 429 507 Cerium compounds 1 Exports: Thorium ore, monazite 3 27 -- -- --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 194 329 444 250 879 Cerium for individual rare-earth metals and compounds, with most import categories slightly behind 1996's record high

  18. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  19. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  20. Note: Portable rare-earth element analyzer using pyroelectric crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imashuku, Susumu, E-mail: imashuku.susumu.2m@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fuyuno, Naoto; Hanasaki, Kohei; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    We report a portable rare-earth element analyzer with a palm-top size chamber including the electron source of a pyroelectric crystal and the sample stage utilizing cathodoluminescence (CL) phenomenon. The portable rare-earth element analyzer utilizing CL phenomenon is the smallest reported so far. The portable rare-earth element analyzer detected the rare-earth elements Dy, Tb, Er, and Sm of ppm order in zircon, which were not detected by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. We also performed an elemental mapping of rare-earth elements by capturing a CL image using CCD camera.

  1. Production of very neutron-rich nuclei with a 76Ge beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. B. Tarasov; M. Portillo; A. M. Amthor; T. Baumann; D. Bazin; A. Gade; T. N. Ginter; M. Hausmann; N. Inabe; T. Kubo; D. J. Morrissey; A. Nettleton; J. Pereira; B. M. Sherrill; A. Stolz; M. Thoennessen

    2009-08-26

    Production cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei from the fragmentation of a 76Ge beam at 132 MeV/u were measured. The longitudinal momentum distributions of 34 neutron-rich isotopes of elements 13 Production cross sections with beryllium and tungsten targets were determined for a large number of nuclei including 15 isotopes first observed in this work. These are the most neutron-rich nuclides of the elements 17 production cross sections based on thermal evaporation from excited prefragments. Some of the fragments near 58Ca show anomalously large production cross sections.

  2. EIS-0249: Medical Isotopes Production Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to establish a production capability for molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes.

  3. Strategic Isotope Production | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing facility (IMET) are routinely used in the production, purification, packaging, and shipping of a number of isotopes of national importance, including: 75Se, 63Ni,...

  4. Stable Isotope Protocols: Sampling and Sample Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa A; Currin, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    plants, benthic microalgae [BMI], benthic macroalgae) andin a dessicator, prior to analysis. A.2 Benthic microalgaeBenthic microalgae (BMI) can be collected for isotope

  5. Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction-Transport Models of EGS For Exploration, Evaluation of Water-Rock Interaction, and Impacts of Water Chemistry on Reservoir...

  6. Exotic fission properties of highly neutron-rich Uranium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Satpathy; S. K. Patra; R. K. Choudhury

    2007-03-05

    The series of Uranium isotopes with $N=154 \\sim 172$ around the magic number N=162/164 are identified to be thermally fissile. The thermal neutron fission of a typical representative $^{249}$U of this region amenable to synthesis in the radioactive ion beam facilities is considered here. Semiempirical study of fission barrier height and width shows this nucleus to be infinitely stable against spontaneous fission due to increase in barrier width arising out of excess neutrons. Calculation of probability of fragment mass yields and microscopic study in relativistic mean field theory, show this nucleus to undergo a new mode of thermal fission decay termed {\\it multifragmentation fission} where a number of prompt scission neutrons are simultaneously released along with the two heavy fission fragments.

  7. Ion extraction and charge exchange in laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostein, D.; Doneddu, F.

    1996-02-01

    In the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process, a vapor is ionized by pulsed laser beams, and the ions are extracted by negatively biased collectors. The authors compute the unsteady dynamics of the photoplasma using a two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. Collisions between ions and neutral species are simulated by a Monte Carlo technique. The plasma dynamics is visualized by snapshots of particle positions showing the directions of their velocities. The three kinds of particles (electrons, photo-ions, and ions created by charge exchange) are marked by different colors. The graphic outputs illustrate the motion of the electrons toward the anodes, the vertical drift of the plasma, its erosion by the transient ion sheath, and nonselective ionization by charge exchange.

  8. Beam Physics at LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Lyndon R

    2003-01-01

    The design of the Large Hadron Collider incorporates the accumulated knowledge obtained from previous generations of hadron colliders. Among the well known effects limiting machine performance are intrabeam scattering, the beam-beam interaction and stability against collective motion. Simulations and recent experiments in the SPS have shown that the electron cloud effect observed in the B-factories will be present both in the LHC and in its injector. All of these phenomena are discussed together with the measure taken in the machine design to overcome them.

  9. Discovery of Isotopes of Elements with Z $\\ge$ 100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Thoennessen

    2012-03-09

    Currently, 163 isotopes of elements with Z $\\ge$ 100 have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,380 840 1,350 1,400 Rare-earth metals, alloys 1,470 1,390 4,920 1,380 3,400 Other rare-earth compounds 1,750 5,480 2,300 Rare-earth oxides, compounds 9,900 8,820 5,130 3,980 3,700 Rare-earth metals, alloy 784 scrap. Import Sources (2007­10): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 79%; France, 6%; Estonia, 4

  11. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U),more »i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.« less

  12. Electron beam dynamics for the ISIS bremsstrahlung beam generation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Block, Robert E. (Robert Edward)

    2011-01-01

    An electron beam transport system was designed for use in the Bremsstrahlung Beam Generation System of the Integrated Stand-off Inspection System (ISIS). The purpose of this electron transport system was to provide for ...

  13. Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galanina, L. I., E-mail: galan_lidiya@mail.ru; Zelenskaja, N. S. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and (t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of {sup 6}Li (0{sup +}, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the {sup 9}Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that {sup 11}Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a {sup 9}Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

  14. Uranium molecular laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.J.; Sullivan, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Molecular Laser Isotope Separation program is moving into the engineering phase, and it is possible to determine in some detail the plant cost terms involved in the process economics. A brief description of the MLIS process physics is given as a motivation to the engineering and economics discussion. Much of the plant cost arises from lasers and the overall optical system. In the paper, the authors discuss lasers as operating units and systems, along with temporal multiplexing and Raman shifting. Estimates of plant laser costs are given.

  15. Determination of Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections Using Cold Neutron Beams at the Budapest PGAA and NIPS Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belgya, T.; Revay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L. [Institute of Isotopes, Chemical Research Centre, HAS H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2006-03-13

    We report about our methodology developed for the determination of the thermal capture cross section of various target isotopes at our PGAA and NIPS facilities, which both use a guided cold neutron beam produced by the 10 MW Budapest Research Reactor. The two facilities provide an excellent means for determining partial gamma ray cross sections for products produced in the sample by neutron capture reactions. Both stations are equipped with HPGe detectors to detect the gamma rays coming from the excited nuclei of the samples. We present examples for the determination of thermal capture cross section of various target isotopes including the radioactive 99Tc, 129I nuclei and of the 204,206,207Pb isotopes. The chopped beam option provides a good opportunity to study short-lived products.

  16. Colliding beams of light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2002-12-28

    The stationary gravitational field of two identical counter-moving beams of pure radiation is found in full generality. The solution depends on an arbitrary function and a parameter which sets the scale of the energy density. Some of its properties are studied. Previous particular solutions are derived as subcases.

  17. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenly, J.B.

    1997-08-12

    An improved pulsed ion beam source is disclosed having a new biasing circuit for the fast magnetic field. This circuit provides for an initial negative bias for the field created by the fast coils in the ion beam source which pre-ionize the gas in the source, ionize the gas and deliver the gas to the proper position in the accelerating gap between the anode and cathode assemblies in the ion beam source. The initial negative bias improves the interaction between the location of the nulls in the composite magnetic field in the ion beam source and the position of the gas for pre-ionization and ionization into the plasma as well as final positioning of the plasma in the accelerating gap. Improvements to the construction of the flux excluders in the anode assembly are also accomplished by fabricating them as layered structures with a high melting point, low conductivity material on the outsides with a high conductivity material in the center. 12 figs.

  18. Beam current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuchnir, M.; Mills, F.E.

    1984-09-28

    A current sensor for measuring the dc component of a beam of charged particles employs a superconducting pick-up loop probe, with twisted superconducting leads in combination with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) detector. The pick-up probe is in the form of a single-turn loop, or a cylindrical toroid, through which the beam is directed and within which a first magnetic flux is excluded by the Meisner effect. The SQUID detector acts as a flux-to-voltage converter in providing a current to the pick-up loop so as to establish a second magnetic flux within the electrode which nulls out the first magnetic flux. A feedback voltage within the SQUID detector represents the beam current of the particles which transit the pick-up loop. Meisner effect currents prevent changes in the magnetic field within the toroidal pick-up loop and produce a current signal independent of the beam's cross-section and its position within the toroid, while the combination of superconducting elements provides current measurement sensitivities in the nano-ampere range.

  19. Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic...

  20. Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Welhan, Et Al., 1988) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic...

  1. BETA DECAY MEASUREMENTS OF NEUTRON DEFICIENT CESIUM ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parry, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    OF NEUTRON DEFICIENT CESIUM ISOTOPES by Roger Franklin Parryof Neutron Deficient Cesium Isotopes Table of ContentsReferences Wapstra xenon and cesium mass excess values 108

  2. Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected and Marcellus Formation Water after Hydraulic Fracturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strontium Isotopes...

  3. Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group...

  4. Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Presentation...

  5. Hydrogen Isotope Research Center (HRC), University of Toyama...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen Isotope Research Center (HRC), University of Toyama Hydrogen Isotope Research Center (HRC), University of Toyama Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group Meeting...

  6. 2008 Workshop on The Nation's Needs for Isotopes: Present and...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    and radioactive isotope products that are used worldwide. Hundreds of applications in medicine, industry, national security and research depend on isotopes as vital components. The...

  7. Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and Diffusion-Limited Regimes Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and...

  8. Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Kennedy & Van Soest, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic...

  9. Chemical Accelerator Studies of Isotope Effects on Collision Dynamics of Ion–Molecule Reactions: Elaboration of a Model for Direct Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hierl, Peter M.; Herman, Z.; Wolfgang, R.

    1970-01-01

    Crossed?beam studies on isotopic variants of the reaction Ar+?+?H2?ArH+ are reported. Both velocity and angular distributions of the ionic product as a function of initial translational energy, down to 0.1 eV (center of mass), have been measured...

  10. The Cooling of Particle Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    67, 15. Hangst, J "Laser Cooling of a Stored Ion Beam - ATheorem an.d Phase Space Cooling", Proceedings of theWorkshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics, Montreaux, CERN

  11. Hadron beams session-summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, K.M. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120, USA (US))

    1989-05-05

    The status of presently operating polarized beams at Fermilab, the AGS, and KEK is discussed. Other schemes such as Siberian Snakes and self-polarization of a beam in situ are briefly analyzed.(AIP)

  12. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, T.P.; Moses, E.I.; Patterson, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.

    1994-08-09

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse using one or more delay loops is disclosed. The delay loops have a partially reflective beam splitter and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors arranged such that the laser beam pulse enters into the delay loop through the beam splitter and circulates therein along a delay loop length defined by the mirrors. As the laser beam pulse circulates within the delay loop a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse strikes the beam splitter. The laser beam pulse is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses. The delay loops are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses using additive waveform synthesis. 8 figs.

  13. Positive and inverse isotope effect on superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian De Cao

    2009-09-04

    This article improves the BCS theory to include the inverse isotope effect on superconductivity. An affective model can be deduced from the model including electron-phonon interactions, and the phonon-induced attraction is simply and clearly explained on the electron Green function. The focus of this work is on how the positive or inverse isotope effect occurs in superconductors.

  14. [Carbon isotope fractionation inplants]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Leary, M.H.

    1990-12-31

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  15. The Quest for the Heaviest Uranium Isotope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Schramm; D. Gridnev; D. V. Tarasov; V. N. Tarasov; W. Greiner

    2012-01-17

    We study Uranium isotopes and surrounding elements at very large neutron number excess. Relativistic mean field and Skyrme-type approaches with different parametrizations are used in the study. Most models show clear indications for isotopes that are stable with respect to neutron emission far beyond N=184 up to the range of around N=258.

  16. Efficient palladium isotope chromatograph for hydrogen (EPIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Embury, M.C.; Ellefson, R.E.; Melke, H.B. )

    1992-03-01

    The Efficient Palladium Isotope Chromatograph (EPIC) is a rapid cycling, computer-operated displacement chromatograph for the separation of hydrogen isotopes. EPIC incorporates several features that optimize product throughput and purity. This paper describes this palladium displacement chromatograph, the operations with protium and deuterium, and the design modifications for operation with tritium.

  17. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMillan, A.D.; Modine, F.A.; Lauf, R.J.; Alim, M.A.; Mahan, G.D.; Bartkowiak, M.

    1998-12-29

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2--4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5--4.0% Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, 0.05--0.4% K{sub 2}O, 0.05--0.2% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--0.2% CaO, 0.00005--0.01% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--2% MnO, 0--0.05% MgO, 0--0.5% TiO{sub 3}, 0--0.2% SnO{sub 2}, 0--0.02% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, balance ZnO. 4 figs.

  18. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Modine, Frank A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Alim, Mohammad A. (Medina, OH); Mahan, Gerald D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bartkowiak, Miroslaw (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2-4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5-4.0% Co.sub.3 O.sub.4, 0.05-0.4% K.sub.2 O, 0.05-0.2% Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-0.2% CaO, 0.00005-0.01% Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-2% MnO, 0-0.05% MgO, 0-0.5% TiO.sub.3, 0-0.2% SnO.sub.2, 0-0.02% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, balance ZnO.

  19. Rare Flavor Processes in Maximally Natural Supersymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isabel García García; John March-Russell

    2015-02-23

    We study CP-conserving rare flavor violating processes in the recently proposed theory of Maximally Natural Supersymmetry (MNSUSY). MNSUSY is an unusual supersymmetric (SUSY) extension of the Standard Model (SM) which, remarkably, is un-tuned at present LHC limits. It employs Scherk-Schwarz breaking of SUSY by boundary conditions upon compactifying an underlying 5-dimensional (5D) theory down to 4D, and is not well-described by softly-broken $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SUSY, with much different phenomenology than the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its variants. The usual CP-conserving SUSY-flavor problem is automatically solved in MNSUSY due to a residual almost exact $U(1)_R$ symmetry, naturally heavy and highly degenerate 1st- and 2nd-generation sfermions, and heavy gauginos and Higgsinos. Depending on the exact implementation of MNSUSY there exist important new sources of flavor violation involving gauge boson Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations. The spatial localization properties of the matter multiplets, in particular the brane localization of the 3rd generation states, imply KK-parity is broken and {\\it tree-level} contributions to flavor changing neutral currents are present in general. Nevertheless, we show that simple variants of the basic MNSUSY model are safe from present flavor constraints arising from kaon and $B$-meson oscillations, the rare decays $B_{s,d} \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$, $\\mu \\to {\\bar e}ee$ and $\\mu$-$e$ conversion in nuclei. We also briefly discuss some special features of the radiative decays $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ and ${\\bar B}\\to X_s \\gamma$. Future experiments, especially those concerned with lepton flavor violation, should see deviations from SM predictions unless one of the MNSUSY variants with enhanced flavor symmetries is realized.

  20. ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lederer, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    constructed to enrich liquid UF6 slightly as feed for thej) b. Optimum a. s: .X. UF6 feed, (kg per year) XBL 7912 -

  1. ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lederer, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    scale use of gas centrifuges for uranium is imminent, andUranium Enrichment (1978). United States Gas Centrifuge

  2. Isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractivePGAS andUniversityCancer therapy gets

  3. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  4. Design and performance of an automated video-based laser beam alignment system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rundle, W.J. ); Kartz, M.W. ); Bliss, E.S.; English, R.E. Jr.; Peterson, R.L.; Thompson, G.R.; Uhlich, D.M. )

    1992-07-14

    This paper describes the design and performance of an automated, closed-loop, laser beam alignment system. Its function is to sense a beam alignment error in a laser beam transport system and automatically steer mirrors preceding the sensor location as required to maintain beam alignment. The laser beam is sampled by an optomechanical package which uses video cameras to sense pointing and centering errors. The camera outputs are fed to an image processing module, which includes video digitizers and uses image storage and software to sense the centroid of the image. Signals are sent through a VMEbus to an optical device controller'' (ODC), which drives stepper-motor actuators on mirror mounts preceding the beam-sampling location to return the beam alignment to the prescribed condition. Photodiodes are also used to extend the control bandwidth beyond that which is achievable with video cameras. This system has been operated at LLNL in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program to maintain the alignment of copper and dye laser beams, the latter to within [plus minus]2 [mu]r in pointing and less than 1 mm in centering. The optomechanical design of the instrumented package, which includes lens, mirror, and video mounts in a rigid housing, the automated control system architecture, and the performance of this equipment is described.

  5. Design and performance of an automated video-based laser beam alignment system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rundle, W.J.; Kartz, M.W.; Bliss, E.S.; English, R.E. Jr.; Peterson, R.L.; Thompson, G.R.; Uhlich, D.M.

    1992-07-14

    This paper describes the design and performance of an automated, closed-loop, laser beam alignment system. Its function is to sense a beam alignment error in a laser beam transport system and automatically steer mirrors preceding the sensor location as required to maintain beam alignment. The laser beam is sampled by an optomechanical package which uses video cameras to sense pointing and centering errors. The camera outputs are fed to an image processing module, which includes video digitizers and uses image storage and software to sense the centroid of the image. Signals are sent through a VMEbus to an ``optical device controller`` (ODC), which drives stepper-motor actuators on mirror mounts preceding the beam-sampling location to return the beam alignment to the prescribed condition. Photodiodes are also used to extend the control bandwidth beyond that which is achievable with video cameras. This system has been operated at LLNL in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program to maintain the alignment of copper and dye laser beams, the latter to within {plus_minus}2 {mu}r in pointing and less than 1 mm in centering. The optomechanical design of the instrumented package, which includes lens, mirror, and video mounts in a rigid housing, the automated control system architecture, and the performance of this equipment is described.

  6. Nanofabrication using focused ion beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latif, Adnan

    Focused ion beam (FIB) technique uses a focused beam of ions to scan the surface of a specimen, analogous to the way scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizes electrons. Recent developments in the FIB technology have led to beam spot size below...

  7. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation of lead-210 isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Haynam, Christopher A. (Pleasanton, CA); Johnson, Michael A. (Pleasanton, CA); Worden, Earl F. (Diablo, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An isotopically selective laser process and apparatus for removal of Pb-210 from natural lead that involves a one-photon near-resonant, two-photon resonant excitation of one or more Rydberg levels, followed by field ionization and then electrostatic extraction. The wavelength to the near-resonant intermediate state is counter propagated with respect to the second wavelength required to populate the final Rydberg state. This scheme takes advantage of the large first excited state cross section, and only modest laser fluences are required. The non-resonant process helps to avoid two problems: first, stimulated Raman Gain due to the nearby F=3/2 hyperfine component of Pb-207 and, second, direct absorption of the first transition process light by Pb-207.

  8. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation of lead-210 isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheibner, K.F.; Haynam, C.A.; Johnson, M.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1999-08-31

    An isotopically selective laser process and apparatus for removal of Pb-210 from natural lead that involves a one-photon near-resonant, two-photon resonant excitation of one or more Rydberg levels, followed by field ionization and then electrostatic extraction. The wavelength to the near-resonant intermediate state is counter propagated with respect to the second wavelength required to populate the final Rydberg state. This scheme takes advantage of the large first excited state cross section, and only modest laser fluences are required. The non-resonant process helps to avoid two problems: first, stimulated Raman Gain due to the nearby F=3/2 hyperfine component of Pb-207 and, second, direct absorption of the first transition process light by Pb-207. 5 figs.

  9. Enhanced pinning in mixed rare earth-123 films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driscoll, Judith L. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-06-16

    An superconductive article and method of forming such an article is disclosed, the article including a substrate and a layer of a rare earth barium cuprate film upon the substrate, the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals capable of yielding a superconductive composition where ion size variance between the two or more rare earth metals is characterized as greater than zero and less than about 10.times.10.sup.-4, and the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals is further characterized as having an enhanced critical current density in comparison to a standard YBa.sub.2Cu.sub.3O.sub.y composition under identical testing conditions.

  10. Recent advances of strong-strong beam-beam simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, Ji; Furman, Miguel A.; Ryne, Robert D.; Fischer, Wolfram; Ohmi,Kazuhito

    2004-09-15

    In this paper, we report on recent advances in strong-strong beam-beam simulation. Numerical methods used in the calculation of the beam-beam forces are reviewed. A new computational method to solve the Poisson equation on nonuniform grid is presented. This method reduces the computational cost by a half compared with the standard FFT based method on uniform grid. It is also more accurate than the standard method for a colliding beam with low transverse aspect ratio. In applications, we present the study of coherent modes with multi-bunch, multi-collision beam-beam interactions at RHIC. We also present the strong-strong simulation of the luminosity evolution at KEKB with and without finite crossing angle.

  11. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections Of The Palladium Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, R. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Krtiaka, M. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); McNabb, D. P.; Sleaford, B.; Agvaanluvsan, U. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Belgya, T.; Revay, Zs. [Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry H-1525, Budapest (Hungary)

    2006-03-13

    We have measured precise thermal neutron capture {gamma}-ray cross sections cry for all stable Palladium isotopes with the guided thermal neutron beam from the Budapest Reactor. The data were compared with other data from the literature and have been evaluated into the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF). Total radiative neutron capture cross-sections {sigma}{gamma} can be deduced from the sum of transition cross sections feeding the ground state of each isotope if the decay scheme is complete. The Palladium isotope decay schemes are incomplete, although transitions deexciting low-lying levels are known for each isotope. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations of the Palladium thermal neutron capture deexcitation schemes using the computer code DICEBOX. This program generates level schemes where levels below a critical energy Ecrit are taken from experiment, and those above Ecrit are calculated by a random discretization of an a priori known level density formula {rho}(E,J{pi}). Level de-excitation branching intensities are taken from experiment for levels below Ecrit the capture state, or calculated for levels above Ecrit assuming an a priori photon strength function and applying allowed selection rules and a Porter-Thomas distribution of widths. The advantage of this method is that calculational uncertainties can be investigated systematically. Calculated feeding to levels below Ecrit can be normalized to the measured cross section deexciting those levels to determine the total radiative neutron cross-section {sigma}{gamma}. In this paper we report the cross section measurements {sigma}{gamma}[102Pd(n,{gamma})]=0.9{+-}0.3 b, {sigma}{gamma}[104Pd(n,{gamma})=0.61{+-}0.11 b, {sigma}{gamma}[105Pd(n,{gamma})]=2.1.1{+-}1.5 b, {sigma}{gamma}[106Pd(n,{gamma})]=0.36{+-}0.05 b, {sigma}{gamma}[108Pd(n,{gamma})(0)]=7.6{+-}0.6 b, {sigma}{gamma}[108Pd(n,{gamma})(189)]=0.185{+-}0.011 b, and {sigma}{gamma}[110Pd(n,{gamma})]=0.10{+-}0.03 b. We have also determined from our statistical calculations that the neutron capture states in 107Pd are best described as 2+[59(4)%]+3+[41(4)%]. Agreement with literature values was excellent in most cases. We found significant discrepancies between our results for 102Pd and 110Pd and earlier values that could be resolved by re-evaluation of the earlier results.

  12. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Galvin, James (2 Commodore #276, Emeryville, CA 94608)

    1987-01-01

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam.

  13. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  14. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  15. Proton beam therapy facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Critical Materials Institute's rare-earth recycling tech goes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Critical Materials Institute's rare-earth recycling tech goes commercial OAK RIDGE, Tenn., Aug. 10, 2015-The Critical Materials Institute is celebrating its first commercial...

  17. Good Earths and Rare Earths | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What does this mean for me? Rare earth elements -- dysprosium, neodymium, terbium, europium and yttrium -- are essential to a...

  18. DOE Announces RFI on Rare Earth Metals | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy has released a Request for Information (RFI) soliciting information on rare earth metals and other materials used in the energy sector. The request is specifically...

  19. Rare-earth innovation to improve nylon manufacturing | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare-earth innovation to improve nylon manufacturing Contacts: For release: March 18, 2015 Igor I. Slowing, Critical Materials Institute, (515)-294-1959 Laura Millsaps, Ames...

  20. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  1. Apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMullen, John W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheeler, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Cullingford, Hatice S. (Houston, TX); Sherman, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas(es) is (are) stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forming at a significantly lower temperature).

  2. A CYCLOTRON CONCEPT TO SUPPORT ISOTOPE PRODUCTION FOR SCIENCE AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian; Mirzadeh, Saed; Tatum, B Alan; Varma, Venugopal Koikal; Bradley, Eric Craig; Burgess, Thomas W; Aaron, W Scott; Binder, Jeffrey L; Beene, James R; Saltmarsh, Michael John

    2013-01-01

    In August of 2009, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) recommended a variable-energy, high-current multi-particle accelerator for the production of medical radioisotopes. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a technical concept for a 70 MeV dual-extraction multi-particle cyclotron that will meet the needs identified in the NSAC report. The cyclotron, which will be located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), will operate on a 24/7 basis and will provide approximately 6000 hours per year of quality beam time for both the production R&D and production of medical and industrial radioisotopes. The proposed cyclotron will be capable of accelerating dual beams of 30 to 70 MeV H at up to 750 A, and up to 50 A of 15-35 MeV D , 35 MeV H2, and 70 MeV -particles. In dual-extraction H mode, a total of 750 A of 70 MeV protons will be provided simultaneously to both HRIBF and Isotope Production Facility. The isotope facility will consist of two target stations: a 2 water-cooled station and a 4 water-cooled high-energy-beam research station. The multi-particle capability and high beam power will enable research into new regimes of accelerator-produced radioisotopes, such as 225Ac, 211At, 68Ge, and 7B. The capabilities of the accelerator will enable the measurement of excitation functions, thick target yield measurements, research in high-power-target design, and will support fundamental research in nuclear and radiochemistry.

  3. Nondestructive Damage Detection in General Beams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dincal, Selcuk

    2010-12-08

    is to provide NDE methodologies that simultaneously identify the location, the extent, and the severity of damage in general beams. By general beams, we mean beyond Euler-Bernoulli beams (i.e. slender beams) to deep beams and stubby beams whose response may...

  4. Beam/Jet Trajectories April 1, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Beam/Jet Trajectories April 1, 2009 #12;Hg Jet Target Geometry Solenoid Axis Hg Jet Proton Beam BEAM CROSS rJET Previous results: Radius 5mm, beam =67mrad crossing = 33mrad #12;Optimized Target Energy, GeV Optimized Target Radius #12;Beam Angle and Jet/Beam Crossing Angle 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

  5. Transfer reactions using a low-energy {sup 11}Be beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansen, Jacob [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark)

    2011-10-28

    A series of experiments have been performed to investigate neutron rich beryllium isotopes. Scattering as well as one neutron transfer reactions have been studied using a {sup 11}Be beam on deuteron targets. Bound states of {sup 10,11,12}Be have been studied and reaction cross sections have been calculated. The elastic scattering cross section has shown remarkable structure due to the halo structure of {sup 11}Be.

  6. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentratese 10,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 Imports:2 Thorium ore (monazite) 11 -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals,720 7,760 11,200 9,070 Ferrocerium, alloys 121 117 120 118 138 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals, alloys 991-2000): Monazite: Australia, 67%; and France, 33%. Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 74%; France, 21

  7. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentratese 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 Imports:2 Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals,720 7,760 11,200 9,150 6,930 Ferrocerium, alloys 117 120 118 118 100 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals, alloys-2001): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 66%; France, 27%; Japan, 3%; Estonia, 2%; and other, 2

  8. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) 56 11 -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 429 529 953 1,780 2,370 Cerium compounds 3,180 1,810 4,940 3 metals, alloys 250 991 724 1,600 1,830 Cerium compounds 6,100 5,890 4,640 3,960 3,870 Other rare-earth-99): Monazite: Australia, 67%; France, 33%; Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 71%; France, 23%; Japan

  9. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,260 10,900 11,400 8,550 10,600 Ferrocerium, alloys 89 111 105 130 140 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals, alloys-05): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 76%; France, 9%; Japan, 4%; Russia, 3%; and other, 8.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad val. Cerium

  10. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 1,420 1,450 1,130 804 945 Cerium compounds 3,850 2,540 2,630 1,880 2,210 Mixed, compounds 9,150 7,260 10,900 11,400 9,800 Ferrocerium, alloys 118 89 111 105 142 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals-04): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 76%; France, 14%; Japan, 6%; Austria, 2%; and other, 2

  11. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at Mountain Pass, CA, were further processed into rare-earth compounds and metal products. The United States -- -- -- -- 7,000 Exports: 2 Cerium compounds 1,380 840 1,350 1,640 1,100 Rare-earth metals, alloys 1,390 4,980 3,770 2,700 Rare-earth metals, alloy 679 226 525 468 280 Thorium ore (monazite or various thorium

  12. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , compounds 7,760 11,200 9,150 7,260 10,900 Ferrocerium, alloys 120 118 118 89 111 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals Sources (1999-2002): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 66%; France, 25%; Japan, 4%; Estonia, 3) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad

  13. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 1,130 804 880 867 831 Cerium compounds 2,630 1,880 2,170 2,590 3,090 Mixed metals, alloys 1,190 1,010 636 733 1,470 Cerium compounds 1,940 2,280 2,210 2,010 1,690 Other rare-earth-06): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 84%; France, 6%; Japan, 4%; Russia, 2%; and other, 4

  14. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or various thorium materials) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 804 880 867 784 807 Cerium compounds 1 metals, alloys 1,010 636 733 1,470 1,580 Cerium compounds 2,280 2,210 2,010 1,470 1,620 Other rare-earth (2004-07): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 87%; France, 5%; Japan, 4%; Russia, 2%; and other

  15. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    10,000 e 5,000 5,000 Imports:3 Thorium ore (monazite) 22 56 11 -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 905,720 5,600 Ferrocerium, alloys 78 107 121 117 122 Exports:3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 444 250 991 724 1%; Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 75%; France, 19%; Japan, 3%; United Kingdom, 1%; and other

  16. Liquid targets for isotope production Jerry Nolen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    W E-beam-on-Target Test at ANL MCNPX : for RIA, 200-kW uranium beam on Li peak energy deposition = 2 MW/cm3 1MeV, 20 mA, 1mm e-beam on Li deposited in the first 4 mm Test Objectives: Using

  17. Elemental and isotopic analysis of inorganic salts by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayasekharan, T.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2013-02-05

    Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry is applied for the analysis of elements as well as their isotopic composition in different inorganic salts. At very low laser energies the inorganic ions are desorbed and ionized from the thin layer of the sample surface. The naturally occurring isotopes of alkali and silver ions are resolved using time of flight mass spectrometer. Further increase in laser energy shows the appearance of Al, Cr, and Fe ions in the mass spectra. This indicates the penetration laser beam beyond the sample surface leading to the ablation of sample target at higher energies. The simultaneous appearance of atomic ions from the sample target at relatively higher laser energies hampers the unambiguous identification of amino acid residues from the biomolecular ions in MALDI-MS.

  18. Rare meson decays into very light neutralinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreiner, H. K.; Grab, S.; Koschade, Daniel; Kraemer, M.; O'Leary, Ben; Langenfeld, Ulrich [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, Germany and Centre for Research in String Theory, Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino from rare meson decays within the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with and without minimal flavor violation. We present explicit formulas for the two-body decays of mesons into light neutralinos and perform the first complete calculation of the loop-induced decays of kaons to pions and light neutralinos and B mesons to kaons and light neutralinos. We find that the supersymmetric branching ratios are strongly suppressed within the MSSM with minimal flavor violation, and that no bounds on the neutralino mass can be inferred from experimental data, i.e., a massless neutralino is allowed. The branching ratios for kaon and B meson decays into light neutralinos may, however, be enhanced when one allows for nonminimal flavor violation. We find new constraints on the MSSM parameter space for such scenarios and discuss prospects for future kaon and B meson experiments. Finally, we comment on the search for light neutralinos in monojet signatures at the Tevatron and at the LHC.

  19. Isotopic Studies of Contaminant Transport at the Hanford Site, WA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, J.N.; Conrad, M.E.; DePaolo, D.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    1977. Subcommission on geochronology: Convention on the useby W. Sharp, Berkeley Geochronology Center). Isotopic

  20. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nobre, G. P. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palumbo, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hoblit, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dietrich, F. S. [Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. These results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.

  1. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. P. A. Nobre; A. Palumbo; F. S. Dietrich; M. Herman; D. Brown; S. Hoblit

    2014-12-22

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. These results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.

  2. Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggiore, M., E-mail: mario.maggiore@lnl.infn.it; Cavenago, M.; Comunian, M.; Chirulotto, F.; Galatà, A.; De Lazzari, M.; Porcellato, A. M.; Roncolato, C.; Stark, S. [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)] [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Caruso, A.; Longhitano, A. [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy)] [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cavaliere, F.; Maero, G.; Paroli, B.; Pozzoli, R.; Romé, M. [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.

  3. Short course on St-02 applications of isotope dilutions and isotopic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P.

    1998-01-05

    This short course includes information on these topics and subtopics: (I) Nuclear Properties: (A) Historic roots; (B) Nomenclature; (C) Nuclear Stability and abundance; (D) Uses of isotopic techniques; (II) Instrumentation: (A) Sources; (B) Mass resolving elements; (C) Detectors; (III) Making Isotopic Measurements by ICP-MS: (A) Deadtime Correction; (B) Mass Discrimination; (C) Signal /Noise considerations; (IV) Applications and examples: (A) Isotope dilution; (B) Double Spike; (C) Biological Application; (D) Environmental Application; (E) Geological.

  4. Resonance ionization laser ion sources for on-line isotope separators (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, B. A. [EN Department, CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)] [EN Department, CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    A Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is today considered an essential component of the majority of Isotope Separator On Line (ISOL) facilities; there are seven laser ion sources currently operational at ISOL facilities worldwide and several more are under development. The ionization mechanism is a highly element selective multi-step resonance photo-absorption process that requires a specifically tailored laser configuration for each chemical element. For some isotopes, isomer selective ionization may even be achieved by exploiting the differences in hyperfine structures of an atomic transition for different nuclear spin states. For many radioactive ion beam experiments, laser resonance ionization is the only means of achieving an acceptable level of beam purity without compromising isotope yield. Furthermore, by performing element selection at the location of the ion source, the propagation of unwanted radioactivity downstream of the target assembly is reduced. Whilst advances in laser technology have improved the performance and reliability of laser ion sources and broadened the range of suitable commercially available laser systems, many recent developments have focused rather on the laser/atom interaction region in the quest for increased selectivity and/or improved spectral resolution. Much of the progress in this area has been achieved by decoupling the laser ionization from competing ionization processes through the use of a laser/atom interaction region that is physically separated from the target chamber. A new application of gas catcher laser ion source technology promises to expand the capabilities of projectile fragmentation facilities through the conversion of otherwise discarded reaction fragments into high-purity low-energy ion beams. A summary of recent RILIS developments and the current status of laser ion sources worldwide is presented.

  5. Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope systematics between Wild 2 particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope 2012 Keywords: oxygen isotope ratios crystalline silicate comet 81P/Wild 2 solar system formation Stardust Abstract: Oxygen three-isotope ratios of nine crystalline silicate particles from comet Wild 2

  6. Neutral Beam Excitation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolar Photovoltaic(MillionNature and Origin WhatNetworks,Beam Excitation of

  7. Ion Beam Materials Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps Heat PumpsfacilityviaGasforVendors »Ion Beam

  8. Neutron Deficient Isotopes of Rhodium and Palladium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perlman, I.

    2010-01-01

    S OF RHODI U! \\~ AFD PALLADIUM by Manfred Lindner and I.Isotopes of B." odinm. and Palladium Hanfred Lindner and 1.i.a ABSTRACT A palladium activit;)r assigned to mass

  9. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  10. Nonequilibrium clumped isotope signals in microbial methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, David T.

    Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its ...

  11. A SUPERCONDUCTING-SOLENOID ISOTOPE SPECTROMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    A SUPERCONDUCTING-SOLENOID ISOTOPE SPECTROMETER FOR PRODUCTION OF NEUTRON-RICH NUCLEI ( 136 Xe Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's weekly \\Green Sheet," 30 July 1999 #12; c Thomas W. O'Donnell 2000 All

  12. Photodisintegration of the isotope {sup 116}Cd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyshev, S. S.; Ishkhanov, B. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)] [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Orlin, V. N.; Stopani, K. A.; Khankin, V. V.; Shvedunov, N. V., E-mail: gg.swedn@gmail.com [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    The results obtained by measuring the yields of photodisintegration of the isotope {sup 116}Cd irradiated with bremsstrahlung photons whose spectrum had an endpoint energy of 55 MeV are presented and compared with the results of theoretical calculations.

  13. The Isotopic Abundances of Magnesium in Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pamela Gay; David L. Lambert

    1999-11-11

    Isotopic abundance ratios 24^Mg:25^Mg:26^Mg are derived for 20 stars from high- resolution spectra of the MgH A-X 0-0 band at 5140AA. With the exception of the weak g-band giant HR 1299, the stars are dwarfs that sample the metallicity range -1.8 < [Fe/H] <0.0. The abundance of 25^Mg amd 26^Mg relative to the dominant isotope 24^Mg decreases with decreasing [Fe/H] in fair accord with predictions from a recent model of galactic chemical evolution in which the Mg isotopes are synthesised by massive stars. Several stars appear especially enriched in the heavier Mg isotopes suggesting contamination by material from the envelopes of intermediate-mass AGB stars.

  14. GEOL 715: STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY (Spring, 2015)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , nomenclature, standards -kinetic and equilibrium fractionation processes -mass and isotope budgets -Rayleigh in terrestrial plants and plankton -applications: carbon budgets, tracking anthropogenic CO2, carbon export rates sources, trophic levels, terrestrial vs marine sources 3. Recent advances: -mass independent fractionation

  15. Production Cross Section of Neutron-Rich Calcium Isotopes in Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donghong Zhang; Wenjie Xie; Jun Su; Fengshou Zhang

    2015-03-27

    Based on the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model along with the GEMINI model, heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies are studied. We calculate the production cross sections of different fragments for reactions of 112Sn+112Sn and 124Sn+124Sn at different beam energies. The species and production cross sections of neutron-rich isotopes are generally dependent on the isospin of the system and the incident energies. The nucleon 48Ca and 54Ca are more productive for the neutron-rich system at 30 to 150 MeV/nucleon.

  16. The Giant Monopole Resonance in Pb isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elias Khan

    2009-07-20

    The extraction of the nuclear incompressibility from the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (GMR) measurements is analysed. Both pairing and mutually enhanced magicity (MEM) effects play a role in the shift of the GMR energy between the doubly closed shell $^{208}$Pb nucleus and other Pb isotopes. Pairing effects are microscopically predicted whereas the MEM effect is phenomenologically evaluated. Accurate measurements of the GMR in open-shell Pb isotopes are called for.

  17. The ELENA Beam Diagnostics Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tranquille, G

    2013-01-01

    The Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) to be built at CERN is aimed at substantially increasing the number of antiprotons to the low energy antiproton physics community. It will be a small machine which will decelerate low intensity beams (electron cooler to avoid beam losses during the deceleration and to significantly reduce beam phase space at extraction. To measure the beam parameters from the extraction point of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), through the ELENA ring and all the way to the experiments, many systems will be needed to ensure that the desired beam characteristics are obtained. Particular attention needs to be paid to the performance of the electron cooler which depends on reliable instrumentation in order to efficiently cool the antiprotons. This contribution will present the different monitors that have been proposed to measure the various beam parameters as well as some of the developments going on to further improve th...

  18. Electron beam diagnostic for space charge measurement of an ion beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam diagnostic for space charge measurement of annon-perturbing electron beam diagnostic system for measuringnon intercepting electron beam diagnostic system consists of

  19. Electron-beam diagnostic for space-charge measurement of an ion beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    76, 023301 (2005) Electron-beam diagnostic for space-chargenonperturbing electron-beam diagnostic system for measuring8. (Color online). Electron-beam diagnostic, as installed in

  20. Electron beam diagnostic for space charge measurement of an ion beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam diagnostic for space charge measurement of anAbstract A non-perturbing electron beam diagnostic systemlow energy, low current electron beam is swept transversely

  1. Electron-beam diagnostic for space-charge measurement of an ion beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    76, 023301 (2005) Electron-beam diagnostic for space-charge2005) A nonperturbing electron-beam diagnostic system forlow energy, low current electron beam is swept transversely

  2. Environmental assessment: special isotope separation process selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the differences in potential environmental impacts between two plutonium Special Isotope Separation (SIS) technologies: Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) and Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS). Both SIS technologies use PuO/sub 2/ as feed; AVLIS converts feed to plutonium metal and MLIS converts feed to PuF/sub 6/. The AVLIS process uses laser energy to selectively photoionize and electrostatically separate plutonium isotopes from an atomic vapor stream. The MLIS process uses laser energy to selectively disassociate specific isotopes of plutonium in the form of PuF/sub 6/ molecules to create PuF/sub 5/ for collection and further processing. Both processes produce plutonium metal as their product. An evaluation of differences in potential environmental impacts attributed to the construction of an SIS facility, based on either technology, included a comparison of construction materials, land areas required, and the size of the design and construction workforce. The differences in potential environmental impacts from operating an SIS facility were also compared. No large differences in potential environmental impacts would be expected from the use of process chemicals. An AVLIS or an MLIS facility would produce operating effluents that would meet all applicable radiation, chemical, and hazardous waste standards and would be constructed to protect workers, the public and the environment. This EA has not revealed any significant differences in the potential environmental impacts that could occur as a result of deploying either the AVLIS or the MLIS Special Isotope Separation technology.

  3. Beam characterization by wavefront sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, D.R.; Alford, W.J.; Gruetzner, J.K.

    1999-08-10

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed. 21 figs.

  4. Beam characterization by wavefront sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, Daniel R. (17 Eric Alan Lane, Tijeras, NM 87059); Alford, W. J. (3455 Tahoe, N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Gruetzner, James K. (9407 Shoehone, N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed.

  5. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, David A. (Walnut Creek, CA); Flood, William S. (Berkeley, CA); Arthur, Allan A. (Martinez, CA); Voelker, Ferdinand (Orinda, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A broad-band beam buncher is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-band response and the device as a whole designed to effect broad-band beam coupling, so as to minimize variations of the output across the response band.

  6. RadiaBeam PPT template

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    718 to 316 SS) Applications in nuclear (fission and fusion) and concentrated solar power components (DOE Nuclear Energy Phase III (DE-SC0011826)) RadiaBeam-led...

  7. Low-energy electric dipole response of Sn isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Papakonstantinou; H. Hergert; V. Yu. Ponomarev; R. Roth

    2014-03-10

    We study the low-energy dipole (LED) strength distribution along the Sn isotopic chain in both the isoscalar (IS) and the isovector (IV, or E1) electric channels, to provide testable predictions and guidance for new experiments with stable targets and radioactive beams. We use the self-consistent Quasi-particle Random-Phase Approximation (QRPA) with finite-range interactions and mainly the Gogny D1S force. We analyze also the performance of a realistic two-body interaction supplemented by a phenomenological three-body contact term. We find that from N=50 and up to the N=82 shell closure (132Sn) the lowest-energy part of the IS-LED spectrum is dominated by a collective transition whose properties vary smoothly with neutron number and which cannot be interpreted as a neutron-skin oscillation. For the neutron-rich species this state contributes to the E1 strength below particle threshold, but much more E1 strength is carried by other, weak but numerous transitions around or above threshold. We find that strong structural changes in the spectrum take effect beyond N=82, namely increased LED strength and lower excitation energies. Our results with the Gogny interaction are compatible with existing data. On this basis we predict that a) the summed IS strength below particle threshold shall be of the same order of magnitude for N=50-82, b) the summed E1 strength up to approximately 12 MeV shall be similar for N=50-82 MeV, while c) the summed E1 strength below threshold shall be of the same order of magnitude for N ~ 64 - 82 and much weaker for the lighter, more-symmetric isotopes. We point out a general agreement of our results with other non-relativistic studies, the absence of a collective IS mode in some of those studies, and a possibly radical disagreement with relativistic models.

  8. Innovative lasers for uranium isotope separation. [Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brake, M.L.; Gilgenbach, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    Copper vapor lasers have important applications to uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). The authors have spent the first two years of their project investigating two innovative methods of exciting/pumping copper vapor lasers which have the potential to improve the efficiency and scaling of large laser systems used in uranium isotope separation. Experimental research has focused on the laser discharge kinetics of (1) microwave, and (2) electron beam excitation/pumping of large-volume copper vapor lasers. During the first year, the experiments have been designed and constructed and initial data has been taken. During the second year these experiments have been diagnosed. Highlights of some of the second year results as well as plans for the future include the following: Microwave resonant cavity produced copper vapor plasmas at 2.45 GHz, have been investigated. A CW (0--500 W) signal heats and vaporizes the copper chloride to provide the atomic copper vapor. A pulsed (5 kW, 0.5--5kHz) signal is added to the incoming CW signal via a hybrid mixer to excite the copper states to the laser levels. An enhancement of the visible radiation has been observed during the pulsed pardon of the signal. Electrical probe measurements have been implemented on the system to verify the results of the electromagnetic model formulated last year. Laser gain measurements have been initiated with the use of a commercial copper vapor laser. Measurements of the spatial profile of the emission are also currently being made. The authors plan to increase the amount of pulsed microwave power to the system by implementing a high power magnetron. A laser cavity will be designed and added to this system.

  9. Iron Isotope and Rare Earth Element Patterns of the Neoproterozoic Fulu Formation, South China: Implications for Late Proterozoic Ocean Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldbaum, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    V. W. (1981). Chemical diagenesis in Narragansett Bayinfluences on the diagenesis of Beecher's Trilobite Bed andvalue unaffected by diagenesis. 4. Results and Discussion

  10. Bulk chemical and Hfâ??W isotopic consequences of incomplete accretion during planet formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Christina A; Nimmo, Francis; Chambers, John E

    2015-01-01

    Bulk chemical and Hf–W isotopic consequences of incompletestyle affects the bulk chemical and isotopic outcomes ofto investigate the bulk chemical and isotopic consequences

  11. COUPLING LEAD ISOTOPE ANALYSIS AND PETROGRAPHY TO CHARACTERIZE FABRICS OF STORAGE AND TRADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claeys, Philippe

    COUPLING LEAD ISOTOPE ANALYSIS AND PETROGRAPHY TO CHARACTERIZE FABRICS OF STORAGE AND TRADE of petrography and lead isotopes within pottery provenance study. KEYWORDS: LEAD ISOTOPES, THIN SECTION, SHERD

  12. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  13. Optimizing C{sup 4+} and C{sup 5+} beams of the Kei2 electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a special gas-mixing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drentje, A.G.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2006-03-15

    With the prototype electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the next carbon therapy facility in Japan a series of measurements has been performed in order (a) to find the best condition for producing high beam currents of C{sup 4+} ions, and (b) to study the effect of 'special' gas mixing by using a chemical compound as a feed gas. The effect would then appear as an increase in high charge state production in this case of C{sup 5+} ions. In 'regular' gas-mixing experiments it is well known that an isotopic phenomenon occurs: a heavier isotope of the mixing gas is increasing the production of high charge states of the beam gas ions. A similar isotopic effect has been found in the present experiment: with deuterated methane (CD{sub 4} gas) the C{sup 5+} beam currents are about 10% higher than with regular methane (CH{sub 4} gas). The 'mixing-gas' ratio D (or H) to C can be decreased by choosing, e.g., butane gas; in this case the isotopic effect for C{sup 5+} production is even stronger (>15%). For production of C{sup 4+} ions the isotopic effect appears to be absent. Clearly this is related to the much easier production. It turns out that the relative amount of carbon is much more important: butane gives about 10% higher C{sup 4+}-ion currents than methane.

  14. Tuning the beam: a physics perspective on beam diagnostic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In a nutshell, the role of a beam diagnostic measurement is to provide information needed to get a particle beam from Point A (injection point) to Point B (a target) in a useable condition, with 'useable' meaning the right energy and size and with acceptable losses. Specifications and performance requirements of diagnostics are based on the physics of the particle beam to be measured, with typical customers of beam parameter measurements being the accelerator operators and accelerator physicists. This tutorial will be a physics-oriented discussion of the interplay between tuning evolutions and the beam diagnostics systems that support the machine tune. This will include the differences between developing a tune and maintaining a tune, among other things. Practical longitudinal and transverse tuning issues and techniques from a variety of proton and electron machines will also be discussed.

  15. TRIFID (TRansuranic Isotopic Fraction Interrogation Device): A second generation plutonium isotopic analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleissner, J G; Coressel, T W; Freier, D A; Macklin, L L

    1989-01-01

    The TRIFID (Transuranic Isotopic Fraction Interrogation Device) system is a second generation plutonium isotopic analysis system which incorporates many new and unique features in the area of isotopic data acquisition and isotopic analysis instrument consisting of a Canberra Series 95-MCA interfaced to a Compaq 386 computer. The entire TRIFID software package, including MCA communications and isotopic analysis routines, was developed using the C programming language. Extensive use has been made of user friendly screens and menus for ease of operation and training and to facilitate use by technical level operators. Automated TRIFID features provide for MCA/ADC setup and acquisition, spectral storage, isotopic analysis, and report generation. One unique feature of the TRIFID system design allows it to be pre-programed for an entire day's counting. The isotopic analysis module (EPICS) contains an expert system formalism which is used to detect and assay for spectral interferences, and to automatically adjust peak fitting constraints based on spectral intensity variations. A TRIFID system has been in operation in a production laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant since September 1988. Marked decreases in training and hands-on operation time have been achieved in comparison to the older, preceding isotopic systems. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Molecular-beam scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, M.F.

    1983-07-01

    The molecular-beam technique has been used in three different experimental arrangements to study a wide range of inter-atomic and molecular forces. Chapter 1 reports results of a low-energy (0.2 kcal/mole) elastic-scattering study of the He-Ar pair potential. The purpose of the study was to accurately characterize the shape of the potential in the well region, by scattering slow He atoms produced by expanding a mixture of He in N/sub 2/ from a cooled nozzle. Chapter 2 contains measurements of the vibrational predissociation spectra and product translational energy for clusters of water, benzene, and ammonia. The experiments show that most of the product energy remains in the internal molecular motions. Chapter 3 presents measurements of the reaction Na + HCl ..-->.. NaCl + H at collision energies of 5.38 and 19.4 kcal/mole. This is the first study to resolve both scattering angle and velocity for the reaction of a short lived (16 nsec) electronic excited state. Descriptions are given of computer programs written to analyze molecular-beam expansions to extract information characterizing their velocity distributions, and to calculate accurate laboratory elastic-scattering differential cross sections accounting for the finite apparatus resolution. Experimental results which attempted to determine the efficiency of optically pumping the Li(2/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) and Na(3/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/) excited states are given. A simple three-level model for predicting the steady-state fraction of atoms in the excited state is included.

  17. Measurements of aperture and beam lifetime using movable beam scrapers in Indus-2 electron storage ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Ghodke, A. D.; Karnewar, A. K.; Holikatti, A. C.; Yadav, S.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Singh, G.; Singh, P.

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, the measurements of vertical and horizontal aperture which are available for stable beam motion in Indus-2 at beam energy 2.5 GeV using movable beam scrapers are presented. These beam scrapers are installed in one of the long straight sections in the ring. With the movement of beam scrapers towards the beam centre, the beam lifetime is measured. The beam lifetime data obtained from the movement of vertical and horizontal beam scrapers are analyzed. The contribution of beam loss due to beam-gas scattering (vacuum lifetime) and electron-electron scattering within a beam bunch (Touschek lifetime) is separated from the measured beam lifetime at different positions of the beam scrapers. Vertical and horizontal beam sizes at scrapers location are estimated from the scraper movement towards the beam centre in quantum lifetime limit and their values closely agree with measured value obtained using X-ray diagnostic beamline.

  18. Sub-barrier fusion with N/Z exotic beams of light nuclei Hence, sub-barrier fusion is sensitive to the density dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Souza, Romualdo T.

    Sub-barrier fusion with N/Z exotic beams of light nuclei Hence, sub-barrier fusion is sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy in the EOS at sub-saturation density. Sub-barrier fusion affects the composition of the Fermi tail Measuring fusion for an isotopic chain of projectile nuclei one

  19. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1984-03-20

    A broad-band beam bunther is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-

  20. Laser acceleration of ion beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Egorova; A. V. Filatov; A. V. Prozorkevich; S. A. Smolyansky; D. B. Blaschke; M. Chubaryan

    2007-02-01

    We consider methods of charged particle acceleration by means of high-intensity lasers. As an application we discuss a laser booster for heavy ion beams provided, e.g. by the Dubna nuclotron. Simple estimates show that a cascade of crossed laser beams would be necessary to provide additional acceleration to gold ions of the order of GeV/nucleon.

  1. Cancer Therapy with Particle Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    Cancer Therapy with Particle Beams #12;· The potential to use high energy particle beams to treat many types of cancer has been known even before their creation. · The availability of these treatments to be used in medicine, specifically for the treatment of certain cancers. His paper was published when

  2. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 2,470 1,420 1,450 1,130 790 Cerium compounds 4,310 3,850 2,540 2,630 1 metals, alloys 1,650 884 1,300 1,190 1,240 Cerium compounds 4,050 4,110 2,740 1,940 2,000 Other rare-earth-03): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 67%; France, 17%; Japan, 4%; Estonia, 4%; and other, 8

  3. Particle simulation of rare events P. Del Moral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallette, Bruno

    , engines failures,... Physics : climate models, directed polymer conformations, particle in absorbing medium, ground states of Schroedinger models. Statistics : tail probabilities, extreme random values. Combinatorics : Complex enumeration problems. Process strategies Rare event Control and prediction. Xt = Ft

  4. Lepton flavor violation in Higgs boson decays under the rare...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lepton flavor violation in Higgs boson decays under the rare tau decay results Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lepton flavor violation in Higgs boson decays under the...

  5. Chemical pressure and hidden one-dimensional behavior in rare...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report on the first optical measurements of the rare-earth tri-telluride charge-density-wave systems. Our data, collected over an extremely broad spectral range, allow us to...

  6. Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

    2004-09-15

    Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

  7. Delivering High IntensityDelivering High Intensity Proton Beam:Proton Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    11 Delivering High IntensityDelivering High Intensity Proton Beam:Proton Beam: Lessons for the NextFACT08NuFACT08 ­­ 4 July4 July S. ChildressS. Childress ­­ Proton BeamsProton Beams 22 Presentation OutlinePresentation Outline Key Proton Beam ConsiderationsKey Proton Beam Considerations The First

  8. Advanced Light Source Beam Position Monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinkson, J.

    2011-01-01

    diagnostic ports, EPM pickups, photon stops, vacuum pumps, and the electron beamElectron beam position monitors (BPM) are installed throughout the accelerator and constitute the major part of accelerator beam diagnostics.

  9. Laser beam alignment apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruhn, Charles R. (Martinez, CA); Hammond, Robert B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an apparatus and method for laser beam alignment. Thermoelectric properties of a disc in a laser beam path are used to provide an indication of beam alignment and/or automatic laser alignment.

  10. Beam Beam Simulation Studies for NLC And SLC2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, K.A.; Chen, P.; Irwin, J.; Zimmermann, F.; /SLAC

    2010-05-27

    We apply and modify the computer codes CAIN(P.Chen, G.Horton-Smith, T.Ohgaki, A.W.Weidemann, K.Yokoya, contributed to Workshop on Gamma-Gamma Colliders, Berkeley, CA, March 28-31, 1994; SLAC-PUB-6583.) and GUINEAPIG(D.Schulte (DESY), unpublished.) to make detailed studies of the beam-beam interaction in the SLAC design for a future linear collider (NLC), as well as to the proposed SLC2000 project. Using realistic beam distributions, we present simulations related to the tuning and optimization of luminosity in SLC2000 and NLC.

  11. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotope Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carty, J.

    2004-10-05

    This presentation provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotopes Program. The charter of the Isotope Programs covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials, and related isotope services.

  12. Reduction Chemistry of Rare-Earth Metal Complexes: Toward New Reactivity and Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wenliang

    2013-01-01

    reduction chemistry of rare-earth metal complexes supportedof a series of rare-earth metal arene complexes. Highlightsmechanism for rare-earth metals; (2) the synthesis of the

  13. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Rare-Earth and Copper Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kvashnina, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    bombardment for twelve rare-earths metals [1] . Accord- ingal. [3] have showed that rare-earth metals such as La has aof most of the rare- earths metals, oxides, and chlorides.

  14. POWDER METALLURGICAL PROCESSING OF MAGNETOSTRICTIVE MATERIALS BASED ON RARE EARTH-IRON INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malekzadeh, Manoochehr

    2011-01-01

    by using an excess of rare earth metals during the course ofCrystal structure of rare earth-transition metal Laves phasemagnetostrictions among rare earth-transition metal as well

  15. Improved repetition rate mixed isotope CO{sub 2} TEA laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohn, D. B., E-mail: dbctechnology@earthlink.net [DBC Technology Corp., 4221 Mesa St, Torrance, California 90505 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A compact CO{sub 2} TEA laser has been developed for remote chemical detection that operates at a repetition rate of 250 Hz. It emits 700 mJ/pulse at 10.6 ?m in a multimode beam with the {sup 12}C{sup 16}O{sub 2} isotope. With mixed {sup 12}C{sup 16}O{sub 2} plus {sup 13}C{sup 16}O{sub 2} isotopes it emits multiple lines in both isotope manifolds to improve detection of a broad range of chemicals. In particular, output pulse energies are 110?mJ/pulse at 9.77 ?m, 250 mJ/pulse at 10??m, and 550 mJ/pulse at 11.15??m, useful for detection of the chemical agents Sarin, Tabun, and VX. Related work shows capability for long term sealed operation with a catalyst and an agile tuner at a wavelength shift rate of 200 Hz.

  16. Coherent instabilities of a relativistic bunched beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, A.W.

    1982-06-01

    A charge-particle beam contained in an accelerator vacuum chamber interacts electromagnetically with its environment to create a wake field. This field than acts back on the beam, perturbing the particle motion. If the beam intensity is high enough, this beam-environment interaction may lead to an instability and to subsequent beam loss. The beam and its environment form a dynamical system, and it is this system that will be studied. 84 references.

  17. Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two dimensional crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Lozada-Hidalgo; S. Hu; O. Marshall; A. Mishchenko; A. N. Grigorenko; R. A. W. Dryfe; B. Radha; I. V. Grigorieva; A. K. Geim

    2015-11-20

    One-atom-thick crystals are impermeable to atoms and molecules, but hydrogen ions (thermal protons) penetrate through them. We show that monolayers of graphene and boron nitride can be used to separate hydrogen ion isotopes. Employing electrical measurements and mass spectrometry, we find that deuterons permeate through these crystals much slower than protons, resulting in a separation factor of 10 at room temperature. The isotope effect is attributed to a difference of about 60 meV between zero-point energies of incident protons and deuterons, which translates into the equivalent difference in the activation barriers posed by two dimensional crystals. In addition to providing insight into the proton transport mechanism, the demonstrated approach offers a competitive and scalable way for hydrogen isotope enrichment.

  18. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  19. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-03-30

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  20. Apparatus for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering hydrogen and separating its isotopes. The apparatus includes a housing bearing at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A baffle is disposed within the housing, attached thereto by a bracket. A hollow conduit is coiled about the baffle, in spaced relation to the baffle and the housing. The coiled conduit is at least partially filled with a hydride. The hydride can be heated to a high temperature and cooled to a low temperature quickly by circulating a heat transfer fluid in the housing. The spacing between the baffle and the housing maximizes the heat exchange rate between the fluid in the housing and the hydride in the conduit. The apparatus can be used to recover hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from gaseous mixtures, or to separate hydrogen isotopes from each other.

  1. Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two dimensional crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozada-Hidalgo, M; Marshall, O; Mishchenko, A; Grigorenko, A N; Dryfe, R A W; Radha, B; Grigorieva, I V; Geim, A K

    2015-01-01

    One-atom-thick crystals are impermeable to atoms and molecules, but hydrogen ions (thermal protons) penetrate through them. We show that monolayers of graphene and boron nitride can be used to separate hydrogen ion isotopes. Employing electrical measurements and mass spectrometry, we find that deuterons permeate through these crystals much slower than protons, resulting in a separation factor of 10 at room temperature. The isotope effect is attributed to a difference of about 60 meV between zero-point energies of incident protons and deuterons, which translates into the equivalent difference in the activation barriers posed by two dimensional crystals. In addition to providing insight into the proton transport mechanism, the demonstrated approach offers a competitive and scalable way for hydrogen isotope enrichment.

  2. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using, a metal hydride.

  3. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland

    2004-05-14

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P species. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of Si in Ge was measured over the temperature range of 550 C to 900 C using a buried Si layer in an epitaxially grown Ge layer.

  4. PHYSICAL, MAGNETIC, SEDIMENTOLOGICAL, GEOCHEMICAL, ISOTOPIC AND MICROPALEONTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RAPIDLY DEPOSITED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PHYSICAL, MAGNETIC, SEDIMENTOLOGICAL, GEOCHEMICAL, ISOTOPIC AND MICROPALEONTOLOGICAL FEATURES Sediments, Québec City. Symposium preceedings: 103-108. ABSTRACT: Sedimentological, geochemical, isotopic

  5. Method for production of an isotopically enriched compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watrous, Matthew G.

    2012-12-11

    A method is presented for producing and isolating an isotopically enriched compound of a desired isotope from a parent radionuclide. The method includes forming, or placing, a precipitate containing a parent radionuclide of the desired daughter isotope in a first reaction zone and allowing sufficient time for the parent to decay into the desired gaseous daughter radioisotope. The method further contemplates collecting the desired daughter isotope as a solid in a second reaction zone through the application of temperatures below the freezing point of the desired isotope to a second reaction zone that is connected to the first reaction zone. Specifically, a method is presented for producing isotopically enriched compounds of xenon, including the radioactive isotope Xe-131m and the stable isotope Xe-131.

  6. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Wednesday, 24 September 2008 00:00...

  7. Oxygen isotope records of carboniferous seasonality on the Russian platform 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Huayu

    1998-01-01

    Seven isotopic and eight trace element (TE) profiles across shell growth lines are presented, based on over 1000 stable isotope and electron microprobe analyses on six brachiopod shells (Gigantoproductus), to quantify seasonal temperature change...

  8. Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    2012-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...

  9. Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui Sitindra S studied the controls on the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui, a halophilic archaea, in pure culture experiments by varying organic substrate, the hydrogen

  10. Alight a beam and beaming light: A theme with variations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chattopadhyay, S. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California94720 (United States)] [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California94720 (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The interaction of light (coherent and incoherent) with charged particle beams is explored in various configurations: incoherent scattering of coherent light (laser) from an incoherent particle beam (high temperature), coherent scattering of coherent light (laser) from a {open_quotes}cold{close_quotes} (bunched) beam, femtosecond generation of particle and light beams via {open_quotes}optical slicing{close_quotes} and Thomson/Compton scattering techniques, etc. The domains of ultrashort temporal duration (femtoseconds) as well as ultrashort wavelengths (x rays and shorter), with varying degrees of coherence, are explored. The relevance to a few critical areas of research in the natural sciences, e.g., ultrafast material, chemical and biological processes, protein folding, particle phase space cooling, etc. are touched upon. All the processes discussed involve proper interpretation and understanding of coherent states of matter and radiation, as well as the quality and quantity of information and energy embedded in them. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. CONTINUOUS EXTRACTED BEAM IN THE AGS FAST EXTERNAL BEAM LINE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLENN,J.W.; TSOUPAS,N.; BROWN,K.A.; BIRYUKOV,V.M.

    2001-06-18

    A method to split off a few percent of the 6 x 10{sup 13} AGS beam delivered to the Slow External Beam (SEB) lines and send it down the Fast External Beam line (FEB) has been developed. The mission is to feed a counter experiment off the FEB that directly measures the neutrino mass using the muon storage ring. The use of normal thin septum splitters would have an excessive loss overhead and been optically difficult. The AGS Slow Extraction uses a third integer resonance with sextuple strength so the resonance width is a few percent of the beam width. This results in a low density tail which will be clipped by a bent crystal and deflected into the FEB channel. This clipping off of the tail should reduce losses in the SEB transport line. Details of modeled orbits, particle distribution and extraction trajectories into and out off the crystal will be given.

  12. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, J.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-07-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: (1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and (2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1,000 {micro}m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 {micro}m diameter of laser drilling. 5 figs.

  13. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Pleasanton, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: 1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and 2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1000 .mu.m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 .mu.m diameter of laser drilling.

  14. Coherent photonuclear reactions for isotope transmutation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Ejiri; S. Date

    2011-02-22

    Coherent photonuclear isotope transmutation (CPIT) produces exclusively radioactive isotopes (RIs) by coherent photonuclear reactions via E1 giant resonances. Photons to be used are medium energy photons produced by laser photons backscattered off GeV electrons. The cross sections are as large as 0.2 - 0.6 b, being independent of individual nuclides. A large fraction of photons is effectively used for the photonuclear reactions, while the scattered GeV electrons remain in the storage ring to be re-used. CPIT with medium energy photons provides specific/desired RIs with the high rate and the high density for nuclear science, molecular biology and for nuclear medicines.

  15. Thermal stresses in laminated beams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcano, Victor Manuel

    1983-01-01

    Stresses Acting on a Section of the Laminated Beam -------- 15 5. Loading Geometry and Material Characteristics of the Test Problem 21 6. Simply-Supported Beam with a Sinusoidal Load--------- 30 7. Shear Stress Distribution for a Simply- Supported... 24. Normal Stress Distribution for a Cantilever Laminated Beam, T-Z sinzx/L --------------- 58 m. i 25. Axial Stress Distribution for a Cantilever Laminated Bearq, T-T (2z/8+1) 2 mi 27. Normal Stress Distribution for ("/L) ? ---- 6O 2 a...

  16. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Jensen, A.; Li, Z.; Stupakov, G.; Adolphsen, C.; /SLAC

    2009-05-08

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly.

  17. Bimetallic cleavage of aromatic C-H bonds by rare-earth-metal complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, W; Huang, W; Dulong, F; Khan, SI; Cantat, T; Diaconescu, PL

    2014-01-01

    of Aromatic C-H Bonds by Rare Earth Metal Complexes Wenliangone week prior to use. Rare earth metal oxides (scandium,

  18. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowley, Brooke E.; Carter, Melinda L.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Koch, Paul L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    of sample treatment and diagenesis on the isotopic integrityHare PE (1986) Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon,

  19. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

    1995-01-01

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  20. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  1. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kathawa; C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-01-20

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathawa, J.; Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

    2013-01-15

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Discovery of Cesium, Lanthanum, Praseodymium and Promethium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. May; M. Thoennessen

    2011-09-08

    Currently, forty-one cesium, thirty-five lanthanum, thirty-two praseodymium, and thirty-one promethium, isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Tetrahymena thermophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Tetrahymena thermophila Sitindra S Accepted 7 September 2013 Available online 16 September 2013 a b s t r a c t Hydrogen isotope ratio values from recording the hydrogen isotope composition of ambient water, dD values of lipids also depend

  5. Discovery of Gallium, Germanium, Lutetium, and Hafnium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, J L

    2011-01-01

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Discovery of Gallium, Germanium, Lutetium, and Hafnium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Gross; M. Thoennessen

    2011-09-28

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-03-06

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    such as adsorption of S-bearing com- pounds on surfaces of solids (13). Magnetic isotope effects are expressedEvidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction Harry Oduroa,b,1 S are attributed to a magnetic isotope effect (MIE) associated with the formation of thiol-disulfide, ion

  9. Discovery of Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium, Technetium, and Ruthenium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Nystrom; M. Thoennessen

    2011-02-11

    Currently, thirty-four yttrium, thirty-five zirconium, thirty-four niobium, thirty-five technetium, and thirty-eight ruthenium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. Discovery of Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium, Technetium, and Ruthenium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nystrom, A

    2011-01-01

    Currently, thirty-four yttrium, thirty-five zirconium, thirty-four niobium, thirty-five technetium, and thirty-eight ruthenium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  11. E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract:Variations in the 18 O/16 O ratios isotope stratigraphy, however, is hampered by the lack of unaltered authigenic marine sediments. Chapter.6. Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy 188 10.6.1. Cenozoic 188 10.6.2. Mesozoic 191 10.6.3. Paleozoic 193

  12. Discovery of Samarium, Europium, Gadolinium, and Terbium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. May; M. Thoennessen

    2012-01-19

    Currently, thirty-four samarium, thirty-four europium, thirty-one gadolinium, and thirty-one terbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-05-26

    Currently, thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  14. Discovery of the thallium, lead, bismuth, and polonium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-01-21

    Currently, forty-two thallium, forty-two lead, forty-one bismuth, and forty-two polonium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  15. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium and ytterbium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-05-26

    Currently, 31 dysprosium, 32 holmium, 32 erbium, 33 thulium and 31 ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  16. Discovery of Tantalum, Rhenium, Osmium, and Iridium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Robinson; M. Thoennessen

    2011-09-02

    Currently, thirty-eight tantalum, thirty-eight rhenium, thirty-nine osmium, and thirty-eight iridium, isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jason, Andrew J. (Los Alamos, NM); Blind, Barbara (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

  18. Neon Ion Beam Lithography (NIBL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winston, Donald

    Existing techniques for electron- and ion-beam lithography, routinely employed for nanoscale device fabrication and mask/mold prototyping, do not simultaneously achieve efficient (low fluence) exposure and high resolution. ...

  19. A multi beam proton accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolya, S N

    2015-01-01

    The article considers a proton accelerator containing seven independent beams arranged on the accelerator radius. The current in each beam is one hundred milliamps. The initial part of the accelerator consists of shielded spiral waveguides assembled in the common screen. The frequency of the acceleration: three hundred megahertz, high-frequency power twenty-five megawatts, the length of the accelerator six meters. After reaching the proton energy of six megaelektronvolts the protons using lenses with the azimuthal magnetic field are collected in one beam. Further beam acceleration is performed in the array of superconducting cavities tuned to the frequency one and three tenths gigahertz. The acceleration rate is equal to twenty megavolt per meter, the high-frequency power consumption fifteen megawatts per meter.

  20. Quantum fluctuations in beam dynamics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K.-J.

    1998-06-04

    Quantum effects could become important for particle and photon beams used in high-luminosity and high brightness applications in the current and next generation accelerators and radiation sources. This paper is a review of some of these effects.

  1. Neutron beam testing of triblades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Du Bois, Andrew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rust, William N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Du Bois, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Modl, David G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blanchard, Sean P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manuzzato, Andrea [UNIV DEGLI STUDI DI PADOVA ITALY

    2011-01-31

    PowerXCell 8i processors and Opterons in four IBM Triblades were tested at LANSCE. The hazard rate when the beam was aimed at the Opterons was higher than when it was aimed at the Cell processors.

  2. Center for Beam Physics, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report contains the following information on the center for beam physics: Facilities; Organizational Chart; Roster; Profiles of Staff; Affiliates; Center Publications (1991--1993); and 1992 Summary of Activities.

  3. The Fermilab neutrino beam program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rameika, Regina A.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    This talk presents an overview of the Fermilab Neutrino Beam Program. Results from completed experiments as well as the status and outlook for current experiments is given. Emphasis is given to current activities towards planning for a future program.

  4. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation repression. In this scheme a gas, of the selected isotopes for enrichment, is irradiated with a laser at a particular wavelength that would excite only one of the isotopes. The entire gas is subject to low temperatures sufficient to cause condensation on a cold surface. Those molecules in the gas that the laser excited are not as likely to condense as are the unexcited molecules. Hence the gas drawn out of the system will be enriched in the isotope that was excited by the laser. We have evaluated the relative energy required in this process if applied on a commercial scale. We estimate the energy required for laser isotope enrichment is about 20% of that required in centrifuge separations, and 2% of that required by use of "calutrons".

  5. Optimization of Direct Ionization of CO2 by Controlling the Gas Flow Inside of a Beam-Target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar Quintero, G A; Ognibene, T

    2011-03-07

    We designed and optimized a target that directs a CO{sub 2} pulse onto a Ti surface where a Cs{sup +} sputtering beam ionizes the CO{sub 2} to generate C{sup -}. These targets will be used for the direct ionization of CO{sub 2} pulses to enable the measurement of carbon isotope ratios in real time. The design was based on the results of Comsol{trademark} simulations of the target configurations.

  6. Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water Sven P. Nielsen Risø National Laboratory Working OF INVESTIGATION 11 3 DESCRIPTION OF INVESTIGATION 12 4 RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER 13 5 SAMPLING 15 6 27 #12;4 #12;5 Preface This project for investigation of radioactivity in drinking water shall

  7. Water isotopes and the general circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noone, David

    quantities are equator to pole temperature gradient, and the vertical thermal stratification #12;Isotopic" is the fractionation factor is a function of temperature F depends on large scale circulation and thermal state Both, temperature gradient/condensation) 2. Entrainment of non-depleted water (humidity, stratification/sheer) #12

  8. INTRODUCTION The oxygen isotopic compositions of minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    González, Luis A.

    .5 ka) and the associated migration of prairie into and out of the area (the prairie period; Dorale et of the Gulf of Mexico, Pacific, andArctic air masses (Bryson, 1966; Fig. 1). Gulf of Mexico air sup- plies of Mexico air masses and its precipitation is isotopically more negative than gulf moisture (e.g., typically

  9. Ultrafast Diagnostics for Electron Beams from Laser Plasma Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matlis, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrafast Diagnostics for Electron Beams from Laser Plasmadiagnostic techniques [2]. While the field of electron beam

  10. Measurement of the cross sections for the production of the isotopes {sup 74}As, {sup 68}Ge, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 60}Co from natural and enriched germanium irradiated with 100-MeV protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabanov, I. R.; Bezrukov, L. B.; Gurentsov, V. I.; Zhuykov, B. L.; Kianovsky, S. V.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kohanuk, V. M.; Yanovich, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    The cross sections for the production of the radioactive isotopes {sup 74}As, {sup 68}Ge, {sup 65}Zn, and {sup 60}Co in metallic germanium irradiated with 100-MeV protons were measured, the experiments being performed both with germanium of natural isotopic composition and germanium enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge. The targets were irradiated with a proton beam at the facility for the production of radionuclides at the accelerator of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Moscow). The data obtained will further be used to calculate the background of radioactive isotopes formed by nuclear cascades of cosmic-ray muons in new-generation experiments devoted to searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at underground laboratories.

  11. Non-canonical mass laws in equilibrium isotopic fractionations: Evidence from the vapor pressure isotope effect of SF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    Non-canonical mass laws in equilibrium isotopic fractionations: Evidence from the vapor pressure report experimental observations of the vapor pressure isotope effect, including 33 S/32 S and 34 S/32. That equilibrium involves a reversed vapor pressure isotope effect; i.e., vapor is between 2& and 3& higher in 34 S

  12. Electron beam diagnostic for profiling high power beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Palmer, Todd A. (Livermore, CA); Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-03-25

    A system for characterizing high power electron beams at power levels of 10 kW and above is described. This system is comprised of a slit disk assembly having a multitude of radial slits, a conducting disk with the same number of radial slits located below the slit disk assembly, a Faraday cup assembly located below the conducting disk, and a start-stop target located proximate the slit disk assembly. In order to keep the system from over-heating during use, a heat sink is placed in close proximity to the components discussed above, and an active cooling system, using water, for example, can be integrated into the heat sink. During use, the high power beam is initially directed onto a start-stop target and after reaching its full power is translated around the slit disk assembly, wherein the beam enters the radial slits and the conducting disk radial slits and is detected at the Faraday cup assembly. A trigger probe assembly can also be integrated into the system in order to aid in the determination of the proper orientation of the beam during reconstruction. After passing over each of the slits, the beam is then rapidly translated back to the start-stop target to minimize the amount of time that the high power beam comes in contact with the slit disk assembly. The data obtained by the system is then transferred into a computer system, where a computer tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct the power density distribution of the beam.

  13. Innovative lasers for uranium isotope separation. Final report, September 1, 1989--April 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brake, M.L.; Gilgenbach, R.M.

    1993-07-01

    Copper vapor laser have important applications to uranium atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). We have investigated two innovative methods of exciting/pumping copper vapor lasers which have the potential to improve the efficiency and scaling of large laser systems used in uranium isotope separation. Experimental research has focused on the laser discharge kinetics of (1) microwave, and (2) electron beam excitation/pumping of large-volume copper vapor lasers. Microwave resonant cavity produced copper vapor plasmas at 2.45 GHz, have been investigated in three separate experimental configurations. The first examined the application of CW (0-500W) power and was found to be an excellent method for producing an atomic copper vapor from copper chloride. The second used a pulsed (5kW, 0.5--5 kHz) signal superimposed on the CW signal to attempt to produce vaporization, dissociation and excitation to the laser states. Enhanced emission of the optical radiation was observed but power densities were found to be too low to achieve lasing. In a third experiment we attempted to increase the applied power by using a high power magnetron to produce 100 kW of pulsed power. Unfortunately, difficulties with the magnetron power supply were encountered leaving inconclusive results. Detailed modeling of the electromagnetics of the system were found to match the diagnostics results well. An electron beam pumped copper vapor system (350 kV, 1.0 kA, 300 ns) was investigated in three separate copper chloride heating systems, external chamber, externally heated chamber and an internally heated chamber. Since atomic copper spectral lines were not observed, it is assumed that a single pulse accelerator is not capable of both dissociating the copper chloride and exciting atomic copper and a repetitively pulsed electron beam generator is needed.

  14. Overview of Light-Ion Beam Therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, William T.

    2006-01-01

    measurements using various dosimeters. Discussions of theseamong ion-beam centers • Dosimeter calibrations • Do you

  15. Strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, K.R.; Halley, R.B.; Simmons, K.R.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1988-02-01

    /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios determined for samples from a 350 m core of Neogene lagoonal, shallow-water limestones from Enewetak Atoll display a remarkably informative trend. Like the recently published data for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) carbonates, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr at Enewetak increases monotonically but not smoothly from the early Miocene to the Pleistocene. The data show intervals of little or no change in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, punctuated by sharp transitions to lower values toward greater core depths. The sharp transitions correlate with observed solution disconformities caused by periods of subaerial erosion, whereas the intervals of little or no change in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr correspond to intervals of rapid accumulation of shallow-water carbonate sediments. When converted to numerical ages using the published DSDP 590B trend, the best-resolved time breaks are at 282 m (12.3 to 18.2 Ma missing) and 121.6 m (3.0 to 5.3 Ma missing) below the lagoon floor. At Enewetak, Sr isotopes offer a stratigraphic resolution for these shallow-marine Neogene carbonates comparable to that of nannofossil zonation in deep-sea carbonates (0.3-3 m.y.). In addition, the correlation of times of Sr-isotope breaks at Enewetak with times of rapid Sr-isotope change in the DSDP 590B samples confirms the importance of sea-level changes in the evolution of global-marine Sr isotopes and shows that the Sr-isotope response to sea-level falls is rapid.

  16. Enriching stable isotopes: Alternative use for Urenco technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhorst, H.; de Jong, P.G.T.; Dawson, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    The International Urenco Group utilizes a technologically advanced centrifuge process to enrich uranium in the fissionable isotope {sup 235}U. The group operates plants in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Germany and currently holds a 10% share of the multibillion dollar world enrichment market. In the early 1990s, Urenco embarked on a strategy of building on the company`s uniquely advanced centrifuge process and laser isotope separation (LIS) experience to enrich nonradioactive isotopes colloquially known as stable isotopes. This paper summarizes the present status of Urenco`s stable isotopes business.

  17. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

  18. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA); Jones, Lawrence L. (Des Moines, IA)

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  19. High efficiency rare-earth emitter for thermophotovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakr, E. S.; Zhou, Z.; Bermel, P., E-mail: pbermel@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnology Center, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, 1205 W. State St., West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In this work, we propose a rare-earth-based ceramic thermal emitter design that can boost thermophotovoltaic (TPV) efficiencies significantly without cold-side filters at a temperature of 1573?K (1300?°C). The proposed emitter enhances a naturally occurring rare earth transition using quality-factor matching, with a quarter-wave stack as a highly reflective back mirror, while suppressing parasitic losses via exponential chirping of a multilayer reflector transmitting only at short wavelengths. This allows the emissivity to approach the blackbody limit for wavelengths overlapping with the absorption peak of the rare-earth material, while effectively reducing the losses associated with undesirable long-wavelength emission. We obtain TPV efficiencies of 34% using this layered design, which only requires modest index contrast, making it particularly amenable to fabrication via a wide variety of techniques, including sputtering, spin-coating, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  20. Laminated rare earth structure and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senor, David J [West Richland, WA; Johnson, Roger N [Richland, WA; Reid, Bruce D [Pasco, WA; Larson, Sandra [Richland, WA

    2002-07-30

    A laminated structure having two or more layers, wherein at least one layer is a metal substrate and at least one other layer is a coating comprising at least one rare earth element. For structures having more than two layers, the coating and metal substrate layers alternate. In one embodiment of the invention, the structure is a two-layer laminate having a rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a metal substrate. In another embodiment of the invention, the structure is a three-layer laminate having the rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a first metal substrate and the coating subsequently abonded to a second metal substrate. The bonding of the coating to the second metal substrate may be accomplished by hot pressing, hot rolling, high deformation rate processing, or combinations thereof. The laminated structure may be used in nuclear components where reactivity control or neutron absorption is desired and in non-nuclear applications such as magnetic and superconducting films.

  1. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guon, Jerold (Woodland Hills, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA); Specht, Eugene R. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    To increase the operating temperature of a reactor, the melting point and mechanical properties of the fuel must be increased. For an actinide-rich fuel, yttrium, lanthanum and/or rare earth elements can be added, as stabilizers, to uranium and plutonium and/or a mixture of other actinides to raise the melting point of the fuel and improve its mechanical properties. Since only about 1% of the actinide fuel may be yttrium, lanthanum, or a rare earth element, the neutron penalty is low, the reactor core size can be reduced, the fuel can be burned efficiently, reprocessing requirements are reduced, and the nuclear waste disposal volumes reduced. A further advantage occurs when yttrium, lanthanum, and/or other rare earth elements are exposed to radiation in a reactor, they produce only short half life radioisotopes, which reduce nuclear waste disposal problems through much shorter assured-isolation requirements.

  2. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; Brown, D.; Hoblit, S.; Dietrich, F. S.

    2015-02-25

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, wemore »have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. In conclusion, these results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.« less

  3. High Power Molten Targets for Radioactive Ion Beam Production: from Particle Physics to Medical Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Melo Mendonca, T M

    2014-01-01

    Megawatt-class molten targets, combining high material densities and good heat transfer properties are being considered for neutron spallation sources, neutrino physics facilities and radioactive ion beam production. For this last category of facilities, in order to cope with the limitation of long diffusion times affecting the extraction of short-lived isotopes, a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target loop equipped with a diffusion chamber has been proposed and tested offline during the EURISOL design study. To validate the concept, a molten LBE loop is now in the design phase and will be prototyped and tested on-line at CERN-ISOLDE. This concept was further extended to an alternative route to produce 1013 18Ne/s for the Beta Beams, where a molten salt loop would be irradiated with 7 mA, 160 MeV proton beam. Some elements of the concept have been tested by using a molten fluoride salt static unit at CERNISOLDE. The investigation of the release and production of neon isotopes allowed the measurement of the diffu...

  4. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

  5. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  6. Catalogues of rare books : a chapter in bibliographical history

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Archer

    1958-01-01

    of the products of the program was the early establishment of a public lectureship on books and bibliography. In subsequent years five dis tinguished exponents of as many different kinds of bibli- ophily have visited the Lawrence campus to talk about books..., however, the criterion in the many national lists that continue the tradition of the earlier catalogues of rare books. Titles cited by the author's name or in an abbreviated form will be found in full in the Bibli ography. A. T. Catalogues of Rare...

  7. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  8. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-08-09

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

  9. Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1986-12-16

    This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2], corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H[sub 2]O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered. 1 fig.

  10. Fourier-space generation of abruptly autofocusing beams and optical bottle beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhigang

    Fourier-space generation of abruptly autofocusing beams and optical bottle beams Ioannis Chremmos,1) Airy beam can be generated by Fourier-transforming an appropriately apodized Bessel beam whose radial distance of the Fourier- transforming lens, it is possible to generate AAF beams with one or two foci

  11. MAGNETISM AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF ANOMALOUS RARE-EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    MAGNETISM AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF ANOMALOUS RARE-EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS B. COQBLIN Laboratoire de impurities. 1. Introduction. -The rare-earth metals can be divided in two groups : - The (( normal )) rare-earths lantha- num are (( anomalous )) rare-earths metals. The same duality exists in alloys with rareearth

  12. METAL-NON METAL TRANSITIONS /N RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS. EXPERIMENT AND THEORK /.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    METAL-NON METAL TRANSITIONS /N RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS. EXPERIMENT AND THEORK /. VALENCE INSTABILITIES, superconductivity, electron-phonon and band theory, to name a few. 2. Properties of normal rare earth metals. - Before discussing rare earth valence instabilities, three relevant general features of rare earth metals

  13. METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides J. J. Rhyne and G. E on the rare earth site. The rare earth spins disorder at a temperature lower than the bulk Tc in ErFe2 H3 5 per formula unit assuming complete occupation of 3 tetrahedral sites. The heavy rare earth (RFe2

  14. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  15. Isotopic imaging via nuclear resonance fluorescence with laser-based Thomson radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P. J. (Hayward, CA); Hartemann, Frederic V. (San Ramon, CA); McNabb, Dennis P. (Alameda, CA); Pruet, Jason A. (Brentwood, CA)

    2009-07-21

    The present invention utilizes novel laser-based, high-brightness, high-spatial-resolution, pencil-beam sources of spectrally pure hard x-ray and gamma-ray radiation to induce resonant scattering in specific nuclei, i.e., nuclear resonance fluorescence. By monitoring such fluorescence as a function of beam position, it is possible to image in either two dimensions or three dimensions, the position and concentration of individual isotopes in a specific material configuration. Such methods of the present invention material identification, spatial resolution of material location and ability to locate and identify materials shielded by other materials, such as, for example, behind a lead wall. The foundation of the present invention is the generation of quasimonochromatic high-energy x-ray (100's of keV) and gamma-ray (greater than about 1 MeV) radiation via the collision of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons. Such a process as utilized herein, i.e., Thomson scattering or inverse-Compton scattering, produces beams having diameters from about 1 micron to about 100 microns of high-energy photons with a bandwidth of .DELTA.E/E of approximately 10E.sup.-3.

  16. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program]. Final report, [January--July 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-04

    This report summarizes work performed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program from January through July, 1992. Each of the tasks assigned during this period is described, and results are presented. Section I details work on sensitivity matrices for the UDS relay telescope. These matrices show which combination of mirror motions may be performed in order to effect certain changes in beam parameters. In Section II, an analysis is given of transmission through a clipping aperture on the launch telescope deformable mirror. Observed large transmission losses could not be simulated in the analysis. An EXCEL spreadsheet program designed for in situ analysis of UDS optical systems is described in Section III. This spreadsheet permits analysis of changes in beam first-order characteristics due to changes in any optical system parameter, simple optimization to predict mirror motions needed to effect a combination of changes in beam parameters, and plotting of a variety of first-order data. Optical systems may be assembled directly from OSSD data. A CODE V nonsequential model of the UDS optical system is described in Section IV. This uses OSSD data to build the UDS model; mirror coordinates may thus be verified. Section V summarizes observations of relay telescope performance. Possible procedures which allow more accurate assessment of relay telescope performance are given.

  17. Magnetism of the rare earth, 3d --Theoretical review Abstract. --Compounds of rare earth and transition metals exhibit unusual and quite different behaviour. In

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and secondly those determined mainly by rare earth metals. The first group are those rich in transition metal except TCo2, TNi5, T2Ni7, TNi3, TNi2. When the transition metal is magnetic, the coupling between rare-earth temperature are much smaller, and magnetic properties bear resemblances with rare earth metals. Thus we

  18. Laser spectroscopy investigation of the nuclear moments and radii of lutetium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georg, U; Keim, M; Klein, A; Neugart, R; Neuroth, M; Schulz, C; Rao, P M; Lievens, P

    1998-01-01

    Collinear laser spectroscopy experiments in the LuI transition $5d6s\\!^{2} \\; ^{2}\\!D_{3/2} \\rightarrow 5d6s6p \\; ^{2}\\!D_{3/2}$ were performed on all lutetium isotopes in the range of $^{161-179}$Lu. The nuclear spins, magnetic moments and quadrupole moments were determined from the hyperfine structures observed for 19 ground states and 11 isomers. Variations in the mean square charge radii as a function of neutron number were obtained from the isotope shifts. These data considerably extend the systematics of the properties of nuclei in the upper rare-earth region. A particular feature is the appearance of high-spin and low-spin ground states and isomeric states in the vicinity of the stable $^{175}$Lu, partly arising from aligned neutron pairs. The present results clearly show that the deformation properties are nearly independent of the occupancy and the coupling of single-particle states. Theoretical predictions of deformation are confirmed in a consistent description of the measured radii and quadrupole ...

  19. Disease transmission by cannibalism: rare event or common occurrence?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonovics, Janis

    Disease transmission by cannibalism: rare event or common occurrence? Volker H. W. Rudolf Cannibalism has been documented as a possible disease transmission route in several species, including humans. However, the dynamics resulting from this type of disease transmission are not well understood. Using

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of dynamic taxonomy on rare species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno Saiz, Juan Carlos

    ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of dynamic taxonomy on rare species and conservation listing: insights from nature of biotic taxonomies and how these changes alter perceptions of extinction risk and conservation that the activity of a new, fine-scale taxonomy may have an effect in the taxonomy structure producing a taxonomic

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION A rare fight in female plains zebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubenstein, Daniel I.

    SHORT COMMUNICATION A rare fight in female plains zebra Ilya R. Fischhoff · Siva R. Sundaresan and Springer 2009 Abstract We describe a fight between two female plains zebra (Equus burchelli). Plains zebra observed. The fight immediately followed the birth of a foal to one of the females. The initiating female

  2. Potential synergy: the thorium fuel cycle and rare earths processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ault, T.; Wymer, R.; Croff, A.; Krahn, S. [Vanderbilt University: 2301 Vanderbilt Place/PMB 351831, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The use of thorium in nuclear power programs has been evaluated on a recurring basis. A concern often raised is the lack of 'thorium infrastructure'; however, for at least a part of a potential thorium fuel cycle, this may less of a problem than previously thought. Thorium is frequently encountered in association with rare earth elements and, since the U.S. last systematically evaluated the large-scale use of thorium (the 1970's,) the use of rare earth elements has increased ten-fold to approximately 200,000 metric tons per year. Integration of thorium extraction with rare earth processing has been previously described and top-level estimates have been done on thorium resource availability; however, since ores and mining operations differ markedly, what is needed is process flowsheet analysis to determine whether a specific mining operation can feasibly produce thorium as a by-product. Also, the collocation of thorium with rare earths means that, even if a thorium product stream is not developed, its presence in mining waste streams needs to be addressed and there are previous instances where this has caused issues. This study analyzes several operational mines, estimates the mines' ability to produce a thorium by-product stream, and discusses some waste management implications of recovering thorium. (authors)

  3. Studies of beam dynamics in relativistic klystron two-beam accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lidia, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    Yu. Lett, Relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator. Phys.S.M. Lidia et al. Relativistic klystron two-beam acceleratorPlasma Set. , Relativistic klystron two-beam accelerator. [

  4. Physics Opportunities with Meson Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briscoe, William J; Haberzettl, Helmut; Manley, D Mark; Naruki, Megumi; Strakovsky, Igor I; Swanson, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, meson photo- and electro-production data of unprecedented quality and quantity have been measured at electromagnetic facilities worldwide. By contrast, the meson-beam data for the same hadronic final states are mostly outdated and largely of poor quality, or even nonexistent, and thus provide inadequate input to help interpret, analyze, and exploit the full potential of the new electromagnetic data. To reap the full benefit of the high-precision electromagnetic data, new high-statistics data from measurements with meson beams, with good angle and energy coverage for a wide range of reactions, are critically needed to advance our knowledge in baryon and meson spectroscopy and other related areas of hadron physics. To address this situation, a state of-the-art meson-beam facility needs to be constructed. The present paper summarizes unresolved issues in hadron physics and outlines the vast opportunities and advances that only become possible with such a facility.

  5. Physics Opportunities with Meson Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William J. Briscoe; Michael Döring; Helmut Haberzettl; D. Mark Manley; Megumi Naruki; Igor I. Strakovsky; Eric S. Swanson

    2015-03-26

    Over the past two decades, meson photo- and electro-production data of unprecedented quality and quantity have been measured at electromagnetic facilities worldwide. By contrast, the meson-beam data for the same hadronic final states are mostly outdated and largely of poor quality, or even nonexistent, and thus provide inadequate input to help interpret, analyze, and exploit the full potential of the new electromagnetic data. To reap the full benefit of the high-precision electromagnetic data, new high-statistics data from measurements with meson beams, with good angle and energy coverage for a wide range of reactions, are critically needed to advance our knowledge in baryon and meson spectroscopy and other related areas of hadron physics. To address this situation, a state of-the-art meson-beam facility needs to be constructed. The present paper summarizes unresolved issues in hadron physics and outlines the vast opportunities and advances that only become possible with such a facility.

  6. Undesirable options - The U. S. isotope crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    When a Canadian reactor failed in late 1990, it shut off a principle supply of iridium-192, an isotope critical to gamma radiography. Following the failure of the Canadian reactor, iridium sources inside the US were largely undependable in terms of both cost and schedule. The scheduling problems are outlined in the following testimony; prices increased 35% on one occasion, and then saw another increase of 60%. On August 3, 1992 Congressman Mike Synar requested that ASNT member Donny Dicharry present testimony on behalf of ASNT, the Nondestructive Testing Management Association (NDTMA), and Source Production and Equipment Co., Inc. (SPEC) concerning the Department of Energy's isotope program and the iridium-192 shortage. Excerpts from the testimony are given.

  7. Regioselective synthesis using the deuterium isotope effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyano, M.

    1981-04-24

    Dehydration of 1a by various procedures invariably produced more exo olefin 2a than endo olefin 3a. This could be reversed by introduction of deuterium in the Me-21 group of the starting material. Thus, dehydration of 1b could afford more endo olefin 3b than exo olefin 2b due to the deuterium isotope effect. A regioselective synthesis of 18-oxoprogesterone (15a) from 3..beta..-hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one (5a) was carried out taking advantage of the deuterium isotope effect as depicted in Scheme I. The key steps were dehydration of 7b to predominantly endo olefin 9b and removal of the deuteriums from 18-oxoprogesterone-17..cap alpha..,21,21,21-d/sub 4/ (15b) to give 15a.

  8. Hydrogen isotopic exchange over palladium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carstens, D.H.W.; Encinias, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently developed the laser-Raman technique as a means of unambiguously measuring the partial pressures of all possible hydrogen isotopes in the gas phase. Using this technique we have investigated the hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a number of metals. This report presents detailed data for isotopic exchange in the palladium hydride system over the temperature range 26{degree}C to -100{degree}C at a pressure of 7 atm. First order kinetic rate constants and activation energies are summarized for the forward (hydride to deuteride) and reverse (deuteride to hydride) exchange processes. In addition, we have found that small amounts (100 ppm) of impurities in the exchange gases considerably slow the exchange kinetics with the effect increasing down the series CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

    2011-04-01

    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  10. Shimmed electron beam welding process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Ganjiang (Clifton Park, NY); Nowak, Daniel Anthony (Alplaus, NY); Murphy, John Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A modified electron beam welding process effects welding of joints between superalloy materials by inserting a weldable shim in the joint and heating the superalloy materials with an electron beam. The process insures a full penetration of joints with a consistent percentage of filler material and thereby improves fatigue life of the joint by three to four times as compared with the prior art. The process also allows variable shim thickness and joint fit-up gaps to provide increased flexibility for manufacturing when joining complex airfoil structures and the like.

  11. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (?15N and ?18O) but all methods testedmore »are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions.« less

  12. First AID (Atom counting for Isotopic Determination).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, J. L. (Jeffrey L.); Israel, K. M. (Kimberly M.); Steiner, R. E. (Robert E.); Duffy, C. J. (Clarence J.); Roench, F. R. (Fred R.)

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established an in vitro bioassay monitoring program in compliance with the requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. One aspect of this program involves monitoring plutonium levels in at-risk workers. High-risk workers are monitored using the ultra-sensitive Therrnal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) technique to ensure compliance with DOE standards. TIMS is used to measure atom ratios of 239Pua nd 240Puw ith respect to a tracer isotope ('Pu). These ratios are then used to calculate the amount of 239Pu and 240Pup resent. This low-level atom counting technique allows the calculation of the concentration levels of 239Pu and 240Pu in urine for at risk workers. From these concentration levels, dose assessments can be made and worker exposure levels can be monitored. Detection limits for TIMS analysis are on the order of millions of atoms, which translates to activity levels of 150 aCi 239Pua nd 500 aCi for 240Pu. pCi for Our poster presentation will discuss the ultra-sensitive, low-level analytical technique used to measure plutonium isotopes and the data verification methods used for validating isotopic measurements.

  13. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  14. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1991-08-20

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

  15. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  16. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr 206 - 213 and Fr 221

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2014-11-07

    We present the isotope shifts of the 7s1/2 to 7p1/2 transition for francium isotopes ²???²¹³Fr with reference to ²²¹Fr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7s1/2 to 7p3/2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D? and D? transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  17. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr 206 - 213 and Fr 221

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present the isotope shifts of the 7s1/2 to 7p1/2 transition for francium isotopes ²???²¹³Fr with reference to ²²¹Fr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7s1/2 to 7p3/2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D? and D? transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  18. Neutron Transfer Studied with a Radioactive beam of 24Ne, using TIARA at SPIRAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. N. Catford; C. N. Timis; R. C. Lemmon; M. Labiche; N. A. Orr; L. Caballero; R. Chapman; M. Chartier; M. Rejmund; H. Savajols; for the TIARA Collaboration

    2009-12-20

    A general experimental technique for high resolution studies of nucleon transfer reactions using radioactive beams is briefly described, together with the first new physics results that have been obtained with the new TIARA array. These first results from TIARA are for the reaction 24Ne(d,p)25Ne, studied in inverse kinematics with a pure radioactive beam of 100,000 pps from the SPIRAL facility at GANIL. The reaction probes the energies of neutron orbitals relevant to very neutron rich nuclei in this mass region and the results highlight the emergence of the N=16 magic number for neutrons and the associated disappearance of the N=20 neutron magic number for the very neutron rich neon isotopes.

  19. EMITTANCE COMPENSATION FOR MAGNETIZED BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KEWISCH,J.; CHANG, X.

    2007-06-25

    Emittance compensation is a well established technique for minimizing the emittance of an electron beam from a RF photo-cathode gun. Longitudinal slices of a bunch have a small emittance, but due to the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch and time dependent RF fields they are not focused in the same way, so that the direction of their phase ellipses diverges in phase space and the projected emittance is much larger. Emittance compensation reverses the divergence. At the location where the slopes of the phase ellipses coincide the beam is accelerated, so that the space charge forces are reduced. A recipe for emittance compensation is given in. For magnetized beams (where the angular momentum is non-zero) such emittance compensation is not sufficient because variations in the slice radius lead to variations in the angular speed and therefore to an increase of emittance in the rotating game. We describe a method and tools for a compensation that includes the beam magnetization.

  20. High energy laser beam dump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halpin, John (Tracy, CA)

    2004-09-14

    The laser beam dump is positioned in a housing. An absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing. A heat sync means for extracting heat from the absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing and operatively connected to the absorbing glass plate means.

  1. Vibrating wires for beam diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arutunian, S G; Wittenburg, Kay

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to the technique of scanning by wires is developed. Novelty of the method is that the wire heating quantity is used as a source of information about the number of interacting particles. To increase the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements the wire heating measurement is regenerated as a change of wire natural oscillations frequency. By the rigid fixing of the wire ends on the base an unprecedented sensitivity of the frequency to the temperature and to the corresponding flux of colliding particles. The range of used frequencies (tens of kHz) and speed of processes of heat transfer limit the speed characteristics of proposed scanning method, however, the high sensitivity make it a perspective one for investigation of beam halo and weak beam scanning. Traditional beam profile monitors generally focus on the beam core and loose sensitivity in the halo region where a large dynamic range of detection is necessary. The scanning by a vibrating wire can be also successfully used in profiling and det...

  2. Collective Dynamics and Coherent Diagnostics of Microbunched Relativistic Electron Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marinelli, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    Brightness Relativistic Electron Beams for Free-Electrona Thermal Relativistic Electron Beam: Eigenvalue/Eigenmodemicrobunching in the electron beam. The microbunched

  3. Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser PlasmaElectron beams were sent to the various charge diagnosticselectron spectrometer [27] before sending the e-beam to charge diagnostics,

  4. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2004-03-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  5. Collimation Studies with Hollow Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Johnson, T.R.; Saewert, G.W.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    Recent experimental studies at the Fermilab Tevatron collider have shown that magnetically confined hollow electron beams can act as a new kind of collimator for high-intensity beams in storage rings. In a hollow electron beam collimator, electrons enclose the circulating beam. Their electric charge kicks halo particles transversely. If their distribution is axially symmetric, the beam core is unaffected. This device is complementary to conventional two-stage collimation systems: the electron beam can be placed arbitrarily close to the circulating beam; and particle removal is smooth, so that the device is a diffusion enhancer rather than a hard aperture limitation. The concept was tested in the Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the existing electron lenses. We describe some of the technical aspects of hollow-beam scraping and the results of recent measurements.

  6. Radioactive beam production at the Bevalac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, J.R.; Feinberg, B.; Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; McMahan, M.A.; Tanihata, I.

    1989-10-01

    At the Bevalac radioactive beams are routinely produced by the fragmentation process. The effectiveness of this process with respect to the secondary beam's emittance, intensity and energy spread depends critically on the nuclear reaction kinematics and the magnitude of the incident beam energy. When this beam energy significantly exceeds the energies of the nuclear reaction process, many of the qualities of the incident beam can be passed on to the secondary beam. Factors affecting secondary beam quality are discussed along with techniques for isolating and purifying a specific reaction product. The on-going radioactive beam program at the Bevalac is used as an example with applications, present performance and plans for the future. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Electron Beam--21st Century Food Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vestal, Andy

    2003-03-07

    This publication explains electron beam irradiation technology to consumers, industry professionals and government officials. Electron beam irradiation is a method of treating food and other products for pathogens that ...

  8. Autogenerator of beams of charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler, R.J.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Miller, R.M.; Shope, S.L.; Smith, D.L.

    1983-10-31

    An autogenerating apparatus provides secondary intense relativistic current beam pulses in response to an injected beam pulse. One or more electromagnetic energy storage devices are provided in conjunction with gaps along a beam propagation path for the injected beam pulse. For injected beam pulses which are no longer than double the transit time of electromagnetic waves within the storage devices (which may be resonant cavities), distinct secondary beam pulses are generated by each of the energy storage devices. The beam propagation path, together with the one or more gaps provided therein, operates as a pulse forming transmission line cavity, in which the separate cavities associated with the gaps provide delays for electromagnetic waves generated at the gaps. After doubly traversing the cavity, the electromagnetic waves cause the gap to generate the secondary beam pulses, which are thus delayed by a time interval equal to the double transit time for the induced wave within the cavity.

  9. Autogenerator of beams of charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler, Richard J. (Albuquerque, NM); Mazarakis, Michael G. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM); Shope, Steven L. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, David L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    An autogenerating apparatus provides secondary intense relativistic current beam pulses in response to an injected beam pulse. One or more electromagnetic energy storage devices are provided in conjunction with gaps along a beam propagation path for the injected beam pulse. For injected beam pulses which are no longer than double the transit time of electromagnetic waves within the storage devices (which may be resonant cavities), distinct secondary beam pulses are generated by each of the energy storage devices. The beam propagation path, together with the one or more gaps provided therein, operates as a pulse forming transmission line cavity, in which the separate cavities associated with the gaps provide delays for electromagnetic waves generated at the gaps. After doubly traversing the cavity, the electromagnetic waves cause the gap to generate the secondary beam pulses, which are thus delayed by a time interval equal to the double transit time for the induced wave within the cavity.

  10. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this study was to investigate the relationship between known geothermal resources with deep, fault hosted permeable fluid flow pathways and the helium Isotopic composition of the...

  11. Hydrogeological And Isotopic Survey Of Geothermal Fields In The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogeological And Isotopic Survey Of Geothermal Fields In The Buyuk Menderes Graben, Turkey Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  12. Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date - 2004 Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The study was undertaken to refine understanding of...

  13. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References Hisatoshi Ito, Kazuhiro Tanaka (1995) Insights On The...

  14. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date 1989 - 2000 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The purpose of this study was to analyze deep core...

  15. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date - 2004 Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The study was undertaken to refine understanding of...

  16. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Dissolved Sulfate and Water from Hot Springs and Shallow Drillholes Jump to: navigation, search...

  17. Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search...

  18. An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stable-isotope analyses were carried out on hydrothermal minerals sampled from the deep metamorphic units at Larderello, Italy. The D18O values obtained for the most...

  19. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Rao...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Rao, Et Al., 1996) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles...

  20. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area (Rao, Et Al., 1996) Exploration Activity Details Location Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1996 - 1996...