National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rare earth magnets

  1. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Magnets

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McCallum, Bill

    2012-08-29

    Senior Scientist, Bill McCallum, briefly discusses rare-earth magnets and their uses and how Ames Lab is research new ways to save money and energy using magnets.

  2. ONDES DE SPIN MAGNETISM IN THE LIGHT RARE EARTH 'METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ONDES DE SPIN MAGNETISM IN THE LIGHT RARE EARTH 'METALS A. R. MACKINTOSH H. C. Mrsted Institute terres rares Ikgeres. Abstract. -The magnetic properties of the light rare earth metals are reviewed the last decade, the magnetism of the heavy rare earth metals is now rather well understood. The magnetic

  3. MAGNETISM AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF ANOMALOUS RARE-EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    MAGNETISM AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF ANOMALOUS RARE-EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS B. COQBLIN Laboratoire de impurities. 1. Introduction. -The rare-earth metals can be divided in two groups : - The (( normal )) rare-earths lantha- num are (( anomalous )) rare-earths metals. The same duality exists in alloys with rareearth

  4. METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides J. J. Rhyne and G. E on the rare earth site. The rare earth spins disorder at a temperature lower than the bulk Tc in ErFe2 H3 5 per formula unit assuming complete occupation of 3 tetrahedral sites. The heavy rare earth (RFe2

  5. UQM Patents Non-Rare Earth Magnet Motor under DOE-Supported Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vehicles recently patented a new design for electric vehicle motors that use non-rare earth magnets. While most plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) use motors with rare earth...

  6. Magnetism of the rare earth, 3d --Theoretical review Abstract. --Compounds of rare earth and transition metals exhibit unusual and quite different behaviour. In

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and secondly those determined mainly by rare earth metals. The first group are those rich in transition metal except TCo2, TNi5, T2Ni7, TNi3, TNi2. When the transition metal is magnetic, the coupling between rare-earth temperature are much smaller, and magnetic properties bear resemblances with rare earth metals. Thus we

  7. Grant Helps Make U.S. Rare Earth Magnets More Common

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sintered rare earth magnets - which are vital components in hybrid vehicle motors and wind turbine generators - are a $4 billion worldwide industry. Landisville, Pa.-based Electron Energy Corporation is hoping to bring a share of that market (and jobs) to the U.S. with their sintered rare earth magnet innovation.

  8. Iron-Nitride Alloy Magnets: Transformation Enabled Nitride Magnets Absent Rare Earths (TEN Mare)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Case Western is developing a highly magnetic iron-nitride alloy to use in the magnets that power electric motors found in EVs and renewable power generators. This would reduce the overall price of the motor by eliminating the expensive imported rare earth minerals typically found in today’s best commercial magnets. The iron-nitride powder is sourced from abundant and inexpensive materials found in the U.S. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate this new magnet system, which contains no rare earths, in a prototype electric motor. This could significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emitted in the U.S. each year by encouraging the use of clean alternatives to oil and coal.

  9. Origin of enhanced magnetization in rare earth doped multiferroic bismuth ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayek, C.; Thirmal, Ch.; Murugavel, P., E-mail: muruga@iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 36 (India); Tamilselvan, A.; Balakumar, S. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Madras, Chennai 25 (India)

    2014-02-21

    We report structural and magnetic properties of rare earth doped Bi{sub 0.95}R{sub 0.05} FeO{sub 3} (R?=?Y, Ho, and Er) submicron particles. Rare earth doping enhances the magnetization and the magnetization shows an increasing trend with decreasing dopant ionic radii. In contrast to the x-ray diffraction pattern, we have seen a strong evidence for the presence of rare earth iron garnets R{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} in magnetization measured as a function of temperature, in selected area electron diffraction, and in Raman measurements. Our results emphasised the role of secondary phases in the magnetic property of rare earth doped BiFeO{sub 3} compounds along with the structural distortion favoring spin canting by increase in Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange energy.

  10. R&D carries cerium substitute for rare-earth magnets story |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R&D carries cerium substitute for rare-earth magnets story R&D Magazine carried a story about Ames Laboratory research that uses cheaper and readily available cerium to replace...

  11. Method for preparing high cure temperature rare earth iron compound magnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yuhong (West Hills, CA); Wei, Qiang (West Hills, CA); Zheng, Haixing (Oak Park, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Insertion of light elements such as H,C, or N in the R.sub.2 Fe.sub.17 (R=rare earth metal) series has been found to modify the magnetic properties of these compounds, which thus become prospective candidates for high performance permanent magnets. The most spectacular changes are increases of the Curie temperature, T.sub.c, of the magnetization, M.sub.s, and of coercivity, H.sub.c, upon interstitial insertion. A preliminary product having a component R--Fe--C,N phase is produced by a chemical route. Rare earth metal and iron amides are synthesized followed by pyrolysis and sintering in an inert or reduced atmosphere, as a result of which, the R--Fe--C,N phases are formed. Fabrication of sintered rare earth iron nitride and carbonitride bulk magnet is impossible via conventional process due to the limitation of nitridation method.

  12. Magnetic behaviour of the rare earth binary R-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, F.A.O.; Turtelli, R.S.; Gama, S.; Machado, F.L.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Thermomagnetic analysis and coercive field measurements in rare-earth-rich alloys of the systems Fe-Ce, Fe-Pr and Fe-Nd suggest the presence of two different magnetically hard phases in all these systems. These phases can be metastable and their magnetic properties are strongly affected by heat-treatments at 600{sup 0}C.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of rare-earth-free magnetic manganese bismuth nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, J; Cui, HZ; Huang, XP; Gong, MG; Qin, W; Kirkeminde, A; Cui, J; Ren, SQ

    2015-01-01

    Earth abundant manganese bismuth (MnBi) has long been of interest due to its largemagnetocrystalline anisotropy and high energy density for advanced permanent magnet applications. However, solution synthesis of MnBi phase is challenging due to the reduction potential mismatch between Mn and Bi elements. In this study, we show a versatile MnBi synthesis method involving the metal co-reduction followed by thermal annealing. The magnetically hard MnBi crystalline phase is then exchange coupled with magnetically soft cobalt coating. Our processing approach offers a promising strategy for manufacturing rare-earth-free magnetic nanocrystals.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Rare-earth-free Magnetic Manganese Bismuth Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jian Q.; Cui, Huizhong; Huang, Xiaopeng; Gong, Maogang; Qin, Wei; Kirkeminde, Alec; Cui, Jun; Ren, Shenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Earth abundant manganese bismuth (MnBi) has long been of interest due to its large magnetocrystalline anisotropy and high energy density for advanced permanent magnet applications. However, solution synthesis of MnBi phase is challenging due to the reduction potential mismatch between Mn and Bi elements. In this study, we show a versatile MnBi synthesis method involving the metal co-reduction followed by thermal annealing. The magnetically hard MnBi crystalline phase is then exchange coupled with magnetically soft cobalt coating. Our processing approach offers a promising strategy for manufacturing rare-earth-free magnetic nanocrystals.

  15. Prospects for Non-Rare Earth Permanent Magnets for Traction Motors and Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Matthew; McCallum, Kendall; Anderson, Iver; Constantinides, Steven

    2012-06-29

    With the advent of high-flux density permanent magnets based on rare earth elements such as neodymium (Nd) in the 1980s, permanent magnet-based electric machines had a clear performance and cost advantage over induction machines when weight and size were factors such as in hybrid electric vehicles and wind turbines. However, the advantages of the permanent magnet-based electric machines may be overshadowed by supply constraints and high prices of their key constituents, rare earth elements, which have seen nearly a 10-fold increase in price in the last 5 years and the imposition of export limits by the major producing country, China, since 2010. We outline the challenges, prospects, and pitfalls for several potential alloys that could replace Nd-based permanent magnets with more abundant and less strategically important elements.

  16. Rules for understanding rare-earth magnetic compounds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Lindsay Elizabeth

    2009-06-02

    Results of spin density functional theory (SDFT) calculations were used to construct and check features of a generally applicable semi-quantitative approach to understanding magnetic coupling in gadolinium-containing ...

  17. Structure and magnetism of epitaxial rare-earth-transition-metal films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fullerton, E.E.; Sowers, C.H.; Pearson, J.P.; Bader, S.D.

    1996-10-01

    Growth of epitaxial transition-metal superlattices; has proven essential in elucidating the role of crystal orientation and structure on magnetic properties such as giant magnetoresistance, interlayer coupling, and magnetic surface anisotropies. Extending these studies to the growth of epitaxial rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) films and superlattices promises to play an equally important role in exploring and optimizing the properties of hard magnets. For instance, Skomski and Coey predict that a giant energy product (120 MG Oe) is possible in multilayer structures consisting of aligned hard-magnet layers exchanged coupled with soft-phase layers with high magnetization. Epitaxy provides one route to synthesizing such exchange-hardened magnets on controlled length scales. Epitaxial growth also allows the magnetic properties to be tailored by controlling the crystal orientation and the anisotropies of the magnetic layers and holds the possibility of stabilizing metastable phases. This paper describes the epitaxy and magnetic properties for several alloys.

  18. Highly Charged Ions in Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Penning Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guise, Nicholas D; Tan, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    A newly constructed apparatus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is designed for the isolation, manipulation, and study of highly charged ions. Highly charged ions are produced in the NIST electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), extracted through a beamline that selects a single mass/charge species, then captured in a compact Penning trap. The magnetic field of the trap is generated by cylindrical NdFeB permanent magnets integrated into its electrodes. In a room-temperature prototype trap with a single NdFeB magnet, species including Ne10+ and N7+ were confined with storage times of order 1 second, showing the potential of this setup for manipulation and spectroscopy of highly charged ions in a controlled environment. Ion capture has since been demonstrated with similar storage times in a more-elaborate Penning trap that integrates two coaxial NdFeB magnets for improved B-field homogeneity. Ongoing experiments utilize a second-generation apparatus that incorporates this two-magnet Penning tra...

  19. Modeling Magnetism in Rare-Earth Intermetallic Materials | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMission Mission MissionofLaboratory Modeling Magnetism

  20. Rare-Earth-Free Nanostructure Magnets: Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets for Electric Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn-Bi and M-type Hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Alabama is developing new iron- and manganese-based composite materials for use in the electric motors of EVs and renewable power generators that will demonstrate magnetic properties superior to today’s best rare-earth-based magnets. Rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to make their electric motors smaller and more powerful. The University of Alabama has the potential to improve upon the performance of current state-of-the-art rare-earth-based magnets using low-cost and more abundant materials such as manganese and iron. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate improved performance in a full-size prototype magnet at reduced cost.

  1. Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Kelly Sokolowski

    2007-12-01

    Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH){sub max} for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the need for post atomization treatment, otherwise a necessary step for oxidation and corrosion resistance. Stability of these thin films was attributed to the reduction of each RE's respective oxide during processing; recognizing that fluoride compounds exhibit a slightly higher (negative) free energy driving force for formation. Formation of RE-type fluorides on the surface was evidenced through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Concurrent research with auger electron spectroscopy has been attempted to accurately quantify the depth of fluoride formation in order to grasp the extent of fluorination reactions with spherical and flake particulate. Gas fusion analysis on coated powders (dia. <45 {micro}m) from an optimized experiment indicated an as-atomized oxygen concentration of 343ppm, where typical, nonpassivated RE atomized alloys exhibit an average of 1800ppm oxygen. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on the same powder revealed a decreased rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures up to 300 C, compared to similar uncoated powder.

  2. U.S. Rare Earth Magnet Patents Table | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentat LENA| ReactionSite Map Site MapU.S. Rare Earth Magnet

  3. Modeling the value recovery of rare earth permanent magnets at end-of-life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g., ferrite and AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  4. Modeling the value recovery of rare earth permanent magnets at end-of-life

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g., ferrite and AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge ofmore »collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.« less

  5. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Timothy J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  6. Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals is the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Ecotoxicity of rare earth elements Info Sheet Rare earth elements (REEs) or rare earth metals isolated. Actually, most rare earth elements exist in the Earth's crust in higher concentrations than though most people have never heard of rare earth elements, sev- eral of them govern mankind's modern

  7. Imestigation ol" Maenons in Rare Earth Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imestigation ol" Maenons in Rare Earth Metals b\\ Inelastic Neutron Scattering tL Bjerrum Moiler #12;BLANK PAGE #12;Riso Report No. 178 Investigation of Magnons in Rare Earth Metals by Inelastic NeutronN LANGF h. a. dec. #12;Contents Page PREFACE 7 I. INTRODUCTION *> 1. Magnetism of Rare Earth Metals 10 2

  8. Disordered electronic and magnetic systems - transition metal (Mn) and rare earth (Gd) doped amorphous group IV semiconductors (C, Si, Ge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    various transition or rare-earth metals provide a rich ?eldTransition Metal (Mn) and Rare Earth (Gd) Doped AmorphousTransition Metal (Mn) and Rare Earth (Gd) Doped Amorphous

  9. RARE EARTHS--2003 60.1 RARE EARTHS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . U.S. imports of cerium compounds and rare-earth metals and alloys decreased (table 5). YttriumRARE EARTHS--2003 60.1 RARE EARTHS By James B. Hedrick Domestic survey data and tables were, geographic information specialist. The rare earths are a moderately abundant group of 17 elements comprising

  10. RARE EARTHS--2002 61.1 RARE EARTHS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of rare earths are iron gray to silvery lustrous metals that are typically soft, malleable, ductile decreased as imports of rare-earth alloys, compounds, and metals declined. Production of bastnäsiteRARE EARTHS--2002 61.1 RARE EARTHS By James B. Hedrick Domestic survey data and tables were

  11. Magnetic properties of RT2Zn20; R = rare earth, T = Fe, Co, Ru, Os and Ir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Shuang

    2008-12-15

    It is well known that rare earth intermetallic compounds have versatile, magnetic properties associated with the 4f electrons: a local moment associated with the Hund's rule ground state is formed in general, but a strongly correlated, hybridized state may also appear for specific 4f electronic configuration (eg. for rare earth elements such as Ce or Yb). On the other hand, the conduction electrons in rare earth intermetallic compounds, certainly ones associated with non hybridizing rare earths, usually manifest non-magnetic behavior and can be treated as a normal, non-interacted Fermi liquid, except for some 3d-transition metal rich binary or ternary systems which often manifest strong, itinerant, d electron dominant magnetic behavior. Of particular interest are examples in which the band filling of the conduction electrons puts the system in the vicinity of a Stoner transition: such systems, characterized as nearly or weakly ferromagnet, manifest strongly correlated electronic properties [Moriya, 1985]. For rare earth intermetallic compounds, such systems provide an additional versatility and allow for the study of the behaviors of local moments and hybridized moments which are associated with 4f electron in a correlated conduction electron background.

  12. UQM Patents Non-Rare Earth Magnet Motor under DOE-Supported Project...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (PEVs) use motors with rare earth metals, these materials are expensive, their prices have been highly volatile (from 80kg to 750kg), and their supply may fall short...

  13. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R. William (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Dennis, Kevin W. (Ames, IA); Hofer, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Branagan, Daniel J. (Ames, IA)

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  14. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  15. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan Ott

    2012-09-05

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  16. Ames Lab 101: Rare-Earth Recycling

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ryan Ott

    2013-06-05

    Recycling keeps paper, plastics, and even jeans out of landfills. Could recycling rare-earth magnets do the same? Perhaps, if the recycling process can be improved. Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory are working to more effectively remove the neodymium, a rare earth, from the mix of other materials in a magnet.

  17. Rare Earth ? See Rare Earth, by Ward and Brownlee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Rare Earth ? See Rare Earth, by Ward and Brownlee #12;N to date N = N* fs fGHZfp nH fl fi fc L/T ·N Earth is "Just Right" Yes, life on Earth has adapted to Earth, but ... Earth has just the right mass to be ·Tectonically-active ·Retain an atmosphere Earth has had a stable climate The Sun is particularly inactive

  18. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2010-01-01

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  19. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2012-08-29

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  20. Magnetic, dielectric, and magneto-dielectric properties of rare-earth-substituted Aurivillius phase Bi?Fe?.?Co?.?Ti?O??

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, X. Z.; Yang, J., E-mail: jyang@issp.ac.cn; Yuan, B.; Tang, X. W.; Zhang, K. J.; Zhu, X. B.; Song, W. H.; Dai, J. M., E-mail: jmdai@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Song, D. P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Sun, Y. P. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-10-21

    We investigate the magnetic, dielectric, and magnetodielectric properties of rare-earth-substituted Aurivillius phase Bi?Fe?.?Co?.?Ti?O??. The room-temperature ferromagnetic behavior is observed in all samples, and the rare-earth-substituted samples exhibit an enhanced magnetization. The weak ferromagnetism can be ascribed to the spin canting of the antiferromagnetic coupling of the Fe-based and Co-based sublattices via Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. The dielectric loss of all samples exhibits two dielectric relaxation peaks corresponding to two different relaxation mechanisms. One relaxation process with E{sub a}=0.5 eV is related to the hoping process of oxygen vacancies and the other one with E{sub a}=1.6 eV can be ascribed to the intrinsic conduction. The Gd-doped sample exhibits a remarkable magnetodielectric effect (9.4%) at RT implying this Aurivillius phase may be the potential candidate for magnetodielectric applications.

  1. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, supplment au n 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979, page C5-273 The physics and the technology of rare earth permanent magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to forecast the type of substitution to employ on the rare earth or transition metals, as a means and the technology of rare earth permanent magnets J. P. Haberer and H. Lemaire Aimants UGIMAG S.A., France Résumé rare earth base alloys have magnetic properties which substantially exceed the values obtained before

  2. Iron-Nitride-Based Magnets: Synthesis and Phase Stabilization of Body Center Tetragonal (BCT) Metastable Fe-N Anisotropic Nanocomposite Magnet- A Path to Fabricate Rare Earth Free Magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Minnesota will develop an early stage prototype of an iron-nitride permanent magnet material for EVs and renewable power generators. This new material, comprised entirely of low-cost and abundant resources, has the potential to demonstrate the highest energy potential of any magnet to date. This project will provide the basis for an entirely new class of rare-earth-free magnets capable of generating power without costly and scarce rare earth materials. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate a prototype with magnetic properties exceeding state-of-the-art commercial magnets.

  3. Phase stable rare earth garnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2013-06-11

    A transparent ceramic according to one embodiment includes a rare earth garnet comprising A.sub.hB.sub.iC.sub.jO.sub.12, where h is 3.+-.10%, i is 2.+-.10%, and j is 3.+-.10%. A includes a rare earth element or a mixture of rare earth elements, B includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, and C includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, where A is at a dodecahedral site of the garnet, B is at an octahedral site of the garnet, and C is at a tetrahedral site of the garnet. In one embodiment, the rare earth garment has scintillation properties. A radiation detector in one embodiment includes a transparent ceramic as described above and a photo detector optically coupled to the rare earth garnet.

  4. RARE EARTHS By James B. Hedrick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), a wholly earths are iron gray to silvery lustrous metals; rare-earth tariffs for Canada and Mexico were1 RARE EARTHS By James B. Hedrick The rare earths are a relatively abundant enacted on November 30, 1993, and covered of rare earths for the second consecutive year. group of elements that range

  5. U.S. Rare Earth Magnet Patents Table © 6-2-2015 page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of permanent magnetic motors with broader and flexible in material selection space and cost selection space What is claimed is: 1. A composite permanent magnetic material,...

  6. On-the-fly machine-learning for high-throughput experiments: search for rare-earth-free permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusne, AG; Gao, TR; Mehta, A; Ke, LQ; Nguyen, MC; Ho, KM; Antropov, V; Wang, CZ; Kramer, MJ; Long, C; Takeuchi, I

    2014-09-15

    Advanced materials characterization techniques with ever-growing data acquisition speed and storage capabilities represent a challenge in modern materials science, and new procedures to quickly assess and analyze the data are needed. Machine learning approaches are effective in reducing the complexity of data and rapidly homing in on the underlying trend in multi-dimensional data. Here, we show that by employing an algorithm called the mean shift theory to a large amount of diffraction data in high-throughput experimentation, one can streamline the process of delineating the structural evolution across compositional variations mapped on combinatorial libraries with minimal computational cost. Data collected at a synchrotron beamline are analyzed on the fly, and by integrating experimental data with the inorganic crystal structure database (ICSD), we can substantially enhance the accuracy in classifying the structural phases across ternary phase spaces. We have used this approach to identify a novel magnetic phase with enhanced magnetic anisotropy which is a candidate for rare-earth free permanent magnet.

  7. U.S. Rare Earth Magnet Patents Table © 9-9-2015 page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    27, 2001 Issued: August 9, 2005 Expires: Sept 2021 6,926,963 Assignee: Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, JAPAN) Highly weather-resistant magnet powder and magnet produced...

  8. RARE-EARTH METALS--1997 61.1 RARE-EARTH METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RARE-EARTH METALS--1997 61.1 RARE-EARTH METALS By James B. Hedrick The rare earths are a relatively million, to thulium and lutetium, the least abundant rare-earth elements at about 0.5 parts per million. Scandium, atomic number 21, is the lightest rare-earth element. It is the 31st most abundant element

  9. X-ray resonant magnetic scattering and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism branching ratios, L[subscript 3] / L[subscript 2], for heavy rare earths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Yongbin; Kim, Jong-Woo; Goldman, Alan I.; Harmon, Bruce N. (Iowa State)

    2010-07-19

    In this study we have used first principles electronic structure methods to investigate the detailed contributions to the L{sub 3}/L{sub 2} branching ratio in the heavy rare earth elements. The calculations use the full potential, relativistic, linear augmented plane wave method with the LSDA+U approach for consideration of the local 4f electronic orbitals. With no spin orbit coupling (SOC) in the conducting bands, and with the same radial function for the 2p{sub 3/2} and 2p{sub 1/2} core states, the branching ratio (BR) is exactly 1:-1 for the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra of the ferromagnetic heavy rare earth metals. However, with full SOC the BR ranges from 1.5 to 6.0 in going from Gd to Er. The energy and spin dependence of the 5d radial functions are important. The results point to problems with modified atomic models which have been proposed to explain the BR. Recent x-ray resonant magentic scattering experiments on (Gd,Tb,Dy,Ho,Er,Tm)Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} are discussed.

  10. A metallurgical approach toward alloying in rare earth permanen magnet systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branagan, D. J.

    1995-02-23

    The approach was developed to allow microstructural enhancement and control during solidification and processing. Compound additions of Group IVA, VA, or VIA transition metals (TM) and carbon were added to Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (2-14-1). Transition metal carbides formed in IVA (TiC, ZrC, HfC) and Group VA (VC, NbC, TaC) systems, but not in the VIA system. The alloying ability of each TM carbide was graded using phase stability, liquid and equilibrium solid solubility, and high temperature carbide stability. Ti with C additions was chosen as the best system. The practically zero equilibrium solid solubility means that the Ti and C additions will ultimately form TiC after heat treatment which allows the development of a composite microstructure consisting of the 2-14-1 phase and TiC. Thus, the excellent intrinsic magnetic properties of the 2-14-1 phase remain unaltered and the extrinsic properties relating to the microstructure are enhanced due to the TiC stabilized microstructure which is much more resistant to grain growth. When Ti + C are dissolved in the liquid melt or solid phases, such as the glass or 2-14-1 phase, the intrinsic properties are changed; favorable changes include increased glass forming ability, reduced optimum cooling rate, increased optimum energy product, and enhanced nucleation kinetics of crystallization.

  11. Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences by Greta J. Orris1 and Richard I. Grauch2 Open Table 1. Rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names.......................................................................................6 Table 2. Non-rare earth mineral codes and associated mineral names

  12. Understanding of Rare Earth Metals from Theory | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Rare Earth Metals from Theory The rare earth metals are becoming increasingly applicable in our everyday life. The enormous importance of rare earths in the technology,...

  13. Rare?Earth?Free Permanent Magnets for Electrical Vehicle Motors and Wind Turbine Generators: Hexagonal Symmetry Based Materials Systems Mn?Bi and M?type Hexaferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Yang-Ki; Haskew, Timothy; Myryasov, Oleg; Jin, Sungho; Berkowitz, Ami

    2014-06-05

    The research we conducted focuses on the rare-earth (RE)-free permanent magnet by modeling, simulating, and synthesizing exchange coupled two-phase (hard/soft) RE-free core-shell nano-structured magnet. The RE-free magnets are made of magnetically hard core materials (high anisotropy materials including Mn-Bi-X and M-type hexaferrite) coated by soft shell materials (high magnetization materials including Fe-Co or Co). Therefore, our research helps understand the exchange coupling conditions of the core/shell magnets, interface exchange behavior between core and shell materials, formation mechanism of core/shell structures, stability conditions of core and shell materials, etc.

  14. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike today’s large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldor’s motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  15. Replacing the Rare Earth Intellectual Capital

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl

    2011-04-01

    The rare earth crisis slowly evolved during a 10 to 15 year period beginning in the mid-1980s, when the Chinese began to export mixed rare earth concentrates. In the early 1990s, they started to move up the supply chain and began to export the individual rare earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s the Chinese exported higher value products, such as magnets, phosphors, polishing compounds, catalysts; and in the 21st century they supplied finished products including electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), TVs and monitors, mobile phones, iPods and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) light bulbs. As they moved to higher value products, the Chinese slowly drove the various industrial producers and commercial enterprises in the US, Europe and Japan out of business by manipulating the rare earth commodity prices. Because of this, the technically trained rare earth engineers and scientists who worked in areas from mining to separations, to processing to production, to manufacturing of semifinished and final products, were laid-off and moved to other fields or they retired. However, in the past year the Chinese have changed their philosophy of the 1970s and 1980s of forming a rare earth cartel to control the rare earth markets to one in which they will no longer supply the rest of the world (ROW) with their precious rare earths, but instead will use them internally to meet the growing demand as the Chinese standard of living increases. To this end, they have implemented and occasionally increased export restrictions and added an export tariff on many of the high demand rare earth elements. Now the ROW is quickly trying to start up rare earth mines, e.g. Molycorp Minerals in the US and Lynas Corp. in Australia, to cover this shortfall in the worldwide market, but it will take about five years for the supply to meet the demand, even as other mines in the ROW become productive. Unfortunately, today there is a serious lack of technically trained personnel to bring the entire rare earth industry, from mining to original equipment manufacturers (OEM), up to full speed in the next few years. Accompanying this decline in technical expertise, innovation and new products utilizing rare earth elements has slowed dramatically, and it may take a decade or more to recapture America's leading role in technological advancements of rare earth containing products. Before the disruption of the US rare earth industry, about 25,000 people were employed in all aspects of the industry from mining to OEM. Today, only about 1,500 people are employed in these fields. The ratio of non-technically trained persons to those with college degrees in the sciences or engineering varies from about 8 to 1 to about 4 to 1, depending on the particular area of the industry. Assuming an average of 6 to 1, the number of college degree scientists and engineers has decreased from about 4,000 to 250 employed today. In the magnetic industry the approximate numbers are: 6,000 total with 750 technically trained people in the 1980s to 500 totally employed today of which 75 have degrees. The paucity of scientists and engineers with experience and/or training in the various aspects of production and commercialization of the rare earths is a serious limitation to the ability of the US to satisfy its own needs for materials and technologies (1) to maintain our military strength and posture, (2) to assume leadership in critical energy technologies, and (3) to bring new consumer products to the marketplace. The lack of experts is of even greater national importance than the halting in the 1990s and the recent restart of the mining/benification/separation effort in the US; and thus governmental intervention and support for at least five to 10 years will be required to ameliorate this situation. To respond quickly, training programs should be established in conjunction with a national research center at an educational institution with a long tradition in multiple areas of rare earth and other critical elements research and technology. This center should

  16. Improved method for preparing rare earth sesquichalcogenides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takeshita, T.; Beaudry, B.J.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1982-04-14

    An improved method for the preparation of high purity rare earth sesquichalcogenides is described. The rare earth, as one or more pieces of the metal, is sealed under a vacuum with a stoichiometric amount of sulfur or selenium and a small amount of iodine into a quartz reaction vessel. The sealed vessel is then heated to above the vaporization temperature of the chalcogen and below the melting temperature of the rare earth metal and maintained until the product has been formed. The iodine is then vaporized off leaving a pure product. The rare earth sulfides and selenides thus formed are useful as semiconductors and as thermoelectric generators. 3 tables.

  17. Good Earths and Rare Earths | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What does this mean for me? Rare earth elements -- dysprosium, neodymium, terbium, europium and yttrium -- are essential to a...

  18. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-01-01

    300-500°C. Doping rare earth phosphate glasses with Ce, andRare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Protonconductivity of alkaline-earth doped rare earth phosphate

  19. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imports:3 Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- -- -- 22 Rare-earth metals, alloys 271 352 235 284 406 Cerium Exports:3 Thorium ore, monazite -- -- 3 27 -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 71 44 194 329 456 Cerium compounds. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad val. 31.3% ad val

  20. Synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic properties of RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=rare-earth metal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suen, Nian-Tzu; Tobash, Paul H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bobev, Svilen, E-mail: bobev@udel.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    A series of rare-earth metal-magnesium-germanides RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu) has been synthesized by reactions of the corresponding elements at high temperature. Their structures have been established by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and belong to the Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} structure type (space group P4/mbm (No. 127), Z=2; Pearson symbol tP10). Temperature dependent DC magnetization measurements indicate Curie-Weiss paramagnetism in the high-temperature regime for all members of the family, excluding Y{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}, Sm{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}, and Lu{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}. At cryogenic temperatures (ca. 60 K and below), most RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} phases enter into an antiferromagnetic ground-state, except for Er{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} and Tm{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}, which do not undergo magnetic ordering down to 5 K. The structural variations as a function of the decreasing size of the rare-earth metals, following the lanthanide contraction, and the changes in the magnetic properties across the series are discussed as well. - Graphical Abstract: The structure of RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu) can be best viewed as 2-dimensional slabs of Mg and Ge atoms (anionic sub-lattice), and layers of rare-earth metal atoms (cationic sub-lattice) between them. Within this description, one should consider the Ge-Ge dumbbells (formally Ge{sup 6-}{sub 2}), interconnected with square-planar Mg atom as forming flat [MgGe{sub 2}] layers (z=0), stacked along the c-axis with the layers at z=1/2, made of rare-earth metal cations (formally RE{sup 3+}). Highlights: > RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu) are new ternary germanides. > Their structures can be recognized as a 1:1 intergrowth of CsCl- and AlB{sub 2}-like slabs. > Ge atoms are covalently bound into Ge{sub 2} dumbbells. > Most RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} phases are antiferromagnetically ordered at cryogenic temperatures.

  1. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, suppliment au no 8, Tome 39, aotit 1978, page C6-1379 LONG RANGE MAGNETIC ORDER I N THE SUPERCONDUCTING STATE OF HEAVY RARE EARTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MAGNETIC ORDER I N THE SUPERCONDUCTING STATE OF HEAVY RARE EARTH MOLYBDENUM SULFIDES AND THEIR PSEUDOTERNARY COMPOUNDS M. Ishikawa, 0. Fischer and J. Muller De'pmtement de Physique de Za MatiBre Condense Qgalement exposds. Abstract.- Various experimental evidences for long range magnetic order

  2. Magnetic ordering of divalent europium in double perovskites Eu{sub 2}LnTaO{sub 6} (Ln=rare earths)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misawa, Yoshitaka; Doi, Yoshihiro [Division of Chemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Hinatsu, Yukio, E-mail: hinatsu@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Division of Chemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Structures and magnetic properties of double perovskite-type oxides Eu{sub 2}LnTaO{sub 6} (Ln=Eu, Dy-Lu) were investigated. These compounds adopt a distorted double perovskite structure with space group P2{sub 1}/n. Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectrum measurements show that the Eu{sup 2+} ions at the 12-coordinate sites of the perovskite structure are antiferromagnetically ordered at {approx}4 K, and that Ln{sup 3+} ions at the 6-coordinate site are in the paramagnetic state down to 1.8 K. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic properties of double perovskite-type oxides Eu{sub 2}LnTaO{sub 6} (Ln=Eu, Dy-Lu) were investigated. Magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectrum measurements show that the Eu{sup 2+} ions at the 12-coordinate sites of the perovskite structure are antiferromagnetically ordered at {approx}4 K. Highlights: > Crystal structures of double perovskites Eu{sub 2}LnTaO{sub 6} (Ln=rare earth) were determined. > We found that these compounds show an antiferromagnetic ordering at {approx}4 K. > The magnetic ordering is due to the interactions of Eu{sup 2+} ions. > It was elucidated by specific heat and {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectrum measurements.

  3. Electronic structure of rare-earth metals | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of rare-earth metals The rare-earth metals are becoming increasingly applicable in our everyday life. The enormous importance of rare-earths in the technology,...

  4. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takeshita, Takuo (Omiya, JP); Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Beaudry, Bernard J. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-06

    A new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula: La.sub.3-x M.sub.x S.sub.4 where M is a rare earth element selected from the group europium, samarium and ytterbium and x=0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000.degree. C.

  5. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA)

    1986-09-16

    An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  6. On the Rare Earth Frontier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klinger, Julie Michelle

    2015-01-01

    might shed light on nuclear fission and was the first toproduced during nuclear fission and is only found, on Earth,neutron-induced nuclear fission of uranium and identified

  7. Interplay of superconductivity, magnetism, and density waves in rare-earth tritellurides and iron-based superconducting materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zocco, Diego Andrés

    2011-01-01

    B. Superconductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IV Superconductivity and Magnetism in Iron-PnictideSearch for Pressure Induced Superconductivity in Undoped Ce-

  8. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

  9. Rare earth phosphors and phosphor screens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Maple, T. Grant (Sunnyvale, CA); Sklensky, Alden F. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth phosphor screens for converting image carrying incident radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation and to the rare earth phosphor materials utilized in such screens. The invention further relates to methods for converting image carrying charged particles to image carrying radiation principally in the blue and near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum and to stabilized rare earth phosphors characterized by having a continuous surface layer of the phosphors of the invention. More particularly, the phosphors of the invention are oxychlorides and oxybromides of yttrium, lanthanum and gadolinium activated with trivalent cerium and the conversion screens are of the type illustratively including x-ray conversion screens, image amplifier tube screens, neutron imaging screens, cathode ray tube screens, high energy gamma ray screens, scintillation detector screens and screens for real-time translation of image carrying high energy radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation.

  10. Are Earths Rare? Perhaps Not

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications TraditionalWithAntiferromagnetic SpinsSolicitations & BusinessAre Earths

  11. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

  12. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA); Jones, Lawrence L. (Des Moines, IA)

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  13. Laminated rare earth structure and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senor, David J [West Richland, WA; Johnson, Roger N [Richland, WA; Reid, Bruce D [Pasco, WA; Larson, Sandra [Richland, WA

    2002-07-30

    A laminated structure having two or more layers, wherein at least one layer is a metal substrate and at least one other layer is a coating comprising at least one rare earth element. For structures having more than two layers, the coating and metal substrate layers alternate. In one embodiment of the invention, the structure is a two-layer laminate having a rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a metal substrate. In another embodiment of the invention, the structure is a three-layer laminate having the rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a first metal substrate and the coating subsequently abonded to a second metal substrate. The bonding of the coating to the second metal substrate may be accomplished by hot pressing, hot rolling, high deformation rate processing, or combinations thereof. The laminated structure may be used in nuclear components where reactivity control or neutron absorption is desired and in non-nuclear applications such as magnetic and superconducting films.

  14. Magnesium substitutions in rare-earth metal germanides with the Gd5Si4 type. Synthesis, structure determination and magnetic properties of RE5-xMgxGe4 (RE=Gd-Tm, Lu and Y)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarrao, J L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobash, P H [UNIV. OF DE; Bobev, S [UNIV. OF DE

    2009-01-01

    A series of magnesium-substituted rare-earth metal germanides with a general formula RE{sub 5-x}Mg{sub x}Ge{sub 4} (x {approx} 1.0-2.3; RE =Gd-Tm, Lu, Y) have been synthesized by high-temperature reactions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These compounds crystallize with the common Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4} type in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (No. 62; Z =4; Pearson's code oP36) and do not appear to undergo temperature-induced crystallographic phase transitions down to 120 K. Replacing rare-earth metal atoms with Mg, up to nearly 45 % at., reduces the valence electron count and is clearly expressed in the subtle changes of the Ge-Ge and metal-metal bonding. Magnetization measurements as a function of the temperature and the applied field reveal complex magnetic structures at cryogenic temperatures, and Curie-Weiss paramagnetic behavior at higher temperatures. The observed local moment magnetism is consistent with RE+ ground states in all cases. In the magnetically ordered phases, the magnetization cannot reach saturation in fields up to 50 kOe. The structural trends across the series and the variations of hte magnetic properties as a function of the Mg content are also discussed. KEYWORDS: Rare-earth intermetallics, germanides, crystal structure,Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4} type.

  15. Crystalline rare-earth activated oxyorthosilicate phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClellan, Kenneth J.; Cooke, D. Wayne

    2004-02-10

    Crystalline, transparent, rare-earth activated lutetium oxyorthosilicate phosphor. The phosphor consists essentially of lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Gd.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of gadolinium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Gd(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor may be optically coupled to a photodetector to provide a radiation detector.

  16. Disordered electronic and magnetic systems - transition metal (Mn) and rare earth (Gd) doped amorphous group IV semiconductors (C, Si, Ge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Magnetization data for a-Mn 0.15 Ge 0.85 ?lms mea- suredSi 1?x and a-Mn x Ge 1?x samples. . . . . . . . . . . . . .both a-Mn x Si 1?x and a-Mn x Ge 1?x as a func- tion of Mn

  17. A novel contrast agent with rare earth-doped up-conversion luminescence and Gd-DTPA magnetic resonance properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Qing; Wei Daixu; Cheng Jiejun; Xu Jianrong; Zhu Jun

    2012-08-15

    The magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er were successfully synthesized by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The as-prepared products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The room-temperature upconversion luminescent spectra and T{sub 1}-weighted maps of the obtained nanoparticles were carried out by 980 nm NIR light excitation and a 3T MR imaging scanner, respectively. The results indicated that the as-synthesized multifunctional nanoparticles with small size, highly solubility in water, and both high MR relaxivities and upconversion luminescence may have potential usage for MR imaging in future. - Graphical abstract: We have synthesized magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles based on Gd-DTPA and NaYF4:Yb, Er by the conjugation of activated DTPA and silica-coated/surface-aminolated NaYF4:Yb, Er nanoparticles through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel magnetic-luminescent multifunctional nanoparticles are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles are highly efficient for luminescence and T{sub 1}-weighted MR imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles are small in size and highly solubility in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanoparticles hold great potential usage for future biomedical engineering.

  18. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA)

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  19. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  20. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 4

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 4 of 4.

  1. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 2

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 2 of 4.

  2. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 1

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 1 of 4.

  3. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 1 of 4.

  4. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 2 of 4.

  5. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 3 of 4.

  6. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 4 of 4.

  7. 10 Questions for a Materials Scientist: Mr. Rare Earth -- Dr...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 Questions for a Materials Scientist: Mr. Rare Earth -- Dr. Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr. 10 Questions for a Materials Scientist: Mr. Rare Earth -- Dr. Karl A. Gschneidner, Jr. April...

  8. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.

    1985-10-28

    Disclosed is an improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  9. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 3

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 3 of 4.

  10. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at Mountain Pass were further processed into rare-earth compounds and metal products. The United States,980 3,770 2,840 5,800 Rare-earth metals, alloy 226 525 468 240 390 Exports: 2 Cerium compounds 840 1,350 1,640 992 730 Rare-earth metals, alloys 4,930 1,380 3,030 2,080 1,000 Other rare-earth compounds 455

  11. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 867 784 564 188 250 Cerium compounds 2,590 2,680 2,080 1,500 1,400 Mixed REOs (monazite or various thorium materials) -- 1 61 18 1 Rare-earth metals, alloys 733 1,470 1,390 4,920 640 categories increased when compared with those of 2009--the categories "Rare-earth metals, alloy" and "Rare-earth

  12. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- 20 Rare-earth metals, alloy 880 867 784 679 210 Cerium compounds 2,170 2,590 2,680 2,080 1,190 Mixed (monazite or various thorium materials) -- -- 1 61 23 Rare-earth metals, alloys 636 733 1,470 1,390 6128 RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

  13. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- -- 22 -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 352 235 284 905 442 Cerium compounds 806 1:3 Thorium ore, monazite -- 3 27 -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 44 194 329 444 272 Cerium compounds.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad val. 31

  14. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -- -- -- -- Imports: Thorium ore (monazite) -- 22 56 11 --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 284 905 429 529 760 Cerium 121 123 Exports: Thorium ore, monazite 27 -- -- -- --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 329 444 250 991 856 (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805

  15. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- 22 56 --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 235 284 905 429 507 Cerium compounds 1 Exports: Thorium ore, monazite 3 27 -- -- --3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 194 329 444 250 879 Cerium for individual rare-earth metals and compounds, with most import categories slightly behind 1996's record high

  16. Note: Portable rare-earth element analyzer using pyroelectric crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imashuku, Susumu, E-mail: imashuku.susumu.2m@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fuyuno, Naoto; Hanasaki, Kohei; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    We report a portable rare-earth element analyzer with a palm-top size chamber including the electron source of a pyroelectric crystal and the sample stage utilizing cathodoluminescence (CL) phenomenon. The portable rare-earth element analyzer utilizing CL phenomenon is the smallest reported so far. The portable rare-earth element analyzer detected the rare-earth elements Dy, Tb, Er, and Sm of ppm order in zircon, which were not detected by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. We also performed an elemental mapping of rare-earth elements by capturing a CL image using CCD camera.

  17. The effect of machine and material parameters on rare earth roller separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Esther, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the affect of machine and material factors on the separation of PET plastic and aluminum on the Rare Earth Roller magnetic separator. The purposes of this study are to gain a better understanding of ...

  18. Scintillation of rare earth doped fluoride nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsohn, L. G.; McPherson, C. L.; Sprinkle, K. B.; Ballato, J. [Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Yukihara, E. G. [Physics Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-3072 (United States); DeVol, T. A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0905 (United States)

    2011-09-12

    The scintillation response of rare earth (RE) doped core/undoped (multi-)shell fluoride nanoparticles was investigated under x-ray and alpha particle irradiation. A significant enhancement of the scintillation response was observed with increasing shells due: (i) to the passivation of surface quenching defects together with the activation of the REs on the surface of the core nanoparticle after the growth of a shell, and (ii) to the increase of the volume of the nanoparticles. These results are expected to reflect a general aspect of the scintillation process in nanoparticles, and to impact radiation sensing technologies that make use of nanoparticles.

  19. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,380 840 1,350 1,400 Rare-earth metals, alloys 1,470 1,390 4,920 1,380 3,400 Other rare-earth compounds 1,750 5,480 2,300 Rare-earth oxides, compounds 9,900 8,820 5,130 3,980 3,700 Rare-earth metals, alloy 784 scrap. Import Sources (2007­10): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 79%; France, 6%; Estonia, 4

  20. Enhanced pinning in mixed rare earth-123 films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driscoll, Judith L. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-06-16

    An superconductive article and method of forming such an article is disclosed, the article including a substrate and a layer of a rare earth barium cuprate film upon the substrate, the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals capable of yielding a superconductive composition where ion size variance between the two or more rare earth metals is characterized as greater than zero and less than about 10.times.10.sup.-4, and the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals is further characterized as having an enhanced critical current density in comparison to a standard YBa.sub.2Cu.sub.3O.sub.y composition under identical testing conditions.

  1. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMillan, A.D.; Modine, F.A.; Lauf, R.J.; Alim, M.A.; Mahan, G.D.; Bartkowiak, M.

    1998-12-29

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2--4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5--4.0% Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, 0.05--0.4% K{sub 2}O, 0.05--0.2% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--0.2% CaO, 0.00005--0.01% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--2% MnO, 0--0.05% MgO, 0--0.5% TiO{sub 3}, 0--0.2% SnO{sub 2}, 0--0.02% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, balance ZnO. 4 figs.

  2. Rare earth doped zinc oxide varistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Modine, Frank A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Alim, Mohammad A. (Medina, OH); Mahan, Gerald D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bartkowiak, Miroslaw (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A varistor includes a Bi-free, essentially homogeneous sintered body of a ceramic composition including, expressed as nominal weight %, 0.2-4.0% oxide of at least one rare earth element, 0.5-4.0% Co.sub.3 O.sub.4, 0.05-0.4% K.sub.2 O, 0.05-0.2% Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-0.2% CaO, 0.00005-0.01% Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 0-2% MnO, 0-0.05% MgO, 0-0.5% TiO.sub.3, 0-0.2% SnO.sub.2, 0-0.02% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, balance ZnO.

  3. Critical Materials Institute's rare-earth recycling tech goes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Critical Materials Institute's rare-earth recycling tech goes commercial OAK RIDGE, Tenn., Aug. 10, 2015-The Critical Materials Institute is celebrating its first commercial...

  4. DOE Announces RFI on Rare Earth Metals | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy has released a Request for Information (RFI) soliciting information on rare earth metals and other materials used in the energy sector. The request is specifically...

  5. Rare-earth innovation to improve nylon manufacturing | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare-earth innovation to improve nylon manufacturing Contacts: For release: March 18, 2015 Igor I. Slowing, Critical Materials Institute, (515)-294-1959 Laura Millsaps, Ames...

  6. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentratese 10,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 Imports:2 Thorium ore (monazite) 11 -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals,720 7,760 11,200 9,070 Ferrocerium, alloys 121 117 120 118 138 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals, alloys 991-2000): Monazite: Australia, 67%; and France, 33%. Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 74%; France, 21

  7. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentratese 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 Imports:2 Thorium ore (monazite) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals,720 7,760 11,200 9,150 6,930 Ferrocerium, alloys 117 120 118 118 100 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals, alloys-2001): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 66%; France, 27%; Japan, 3%; Estonia, 2%; and other, 2

  8. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) 56 11 -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 429 529 953 1,780 2,370 Cerium compounds 3,180 1,810 4,940 3 metals, alloys 250 991 724 1,600 1,830 Cerium compounds 6,100 5,890 4,640 3,960 3,870 Other rare-earth-99): Monazite: Australia, 67%; France, 33%; Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 71%; France, 23%; Japan

  9. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,260 10,900 11,400 8,550 10,600 Ferrocerium, alloys 89 111 105 130 140 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals, alloys-05): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 76%; France, 9%; Japan, 4%; Russia, 3%; and other, 8.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad val. Cerium

  10. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 1,420 1,450 1,130 804 945 Cerium compounds 3,850 2,540 2,630 1,880 2,210 Mixed, compounds 9,150 7,260 10,900 11,400 9,800 Ferrocerium, alloys 118 89 111 105 142 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals-04): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 76%; France, 14%; Japan, 6%; Austria, 2%; and other, 2

  11. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at Mountain Pass, CA, were further processed into rare-earth compounds and metal products. The United States -- -- -- -- 7,000 Exports: 2 Cerium compounds 1,380 840 1,350 1,640 1,100 Rare-earth metals, alloys 1,390 4,980 3,770 2,700 Rare-earth metals, alloy 679 226 525 468 280 Thorium ore (monazite or various thorium

  12. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , compounds 7,760 11,200 9,150 7,260 10,900 Ferrocerium, alloys 120 118 118 89 111 Exports:2 Rare-earth metals Sources (1999-2002): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 66%; France, 25%; Japan, 4%; Estonia, 3) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad

  13. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 1,130 804 880 867 831 Cerium compounds 2,630 1,880 2,170 2,590 3,090 Mixed metals, alloys 1,190 1,010 636 733 1,470 Cerium compounds 1,940 2,280 2,210 2,010 1,690 Other rare-earth-06): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 84%; France, 6%; Japan, 4%; Russia, 2%; and other, 4

  14. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or various thorium materials) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 804 880 867 784 807 Cerium compounds 1 metals, alloys 1,010 636 733 1,470 1,580 Cerium compounds 2,280 2,210 2,010 1,470 1,620 Other rare-earth (2004-07): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 87%; France, 5%; Japan, 4%; Russia, 2%; and other

  15. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content, unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    10,000 e 5,000 5,000 Imports:3 Thorium ore (monazite) 22 56 11 -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloys 905,720 5,600 Ferrocerium, alloys 78 107 121 117 122 Exports:3 Rare-earth metals, alloys 444 250 991 724 1%; Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 75%; France, 19%; Japan, 3%; United Kingdom, 1%; and other

  16. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, suppl&mentau no 3, Tome 40, mars 1979,page C2-135 MOSSBAUER AND MAGNET1C MEASUREMENTS I N AMORPHOUS RARE EARTH-TRANS I T 1ON METAL F I LMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    AND MAGNET1C MEASUREMENTS I N AMORPHOUS RARE EARTH-TRANS I T 1ON METAL F I LMS T. Katayama, Y. Nishihara, Y perpendicular to the film phous rare earth-transition metal (R-T) films, being planes. But the spectra of B,., is the isomer shift relative to metallic iron, H the hyperfine field at the maximum proba&ility in P(H) curve

  17. Characterization of ferromagnetic saturation at 4.2K of selected bulk rare earth metals for compact high-field superconducting cyclotrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norsworthy, Mark A. (Mark Andrew)

    2010-01-01

    The saturation magnetization of the rare earth ferromagnetic metals gadolinium and holmium was investigated. Cylindrical samples were placed in a superconducting test magnet and induced magnetic field measured at various ...

  18. Reduction Chemistry of Rare-Earth Metal Complexes: Toward New Reactivity and Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wenliang

    2013-01-01

    reduction chemistry of rare-earth metal complexes supportedof a series of rare-earth metal arene complexes. Highlightsmechanism for rare-earth metals; (2) the synthesis of the

  19. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Rare-Earth and Copper Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kvashnina, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    bombardment for twelve rare-earths metals [1] . Accord- ingal. [3] have showed that rare-earth metals such as La has aof most of the rare- earths metals, oxides, and chlorides.

  20. POWDER METALLURGICAL PROCESSING OF MAGNETOSTRICTIVE MATERIALS BASED ON RARE EARTH-IRON INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malekzadeh, Manoochehr

    2011-01-01

    by using an excess of rare earth metals during the course ofCrystal structure of rare earth-transition metal Laves phasemagnetostrictions among rare earth-transition metal as well

  1. RARE EARTHS1 (Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) -- -- -- -- -- Rare-earth metals, alloy 2,470 1,420 1,450 1,130 790 Cerium compounds 4,310 3,850 2,540 2,630 1 metals, alloys 1,650 884 1,300 1,190 1,240 Cerium compounds 4,050 4,110 2,740 1,940 2,000 Other rare-earth-03): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 67%; France, 17%; Japan, 4%; Estonia, 4%; and other, 8

  2. Bimetallic cleavage of aromatic C-H bonds by rare-earth-metal complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, W; Huang, W; Dulong, F; Khan, SI; Cantat, T; Diaconescu, PL

    2014-01-01

    of Aromatic C-H Bonds by Rare Earth Metal Complexes Wenliangone week prior to use. Rare earth metal oxides (scandium,

  3. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Paul G. (8544 Electric Ave., Vienna, VA 22182)

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  4. METAL-NON METAL TRANSITIONS /N RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS. EXPERIMENT AND THEORK /.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    METAL-NON METAL TRANSITIONS /N RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS. EXPERIMENT AND THEORK /. VALENCE INSTABILITIES, superconductivity, electron-phonon and band theory, to name a few. 2. Properties of normal rare earth metals. - Before discussing rare earth valence instabilities, three relevant general features of rare earth metals

  5. Method of increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Ostenson, J.E.; Finnemore, D.K.

    1989-04-04

    This invention comprises a method of increasing the magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron (RFe) magnetostrictive alloy rods by a thermal-magnetic treatment. The rod is heated to a temperature above its Curie temperature, viz. from 400 to 600 C; and, while the rod is at that temperature, a magnetic field is directionally applied and maintained while the rod is cooled, at least below its Curie temperature. 2 figs.

  6. High efficiency rare-earth emitter for thermophotovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakr, E. S.; Zhou, Z.; Bermel, P., E-mail: pbermel@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnology Center, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, 1205 W. State St., West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In this work, we propose a rare-earth-based ceramic thermal emitter design that can boost thermophotovoltaic (TPV) efficiencies significantly without cold-side filters at a temperature of 1573?K (1300?°C). The proposed emitter enhances a naturally occurring rare earth transition using quality-factor matching, with a quarter-wave stack as a highly reflective back mirror, while suppressing parasitic losses via exponential chirping of a multilayer reflector transmitting only at short wavelengths. This allows the emissivity to approach the blackbody limit for wavelengths overlapping with the absorption peak of the rare-earth material, while effectively reducing the losses associated with undesirable long-wavelength emission. We obtain TPV efficiencies of 34% using this layered design, which only requires modest index contrast, making it particularly amenable to fabrication via a wide variety of techniques, including sputtering, spin-coating, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  7. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guon, Jerold (Woodland Hills, CA); Grantham, LeRoy F. (Calabasas, CA); Specht, Eugene R. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    To increase the operating temperature of a reactor, the melting point and mechanical properties of the fuel must be increased. For an actinide-rich fuel, yttrium, lanthanum and/or rare earth elements can be added, as stabilizers, to uranium and plutonium and/or a mixture of other actinides to raise the melting point of the fuel and improve its mechanical properties. Since only about 1% of the actinide fuel may be yttrium, lanthanum, or a rare earth element, the neutron penalty is low, the reactor core size can be reduced, the fuel can be burned efficiently, reprocessing requirements are reduced, and the nuclear waste disposal volumes reduced. A further advantage occurs when yttrium, lanthanum, and/or other rare earth elements are exposed to radiation in a reactor, they produce only short half life radioisotopes, which reduce nuclear waste disposal problems through much shorter assured-isolation requirements.

  8. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  9. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  10. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-08-09

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

  11. Low temperature diffusion process using rare earth-Cu eutectic alloys for hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akiya, T., E-mail: akiya.takahiro@nims.go.jp; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Liu, J.; Hono, K. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Hioki, K.; Hattori, A. [Daido Steel Co., LTD, Nagoya 457-8545 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    The low temperature grain boundary diffusion process using RE{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} (RE?=?Pr, Nd) eutectic alloy powders was applied to sintered and hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets. Although only marginal coercivity increase was observed in sintered magnets, a substantial enhancement in coercivity was observed when the process was applied to hot-deformed anisotropic bulk magnets. Using Pr{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} eutectic alloy as a diffusion source, the coercivity was enhanced from 1.65?T to 2.56?T. The hot-deformed sample expanded along c-axis direction only after the diffusion process as RE rich intergranular layers parallel to the broad surface of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B are thickened in the c-axis direction.

  12. Good Earths and Rare Earths | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low LETUsefulJorge Gardea-Torresdey,Good Earths and

  13. Potential synergy: the thorium fuel cycle and rare earths processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ault, T.; Wymer, R.; Croff, A.; Krahn, S. [Vanderbilt University: 2301 Vanderbilt Place/PMB 351831, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The use of thorium in nuclear power programs has been evaluated on a recurring basis. A concern often raised is the lack of 'thorium infrastructure'; however, for at least a part of a potential thorium fuel cycle, this may less of a problem than previously thought. Thorium is frequently encountered in association with rare earth elements and, since the U.S. last systematically evaluated the large-scale use of thorium (the 1970's,) the use of rare earth elements has increased ten-fold to approximately 200,000 metric tons per year. Integration of thorium extraction with rare earth processing has been previously described and top-level estimates have been done on thorium resource availability; however, since ores and mining operations differ markedly, what is needed is process flowsheet analysis to determine whether a specific mining operation can feasibly produce thorium as a by-product. Also, the collocation of thorium with rare earths means that, even if a thorium product stream is not developed, its presence in mining waste streams needs to be addressed and there are previous instances where this has caused issues. This study analyzes several operational mines, estimates the mines' ability to produce a thorium by-product stream, and discusses some waste management implications of recovering thorium. (authors)

  14. Oxygen trapped by rare earth tetrahedral clusters in Nd4FeOS6: Crystal structure, electronic structure, and magnetic properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Qisheng; Taufour, Valentin; Zhang, Yuemei; Wood, Max; Drtina, Thomas; Bud’ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Miller, Gordon J.

    2015-05-22

    Single crystals of Nd4FeOS6 were grown from an Fe-S eutectic solution. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a Nd4MnOSe6-type structure (P63mc, a = 9.2693(1) Å, c = 6.6650(1) Å, V = 495.94(1) Å3, Z = 2), featuring parallel chains of face-sharing [FeS6x1/2]4- trigonal antiprisms and interlinked [Nd4OS3]4+ cubane-like clusters. Oxygen atoms were found to be trapped by Nd4 clusters in the [Nd4OS3]4+ chains. Structural differences among Nd4MnOSe6-type Nd4FeOS6 and the related La3CuSiS7- and Pr8CoGa3-type structures have been described. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on Nd4FeOS6 suggested the dominance of antiferromagnetic interactions at low temperature, but no magnetic ordering down to 2 Kmore »was observed. Spin-polarized electronic structure calculations revealed magnetic frustration with dominant antiferromagnetic interactions.« less

  15. Efficient, High-Torque Electric Vehicle Motor: Advanced Electric Vehicle Motors with Low or No Rare Earth Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: QM Power will develop a new type of electric motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs without the use of rare-earth-based magnets. Many of today’s EV motors use rare earth magnets to efficiently provide torque to the wheels. QM Power’s motors would contain magnets that use no rare earth minerals, are light and compact, and can deliver more power with greater efficiency and at reduced cost. Key innovations in this project include a new motor design with iron-based magnetic materials, a new motor control technique, and advanced manufacturing techniques that substantially reduce the cost of the motor. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a cost-effective EV motor that offers the rough peak equivalent of 270 horsepower.

  16. Oxygen trapped by rare earth tetrahedral clusters in Nd4FeOS6: Crystal structure, electronic structure, and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Qisheng; Taufour, Valentin; Zhang, Yuemei; Wood, Max; Drtina, Thomas; Bud’ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Miller, Gordon J.

    2015-05-22

    Single crystals of Nd4FeOS6 were grown from an Fe-S eutectic solution. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a Nd4MnOSe6-type structure (P63mc, a = 9.2693(1) Å, c = 6.6650(1) Å, V = 495.94(1) Å3, Z = 2), featuring parallel chains of face-sharing [FeS6x1/2]4- trigonal antiprisms and interlinked [Nd4OS3]4+ cubane-like clusters. Oxygen atoms were found to be trapped by Nd4 clusters in the [Nd4OS3]4+ chains. Structural differences among Nd4MnOSe6-type Nd4FeOS6 and the related La3CuSiS7- and Pr8CoGa3-type structures have been described. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on Nd4FeOS6 suggested the dominance of antiferromagnetic interactions at low temperature, but no magnetic ordering down to 2 K was observed. Spin-polarized electronic structure calculations revealed magnetic frustration with dominant antiferromagnetic interactions.

  17. Behaviour of zirconium, niobium, yttrium and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare-metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behaviour of zirconium, niobium, yttrium and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare in the Northwest Territories of Canada represents one of the largest resources of zirconium, niobium, yttrium

  18. Rare-earth tantalates and niobates suitable for use as nanophosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S& gt

    2013-11-19

    A family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

  19. Nuclear-Decay Studies of Neutron-Rich Rare-Earth Nuclides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chasteler, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hau88 and references therein]. Nuclide Experimental Qp. Ave.Studies of Neutron-Rich Rare-Earth Nuclides by University ofof Neutron-Rich Rare-Earth Nuclides Robert Mark Chasteler

  20. Alternative High-Performance Motors with Non-Rare Earth Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Performance Motors with Non-Rare Earth Materials Alternative High-Performance Motors with Non-Rare Earth Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  1. Antiferromagnetic transitions of osmium-containing rare earth double perovskites Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=rare earths)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinatsu, Yukio Doi, Yoshihiro; Wakeshima, Makoto

    2013-10-15

    The perovskite-type compounds containing both rare earth and osmium Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm–Lu) have been prepared. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld analysis show that Ln{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are structurally ordered at the M site of the perovskite BaMO{sub 3}. Magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements show that an antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} ions has been observed for Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Lu) at 65–71 K. Magnetic ordering of Ln{sup 3+} moments occurs when the temperature is furthermore decreased. - Graphical abstract: The perovskite-type compounds containing both rare earth and osmium Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm–Lu) have been prepared. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} ions has been observed for Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Lu) at 65–71 K. Measurements and analysis of the specific heat for Ba{sub 2}PrOsO{sub 6} show that magnetic ordering of the Pr{sup 3+} moments should have occurred at ?20 K. Display Omitted.

  2. Rare-earth metal gallium silicides via the gallium self-flux method. Synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of RE(Ga1–xSix)? (RE=Y, La–Nd, Sm, Gd–Yb, Lu)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darone, Gregory M.; Hmiel, Benjamin; Zhang, Jiliang [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Saha, Shanta; Kirshenbaum, Kevin; Greene, Richard; Paglione, Johnpierre [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Bobev, Svilen, E-mail: bobev@udel.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Fifteen ternary rare-earth metal gallium silicides have been synthesized using molten Ga as a molten flux. They have been structurally characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction to form with three different structures—the early to mid-late rare-earth metals RE=La–Nd, Sm, Gd–Ho, Yb and Y form compounds with empirical formulae RE(GaxSi1–x)? (0.38?x?0.63), which crystallize with the tetragonal ?-ThSi? structure type (space group I4?/amd, No. 141; Pearson symbol tI12). The compounds of the late rare-earth crystallize with the orthorhombic ?-GdSi? structure type (space group Imma, No. 74; Pearson symbol oI12), with refined empirical formula REGaxSi2–x–y (RE=Ho, Er, Tm; 0.33?x?0.40, 0.10?y?0.18). LuGa?.?????Si?.????? crystallizes with the orthorhombic YbMn?.??Si?.?? structure type (space group Cmcm, No. 63; Pearson symbol oC24). Structural trends are reviewed and analyzed; the magnetic susceptibilities of the grown single-crystals are presented. - Graphical abstract: This article details the exploration of the RE–Ga–Si ternary system with the aim to systematically investigate the structural “boundaries” between the ?-ThSi? and ?-GdSi?-type structures, and studies of the magnetic properties of the newly synthesized single-crystalline materials. Highlights: • Light rare-earth gallium silicides crystallize in ?-ThSi? structure type. • Heavy rare-earth gallium silicides crystallize in ?-GdSi? structure type. • LuGaSi crystallizes in a defect variant of the YbMn?.??Si?.?? structure type.

  3. Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells Lihong Wanga,b,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xing-Wang

    Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells Lihong Wanga,b,1 , Jigang Lic,d,1 , Qing (sent for review May 15, 2014) It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate, such as rare earth elements (REEs), have been observed for a long time to be beneficial to plant growth (1, 2

  4. Structure of liquid transition and rare earth metals S. N. Khanna and F. Cyrot-Lackmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-45 Structure of liquid transition and rare earth metals S. N. Khanna and F. Cyrot-Lackmann Groupe It is shown that the observed structure factors of transition and rare earth liquid metals can be reaso- nably. The difference is particularly large for V, Ti, and rare earth metals which are precisely the metals where

  5. A Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Andrew J.

    1) binds transition metals and rare earths with extreme stability under physiological conditionsA Rare Earth-DOTA-Binding Antibody: Probe Properties and Binding Affinity across the Lanthanide affinity and exquisite specificity.1 An antibody that binds rare earth complexes selectively could be used

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    397 ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES C thin evaporated foils of heavy rare earths (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in three different chemical of high energy incident electrons (75 keV) transmitted through thin foils of yttric rare earth elements

  7. Hydrogeochemistry and rare earth element behavior in a volcanically acidified watershed in Patagonia, Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    and analyzed for major ions, trace metals, and rare earth elements (REE). The concentrations of REE in the RioHydrogeochemistry and rare earth element behavior in a volcanically acidified watershed to oxidation of sulfide minerals. D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Rare earth elements

  8. Valence, coordination number, and PAV cells in metallic rare earth compounds F. L. Carter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Valence, coordination number, and PAV cells in metallic rare earth compounds F. L. Carter Naval, generalized coordination numbers, and Pauling's metallic valences are given for 24 intermetallic rare earth self-consistently it was necessary to increase the rare earth metal (/-character and hence decrease

  9. Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, M. Saif

    Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions in Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals by Brian Ross Maddox Electron correlation can affect profound changes transition in a transition metal monoxide. iv #12;The lanthanides (the 4f metals also known as rare-earths

  10. Half-metallic to insulating behavior of rare-earth nitrides C. M. Aerts,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svane, Axel Torstein

    Half-metallic to insulating behavior of rare-earth nitrides C. M. Aerts,1 P. Strange,1 M. Horne,1 W in the literature that rare-earth nitrides may form half-metallic ferromagnets.6­8 This is sur- prising because 30 January 2004 The electronic structure of the rare-earth nitrides is studied systematically using

  11. Review Article: Rare-earth monosulfides as durable and efficient cold cathodesa) Marc Cahayb)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boolchand, Punit

    structure, rare-earth monosulfides offer a more stable alternative to alkali metals to attain lowReview Article: Rare-earth monosulfides as durable and efficient cold cathodesa) Marc Cahayb made of these materials are very unstable. Beginning in 2001, we have studied rare-earth (RE

  12. The formation of crystals in glasses containing rare earth oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fadzil, Syazwani Mohd [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, South Korea and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States); Crum, Jarrod [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States); Siong, Khoo Kok; Ngatiman, Mohammad Fadzlee; Said, Riduan Mt [National University of Malaysia, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Korean spent nuclear fuel will reach the capacity of the available temporary storage by 2016. Pyroprocessing and direct disposal seems to be an alternative way to manage and reuse spent nuclear fuel while avoiding the wet reprocessing technology. Pyroprocessing produces several wastes streams, including metals, salts, and rare earths, which must be converted into stabilized form. A suitable form for rare earth immobilization is borosilicate glass. The borosilicate glass form exhibits excellent durability, allows a high waste loading, and is easy to process. In this work, we combined the rare earths waste of composition (in wt%) 39.2Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–22.7CeO{sub 2}–11.7La{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10.9PrO{sub 2}–1.3Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}–1.3Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}–8.1Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}–4.8Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} with a baseline glass of composition 60.2SiO{sub 2}–16.0B{sub 2}O{sub 3}–12.6Na{sub 2}O–3.8Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–5.7CaO–1.7ZrO{sub 2}. Crystallization in waste glasses occurs as the waste loading increases. It may produce complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. To study crystal formation, we initially made glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and then glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% of the complete rare earth mix. Samples were heat-treated for 24 hours at temperatures 800°C to 1150°C in 50°C increments. Quenched samples were analyzed using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Stillwellite (LaBSiO{sub 5}) and oxyapatite (Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26}) were found in glasses containing La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while oxyapatite (Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26} and NaNd{sub 9}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26}) precipitated in glasses with additions of mixed rare earths. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of the glasses containing 5%, 10% and 15% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} were 800°C, 959°C and 986°C, respectively; while T{sub L} was 825°C, 1059°C and 1267°C for glasses with 5%, 10% and 15% addition of mixed rare earth oxides. The component coefficients T{sub B2O3}, T{sub SiO2}, T{sub CaO}, and T{sub RE2O3} were also evaluated using a recently published study.

  13. Midbarrel hydrocracking process employing rare earth pillared clays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gortsema, F.P.; McCauley, J.R.; Miller, J.G. Rabo, J.A.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes improvement in a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbons boiling above about 700{degrees} F. to midbarrel fuel products boiling between about 300{degrees} F. and about 700{degrees} F. which includes contacting the hydrocarbons with hydrogen under effective hydrocracking conditions in the presence of a catalyst composition consisting of at least one hydrogenation component and at least one cracking component. The improvement comprises utilizing as the cracking component an expanded clay including pillars comprising at least one pillaring metal, at least one rare earth element and oxygen located between the sheets of at least one clay mineral or synthetic analogue thereof.

  14. [Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted] Domestic Production and Use: Rare earths were mined by one U.S. company in 2012. Bastnasite, a rare-earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed Production and Use: Rare earths were mined by one U.S. company in 2012. Bastnasite, a rare-earth% Y2O3 2846.90.4000 Free. Other rare-earth compounds, including yttrium oxide >85% Y2O3, yttrium

  15. Experimental demonstration of efficient and selective population transfer and qubit distillation in a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suter, Dieter

    in a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal Lars Rippe, Mattias Nilsson, and Stefan Kröll Department of Physics on optical interactions in rare-earth- metal-ion-doped crystals. The optical transition lines of the rare-earth-metal out in preparation for two-qubit gate operations in the rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystals

  16. Reduction Chemistry of Rare-Earth Metal Complexes: Toward New Reactivity and Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wenliang

    2013-01-01

    Elsner, A. ; Milliken, M. As hybrid cars gobble rare metals,rare-earths are heavily used in fuel-efficient hybrid cars.In a leading model of hybrid car, 1 kilogram of neodymium

  17. Proposal for laser-cooling of rare-earth ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lepers, Maxence; Wyart, Jean-François; Dulieu, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of laser-cooling relies on the existence of an almost closed optical-transition cycle in the energy spectrum of the considered species. In this respect rare-earth elements exhibit many transitions which are likely to induce noticeable leaks from the cooling cycle. In this work, to determine whether laser-cooling of singly-ionized erbium Er$^+$ is feasible, we have performed accurate electronic-structure calculations of energies and spontaneous-emission Einstein coefficients of Er$^+$, using a combination of \\textit{ab initio} and least-square-fitting techniques. We identify five weak closed transitions suitable for laser-cooling, the broadest of which is in the kilohertz range. For the strongest transitions, by simulating the cascade dynamics of spontaneous emission, we show that repumping is necessary, and we discuss possible repumping schemes. We expect our detailed study on Er$^+$ to give a good insight into laser-cooling of neighboring ions like Dy$^+$.

  18. Proposal for laser-cooling of rare-earth ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxence Lepers; Ye Hong; Jean-François Wyart; Olivier Dulieu

    2015-08-25

    The efficiency of laser-cooling relies on the existence of an almost closed optical-transition cycle in the energy spectrum of the considered species. In this respect rare-earth elements exhibit many transitions which are likely to induce noticeable leaks from the cooling cycle. In this work, to determine whether laser-cooling of singly-ionized erbium Er$^+$ is feasible, we have performed accurate electronic-structure calculations of energies and spontaneous-emission Einstein coefficients of Er$^+$, using a combination of \\textit{ab initio} and least-square-fitting techniques. We identify five weak closed transitions suitable for laser-cooling, the broadest of which is in the kilohertz range. For the strongest transitions, by simulating the cascade dynamics of spontaneous emission, we show that repumping is necessary, and we discuss possible repumping schemes. We expect our detailed study on Er$^+$ to give a good insight into laser-cooling of neighboring ions like Dy$^+$.

  19. Methods for preparation of nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates for lighting applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manoharan, Mohan; Martins Loureiro, Sergio Paulo; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2013-04-16

    Disclosed here are methods for the preparation of optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates. The optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates may be used as one or more of quantum-splitting phosphor, visible-light emitting phosphor, vacuum-UV absorbing phosphor, and UV-emitting phosphor. Also disclosed herein are discharge lamps comprising the optionally activated nanocrystalline rare earth phosphates provided by these methods.

  20. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, suppKment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979, page C5-24 Nonlinear s-f exchange interaction effect and magnetic properties of rare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -f exchange interaction effect and magnetic properties of rare earth metals K. Kaino and T. Kasuya. Introduction. - Rare earth metals are known as the most typical materials in which the s-f exchange model electrons in rare earth metals is the existenceof the flat surfaceperpendicular to c-axis [3], which

  1. Behavior Of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems, A NewExploratio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Citation Scott A. Wood. 2002. Behavior Of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems, A New Exploration-Exploitation Tool. () : Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection....

  2. DOE Seeks Your Novel Ideas for Recovery of Rare Earth Elements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    recovering rare earth elements from coal and coal byproduct streams, such as fly ash, coal refuse, and aqueous effluents," and "to report its findings and, if determined...

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Structural Transformation of A Condensed Rare Earth Metal Coordination Polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Synthesis, Characterization and Structural Transformation of A Condensed Rare Earth Metal metals under hydrothermal conditions.5 In this work, 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid has been selected

  4. Hydrothermal method of synthesis of rare-earth tantalates and niobates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E

    2012-10-16

    A hydrothermal method of synthesis of a family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

  5. Dialing in color with rare earth metals: facile photoluminescent production of true white light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tew, Gregory N.

    Dialing in color with rare earth metals: facile photoluminescent production of true white light of lanthanide ions which is the focus of this report. Rare earth metal complexes have relatively good Combining polymeric architectures with metal ions produces hybrid materials with extremely rich properties

  6. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M.; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-07-16

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N.more »europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.« less

  7. Rare Earth ? N = N* fs fGHZ fp nH fl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Rare Earth ? #12;N to date N = N* fs fGHZ fp nH fl ·N* = 4 x 1011 ·fs = 0.2 ·fGHZ = 0.1 ·fp = 0.8 ·nH = 2 ·fl = 1.0 N = 1.3 x 1010 #12;The Goldilocks Effect Earth is "Just Right" Yes, life on Earth has adapted to Earth, but ... Earth has just the right mass to be ·Tectonically-active ·Retain

  8. Monolithic integration of rare-earth oxides and semiconductors for on-silicon technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dargis, Rytis, E-mail: dargis@translucentinc.com; Clark, Andrew; Erdem Arkun, Fevzi [Translucent, Inc., 952 Commercial St., Palo Alto, California 94303 (United States); Grinys, Tomas; Tomasiunas, Rolandas [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); O'Hara, Andy; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Several concepts of integration of the epitaxial rare-earth oxides into the emerging advanced semiconductor on silicon technology are presented. Germanium grows epitaxially on gadolinium oxide despite lattice mismatch of more than 4%. Additionally, polymorphism of some of the rare-earth oxides allows engineering of their crystal structure from hexagonal to cubic and formation of buffer layers that can be used for growth of germanium on a lattice matched oxide layer. Molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride on the rare-earth oxide buffer layers on silicon is discussed.

  9. Dynamic polarizabilities of rare-earth-metal atoms and dispersion coefficients for their interaction with helium atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Xi

    Dynamic polarizabilities of rare-earth-metal atoms and dispersion coefficients; published 29 March 2007 The dynamic scalar and tensor polarizabilities of the rare-earth-metal atoms coefficients for the interactions of the rare-earth-metal atoms with helium atoms. The static polarizabilities

  10. MATERIALS WORLD January 201216 Dr Steve Barrett from the University of Liverpool, UK, has been studying rare earth metals for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Steve D.

    studying rare earth metals for 20 years. Here he explains how preparation of the surface layer is crucial to the functionality of these scarce elements. S tudies into the properties of rare earth metals have been active since of the geometric and electronic structure of single crystal rare earth metal surfaces were published. Studies

  11. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors Hannah.phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. Therare earth phosphate ceramics, glasses, and glass-ceramics

  12. Role of surface oxygen-to-metal ratio on the wettability of rare-earth oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Sami

    Hydrophobic surfaces that are robust can have widespread applications in drop-wise condensation, anti-corrosion, and anti-icing. Recently, it was shown that the class of ceramics comprising the lanthanide series rare-earth ...

  13. Need rare-earths know-how? The Critical Materials Institute offers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Need rare-earths know-how? The Critical Materials Institute offers lower-cost access to experts and research Contacts: For release: Dec. 1, 2015 Alex King, Director, Critical...

  14. Green exciplex emission from a bilayer light-emitting diode containing a rare earth ternary complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yanyi

    Green exciplex emission from a bilayer light-emitting diode containing a rare earth ternary complex form 18 October 2001 Abstract A bilayer organic light-emitting diode using a blue-fluorescent yttrium

  15. Engineering broadband and anisotropic photoluminescence emission from rare earth doped tellurite thin film photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanhoutte, Michiel

    Broadband and anisotropic light emission from rare-earth doped tellurite thin films is demonstrated using Er[superscript 3+]-TeO[subscript 2] photonic crystals (PhCs). By adjusting the PhC parameters, photoluminescent light ...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Non-Rare Earth Motor Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about non-rare earth...

  17. Pressure Dependence of the Charge-Density-Wave Gap in Rare-Earth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pressure Dependence of the Charge-Density-Wave Gap in Rare-Earth Tri-Tellurides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure Dependence of the Charge-Density-Wave Gap in...

  18. Features of an intermetallic n-ZrNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with atoms of rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romaka, V. A., E-mail: vromaka@polynet.lviv.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ya. Pidstryhach Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics (Ukraine); Fruchart, D.; Hlil, E. K. [CNRS, Institute Neel (France); Gladyshevskii, R. E. [Ivan Franko Lviv National University (Ukraine); Gignoux, D. [CNRS, Institute Neel (France); Romaka, V. V.; Kuzhel, B. S. [Ivan Franko Lviv National University (Ukraine); Krayjvskii, R. V. [Lvivska Politechnika National University (Ukraine)

    2010-03-15

    The crystal structure, density of electron states, electron transport, and magnetic characteristics of an intermetallic n-ZrNiSn semiconductor heavily doped with atoms of rare-earth metals (R) have been studied in the ranges of temperatures 1.5-400 K, concentrations of rare-earth metal 9.5 x 10{sup 19}-9.5 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}, and magnetic fields H {<=} 15 T. The regions of existence of Zr{sub 1-x}R{sub x}NiSn solid solutions are determined, criteria for solubility of atoms of rare-earth metals in ZrNiSn and for the insulator-metal transition are formulated, and the nature of 'a priori doping' of ZrNiSn is determined as a result of redistribution of Zr and Ni atoms at the crystallographic sites of Zr. Correlation between the concentration of the R impurity, the amplitude of modulation of the bands of continuous energies, and the degree of occupation of potential wells of small-scale fluctuations with charge carriers is established. The results are discussed in the context of the Shklovskii-Efros model of a heavily doped and compensated semiconductor.

  19. Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-11-13

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  20. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Hoffmann, Markus M. (Richland, WA)

    2003-12-23

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  1. Synthesis and luminescence properties of rare earth activated phosphors for near UV-emitting LEDs for efficacious generation of white light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Jinkyu

    2013-01-01

    Mn 2+ and some of rare earth metals showing 4f-5d transitionare typically transition metal or rare earth elements. The

  2. Rare Isotopes in Cosmic Explosions and Accelerators on Earth

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schatz, Hendrick [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States

    2010-01-08

    Rare isotopes are nature?s stepping stones to produce the heavy elements, and they are produced in large quantities in stellar explosions. Despite their fleeting existence, they shape the composition of the universe and the observable features of stellar explosions. The challenge for nuclear science is to produce and study the very same rare isotopes so as to understand the origin of the elements and a range of astronomical observations. I will review the progress that has been made to date in astronomy and nuclear physics, and the prospects of finally addressing many of the outstanding issues with the future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), which DOE will build at Michigan State University.

  3. Microstructural investigations of rare-earth transition-metal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (2008), identify neodymium in its role in high-performance magnets, as being vital for hybrid cars as part of the EU's attempt to reduce the problem of future energy supply. In...

  4. Computer modelling of the reduction of rare earth dopants in barium aluminate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezende, Marcos V. dos S; Valerio, Mario E.G. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Jackson, Robert A., E-mail: r.a.jackson@chem.keele.ac.uk [School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Long lasting phosphorescence in barium aluminates can be achieved by doping with rare earth ions in divalent charge states. The rare earth ions are initially in a trivalent charge state, but are reduced to a divalent charge state before being doped into the material. In this paper, the reduction of trivalent rare earth ions in the BaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} lattice is studied by computer simulation, with the energetics of the whole reduction and doping process being modelled by two methods, one based on single ion doping and one which allows dopant concentrations to be taken into account. A range of different reduction schemes are considered and the most energetically favourable schemes identified. - Graphical abstract: The doping and subsequent reduction of a rare earth ion into the barium aluminate lattice. Highlights: > The doping of barium aluminate with rare earth ions reduced in a range of atmospheres has been modelled. > The overall solution energy for the doping process for each ion in each reducing atmosphere is calculated using two methods. > The lowest energy reduction process is predicted and compared with experimental results.

  5. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, supplkment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979, page C5-65 THE ELECTRON/C STRUCTURE OF RARE-EARTHS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    /C STRUCTURE OF RARE-EARTHS. Band structures of rare earth metals(*) B. N. Harmon Ames Laboratory structure of the rare earth metals. The first calculations for the paramagnetic state of these fascinating structure of rare earth metals. The reviews by Dimmock [I] and Freeman [2] are well known. In addition a new

  6. The effect of rare earth elements on the texture and formability of asymmetrically rolled magnesium sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderman, Dr. Martyn [Magnesium Elektron North America; Cavin, Odis Burl [ORNL; Davis, Dr. Bruce [Magnesium Elektron North America; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Randman, David [Magnesium Elektron North America; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The lack of formability is a serious issue when considering magnesium alloys for various applications. Standard symmetric rolling introduces a strong basal texture that decreases the formability; however, asymmetric rolling has been put forward as a possible route to produce sheet with weaker texture and greater ductility. It has also been shown in recent work that weaker textures can be produced through the addition of rare earth elements to magnesium alloys. Therefore, this study has been carried out to investigate the effect of rare earth additions on the texture changes during asymmetric rolling. Two alloys have been used, AZ31B and ZEK100. The effect that the rare earth additions have on the texture of asymmetrically rolled sheet and the subsequent changes in formability will be discussed.

  7. Method of forming magnetostrictive rods from rare earth-iron alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMasters, O.D.

    1986-09-02

    Rods of magnetostrictive alloys of iron with rare earth elements are formed by flowing a body of rare earth-iron alloy in a crucible enclosed in a chamber maintained under an inert gas atmosphere, forcing such molten rare-earth-iron alloy into a hollow mold tube of refractory material positioned with its lower end portion within the molten body by means of a pressure differential between the chamber and mold tube and maintaining a portion of the molten alloy in the crucible extending to a level above the lower end of the mold tube so that solid particles of higher melting impurities present in the alloy collect at the surface of the molten body and remain within the crucible as the rod is formed in the mold tube. 5 figs.

  8. Origin of Low-Lying Enhanced E1 Strength in Rare-Earth Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Spieker; S. Pascu; A. Zilges; F. Iachello

    2015-05-17

    The experimental $E1$ strength distribution below 4 MeV in rare-earth nuclei suggests a local breaking of isospin symmetry. In addition to the octupole states, additional $1^-$ states with enhanced E1 strength have been observed in rare-earth nuclei by means of ($\\gamma,\\gamma'$) experiments. By reproducing the experimental results, the spdf interacting boson model calculations provide further evidence for the formation of an $\\alpha$ cluster in medium-mass nuclei and might provide a new understanding of the origin of low-lying E1 strength.

  9. Interfacing Superconducting Qubits and Telecom Photons via a Rare-Earth Doped Crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher O'Brien; Nikolai Lauk; Susanne Blum; Giovanna Morigi; Michael Fleischhauer

    2014-07-25

    We propose a scheme to couple short single photon pulses to superconducting qubits. An optical photon is first absorbed into an inhomogeneously broadened rare-earth doped crystal using controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening. The optical excitation is then mapped into a spin state using a series of $\\pi$-pulses and subsequently transferred to a superconducting qubit via a microwave cavity. To overcome the intrinsic and engineered inhomogeneous broadening of the optical and spin transitions in rare earth doped crystals, we make use of a special transfer protocol using staggered $\\pi$-pulses. We predict total transfer efficiencies on the order of 90%.

  10. Metal enhanced fluorescence in rare earth doped plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derom, S; Pillonnet, A; Benamara, O; Jurdyc, A M; Girard, C; Francs, G Colas des

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate metal enhanced fluorescence of plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles doped with rare earth (RE) ions. Particle shape and size are engineered to maximize the average enhancement factor (AEF) of the overall doped shell. We show that the highest enhancement (11 in the visible and 7 in the near-infrared) are achieved by tuning either the dipolar or quadrupolar particle resonance to the rare earth ions excitation wavelength. Additionally, the calculated AEFs are compared to experimental data reported in the literature, obtained in similar conditions (plasmon mediated enhancement) or when a metal-RE energy transfer mechanism is involved.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and up/down-conversion luminescence of barium rare earth fluoride nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Li-Ping; Zhang, Qiang [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse (Tongji University) (China); Yan, Bing, E-mail: byan@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse (Tongji University) (China)

    2014-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Lanthanide ions doped bare earth rare earth fluoride nanocrystals are synthesized by hydrothermal technology and characterized. The down/up-conversion luminescence of them are discussed. - Highlights: • Mixed hydrothermal system H{sub 2}O–OA (EDA)–O-A(LO-A) is used for synthesis. • Barium rare earth fluoride nanocrystals are synthesized comprehensively. • Luminescence for down-conversion and up-conversion are obtained for these systems. - Abstract: Mixed hydrothermal system H{sub 2}O–OA (EDA)–O-A(LO-A) is developed to synthesize barium rare earth fluorides nanocrystals (OA = oleylamine, EDA = ethylenediamine, O-A = oleic acid and LO-A = linoleic acid). They are presented as BaREF{sub 5} (RE = Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Y, Tm, Lu) and Ba{sub 2}REF{sub 7} (RE = La, Sm, Ho, Er, Yb). The influence of reaction parameters (rare earth species, hydrothermal system and temperature) is checked on the phase and shape evolution of the fluoride nanocrystals. It is found that reaction time and temperature of these nanocrystals using EDA (180 °C, 6 h) is lower than those of them using OA (220 °C, 10 h). The photoluminescence properties of these fluorides activated by some rare earth ions (Nd{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}) are studied, and especially up-conversion luminescence of the four fluoride nanocrystal systems (Ba{sub 2}LaF{sub 7}:Yb, Tm(Er), Ba{sub 2}REF{sub 7}:Yb, Tm(Er) (RE = Gd, Y, Lu)) is observed.

  12. Hydrogen absorption characteristics of oxygen-stabilized rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrogen absorption characteristics of oxygen-stabilized rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds M Abstract. -- The thermal behavior of oxygen-stabilized RjFegO^-hydrogen (R = Y, Dy, Ho) systems was studied decade to the study of the hydrogenation characte- ristics of a variety of intermetallic compounds, our

  13. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  14. Synthesis, Computations and Characterizations of Low Dimensional Rare-Earth Compounds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Yu

    2014-04-28

    coupling possible. Four new rare-earth compounds were synthesized in this work, I. Gd_(9)Br_(16)O_(4), II. Gd_(6)Br_(7)Si_(2), III. Pr_(3)Si and IV. Pr_(2)I_(2)Ge. The first two gadolinium bromide compounds exhibit 1-dimensional Ln-Ln-bonded motifs imbedded...

  15. Ternary rare earth-lanthanide sulfides. [Re = Eu, Sm or Yb

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takeshita, Takuo; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Beaudry, B.J.

    1986-03-06

    Disclosed is a new ternary rare earth sulfur compound having the formula La/sub 3-x/M/sub x/S/sub 4/, where M is europium, samarium, or ytterbium, with x = 0.15 to 0.8. The compound has good high-temperature thermoelectric properties and exhibits long-term structural stability up to 1000/sup 0/C.

  16. A strong magneto-optical activity in rare-earth La{sup 3+} substituted M-type strontium ferrites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Feng; Liu Xiansong; Zhu Deru [Engineering Technology Research Center of Magnetic Materials, Anhui Province, School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Fernandez-Garcia, Lucia; Suarez, Marta; Luis Menendez, Jose [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) - Universidad de Oviedo - UO - Principado de Asturias, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera, Asturias (Spain)

    2011-06-01

    M-type strontium ferrites with substitution of Sr{sup 2+} by rare-earth La{sup 3+} were prepared by conventional ceramic technology. The structure, magnetic properties, and magneto-optical Kerr activity of Sr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and magneto-optical ellipsometry, respectively. X-ray diffraction showed that the samples sintered at 1290 deg. C for 3 h were single M-type hexagonal ferrites. The magnetic properties were remarkably changed due to the valence change of Fe ions induced by the substitution of La ions. Most significantly, an important magneto-optical activity was induced in the La{sup 3+} substituted M-type strontium ferrites around 3 eV.

  17. An x-ray absorption spectroscopic study of the electronic structure and bonding of rare-earth orthoferrites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, J.R.; Grosvenor, A.P. (Saskatchewan)

    2011-11-07

    Rare-earth orthoferrites, REFeO{sub 3} (RE=rare earth; Y), are tremendously adaptable compounds that are being investigated for use in a wide variety of applications including gas sensors, vehicle catalytic converters, and solid-oxide fuel cells. They also exhibit interesting magnetic properties such as high-temperature antiferromagnetism, making them useful for data storage applications. The compounds adopt a distorted perovskite-type structure where the tilt angle of the octahedra increases (Fe-O-Fe bond angle decreases) as the size of the rare-earth atom decreases. Despite intensive study of the physical properties of these compounds, very few studies have investigated how the bonding and electronic structure of these systems change with substitution of the RE. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) is a technique well-suited for such a study, and, in view of this, Fe L-, Fe K- and O K-edge spectra from a series of REFeO{sub 3} compounds (RE=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Ho, Yb, Y) have been collected, and are presented here. Fe L-edge spectra show that Fe is octahedrally coordinated and that the Fe-centered octahedra do not appear to distort with changes in the identity of the RE. The Fe K-edge spectra contain an intersite hybrid peak, which is an ill-studied feature that is attributed to non-local transitions of 1s electrons to 3d states on the next-nearest-neighbor atom that are hybridized with 4p states on the absorbing atom through O 2p states. In this study, it is shown that the intensity of this feature is strongly dependent on the Fe-O-Fe bond angle; the lower the Fe-O-Fe bond angle, the less intense the intersite hybrid peak is.

  18. Two types of rare earth-organic frameworks constructed by racemic tartaric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Zhanguo [Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Reactive Chemistry on Solid Surfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China); Lv Yaokang [Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Reactive Chemistry on Solid Surfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Cheng Jianwen [Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Reactive Chemistry on Solid Surfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China); Feng Yunlong, E-mail: sky37@zjnu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Reactive Chemistry on Solid Surfaces, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of rare earth oxides with racemic tartaric acid (H{sub 2}tar) yielded 7 rare earth(III) MOFs with general formulas [R{sub 2}(tar){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (R=Y (1), Sm (4), Eu (5), Tb (6), Dy (7)) and [R{sub 2}(tar){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}4nH{sub 2}O (R=La (2), Nd (3)). X-ray powder diffraction analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that they present two different structural types. MOFs 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are isostructural and crystallize in the orthorhombic non-centrosymmetric space group Iba2, and feature unusual fsc-3,4-Iba2 topology. MOFs 2 and 3 are isostructural and crystallize in monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c space group and display rare fsx-4,5-P2{sub 1}/c topology containing hydrophilic channels bounded by triple helical chains along a axis. MOFs 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 exhibit intense lanthanide characteristic photoluminescence at room temperature. - Graphical Abstract: [R{sub 2}(tar){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}4nH{sub 2}O (R=La (2), Nd (3)) display rare fsx-4,5-P2{sub 1}/c topology containing hydrophilic channels bounded by triple helical chains along a axis. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two types of rare earth MOFs were synthesized by hydrothermal conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MOFs feature unusual fsc-3,4-Iba2 and rare fsx-4,5-P2{sub 1}/c topology structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MOFs exhibit intense lanthanide characteristic photoluminescence.

  19. Spatial inhomogeneity in RFeAs(O,F)(R=Pr,Nd) as revealed by studies of the rare earth crystal field excitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goremychkin, E. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Osborn, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wang, Cuihuan [ORNL; Lumsden, Mark D [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Mandrus, David [ORNL; Ronnow, H. M. [Lab for Quantum Magnetism, Switzerland; Su, Y. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Christianson, Andrew D [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We report inelastic neutron-scattering measurements of crystal-field transitions in PrFeAsO, PrFeAsO{sub 0.87}F{sub 0.13}, and NdFeAsO{sub 0.85}F{sub 0.15}. Doping with fluorine produces additional crystal-field excitations, providing evidence that there are two distinct charge environments around the rare-earth ions, with probabilities that are consistent with a random distribution of dopants on the oxygen sites. The 4f electrons of the Pr{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+} ions have nonmagnetic and magnetic ground states, respectively, indicating that the enhancement of T{sub c} compared to LaFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} is not due to rare-earth magnetism.

  20. Coupling of a locally implanted rare-earth ion ensemble to a superconducting micro-resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wisby, I., E-mail: ilana.wisby@npl.co.uk; Tzalenchuk, A. Ya. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Graaf, S. E. de; Adamyan, A.; Kubatkin, S. E. [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gwilliam, R. [Advanced Technology Institute, Faculty of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Meeson, P. J. [Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Lindström, T. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-08

    We demonstrate the coupling of rare-earth ions locally implanted in a substrate (Gd{sup 3+} in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to a superconducting NbN lumped-element micro-resonator. The hybrid device is fabricated by a controlled ion implantation of rare-earth ions in well-defined micron-sized areas, aligned to lithographically defined micro-resonators. The technique does not degrade the internal quality factor of the resonators which remain above 10{sup 5}. Using microwave absorption spectroscopy, we observe electron-spin resonances in good agreement with numerical modelling and extract corresponding coupling rates of the order of 1?MHz and spin linewidths of 50–65?MHz.

  1. ?-decay of neutron-rich Z?60 nuclei and the origin of rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan and School of Physics and State key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University (China); Nishimura, S.; Lorusso, G.; Baba, H.; Doornenbal, P.; Isobe, T.; Söderström, P. A.; Sakurai, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Xu, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, 113-0033 Tokyo (Japan); Browne, F. [School of Computing Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brighton (United Kingdom); Daido, R.; Fang, Y. F.; Yagi, A.; Nishibata, H.; Odahara, A.; Yamamoto, T. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-machi 1-1, Osaka 560-0043 Toyonaka (Japan); Ideguchi, E.; Aoi, N.; Tanaka, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University (Japan); Collaboration: EURICA Collaboration; and others

    2014-05-02

    A large fraction of the rare-earth elements observed in the solar system is produced in the astrophysical rapid neutron capture process (r-process). However, current stellar models cannot completely explain the relative abundance of these elements partially because of nuclear physics uncertainties. To address this problem, a ?-decay spectroscopy experiment was performed at RI Beam Factory (RIBF) at RIKEN, aimed at studying a wide range of very neutron-rich nuclei with Z?60 that are progenitors of the rare-earth elements with mass number A?460. The experiment provides a test of nuclear models as well as experimental inputs for r-process calculations. This contribution presents the experimental setup and some preliminary results of the experiment.

  2. Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji; Izawa, Yasukazu [ARCBS, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan) and Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements (Sc, Y, and Gd) in the impact energy range of 30 to 1000 eV were measured for the first time. The experiments were performed with a crossed-beam apparatus that featured primary ion production by photoionization with a tunable dye laser. Comparing the cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements ({sigma}{sub Sc}, {sigma}{sub Y}, and {sigma}{sub Gd}) with those of alkali metals or helium {sigma}{sub 0}, we found that {sigma}{sub 0{approx_equal}{sigma}Sc}<{sigma}{sub Y}<{sigma}{sub Gd{approx_equal}}2{sigma}{sub 0}at an impact energy of 1000 eV.

  3. Spectral statistics of rare-earth nuclei: Investigation of shell model configuration effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Sabri

    2015-06-11

    The spectral statistics of even-even rare-earth nuclei are investigated by using all the available empirical data for Ba, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb and Hf isotopes. The Berry- Robnik distribution and Maximum Likelihood estimation technique are used for analyses. An obvious deviation from GOE is observed for considered nuclei and there are some suggestions about the effect due to mass, deformation parameter and shell model configurations.

  4. Structural and crystal chemical properties of rare-earth titanate pyrochlores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, James Matthew; Boatner, Lynn A; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Du, Mao-Hua; Lance, Michael J; Rawn, Claudia J.; Bryan, Jeff C.

    2014-01-01

    Rare-earth titanates, RE2Ti2O7 (where RE = a rare-earth) with the pyrochlore structure continue to be investigated for use as potential stable host materials for nuclear and actinide-rich wastes. Accordingly, the present work is directed towards the elucidation of the fundamental structural, physical, and thermochemical properties of this class of compounds. Single-crystals of the rare earth pyrochlores were synthesized using a high-temperature flux technique and were subsequently characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cubic lattice parameters display an approximately linear correlation with the RE-site cation radius. Theoretical calculations of the lattice constants and bond lengths of the subject materials were carried out using density functional theory, and the results are compared to the experimental values. The Sm and Eu titanates exhibit a covalency increase between the REO8 and TiO6 polyhedra resulting in a deviation from the increasing linear lattice parameter through the transition series. Gd2Ti2O7 with the 4f7 half-filled f-orbital Gd3+ sub-shell exhibits the lowest 48f oxygen positional parameter. The coefficient of thermal expansion for the rare-earth titanate series is approximately linear, and it has a range of 10.1 11.2 x 10-6 C-1. Raman spectroscopy indicated that the ~530 cm-1 peak associated with the Ti-O stretching mode follows a general trend of decreasing frequency with increasing RE reduced mass.

  5. First-principles study of He point-defects in HCP rare-earth metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Ru; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Wu, Z.; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao

    2011-05-01

    He defect properties in Sc, Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Lu were studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the formation energy of an interstitial He atom is smaller than that of a substitutional He atom in all hcp rare-earth metals considered. Furthermore, the tetrahedral interstitial position is more favorable than an octahedral position for He defects. The results are compared with those from bcc and fcc metals.

  6. DOE's "Creating a Star on Earth" video highlights PPPL's magnetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE's "Creating a Star on Earth" video highlights PPPL's magnetic fusion research March 5, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook A screenshot from the U.S. Department...

  7. Structural and Crystal Chemical Properties of Alkali Rare-earth Double Phosphates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Farmer, James Matthew; Boatner, Lynn A.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Rawn, Claudia J.; Richardson, Jim

    2015-09-16

    When appropriately activated, alkali rare-earth double phosphates of the form: M3RE(PO4)2 (where M denotes an alkali metal and RE represents either a rare-earth element or Y or Sc) are of interest for use as inorganic scintillators for radiation detection at relatively long optical emission wavelengths. These compounds exhibit layered crystal structures whose symmetry properties depend on the relative sizes of the rare-earth and alkali-metal cations. Single-crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction methods were used here to refine the structures of the series of rare-earth double phosphate compounds: K3RE(PO4)2 with RE = Lu, Er, Ho, Dy, Gd, Nd, Ce, plus Ymore »and Sc - as well as the compounds: A3Lu(PO4)2, with A = Rb, and Cs. The double phosphate K3Lu(PO4)2 was reported and structurally refined previously. This material had a hexagonal unit cell at room temperature with the Lu ion six-fold coordinated with oxygen atoms of the surrounding phosphate groups. Additionally two lower-temperature phases were observed for K3Lu(PO4)2. The first phase transition to a monoclinic P21/m phase occurred at ~230 K, and the Lu ion retained its six-fold coordination. The second K3Lu(PO4)2 phase transition occurred at ~130 K. The P21/m space group symmetry was retained, however, one of the phosphate groups rotated to increase the oxygen coordination number of Lu from six to seven. This structure then became isostructural with the room-temperature form of the compound K3Yb(PO4)2 reported here that also exhibits an additional high-temperature phase which occurs at T = 120 °C with a transformation to hexagonal P-3 space group symmetry and a Yb-ion coordination number reduction from seven to six. This latter result was confirmed using EXAFS. The single-crystal growth methods structural systematics, and thermal expansion properties of the present series of alkali rare-earth double phosphates, as determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods, are treated here.« less

  8. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, supplkment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979,page C5-40 High field magnetoresistanceof silver containing rare-earth impurities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and exchange scattering. 1. General. -Rare-earth impurities in metals give rise to an anisotropic magnetoresistanceof silver containing rare-earth impurities J. C. Ousset I.N.S.A., UniversitC Paul Sabatier, 31000 magnetoresistance dis- appears for Gd impurities (L = 0) and changes its sign half-way in the heavy rare-earth

  9. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, suppliment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979,page C5-46 High-temperature Hall effect in rare earth metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -temperature Hall effect in rare earth metals M. V. Vedernikov, V. G. Dvunitkin and N. I. Moreva A. F. Ioffe. Abstract. - Up to date the Hall effect in rare earth metals (REM) was studied rather extensively below at http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jphyscol:1979518 #12;HIGH-TEMPERATURE HALL EFFECT IN RARE EARTH METALS C5

  10. Non-Rare Earth magnetic materials (Agreement ID:19201)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Non-Rare Earth magnetic materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce CarbonEnergy Fuel Effects onPlatinum Bimetallicmagnetic

  12. Spomenka Kobe, Jozef Stefan Institut, Rare Earth Magnets in Europe |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVESDepartmentSpecial Report:Department of Energy

  13. Extraordinary Responsive Rare Earth Magnetic Materials | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesofExtrans - Permeation Measurement System Y-12

  14. Ultra-low rare earth element content in accreted ice from sub-glacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Ultra-low rare earth element content in accreted ice from sub-glacial Lake Vostok, Antarctica Paolo. We suggest that such ultra-low concentrations are unlikely to be representative of the real REE

  15. (1) Frank May REU Summary 2012 -http://engineering.umass.edu/reu/2012/reu-students (2) "Hard Magnetic Materials: A Perspecitve" J.M.D. Coey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    -performance magnets on the market are formed using rare-earth metals. However, a world-wide shortage of rare-earth of these rare-earth metals. My project focuses on one method for forming high-performance magnets: modeling to become one of the world's main suppliers of powerful rare-earth magnets2,3 . In order to gain

  16. Structural transition in rare earth doped zirconium oxide: A positron annihilation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Keka; Bisoi, Abhijit

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: New microstructural analysis and phase transition of rare earth doped mixed oxide compounds such as: Sm{sub 2?x}Dy{sub x}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (where x = 0.0 ? x ? 2.0) that are potentially useful as solid oxide fuels, ionic conductors, optoelectronic materials and most importantly as radiation resistant host for high level rad-waste disposal, structural transition in the system is reported through positron annihilation spectroscopy as there is an indication in the X-ray diffraction analysis. Highlights: ? Zirconium oxide material doped with rare earth ions. ? The method of positron annihilation spectroscopy suggests a phase transition in the system. ? The crystal structure transformation from pure pyrochlore to defect fluorite type of structure is shown by X-ray diffraction results. -- Abstract: A series of compounds with the general composition Sm{sub 2?x}Dy{sub x}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (where 0 ? x ? 2.0) were synthesized by chemical route and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The rare earth ion namely Sm{sup +3} in the compound was gradually replaced with another smaller and heavier ion, Dy{sup +3} of the 4f series, there by resulting in order–disorder structural transition, which has been studied by positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening spectroscopy. This study reveals the subtle electronic micro environmental changes in the pyrochlore lattice (prevalent due to the oxygen vacancy in anti-site defect structure of the compound) toward its transformation to defect fluorite structure as found in Dy{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. A comparison of the changes perceived with PAS as compared to XRD analysis is critically assayed.

  17. Recent results at ultrahigh spin: Terminating states and beyond in mass 160 rare-earth nuclei

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paul, E. S.; Rees, J. M.; Hampson, P.; Riley, M. A.; Simpson, J.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Baron, J. S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Garg, U.; et al

    2015-01-01

    A classic region of band termination at high spin occurs in rare-earth nuclei with around ten valence nucleons above the 146Gd closed core. The results are presented here for such non-collective oblate (? = 60°) terminating states in odd-Z 155Ho, odd–odd 156Ho, and even–even 156Er, where they are compared with neighboring nuclei. In addition to these particularly favoured states, the occurrence of collective triaxial strongly deformed (TSD) bands, bypassing the terminating states and extending to over 65?, is reviewed.

  18. Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, Takamitsu; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Yatagai, Toyohiko [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Kilbane, Deirdre; White, John; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Forschungszentrum Dresden, Bautzner Landstrs. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-09-13

    We have demonstrated a laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source operating in the 6.5-6.7 nm region based on rare-earth targets of Gd and Tb coupled with a Mo/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror. Multiply charged ions produce strong resonance emission lines, which combine to yield an intense unresolved transition array. The spectra of these resonant lines around 6.7 nm (in-band: 6.7 nm {+-}1%) suggest that the in-band emission increases with increased plasma volume by suppressing the plasma hydrodynamic expansion loss at an electron temperature of about 50 eV, resulting in maximized emission.

  19. Fabrication of Rare Earth-Doped Transparent Glass Ceramic Optical Fibers by Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanc, Wilfried; Nguyen, Luan; Bhaktha, S N B; Sebbah, Patrick; Pal, Bishnu P; Dussardier, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped silica-based optical fibers with transparent glass ceramic (TGC) core was fabricated through the well-known modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process without going through the commonly used stage of post-ceramming. The main characteristics of the RE-doped oxyde nanoparticles namely, their density and mean diameter in the fibers are dictated by the concentration of alkaline earth element used as phase separating agent. Magnesium and erbium co-doped fibers were fabricated. Optical transmission in term of loss due to scattering as well as some spectroscopic characteristics of the erbium ions was studied. For low Mg content, nano-scale particles could be grown with and relatively low scattering losses were obtained, whereas large Mg-content causes the growth of larger particles resulting in much higher loss. However in the latter case, certain interesting alteration of the spectroscopic properties of the erbium ions were observed. These initial studies should be useful in incorporati...

  20. Influence of rare earth doping on thermoelectric properties of SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J. Wang, C. L.; Li, Y.; Su, W. B.; Zhu, Y. H.; Li, J. C.; Mei, L. M.

    2013-12-14

    Thermoelectric properties of SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics, doped with different rare earth elements, were investigated in this work. It's found that the ionic radius of doping elements plays an important role on thermoelectric properties: SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics doped with large rare earth ions (such as La, Nd, and Sm) exhibit large power factors, and those doped with small ions (such as Gd, Dy, Er, and Y) exhibit low thermal conductivities. Therefore, a simple approach for enhancing the thermoelectric performance of SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics is proposed: mainly doped with large ions to obtain a large power factor and, simultaneously, slightly co-doped with small ions to obtain a low thermal conductivity. Based on this rule, Sr{sub 0.8}La{sub 0.18}Yb{sub 0.02}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were prepared, whose ZT value at 1?023?K reaches 0.31, increasing by a factor of 19% compared with the single-doped counterpart Sr{sub 0.8}La{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} (ZT?=?0.26)

  1. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, supplkment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979,page C5-8 The evidence for anisotropic rare-earth-conduction electron interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - electric power of rare-earth impurities in metals and rare-earth intermetallic compounds-conduction electron (k-f) interaction. We consider rare-earth ions in two important contexts, as impurities in metals for anisotropic rare-earth-conduction electron interactions P. M. Levy Department of Physics, New York University

  2. Microstructure and properties of 17-4PH steel plasma nitrocarburized with a carrier gas containing rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, R.L., E-mail: ruiliangliu@126.com [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yan, M.F., E-mail: yanmufu@hit.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Y.Q. [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhao, C.Z. [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin150001 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of rare earth addition in the carrier gas on plasma nitrocarburizing of 17-4PH steel was studied. The microstructure and crystallographically of the phases in the surface layer as well as surface morphology of the nitrocarburized specimens were characterized by optical microscope, X-ray diffraction and scanning tunneling microscope, respectively. The hardness of the surface layer was measured by using a Vickers hardness test. The results show that the incorporation of rare earth elements in the carrier gas can increase the nitrocarburized layer thickness up to 55%, change the phase proportion in the nitrocarburized layer, refine the nitrides in surface layer, and increase the layer hardness above 100HV. The higher surface hardening effect after rare earth addition is caused by improvement in microstructure and change in the phase proportion of the nitrocarburized layer.

  3. 13.21 Geochemistry of the Rare-Earth Element, Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr Deposits RL Linnen, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakhmouradian, Anton

    13.21 Geochemistry of the Rare-Earth Element, Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr Deposits RL Linnen, University of rare metals in natural fluids 551 13.21.2.2.2 Aqueous complexation and mineral solubility 552 13 Acknowledgments 564 References 564 13.21.1 Introduction Rare-element mineral deposits, also called rare-metal

  4. Rare-earth chromium gallides RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} (RE=Tb-Tm)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Brianna R.; Bie, Haiying; Stoyko, Stanislav S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada); Bauer, Eric D.; Thompson, Joe D. [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    The ternary rare-earth-metal chromium gallides RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} (RE=Tb-Tm) have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1000 Degree-Sign C in the presence of excess gallium used as a self-flux. Their structures are derived by inserting Cr atoms into a quarter of the empty Ga{sub 6} octahedral clusters found in the parent binary gallides REGa{sub 3} (AuCu{sub 3}-type), although single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies suggest that complex superstructures may be adopted. An ideal ordered Y{sub 4}PdGa{sub 12}-type structure was successfully refined for a crystal of Dy{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} (Pearson symbol cI34, space group Im3{sup Macron }m, Z=2, a=8.572(1) A). Magnetic measurements on single-crystal samples reveal ferromagnetic or possibly ferrimagnetic ordering for the Tb, Dy, and Er members (T{sub C}=22, 15, and 2.8 K, respectively) and antiferromagnetic ordering for the Ho member (T{sub N}=7.5 K). Band structure calculations on a hypothetical 'Y{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12}' model suggest that the Cr atoms carry no local magnetic moment. - Graphical abstract: RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} is derived by inserting Cr atoms into empty Ga{sub 6} octahedral clusters present in the parent binary gallides REGa{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RE{sub 4}MGa{sub 12} (previously known for M=Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag) has been extended to M=Cr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RE{sub 4}CrGa{sub 12} compounds show predominantly ferromagnetic ordering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Band structure calculations suggest that Cr atoms carry no local magnetic moment.

  5. High fidelity readout scheme for rare-earth solid state quantum computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Walther; L. Rippe; Y. Yan; J. Karlsson; D. Serrano; A. N. Nilsson; S. Bengtsson; S. Kröll

    2015-03-29

    We propose and analyze a high fidelity readout scheme for a single instance approach to quantum computing in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. The scheme is based on using different species of qubit and readout ions, and it is shown that by allowing the closest qubit ion to act as a readout buffer, the readout error can be reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The scheme is shown to be robust against certain experimental variations, such as varying detection efficiencies, and we use the scheme to predict the expected quantum fidelity of a CNOT gate in these solid state systems. In addition, we discuss the potential scalability of the protocol to larger qubit systems. The results are based on parameters which we believed are experimentally feasible with current technology, and which can be simultaneously realized.

  6. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott A. Wood

    2002-01-28

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two.

  7. The impact of trade costs on rare earth exports : a stochastic frontier estimation approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanyal, Prabuddha; Brady, Patrick Vane; Vugrin, Eric D.

    2013-09-01

    The study develops a novel stochastic frontier modeling approach to the gravity equation for rare earth element (REE) trade between China and its trading partners between 2001 and 2009. The novelty lies in differentiating betweenbehind the border' trade costs by China and theimplicit beyond the border costs' of China's trading partners. Results indicate that the significance level of the independent variables change dramatically over the time period. While geographical distance matters for trade flows in both periods, the effect of income on trade flows is significantly attenuated, possibly capturing the negative effects of financial crises in the developed world. Second, the total export losses due tobehind the border' trade costs almost tripled over the time period. Finally, looking atimplicit beyond the border' trade costs, results show China gaining in some markets, although it is likely that some countries are substituting away from Chinese REE exports.

  8. Modification of phonon processes in nano-structured rare-earth-ion-doped crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Thomas; Thiel, Charles W; Cone, Rufus L; Barclay, Paul E; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Nano-structuring impurity-doped crystals affects the phonon density of states and thereby modifies the atomic dynamics induced by interaction with phonons. We propose the use of nano-structured materials in the form of powders or phononic bandgap crystals to enable, or improve, persistent spectral hole-burning and optical coherence for inhomogeneously broadened absorption lines in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. This is crucial for applications such as ultra-precise radio-frequency spectrum analyzers and certain approaches to optical quantum memories. We specifically discuss how phonon engineering can enable spectral hole burning in erbium-doped materials operating in the telecommunication band, and present simulations for density of states of nano-sized powders and phononic crystals for the case of Y$_2$SiO$_5$, a widely-used material in current quantum memory research.

  9. Nanophotonic coherent light-matter interfaces based on rare-earth-doped crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Tian; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Quantum light-matter interfaces (QLMIs) connecting stationary qubits to photons will enable optical networks for quantum communications, precise global time keeping, photon switching, and studies of fundamental physics. Rare-earth-ion (REI) doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical photons, microwave photons and spin waves. Here we demonstrate coupling of an ensemble of neodymium REIs to photonic nano-cavities fabricated in the yttrium orthosilicate host crystal. Cavity quantum electrodynamics effects including Purcell enhancement (F=42) and dipole-induced transparency are observed on the highly coherent 4I9/2-4F3/2 optical transition. Fluctuations in the cavity transmission due to statistical fine structure of the atomic density are measured, indicating operation at the quantum level. Coherent optical control of cavity-coupled REIs is performed via photon echoes. Long optical coherence times (T2~100 microseconds) and small inhomogeneous...

  10. Finite amplitude method applied to giant dipole resonance in heavy rare-earth nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oishi, Tomohiro; Hinohara, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), within the framework of the nuclear density functional theory (DFT), has been a standard tool to access the collective excitations of the atomic nuclei. Recently, finite amplitude method (FAM) has been developed, in order to perform the QRPA calculations efficiently without any truncation on the two-quasiparticle model space. Purpose: We discuss the nuclear giant dipole resonance (GDR) in heavy rare-earth isotopes, for which the conventional matrix diagonalization of the QRPA is numerically demanding. A role of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule enhancement factor, connected to the isovector effective mass, is also investigated. Methods: The electric dipole photoabsorption cross section was calculated within a parallelized FAM-QRPA scheme. We employed the Skyrme energy density functional self-consistently in the DFT calculation for the ground states and FAM-QRPA calculation for the excitations. Results: The mean GDR frequency and width are mo...

  11. Rare earth/iron fluoride and methods for making and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Neveda, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA)

    1991-12-17

    A particulate mixture of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and RE.sub.2 O.sub.3, where RE is a rare earth element, is reacted with an excess of HF acid to form an insoluble fluoride compound (salt) comprising REF.sub.3 and FeF.sub.3 present in solid solution in the REF.sub.3 crystal lattice. The REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 compound is dried to render it usable as a reactant in the thermite reduction process as well as other processes which require an REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 mixture. The dried REF.sub.3 /FeF.sub.3 compound comprises about 5 weight % to about 40 weight % of FeF.sub.3 and the balance REF.sub.3 to this end.

  12. Coherent spectroscopy of rare-earth-metal-ion-doped whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAuslan, D. L.; Korystov, D.; Longdell, J. J. [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultra-Cold Atoms, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. (New Zealand)

    2011-06-15

    We perform an investigation into the properties of Pr{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} whispering-gallery-mode resonators as a first step toward achieving the strong coupling regime of cavity QED with rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystals. Direct measurement of cavity QED parameters are made using photon echoes, giving good agreement with theoretical predictions. By comparing the ions at the surface of the resonator to those in the center, it is determined that the physical process of making the resonator does not negatively affect the properties of the ions. Coupling between the ions and resonator is analyzed through the observation of optical bistability and normal-mode splitting.

  13. Rare earth element components in atmospheric particulates in the Bayan Obo mine region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lingqing, E-mail: wanglq@igsnrr.ac.cn; Liang, Tao, E-mail: liangt@igsnrr.ac.cn; Zhang, Qian; Li, Kexin

    2014-05-01

    The Bayan Obo mine, located in Inner Mongolia, China, is the largest light rare earth body ever found in the world. The research for rare earth elements (REEs) enrichment in atmospheric particulates caused by mining and ore processing is fairly limited so far. In this paper, atmospheric particulates including total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM{sub 10}) were collected around the Bayan Obo mine region, in August 2012 and March 2013, to analyze the levels and distributions of REEs in particles. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP were 149.8 and 239.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and those for PM{sub 10} were 42.8 and 68.9 ng/m{sup 3}, in August 2012 and March 2013, respectively. Enrichment factor was calculated for all 14 REEs in the TSP and PM{sub 10} and the results indicated that REEs enrichment in atmosphere particulates was caused by anthropogenic sources and influenced by the strong wind in springtime. The spatial distribution of REEs in TSP showed a strong gradient concentration in the prevailing wind direction. REE chondrite normalized patterns of TSP and PM{sub 10} were similar and the normalized curves inclined to the right side, showing the conspicuous fractionation between the light REEs and heavy REE, which supported by the chondrite normalized concentration ratios calculated for selected elements (La{sub N}/Yb{sub N}, La{sub N}/Sm{sub N}, Gd{sub N}/Yb{sub N}). - Highlights: • TSP and PM{sub 10} samples were collected to analyze the levels and distributions of REE. • Enrichment factors indicated that REE enrichment was caused by anthropogenic sources. • The distribution of REEs showed a strong gradient in the prevailing wind direction. • Obvious fractionation between LREEs and HREEs is observed in atmospheric particulates.

  14. Effect of hydrocarbon adsorption on the wettability of rare earth oxide ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Daniel J.; Miljkovic, Nenad; Sack, Jean; Queeney, John; Wang, Evelyn N., E-mail: enwang@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Enright, Ryan [Thermal Management Research Group, Efficient Energy Transfer (etaET) Department, Bell Labs Ireland, Dublin 15 (Ireland)

    2014-07-07

    Vapor condensation is routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat, with dropwise condensation exhibiting a 5???7x heat transfer improvement compared to filmwise condensation. However, state-of-the-art techniques to promote dropwise condensation rely on functional hydrophobic coatings, which are often not robust and therefore undesirable for industrial implementation. Natural surface contamination due to hydrocarbon adsorption, particularly on noble metals, has been explored as an alternative approach to realize stable dropwise condensing surfaces. While noble metals are prohibitively expensive, the recent discovery of robust rare earth oxide (REO) hydrophobicity has generated interest for dropwise condensation applications due to material costs approaching 1% of gold; however, the underlying mechanism of REO hydrophobicity remains under debate. In this work, we show through careful experiments and modeling that REO hydrophobicity occurs due to the same hydrocarbon adsorption mechanism seen previously on noble metals. To investigate adsorption dynamics, we studied holmia and ceria REOs, along with control samples of gold and silica, via X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic time-resolved contact angle measurements. The contact angle and surface carbon percent started at ?0 on in-situ argon-plasma-cleaned samples and increased asymptotically over time after exposure to laboratory air, with the rare earth oxides displaying hydrophobic (>90°) advancing contact angle behavior at long times (>4 days). The results indicate that REOs are in fact hydrophilic when clean and become hydrophobic due to hydrocarbon adsorption. Furthermore, this study provides insight into how REOs can be used to promote stable dropwise condensation, which is important for the development of enhanced phase change surfaces.

  15. An analysis of crystal structure of selected rare earth fluorides by means of electron diffraction and transmission 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, Dennis Brannon

    1967-01-01

    AN ANALYSIS OF CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF SELECTED RARE EARTH FLUORIDES BY MEANS OF ELECTRON DIFFRACTION AND TRANSMISSION A Thesis by DENNIS BRANNON BARR Submitted to the Graduate College of the T e~a s All M Univ e r s ity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Major Subject: Physics AN ANALYSIS OF CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF SELECTED RARE EARTH FLUORIDES BY MEANS OF ELECTRON DIFFRACTION AND TRANSMISSION A Thesis by DENNIS BRANNON BARR Approved...

  16. New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Ivans, Inese I; Hartog, Elizabeth A Den

    2009-01-01

    We have derived new abundances of the rare-earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally-consistent Ba, rare-earth, and Hf (56<= Z <= 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  17. Chemical analysis by ultrahigh-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance in the Earth's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Chemical analysis by ultrahigh-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance in the Earth spectroscopy2 in the Earth's magnetic field. We show that in the Earth's field the transverse relaxation time T electronics Data acquisition d.c. transmission coil Earth's field N S B0 B0 = 1 T Figure 1 Setup of mobile

  18. Liquidus temperature and chemical durability of selected glasses to immobilize rare earth oxides waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani Binti; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2015-06-30

    Pyroprocessing is a reprocessing method for managing and reusing used nuclear fuel (UNF) by dissolving it in an electrorefiner with a molten alkali or alkaline earth chloride salt mixture while avoiding wet reprocessing. Pyroprocessing UNF with a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt releases the fission products from the fuel and generates a variety of metallic and salt-based species, including rare earth (RE) chlorides. If the RE-chlorides are converted to oxides, borosilicate glass is a prime candidate for their immobilization because of its durability and ability to dissolve almost any RE waste component into the matrix at high loadings. Crystallization that occurs in waste glasses as the waste loading increases may complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. This work compares three types of borosilicate glasses in terms of liquidus temperature (TL): the International Simple Glass designed by the International Working Group, sodium borosilicate glass developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, and the lanthanide aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass established in the United States. The LABS glass allows the highest waste loadings (over 50 mass% RE2O3) while possessing an acceptable chemical durability.

  19. Photon-pair source with controllable delay based on shaped inhomogeneous broadening of rare-earth-metal-doped solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekatski, Pavel; Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Riedmatten, Hugues de [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); ICFO-Institute of Photonic Sciences, Mediterranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, E-08015 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Spontaneous Raman emission in atomic gases provides an attractive source of photon pairs with a controllable delay. We show how this technique can be implemented in solid state systems by appropriately shaping the inhomogeneous broadening. Our proposal is eminently feasible with current technology and provides a realistic solution to entangle remote rare-earth-metal-doped solids in a heralded way.

  20. A rare opportunity beckons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, K

    2011-02-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty for the future of rare-earth production. Rare-earths are a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, which include scandium and yttrium as well as the 15 lanthanides, such as dysprosium and ytterbium. China has a stranglehold on today's rare-earth market, which was worth about $3bn in 2010, with the country accounting for about 95% of worldwide production. Yet China's future actions can only be guessed at best. In September it halted shipments of rare-earth elements to Japan over a diplomatic spat concerning the detention of a Chinese trawler captain. Although the ban was later lifted, the episode raised concerns around the world about China's rare-earth monopoly and its use in diplomacy. China has already warned that it will not export any rare-earth material in the coming years as it expects its own consumption of rare-earth metals to increase. The country has introduced export taxes as well as production and export quotas, and also refused to grant any new rare-earth mining licences. Furthermore, because its reserves are limited and China's internal markets are growing so rapidly, the country has suggested it will no longer export products that require rare-earth elements, especially those that need heavy rare-earth elements, such as terbium and dysprosium. China's actions have led to huge rises in the cost of rare-earth materials and products. Dysprosium oxide, for example, has shot up from $36 per kilogram in 2005 to a massive $305 per kilogram by late last year. This could have a huge impact on much of today's electronics industry, given that rare-earth elements are ubiquitous in electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) and mobile phones. Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets, for example, are used as computer spindle drives. The question is: what can be done to ensure that China's dominance of the rare-earth industry does not affect the military and energy security of the US and other nations? Rare-earth elements are relatively plentiful in the Earth's crust but they are widely dispersed, which makes mining them economically nonviable. The rare-earth industry first took off in the early 1960s with the discovery of the intense red luminescence of europium when excited by electrons. This was quickly utilized by TV manufacturers in the US, which used the material to produce the colour red. Indeed, many of the rare-earth applications arise because each element is unique and so certain elements exhibit behaviours that match a particular application, such as neodymium for lasers and magnets or europium and terbium for the red and green colours in TVs. In the 1960s annual production of rare-earth elements was about 2000 tonnes, with the US company Molycorp supplying 50% of the rare-earth oxides from the Mountain Pass mine in California. This monopoly was broken in the early 1990s when China first began to export separated rare-earth oxides and metals. By the late 1990s China was moving up the supply chain to higher-value products such as magnets and phosphors. Since the turn of the century it has supplied finished products including computers, LCDs and mobile phones. Production of rare-earth elements, which has been increasing by about 10% every year since the 1960s, reached 97,000 tonnes by 2009. Fortunately, new deposits of rare-earths are being discovered all over the world, which means that China now accounts for about 30% of worldwide deposits, rather than 70% as widely thought in the 1980s. But to take advantage of this and break the monopoly, governments outside China need to open new rare-earth deposits, especially those with high concentrations of the heavier rare-earth elements. They also need to expand and open new manufacturing facilities for products that need rare-earths, as well as train scientists to replace the intellectual capital lost during the last 20-30 years because of the Chinese monopoly. The bottom line is that to reduce the rest of the world's dependence on China for a sufficient and continuous supply of rare-ear

  1. Physics PhD scholarship available in one the worlds top 10 cities Scanning Tunneling Microscopy studies of rare earth nitrides and related materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    studies of rare earth nitrides and related materials This is an opportunity to explore how new rare earth nitride materials can be made and how they can be probed using scanning tunneling microscopy. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy is a powerful tool to obtain both atomic resolution imaging of the surface of materials

  2. Towards an optical potential for rare-earths through coupled channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Herman, M.; Palumbo, A.; Hoblit, S.; Brown, D.; Dietrich, F. S.

    2014-11-11

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations, defined by nuclear deformations. Proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of reaction experimental data. Previous works have applied different models to specific nuclei with the purpose of determining angular-integrated cross sections. In this work, we present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions in a consistent manner for neutron-induced reactions on nuclei in the rare-earth region. This specific subset of the nuclide chart was chosen precisely because of a clear static deformation pattern. We analyze the convergence of the coupled-channel calculations regarding the number of states being explicitly coupled. Inspired by the work done by Dietrich et al., a model for deforming the spherical Koning-Delaroche optical potential as function of quadrupole and hexadecupole deformations is also proposed. We demonstrate that the obtained results of calculations for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as elastic and inelastic angular distributions correspond to a remarkably good agreement with experimental data for scattering energies above around a few MeV.

  3. Coherent storage of microwave excitations in rare-earth nuclear spins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary Wolfowicz; Hannes Maier-Flaig; Robert Marino; Alban Ferrier; Hervé Vezin; John J. L. Morton; Philippe Goldner

    2014-12-23

    Interfacing between various elements of a computer - from memory to processors to long range communication - will be as critical for quantum computers as it is for classical computers today. Paramagnetic rare earth doped crystals, such as Nd$^{3+}$:Y$_2$SiO$_5$ (YSO), are excellent candidates for such a quantum interface: they are known to exhibit long optical coherence lifetimes (for communication via optical photons), possess a nuclear spin (memory) and have in addition an electron spin that can offer hybrid coupling with superconducting qubits (processing). Here we study two of these three elements, demonstrating coherent storage and retrieval between electron and $^{145}$Nd nuclear spin states in Nd$^{3+}$:YSO. We find nuclear spin coherence times can reach 9 ms at $\\approx 5$ K, about two orders of magnitude longer than the electron spin coherence, while quantum state and process tomography of the storage/retrieval operation reveal an average state fidelity of 0.86. The times and fidelities are expected to further improve at lower temperatures and with more homogeneous radio-frequency excitation.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of ultra-pure rare-earth-coped glass for laser refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Wendy M; Hehlen, Markus P; Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in synthesizing and characterizing ultra-pure, rare-earth doped ZIBLAN (ZrF{sub 4}-InF{sub 3}BaF{sub 2}-LaF{sub 3}-AlF{sub 3}-NaF) glass capable of laser refrigeration. The glass was produced from fluorides which were purified and subsequently treated with hydrofluoric gas at elevated temperatures to remove impurities before glass formation. Several Yb3 +-doped samples were studied with degrees of purity and composition with successive iterations producing an improved material. We have developed a non-invasive, spectroscopic technique, two band differential luminescence thermometry (TBDLT), to evaluate the intrinsic quality of the ytterbium doped ZIBLAN used for laser cooling experiments. TBDLT measures local temperature changes within an illuminated volume resulting solely from changes in the relative thermal population of the excited state levels. This TBDLT technique utilizes two commercially available band pass filters to select and integrate the 'difference regions' of interest in the luminescence spectra. The goal is to determine the minimum temperature to which the ytterbium sample can cool on the local scale, unphased by surface heating. This temperature where heating and cooling are exactly balanced is the zero crossing temperature (ZCT) and can be used as a measure for the presence of impurities and the overall quality of the laser cooling material. Overall, favorable results were obtained from 1 % Yb3+-doped glass, indicating our glasses are desirable for laser refrigeration.

  5. Luminescent nanocrystals in the rare-earth niobate–zirconia system formed via hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Masanori Dozono, Hayato

    2013-08-15

    Luminescent nanocrystals based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}, were hydrothermally formed as cubic phase under weakly basic conditions at 240 °C. The lattice parameter of the as-prepared nanoparticles corresponding to the composition of Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7}–4ZrO{sub 2} that was estimated as a single phase of cubic gradually increased as the content of europium x increased. The existence of small absorbance peaks at 395 and 466 nm corresponding to the Eu{sup 3+7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}L{sub 6}, and {sup 7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}D{sub 2} excitation transition, respectively, was clearly observed in the diffuse reflectance spectra of the as-prepared samples containing europium. The optical band gap of the as-prepared samples was in the range from 3.5 to 3.7 eV. The photoluminescence spectra of the as-prepared nanocrystals containing europium showed orange and red luminescences with main peaks at 590 and 610 nm, corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions of Eu{sup 3+}, respectively, under excitation at 395 nm Xe lamp. The emission intensity corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition increased as heat-treatment temperature rose from 800 to 1200 °C. - Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract shows the excitation and emission spectra and a transmission electron microscopy image of nanocrystals (with composition based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}) formed via hydrothermal route. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nanocrystals composed of 50 mol% Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2} was directly formed. • The nanocrystals were hydrothermally formed under weakly basic conditions at 240 °C. • The Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} showed an UV-blue and broad-band emission under excitation at 240 nm. • The emission is originated from the niobate octahedral group [NbO{sub 6}]{sup 7?}. • The nanocrystals showed orange and red luminescences ({sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} , Eu{sup 3+})

  6. Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitsev, Boris N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M. (St. Petersburg, RU); Lazarev, Leonard N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Dzekun, Evgeniy G. (Ozersk, RU); Romanovskiy, Valeriy N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Brewer, Ken N. (Arco, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID)

    2001-01-01

    Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

  7. Experimental Investigations into U/TRU Recovery using a Liquid Cadmium Cathode and Salt Containing High Rare Earth Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelly X. Li; Steven D. Herrmann; Michael F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Experimental Investigations into U/TRU Recovery using a Liquid Cadmium Cathode and Salt Containing High Rare Earth Concentrations Shelly X. Li, Steven D. Herrmann, and Michael F. Simpson Pyroprocessing Technology Department Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 USA Abstract - A series of six bench-scale liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) tests was performed to obtain basic separation data with focus on the behavior of rare earth elements. The electrolyte used for the tests was a mixed salt from the Mk-IV and Mk-V electrorefiners, in which spent metal fuels from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) had been processed. Rare earth (RE) chlorides, such as NdCl3, CeCl3, LaCl3, PrCl3, SmCl3, and YCl3, were spiked into the salt prior to the first test to create an extreme case for investigating rare earth contamination of the actinides collected by a LCC. For the first two LCC tests, an alloy with the nominal composition of 41U-30Pu-5Am-3Np-20Zr-1RE was loaded into the anode baskets as the feed material. The anode feed material for Runs 3 to 6 was spent ternary fuel (U-19Pu-10Zr). The Pu/U ratio in the salt varied from 0.6 to 1.3. Chemical and radiochemical analytical results confirmed that U and transuranics can be collected into the LCC as a group under the given run conditions. The RE contamination level in the LCC product was up to 6.7 wt% of the total metal collected. The detailed data for partitioning of actinides and REs in the salt and Cd phases are reported in the paper.

  8. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nobre, G. P. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palumbo, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hoblit, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dietrich, F. S. [Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. These results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.

  9. Separation of americium, curium, and rare earths from high-level wastes by oxalate precipitation: experiments with synthetic waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    The separation of trivalent actinides and rare earths from other fission products in high-level nuclear wastes by oxalate precipitation followed by ion exchange (OPIX) was experimentally investigated using synthetic wastes and a small-scale, continuous-flow oxalic acid precipitation and solid-liquid separation system. Trivalent actinide and rare earth oxalates are relatively insoluble in 0.5 to 1.0 M HNO/sub 3/ whereas other fission product oxalates are not. The continuous-flow system consisted of one or two stirred-tank reactors in series for crystal growth. Oxalic acid and waste solutions were mixed in the first tank, with the product solid-liquid slurry leaving the second tank. Solid-liquid separation was tested by filters and by a gravity settler. The experiments determined the fraction of rare earths precipitated and separated from synthetic waste streams as a function of number of reactors, system temperature, oxalic acid concentration, liquid residence time in the process, power input to the stirred-tank reactors, and method of solid-liquid separation. The crystalline precipitate was characterized with respect to form, size, and chemical composition. These experiments are only the first step in converting a proposed chemical flowsheet into a process flowsheet suitable for large-scale remote operations at high activity levels.

  10. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. P. A. Nobre; A. Palumbo; F. S. Dietrich; M. Herman; D. Brown; S. Hoblit

    2014-12-22

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. These results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.

  11. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y O ) content, unless otherwise noted)2 3 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /31/98 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth

  12. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque CS, supplPment au nO. 6, Tome 41, juin 1980,page C5-297 INTERMEDIATE VALENCE : THEORETICAL MODELS FOR ANOFALOUS RARE-EARTH ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    temperature behaviour of compounds such as CeA12, CeA13 or TmSe . 1. Introduction.-The rare-earth metals is applied. The normal rare-earth metals have been extensively studied and already revie- wed in detail /1 VALENCE : THEORETICAL MODELS FOR ANOFALOUS RARE-EARTH ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS B. Coqblin

  13. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth

  14. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2005. All

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -31-05 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2005. All yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

  15. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y O ) content, unless otherwise noted)2 3 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /31/96 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth

  16. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth fluocarbonate mineral, was mined

  17. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2009. All

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2009. All yttrium. Other rare-earth compounds, including yttrium oxide >85% Y2O3, yttrium nitrate, and other individual

  18. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2006. All

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -31-06 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2006. All yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

  19. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2008. All

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    12-31-08 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2008. All yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

  20. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y O ) content, unless otherwise noted)2 3 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .20.0000 Free Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805 Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined by one company as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth

  1. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, supple'ment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979, page C5-54 Hyperfine fields of S-rare earth impurities in noble hosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that the trivalent rare earth (e.g. Gd3+)contributes two s-p electrons, for monovalent hosts like noble metals fields of S-rare earth impurities in noble hosts A. Troper, 0.L. T. de Menezes and A. A. Gomes Centro previously developed for rare earth impurities diluted in s-p hosts [I]. Numerical results for the hyperfine

  2. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, supplkment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979,page C5-71 The de Haas-van Alphen effect and the Fermi surfaces of rare earth metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -van Alphen effect and the Fermi surfaces of rare earth metals R. C . Young Department of Physics, University (some transition metals, rare earths, inter- metallic compounds) it is difficult to achieve an & of even been achieved for Fermi surface investigation of rare earth metals. Substantial dHvA results have now

  3. [Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted] Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2010. All

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5.0% ad Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2010. All yttrium. Other rare-earth compounds, including yttrium oxide >85% Y2O3, yttrium nitrate, and other individual

  4. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed 2805.30.0000 5 Production and Use: The rare-earth element, yttrium, was mined as a constituent of the mineral bastnasite, but was not recovered as a separate element during processing. Bastnasite, a rare-earth fluocarbonate mineral, was mined

  5. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2004. Yttrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relations 12-31-04 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2004. Yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

  6. (Data in metric tons of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2003.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relations 12/31/03 Thorium ores and concentrates (monazite) 2612.20.0000 Free. Rare-earth metals, scandium Production and Use: The rare-earth element yttrium was not mined in the United States in 2003. Yttrium and compounds containing by weight >19% to rare-earth compounds, including

  7. K{sub 3}Ln[OB(OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}[HOPO{sub 3}]{sub 2} (Ln=Yb, Lu): Layered rare-earth dihydrogen borate monohydrogen phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou Yan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Hoffmann, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Huang Yaxi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Prots, Yurii; Schnelle, Walter; Menezes, Prashanth W.; Carrillo-Cabrera, Wilder; Sichelschmidt, Joerg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Mi Jinxiao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Kniep, Ruediger, E-mail: kniep@cpfs.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Two isotypic layered rare-earth borate phosphates, K{sub 3}Ln[OB(OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}[HOPO{sub 3}]{sub 2} (Ln=Yb, Lu), were synthesized hydrothermally and the crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (R3-bar , Z=3, Yb: a=5.6809(2) A, c=36.594(5) A, V=1022.8(2) A{sup 3}, Lu: a=5.6668(2) A, c=36.692(2) A, V=1020.4(1) A{sup 3}). The crystal structure can be described in terms of stacking of Glaserite-type slabs consisting of LnO{sub 6} octahedra interlinked by phosphate tetrahedra and additional layers of [OB(OH){sub 2}]{sup -} separated by K{sup +} ions. Field and temperature dependent measurements of the magnetic susceptibility of the Yb-compound revealed Curie-Weiss paramagnetic behavior above 120 K ({mu}{sub eff}=4.7 {mu}{sub B}). Magnetic ordering was not observed down to 1.8 K. - Graphical abstract: Two isotypic layered rare-earth borate phosphates, K{sub 3}Ln[OB(OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}[HOPO{sub 3}]{sub 2} (Ln = Yb, Lu), were synthesized hydrothermally and the crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure can be described by stacking of Glaserite-type slabs and dihydrogen borate layers separated by potassium cations. Highlights: > First hydrothermal synthesis of rare-earth borate phosphates. > Instead of microcrystalline powders the synthesis of single crystals was achieved. > Successful single-crystal X-ray structure determination. > 2D arrangement of magnetic rare-earth ions. > EPR spectrum of Yb{sup 3+} at 5 K.

  8. Visible light activated photocatalytic behaviour of rare earth modified commercial TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobaldi, D.M.; Seabra, M.P.; Labrincha, J.A.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • RE gave more surface hydroxyl groups attached to the photocatalyst's surface. • RE gave the modified and fired samples a high specific surface area. • Photocatalytic activity was assessed in gas–solid phase under visible-light exposure. • Thermal treated RE-TiO{sub 2}s showed a superior visible-light photocatalytic activity. • La-TiO{sub 2} was the best performing photocatalyst. - Abstract: A commercial TiO{sub 2} nanopowder, Degussa P25, was modified with several rare earth (RE) elements in order to extend its photocatalytic activity into the visible range. The mixtures were prepared via solid-state reaction of the precursor oxides, and thermally treated at high temperature (900 and 1000 °C), with the aim of investigating the photocatalytic activity of the thermally treated samples. This thermal treatment was chosen for a prospective application as a surface layer in materials that need to be processed at high temperatures. The photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the samples was assessed in gas–solid phase – monitoring the degradation of isopropanol (IPA) – under visible-light irradiation. Results showed that the addition of the REs lanthanum, europium and yttrium to TiO{sub 2} greatly improved its photocatalytic activity, despite the thermal treatment, because of the presence of more surface hydroxyl groups attached to the photocatalyst's surface, together with a higher specific surface area (SSA) of the modified and thermally treated samples, with regard to the unmodified and thermally treated Degussa P25. The samples doped with La, Eu and Y all had excellent PCA under visible-light irradiation, even higher than the untreated Degussa P25 reference sample, despite their thermal treatment at 900 °C, with lanthanum producing the best results (i.e. the La-, Eu- and Y-TiO{sub 2} samples, thermally treated at 900 °C, had, respectively, a PCA equal to 26, 27 and 18 ppm h{sup ?1} – in terms of acetone formation – versus 15 ppm h{sup ?1} for the 900 °C thermally treated Degussa P25). On the other hand, Ce–TiO{sub 2}s had no significant photocatalytic activity.

  9. Ion bulk heating in magnetic reconnection exhausts at Earth's magnetopause: Dependence on the inflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shay, Michael

    heating is ~8 on average. 1. Introduction Magnetic reconnection converts stored magnetic energy as the magnetic shear angle (guide field). In a statistical study of ion heating in solar wind reconnectionIon bulk heating in magnetic reconnection exhausts at Earth's magnetopause: Dependence

  10. Microstructure-electromechanical property correlations in rare-earth-substituted BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films at morphotropic phase boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Microstructure-electromechanical property correlations in rare-earth- substituted BiFeO3 epitaxial November 2010; published online 24 November 2010 Structure-electromechanical property correlations in rare to the formation of the boundary.5 While the origin of the enhanced electromechanical re- sponse was theoretically

  11. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; Brown, D.; Hoblit, S.; Dietrich, F. S.

    2015-02-25

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, wemore »have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. In conclusion, these results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.« less

  12. Manganese-Aluminum-Based Magnets: Nanocrystalline t-MnAI Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Dartmouth is developing specialized alloys with magnetic properties superior to the rare earths used in today’s best magnets. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to turn the axles in their electric motors due to the magnetic strength of these minerals. However, rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. Dartmouth will swap rare earths for a manganese-aluminum alloy that could demonstrate better performance and cost significantly less. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop an easily scalable process that enables the widespread use of low-cost and abundant materials for the magnets used in EVs and renewable power generators.

  13. Title nd authors) Theory of Random Anisotropic Magnetic Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that is of interest is their significance for the understanding of the rare earth metals. A number of experiments by Millhouse and Koehler , Nd-Pr by Lebech et al. , while a number of dilutions of rare earth metals 6 ) with Y rare earth metals in which the crystal field quenching of the magnetic moments to a good approximation

  14. Rare Earths and the Future of the U.S. Wind Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Reserves in 2014 China 85% United States 7% India 3% Russia 2% Australia 2% Thailand 1% Vietnam market, driving U.S. mines out of business · In 2010, two major events · China cuts all exports of rare per kg · Chinese practices of export quotas and tariffs may have contributed to price spike · World

  15. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO?-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at amore »proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO?. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO? will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO? driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ reservoir conditions. Our research has shown that the REE signature imparted to the formation fluid by the introduction of CO? to the formation, can be measured and tracked as part of an MMV program. Additionally, this REE fingerprint may serve as an ideal tracer for fluid migration, both within the CCS target formation, and should formation fluids migrate into overlying aquifers. However application of REE and other trace elements to CCS system is complicated by the high salt content of the brines contained within the target formations. In the United States by regulation, in order for a geologic reservoir to be considered suitable for carbon storage, it must contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) > 10,000 ppm, and in most cases formation brines have TDS well in excess of that threshold. The high salinity of these brines creates analytical problems for elemental analysis, including element interference with trace metals in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) (i.e. element mass overlap due to oxide or plasma phenomenon). Additionally, instruments like the ICP-MS that are sensitive enough to measure trace elements down to the parts per trillion level are quickly oversaturated when water TDS exceeds much more than 1,000 ppm. Normally this problem is dealt with through dilution of the sample, bringing the water chemistry into the instruments working range. However, dilution is not an option when analyzing these formation brines for trace metals, because trace elements, specifically the REE, which occur in aqueous solutions at the parts per trillion levels. Any dilution of the sample would make REE detection impossible. Therefore, the ability to use trace metals as in situ natural tracers in high TDS brines environments requires the development of methods for pre-concentrating trace elements, while reducing the salinity and associated elemental interference such that the brines can be routinely analyzed by standard ICP-MS methods. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL-CAES has developed a rapid, easy to use proces

  16. LETTER Earth Planets Space, 55, 153157, 2003 Asymmetric behavior of magnetic dip poles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dormy, Emmanuel

    LETTER Earth Planets Space, 55, 153­157, 2003 Asymmetric behavior of magnetic dip poles M. Mandea (Received November 8, 2002; Revised February 3, 2003; Accepted March 3, 2003) The north magnetic dip pole the dipolar field as a whole, but only the north magnetic pole. We demonstrate how this rapid displacement

  17. Testing Skyrme energy-density functionals with the QRPA in low-lying vibrational states of rare-earth nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Terasaki; J. Engel

    2011-05-19

    Although nuclear energy density functionals are determined primarily by fitting to ground state properties, they are often applied in nuclear astrophysics to excited states, usually through the quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA). Here we test the Skyrme functionals SkM* and SLy4 along with the self-consistent QRPA by calculating properties of low-lying vibrational states in a large number of well-deformed even-even rare-earth nuclei. We reproduce trends in energies and transition probabilities associated with gamma-vibrational states, but our results are not perfect and indicate the presences of multi-particle-hole correlations that are not included in the QRPA. The Skyrme functional SkM* performs noticeably better than SLy4. In a few nuclei, changes in the treatment of the pairing energy functional have a significant effect. The QRPA is less successful with "beta-vibrational" states than with the gamma-vibrational states.

  18. Researchers awarded $1 million to develop better, cheaper green-energy magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    . It awarded an initial grant of $1 million in 2011. Currently, the rare-earth metal neodymium is the key literature to learn what materials the industry was working on before rare-earth metals came along and why of meeting a growing demand for light, strong magnets that don't use costly rare-earth elements. The agency

  19. Earth Planets Space, 00, 000--000, 2000 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earth Planets Space, 00, 000--000, 2000 Solar Flare Mechanism Based on Magnetic Arcade Reconnection of solar flares based on re­ sistive reconnection of magnetic field subject to continuous increase flares. 1. INTRODUCTION Solar flares are intense, abrupt release of energy occurring usually

  20. Solar axions as an energy source and modulator of the Earth magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. D. Rusov; E. P. Linnik; K. Kudela; S. Cht. Mavrodiev; T. N. Zelentsova; V. P. Smolyar; K. K. Merkotan

    2010-08-16

    We show existence of strong negative correlation between the temporal variations of magnetic field toroidal component of the solar tachocline (the bottom of convective zone) and the Earth magnetic field (Y-component). The possibility that hypothetical solar axions, which can transform into photons in external electric or magnetic fields (the inverse Primakoff effect), can be the instrument by which the magnetic field of convective zone of the Sun modulates the magnetic field of the Earth is considered. We propose the axion mechanism of "solar dynamo-geodynamo" connection, where an energy of axions, which form in the Sun core, is modulated at first by the magnetic field of the solar tachocline zone (due to the inverse coherent Primakoff effect) and after that is absorbed in the liquid core of the Earth under influence of the terrestrial magnetic field, thereby playing the role of an energy source and a modulator of the Earth magnetic field. Within the framework of this mechanism new estimations of the strength of an axion coupling to a photon (ga_gamma about 5*10^-9 GeV^-1) and the axion mass (ma ~ 30 eV) have been obtained.

  1. Predicting the magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections arriving at Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savani, N P; Szabo, A; Mays, M L; Thompson, B J; Richardson, I G; Evans, R; Pulkkinen, A; Nieves-Chinchilla, T

    2015-01-01

    The process by which the Sun affects the terrestrial environment on short timescales is predominately driven by the amount of magnetic reconnection between the solar wind and Earth's magnetosphere. Reconnection occurs most efficiently when the solar wind magnetic field has a southward component. The most severe impacts are during the arrival of a coronal mass ejection (CME) when the magnetosphere is both compressed and magnetically connected to the heliospheric environment, leading to disruptions to, for example, power grids and satellite navigation. Unfortunately, forecasting magnetic vectors within coronal mass ejections remains elusive. Here we report how, by combining a statistically robust helicity rule for a CME's solar origin with a simplified flux rope topology the magnetic vectors within the Earth-directed segment of a CME can be predicted. In order to test the validity of this proof-of-concept architecture for estimating the magnetic vectors within CMEs, a total of eight CME events (between 2010 and...

  2. Rare-earth transition-metal gallium chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7} (M=Fe, Co, Ni; Ch=S, Se)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudyk, Brent W.; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Oliynyk, Anton O.; Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca

    2014-02-15

    Six series of quaternary rare-earth transition-metal chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7} (M=Fe, Co, Ni; Ch=S, Se), comprising 33 compounds in total, have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1050 °C (for the sulphides) or 900 °C (for the selenides). They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures (ordered Ce{sub 3}Al{sub 1.67}S{sub 7}-type, space group P6{sub 3}, Z=2) with cell parameters in the ranges of a=9.5–10.2 Å and c=6.0–6.1 Å for the sulphides and a=10.0–10.5 Å and c=6.3–6.4 Å for the selenides as refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. Single-crystal structures were determined for five members of the sulphide series RE{sub 3}FeGaS{sub 7} (RE=La, Pr, Tb) and RE{sub 3}CoGaS{sub 7} (RE=La, Tb). The highly anisotropic crystal structures consist of one-dimensional chains of M-centred face-sharing octahedra and stacks of Ga-centred tetrahedra all pointing in the same direction. Magnetic measurements on the sulphides reveal paramagnetic behaviour in some cases and long-range antiferromagnetic behaviour with low Néel temperatures (15 K or lower) in others. Ga L-edge XANES spectra support the presence of highly cationic Ga tetrahedral centres with a tendency towards more covalent Ga–Ch character on proceeding from the sulphides to the selenides. Band structure calculations on La{sub 3}FeGaS{sub 7} indicate that the electronic structure is dominated by Fe 3d-based states near the Fermi level. - Graphical abstract: The series of chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaS{sub 7}, which form for a wide range of rare-earth and transition metals (M=Fe, Co, Ni), adopt highly anisotropic structures containing chains of M-centred octahedra and stacks of Ga-centred tetrahedra. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Six series (comprising 33 compounds) of chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7} were prepared. • They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures with high anisotropy. • Most compounds are paramagnetic; some show antiferromagnetic ordering. • Ga L-edge XANES confirms presence of cationic Ga species.

  3. Low-temperature specific heat of rare-earth-doped silicate glasses D. A. van de Straat, J. Baak, and H. B. Brom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Thomas

    Low-temperature specific heat of rare-earth-doped silicate glasses D. A. van de Straat, J. Baak, The Netherlands Received 31 July 1995 The specific heat Cv of Pr3 - and Eu3 -doped silicate glasses has been for the two-level-system TLS contribution to the specific heat, Cv TLS . The values of Cv TLS and noticeably

  4. Role of surface oxygen-to-metal ratio on the wettability of rare-earth oxides Sami Khan, Gisele Azimi, Bilge Yildiz, and Kripa K. Varanasi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    hydrocarbon contaminants do not exclusively impact the wetting properties of REOs, and that relaxed REOs of hydrocarbon adsorption on the wettability of rare earth oxide ceramics Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 011601 (2014 with interfacial water molecules resulting in a hydrophobic hydration structure where the surface oxygen atoms

  5. PROJECT SUMMARY Many metals, such as the rare earth elements, Nb, Ta, Ge, In, Ga...are finding new applications both

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, Léonie

    PROJECT SUMMARY Many metals, such as the rare earth elements, Nb, Ta, Ge, In, Ga...are finding new years ago access to natural metal resources, which were both abundant and easily accessible, caused of geologic context, metal concentration in rocks, separation and concentration techniques, and recycling

  6. Nanocomposite Magnets: Transformational Nanostructured Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GE is using nanomaterials technology to develop advanced magnets that contain fewer rare earth materials than their predecessors. Nanomaterials technology involves manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular scale, which can represent a stumbling block for magnets because it is difficult to create a finely grained magnet at that scale. GE is developing bulk magnets with finely tuned structures using iron-based mixtures that contain 80% less rare earth materials than traditional magnets, which will reduce their overall cost. These magnets will enable further commercialization of HEVs, EVs, and wind turbine generators while enhancing U.S. competitiveness in industries that heavily utilize these alternatives to rare earth minerals.

  7. Optical and dielectric characteristics of the rare-earth metal oxide Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ordin, S. V., E-mail: stas_ordin@mail.ru; Shelykh, A. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-15

    The characteristics of the Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide and their variations controlled by compositional defects are studied. The defects are anion vacancies produced on partial reduction of the oxide. Such defects exhibit features typical of quantum objects and have a profound effect on the optical transmittance spectrum, the character of conduction (insulator or semiconductor properties) and the order of magnitude of the permittivity {epsilon} (capable of varying from 11.2 to 125). The structural features of vacancies in the oxides are considered, and the effect of vacancies on the polarization, conductivity, and lattice vibrations is studied. The studies are carried out in the temperature range 200-900 K, the wavelength range 0.03-50 {mu}m, and the current frequency range 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} Hz. The rare-earth metal oxides attract interest for applications in microelectronics due to their high permittivity (several times higher than the permittivity of SiO{sub 2}) and, hence, the prospects for use of these oxides instead of SiO{sub 2}.

  8. Am phases in the matrix of a U–Pu–Zr alloy with Np, Am, and rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janney, Dawn E.; Kennedy, J. Rory; Madden, James W.; O’Holleran, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Phases and microstructures in the matrix of an as-cast U-Pu-Zr alloy with 3 wt% Am, 2% Np, and 8% rare-earth elements were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The matrix consists primarily of two phases, both of which contain Am: ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am) (~70 at% U, 5% Np, 14% Pu, 1% Am, and 10% Zr) and ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 (~25% U, 2% Np, 10-15% Pu, 1-2% Am, and 55-60 at% Zr). These phases are similar to those in U-Pu-Zr alloys, although the Zr content in ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am) is higher than that in ?-(U, Pu) and the Zr content in ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 is lower than that in ?-UZr2. Nanocrystalline actinide oxides with structures similar to UO2 occurred in some areas, but may have formed by reactions with the atmosphere during sample handling. Planar features consisting of a central zone of ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am) bracketed by zones of ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2 bound irregular polygons ranging in size from a few micrometers to a few tens of micrometers across. The rest of the matrix consists of elongated domains of ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am) and ?-(U, Np, Pu, Am)Zr2. Each of these domains is a few tens of nanometers across and a few hundred nanometers long. The domains display strong preferred orientations involving areas a few hundred nanometers to a few micrometers across.

  9. Strong-coupling cavity QED using rare-earth-metal-ion dopants in monolithic resonators: What you can do with a weak oscillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAuslan, D. L.; Longdell, J. J.; Sellars, M. J. [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultra-Cold Atoms, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-12-15

    We investigate the possibility of achieving the strong coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics using rare-earth-metal-ions as impurities in monolithic optical resonators. We conclude that due to the weak oscillator strengths of the rare-earth-metals, it may be possible but difficult to reach the regime where the single photon Rabi frequency is large compared to both the cavity and atom decay rates. However, reaching the regime where the saturation photon and atom numbers are less than one should be much more achievable. We show that in this 'bad cavity' regime, transfer of quantum states and an optical phase shift conditional on the state of the atom is still possible and suggest a method for coherent detection of single dopants.

  10. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 1. Scandium Group (Sc, Y, La)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mioduski, Tomasz [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, 03195 Warsaw (Poland); Gumi?ski, Cezary, E-mail: cegie@chem.uw.edu.pl [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, 02093 Warsaw (Poland); Zeng, Dewen, E-mail: dewen-zeng@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China)

    2014-03-15

    This work presents an assessment of solubility data for rare earth metal fluorides (generally of trivalent metals and of CeF{sub 4}) in water and in aqueous ternary systems. Compilations of all available experimental data are introduced for each rare earth metal fluoride with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such evaluation contains a collection of all solubility results in water, a selection of suggested solubility data, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Because the ternary systems were seldom studied more than once, no critical evaluations of such data were possible. Only simple fluorides (no complexes or binary salts) are treated as the input substances in this report. The literature has been covered through the end of 2013.

  11. Carbon-Based Magnets: Discovery & Design of Novel Permanent Magnets using Non-strategic Elements having Secure Supply Chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: VCU is developing a new magnet for use in renewable power generators and EV motors that requires no rare earth minerals. Rare earths are difficult and expensive to process, but they make electric motors and generators smaller, lighter, and more efficient. VCU would replace the rare earth minerals in EV motor magnets with a low-cost and abundant carbon-based compound that resembles a fine black powder. This new magnet could demonstrate the same level of performance as the best commercial magnets available today at a significantly lower cost. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate this new magnet in a prototype electric motor.

  12. New rare-earth double-layered-perovskite oxyuorides, RbLnTiNbO6F (Ln La, Pr, Nd)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spinu, Leonard

    New rare-earth double-layered-perovskite oxy¯uorides, RbLnTiNbO6F (Ln La, Pr, Nd) Gabriel Caruntu¯uoride perovskites, RbLnTiNbO6F (Ln La, Pr, Nd), have been synthesized. Rietveld re®nement of X-ray powder-ray diffraction; D. Crystal structure 1. Introduction Layered perovskite compounds belonging to the Dion

  13. Fiber-optic thermometer application of thermal radiation from rare-earth end-doped SiO{sub 2} fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsumata, Toru, E-mail: katsumat@toyo.jp; Morita, Kentaro; Komuro, Shuji; Aizawa, Hiroaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Visible light thermal radiation from SiO{sub 2} glass doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu were studied for the fiber-optic thermometer application based on the temperature dependence of thermal radiation. Thermal radiations according to Planck's law of radiation are observed from the SiO{sub 2} fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu at the temperature above 1100 K. Thermal radiations due to f-f transitions of rare-earth ions are observed from the SiO{sub 2} fibers doped with Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb at the temperature above 900 K. Peak intensities of thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO{sub 2} fibers increase sensitively with temperature. Thermal activation energies of thermal radiations by f-f transitions seen in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb doped SiO{sub 2} fibers are smaller than those from SiO{sub 2} fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu. Thermal radiation due to highly efficient f-f transitions in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb ions emits more easily than usual thermal radiation process. Thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO{sub 2} are potentially applicable for the fiber-optic thermometry above 900 K.

  14. U.S. Rare Earth Magnet Patents Table © 1-5-2016 page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two Electron RecoverableArea: U.S.19,117 19,591

  15. U.S. Rare Earth Magnet Patents Table © 11-10-2015 page 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentat LENA| ReactionSite Map Site Map

  16. UQM Patents Non-Rare Earth Magnet Motor under DOE-Supported Project |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof Energy FishMANAGEMENTAMERICADepartment of

  17. Ternary rare-earth zinc arsenides REZn{sub 1-x}As{sub 2} (RE=La-Nd, Sm)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoyko, Stanislav S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    The ternary rare-earth zinc arsenides REZn{sub 1-x}As{sub 2} (RE=La-Nd, Sm) were prepared by reaction of the elements at 800 deg. C. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a defect SrZnBi{sub 2}-type average structure for the La member (Pearson symbol tI16, space group I4/mmm, Z=4; a=4.0770(9) A, c=20.533(5) A), in contrast to defect HfCuSi{sub 2}-type average structures for the remaining RE members (Pearson symbol tP8, space group P4/nmm, Z=2; a=4.0298(5)-3.9520(4) A, c=10.222(1)-10.099(1) A in the progression from Ce to Sm). The homogeneity range is not appreciable (estimated to be narrower than 0.6<1-x<0.7 in SmZn{sub 1-x}As{sub 2}) and the formula REZn{sub 0.67}As{sub 2} likely represents the Zn-rich phase boundary. The Ce-Nd members are Curie-Weiss paramagnets. LaZn{sub 0.67}As{sub 2} shows activated behavior in its electrical resistivity, whereas SmZn{sub 0.67}As{sub 2} exhibits anomalies in its temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity. - Graphical abstract: LaZn{sub 1-x}As{sub 2} adopts a SrZnBi{sub 2}-type structure whereas the remaining members of the REZn{sub 1-x}As{sub 2} series (RE=Ce-Nd, Sm) adopt a HfCuSi{sub 2}-type structure. Highlights: > REZn{sub 1-x}As{sub 2} adopts SrZnBi{sub 2}-type (RE=La) or HfCuSi{sub 2}-type (RE=Ce-Nd, Sm) structures. > Trends in RE substitution and local distortion around Zn-centered tetrahedra can be rationalized by geometrical factors. > Zn vacancies occur to reduce Zn-As and As-As antibonding interactions.

  18. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C5, supplkment au no 5, Tome 40, Mai 1979, page C5-63 Heat capacity of rare earth metals near the melting point and the vacancy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of rare earth metals near the melting point and the vacancy mechanism of melting T. Gorecki (*) Max mesurtes par d'autres auteurs sur les mktaux des terres rares (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Dy, Tm). Abstract for the difference of the heat capacity of the liquid and solid metal in the neighbourhood of the melting point. From

  19. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2006-04-04

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  20. Synthesis and crystal structure of the isotypic rare earth thioborates Ce[BS{sub 3}], Pr[BS{sub 3}], and Nd[BS{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunger, Jens; Borna, Marija [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Kniep, Ruediger, E-mail: kniep@cpfs.mpg.d [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The orthothioborates Ce[BS{sub 3}], Pr[BS{sub 3}] and Nd[BS{sub 3}] were prepared from mixtures of the rare earth (RE) metals together with amorphous boron and sulfur summing up to the compositions CeB{sub 3}S{sub 6}, PrB{sub 5}S{sub 9} and NdB{sub 3}S{sub 6}. The following preparation routes were used: solid state reactions with maximum temperatures of 1323 K and high-pressure high-temperature syntheses at 1173 K and 3 GPa. Pr[BS{sub 3}] and Nd[BS{sub 3}] were also obtained from rare earth chlorides RECl{sub 3} and sodium thioborate Na{sub 2}B{sub 2}S{sub 5} by metathesis type reactions at maximum temperatures of 1073 K. The crystal structure of the title compounds was determined from X-ray powder diffraction data. The thioborates are isotypic and crystallize in the orthorhombic spacegroup Pna2{sub 1} (No. 33; Z=4; Ce: a=7.60738(6)A, b=6.01720(4)A, c=8.93016(6)A; Pr: a=7.56223(4)A, b=6.00876(2)A, c=8.89747(4)A; Nd: a=7.49180(3)A, b=6.00823(2)A, c=8.86197(3)A) . The crystal structures contain isolated [BS{sub 3}]{sup 3-} groups with boron in trigonal-planar coordination. The sulfur atoms form the vertices of undulated kagome nets, which are stacked along [100] according to the sequence ABAB. Within these nets every second triangle is occupied by boron and the large hexagons are centered by rare earth ions, which are surrounded by overall nine sulfur species. - Abstract: Graphical Abstract Legend (TOC Figure): Table of Contents Figure The isotypic orthothioborates Ce[BS{sub 3}], Pr[BS{sub 3}] and Nd[BS{sub 3}] were prepared using different preparation routes. The crystal structure of the title compounds was determined from X-ray powder diffraction data. The crystal structures contain isolated [BS{sub 3}]{sup 3-} groups with boron in trigonal-planar coordination. The sulfur atoms form the vertices of corrugated kagome nets (sketched with blue dotted lines), which are stacked along [100] according to the sequence ABAB. Within these nets every second triangle is occupied by boron and the large hexagons are centered by rare earth ions, which are surrounded by overall nine sulfur species.

  1. Deformation of the very neutron-deficient rare-earth nuclei produced with the SPIRAL 76Kr radioactive beam and studied with EXOGAM + DIAMANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redon, N.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph.; Meyer, M.; Rosse, B.; Stezowski, O. [IPN Lyon, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Prevost, A. [IPN Lyon, IN2P3/CNRS, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-1, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); CSNSM Orsay, IN2P3/CNRS, Bat 104, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Nolan, P.J.; Andreoiu, C.; Boston, A.J.; Descovich, M.; Evans, A.O.; Gros, S.; Norman, J.; Page, R.D.; Paul, E.S.; Rainovski, G.; Sampson, J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); France, G. de; Casandjian, J. M. [GANIL, B.P. 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France)] [and others

    2004-02-27

    The structure of the very neutron-deficient rare-earth nuclei has been investigated in the first experiment with the EXOGAM gamma array coupled to the DIAMANT light charged particle detector using radioactive beam of 76Kr delivered by the SPIRAL facility. Very neutron-deficient Pr, Nd and Pm isotopes have been populated at rather high spin by the reaction 76Kr + 58Ni at a beam energy of 328 MeV. We report here the first results of this experiment.

  2. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2004-07-13

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  3. Transformability of t-ZrO{sub 2} and lattice parameters in plasma sprayed rare-earth oxides stabilized zirconia coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khor, K.A.; Yang, J.

    1997-11-01

    Coatings of zirconia alloys are mostly used in high-temperature environments as thermal barrier coatings (TBC) to fight hostile working environments and boost energy efficiency. CaO, MgO and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} are added into zirconia to stabilize the cubic and tetragonal forms and prevent catastrophic cracking as a result of the volume changes on t {r_arrow} m transformation. However, zirconia fully stabilized with either CaO or MgO has been shown to be destabilized on thermal cycling over 1,000 C. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stabilized ZrO{sub 2} is stable towards vaporization at high temperature (1,200 C). However, it also encounters the problem of destabilization when it is attacked by the mineral constituents in fuel oil. The destabilization resulted in a detrimental volume change of 3--5%, which can lead to failure, especially if thermal cycling across the transformation temperature takes place. Previous studies on the rare-earth oxide-zirconia system used solid state reaction of mixed powders that are likely to yield chemical inhomogeneities. Recent studies on rapid solidified ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and rare earth oxides stabilized zirconia systems by a hammer and anvil apparatus, which claims to be capable of obtaining compositional homogeneities, suggest the formation of a t{prime} phase that is non-transformable.

  4. Situ Discovery Electrostatic Potential, Trapping Electrons and Mediating Fast Reconnection Earth's Magnetotail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egedal, Jan

    phase distributions, measured Wind spacecraft a rare crossing diffusion region in Earth's magnetotail Wind enter Earth's magnetosphere [4], and integral magnetic substorms the aurora phenomena [5 a reconnection event encountered Wind spacecraft in Earth's mag­ netotail [9,10]. This event, observed deep

  5. Earth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES Science Network Requirements Report ofEnergyEarlyEarth

  6. Microstructure study of the rare-earth intermetallic compounds R5(SixGe1-x)4 and R5(SixGe1-x)3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Qing

    2012-07-26

    The unique combination of magnetic properties and structural transitions exhibited by many members of the R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} family (R = rare earths, 0 ? x ? 1) presents numerous opportunities for these materials in advanced energy transformation applications. Past research has proven that the crystal structure and magnetic ordering of the R{sub 5(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} compounds can be altered by temperature, magnetic field, pressure and the Si/Ge ratio. Results of this thesis study on the crystal structure of the Er{sub 5}Si{sub 4} compound have for the first time shown that the application of mechanical forces (i.e. shear stress introduced during the mechanical grinding) can also result in a structural transition from Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type orthorhombic to Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}-type monoclinic. This structural transition is reversible, moving in the opposite direction when the material is subjected to low-temperature annealing at 500 ?C. Successful future utilization of the R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} family in novel devices depends on a fundamental understanding of the structure-property interplay on the nanoscale level, which makes a complete understanding of the microstructure of this family especially important. Past scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation has shown that nanometer-thin plates exist in every R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} (“5:4”) phase studied, independent of initial parent crystal structure and composition. A comprehensive electron microscopy study including SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), selected area diffraction (SAD), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) of a selected complex 5:4 compound based on Er rather than Gd, (Er{sub 0.9Lu{sub 0.1}){sub 5}Si{sub 4}, has produced data supporting the assumption that all the platelet-like features present in the R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} family are hexagonal R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 3} (“5:3”) phase and possess the same reported orientation relationship that exists for the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} and Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} compounds, i.e. [010](102?){sub m} || [101?0](12?11){sub p}. Additionally, the phase identification in (Er{sub 0.9}Lu{sub 0.1}){sub 5}Si{sub 4} carried out using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques revealed that the low amount of 5:3 phase is undetectable in a conventional laboratory Cu K? diffractometer due to detection limitations, but that extremely low amounts of the 5:3 phase can be detected using high resolution powder diffraction (HRPD) employing a synchrotron source. These results suggest that use of synchrotron radiation for the study of R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} compounds should be favored over conventional XRD for future investigations. The phase stability of the thin 5:3 plates in a Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} sample was examined by performing long-term annealing at very high temperature. The experimental results indicate the plates are thermally unstable above 1200?C. While phase transformation of 5:3 to 5:4 occurs during the annealing, the phase transition is still fairly sluggish, being incomplete even after 24 hours annealing at this elevated temperature. Additional experiments using laser surface melting performed on the surface of a Ho{sub 5}(Si{sub 0.8}Ge{sub 0.}2){sub 4} sample showed that rapid cooling will suppress the precipitation of 5:3 plates. Bulk microstructure studies of polycrystalline and monocrystalline Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} compounds examined using optical microscopy, SEM and TEM also show a series of linear features present in the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} matrix, similar in appearance in many ways to the 5:3 plates observed in R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} compounds. A systematic microscopy analysis of these linear features revealed they also are thin plates with a stoichiometric composition of Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} with an orthorhombic structure. The orientation relationship between the 5:3 matrix and the precipitate 5:4 thin plates was determined as [101?0] (12?11){s

  7. New CMI process recycles magnets from factory floor | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    waste and creates useful magnets out of it. Efficient waste-recovery methods for rare-earth metals are one way to reduce demand for these limited mined resources. The process,...

  8. Thermal transport of the single-crystal rare-earth nickel borocarbides RNi2B2C 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennings, BD; Naugle, Donald G.; Canfield, PC.

    2002-01-01

    magnetic fields. B. k of HoNi2B2C and DyNi2B2C The inset of Fig. 2 depicts the a ?b plane k of HoNi2B2C and DyNi2B2C plotted versus temperature from 1.5 to 300 K. The high temperature k for both materials is again ap- proximately linear in temperature... as discussed later in this paper. Again it is noteworthy that there is no sign of a phonon or electron peak in the high tempera- ture thermal conductivity for either HoNi2B2C or DyNi2B2 well past the temperature of the ordinary peak, (0.1?0.3)QD . The Debye...

  9. Crystal and electronic structures of CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type rare-earth copper zinc phosphides RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Pr, Nd, Gd-Tm, Lu)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, Peter E.R.; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Cavell, Ronald G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    The quaternary rare-earth phosphides RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Pr, Nd, Gd-Tm, Lu) have been prepared by reaction of the elements at 900 {sup o}C, completing this versatile series which forms for nearly all RE metals. They adopt the trigonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure (Pearson symbol hP5, space group P3-bar m1, Z=1), as confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis on ErCuZnP{sub 2} and powder X-ray diffraction analysis on the remaining members. The Cu and Zn atoms are assumed to be disordered over the single transition-metal site. Band structure calculations on a hypothetically ordered YCuZnP{sub 2} model suggest a semimetal, with a zero band gap between the valence and conduction bands. This electronic structure is supported by XPS valence band spectra for RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Gd-Er), in which the intensity drops off smoothly at the Fermi edge. The absence of a band gap permits the electron count to deviate from the precise value of 16 e{sup -} per formula unit, as demonstrated by the formation of a solid solution in GdCu{sub x}Zn{sub 2-x}P{sub 2} (1.0{<=}x{<=}1.3), while still retaining the CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. Because the Cu 2p XPS spectra indicate that the Cu atoms are always monovalent, the substitution of Cu for Zn leads to a decrease in electron count and a lowering of the Fermi level in the valence band. The magnetic susceptibility of RECuZnP{sub 2} (RE=Gd-Er), which obeys the Curie-Weiss law, confirms the presence of trivalent RE atoms. -- Graphical abstract: The absence of a band gap in the semimetallic quaternary rare-earth phosphides RECuZnP{sub 2} permits the formation of a solid solution such as GdCu{sub x}Zn{sub 2-x}P{sub 2} through hole-doping of the valence band. Display Omitted

  10. The addition of a US Rare Earth Element (REE) supply-demand model improves the characterization and scope of the United States Department of Energy's effort to forecast US REE Supply and Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mancco, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a new US Rare Earth Element (REE) Supply-Demand Model for the explicit forecast of US REE supply and demand in the 2010 to 2025 time period. In the 2010 Department of Energy (DOE) ...

  11. Tidal heating of Earth-like exoplanets around M stars: Thermal, magnetic, and orbital evolutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Driscoll, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The internal thermal and magnetic evolution of rocky exoplanets is critical to their habitability. We focus on the thermal-orbital evolution of Earth-mass planets around low mass M stars whose radiative habitable zone overlaps with the "tidal zone". We develop a thermal-orbital evolution model calibrated to Earth that couples tidal dissipation, with a temperature-dependent Maxwell rheology, to orbital circularization and migration. We illustrate thermal-orbital steady states where surface heat flow is balanced by tidal dissipation and cooling can be stalled for billions of years until circularization occurs. Orbital energy dissipated as tidal heat in the interior drives both inward migration and circularization, with a circularization time that is inversely proportional to the dissipation rate. We identify a peak in the internal dissipation rate as the mantle passes through a visco-elastic state at mantle temperatures near 1800 K. Planets orbiting a 0.1 solar-mass star within $0.07$ AU circularize before 10 G...

  12. EARTH SCIENCES DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT 1977.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    8erkeley Laboratory (LBL), the Earth Sciences Division, wasactivation analysis: rare earth element distribution (D)can be used to generate earth- quake records for use in

  13. REACT: Alternatives to Critical Materials in Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s REACT Project, short for “Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies”, are developing cost-effective alternatives to rare earths, the naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. The REACT projects will identify low-cost and abundant replacement materials for rare earths while encouraging existing technologies to use them more efficiently. These alternatives would facilitate the widespread use of EVs and wind power, drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

  14. Synthesis of main group, rare-earth, and d{sup 0} metal complexes containing beta-hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Ka King

    2013-05-02

    A series of organometallic compounds containing the tris(dimethylsilyl)methyl ligand are described. The potassium carbanions KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3} and KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}TMEDA are synthesized by deprotonation of the hydrocarbon HC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3} with potassium benzyl. KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}TMEDA crystallizes as a dimer with two types of three-center-two-electron KH- Si interactions. Homoleptic Ln(III) tris(silylalkyl) complexes containing ?-SiH groups M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} (Ln = Y, Lu, La) are synthesized from salt elimination of the corresponding lanthanide halide and 3 equiv. of KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}. The related reactions with Sc yield bis(silylalkyl) ate-complexes containing either LiCl or KCl. The divalent calcium and ytterbium compounds M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2} or TMEDA) are prepared from MI{sub 2} and 2 equiv of KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}. The compounds M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2} or TMEDA) and La{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} react with 1 equiv of B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3} to give 1,3- disilacyclobutane {Me2Si-C(SiHMe2)2}2 and MC(SiHMe2)3HB(C6F5)3L, and La{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}, respectively. The corresponding reactions of Ln{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} (Ln = Y, Lu) give the ?-SiH abstraction product [{(Me{sub 2}HSi){sub 3}C}{sub 2}LnC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}SiMe{sub 2}][HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}] (Ln = Y, Lu), but the silene remains associated with the Y or Lu center. The abstraction reactions of M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2 }or TMEDA) and Ln{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} (Ln = Y, Lu, La) and 2 equiv of B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3} give the expected dicationic M{HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2} or TMEDA) and dicationic mono(silylalkyl) LnC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}{HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}}{sub 2} (Ln = Y, Lu, La), respectively. Salt metathesis reactions of Cp{sub 2}(NR{sub 2})ZrX (X = Cl, I, OTf; R = t-Bu, SiHMe{sub 2}) and lithium hydrosilazide ultimately afford hydride products Cp{sub 2}(NR{sub 2})ZrH that suggest unusual ?-hydrogen elimination processes. A likely intermediate in one of these reactions, Cp{sub 2}Zr[N(SiHMe{sub 2})t-Bu][N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}], is isolated under controlled synthetic conditions. Addition of alkali metal salts to this zirconium hydrosilazide compound produces the corresponding zirconium hydride. However as conditions are varied, a number of other pathways are also accessible, including C-H/Si-H dehydrocoupling, ?-abstraction of a CH, and ?-abstraction of a SiH. Our observations suggest that the conversion of (hydrosilazido)zirconocene to zirconium hydride does not follow the classical four-center ?- elimination mechanism. Elimination and abstraction reactions dominate the chemistry of ligands containing ?- hydrogen. In contrast, Cp{sub 2}Zr{N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}}H and Cp{sub 2}Zr{N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}}Me undergo selective ?-CH bond activation to yield the azasilazirconacycle Cp{sub 2Zr}{?{sup 2}-N(SiHMe{sub 2})SiHMeCH{sub 2}}, even though there are reactive ?-hydrogen available for abstraction. The ?-SiH groups in metallacycle provide access to new pathways for sixteen-electron zirconium alkyl compounds, in which Cp{sub 2}Zr{?{sup 2}-N(SiHMe{sub 2})SiHMeCH{sub 2}} undergoes a rare ?-bond metathesis reaction with ethylene. The resulting vinyl intermediate undergoes ?-hydrogen abstraction to reform ethylene and a silanimine zirconium species that reacts with ethylene to give a metallacyclopentane as the isolated product. The pendent ?-SiH in metallocycle also reacts with paraformaldehyde through an uncatalyzed hydrosilylation to form an exocyclic methoxysilyl moiety, while the zirconium-carbon bond in metallocycle is surprisingly inert toward formaldehyde. Still, the Zr-C moiety in metallocycle is available for chemistry, and it interacts with the carbon monoxide and strong electrophile B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3} to provide Cp{sub 2}Zr[?{sup 2}- OC(=CH{sub 2})SiMeHN(SiHMe

  15. Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R—rare earth) sesquioxides with C-type bixbyite crystal structure: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrashev, M. V.; Todorov, N. D.; Geshev, J.

    2014-09-14

    Raman spectra of R{sub 2}O{sub 3} (R—Sc, Er, Y, Ho, Gd, Eu, and Sm) powders with C-type bixbyite crystal structure are measured. With the help of these data and ones, previously published for other oxides from the same structural family, general dependencies of the frequencies of the Raman peaks on the cubic crystal unit cell parameter are constructed. Using these dependencies and knowing the symmetry of the peaks for one of the oxides, determined from previous single-crystal measurements, it is possible to find out the symmetry of the peaks from the spectra of all compounds. It was found that the frequency of the six lowest frequency peaks scales with the square root of the mass of the rare earth showing that mainly R ions take part in these vibrations. These results agree with performed here lattice dynamical calculations. The anomalous softening of the frequency of some peaks in the spectra of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} is discussed.

  16. Controlling Magnetism at the Nanoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Jared

    2012-01-01

    systems and in rare-earth metal multilayer systems [7– 9].materials, rare-earths, transition metals, oxides, and/ormetals iron (as BCC a ferrite), cobalt, nickel, and some of the rare earth

  17. Equatorial Magnetosonic Waves in the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Qianli

    2015-01-01

    The Earth’s magnetosphere . . . . . . . . .properties of magnetosonic wave events in the Earth’sviii List of Figures The Earth’s dipole magnetic field. R 0

  18. Rare earth element geochemistry of acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride geothermal systems from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, A.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Kemp, A.J. [Bristol Univ. (United Kingdom)] [Bristol Univ. (United Kingdom); Sturchio, N.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride waters and the associated sinters and volcanic rocks from the Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA, geothermal system. REE concentrations in the volcanic rocks range from 222 to 347 ppm: their chondrite-normalised REE patterns are typical of upper continental crust, with LREE > HREE and negative Eu anomalies. Total REE concentrations in the fluids range from 3 to 1133 nmol kg{sup -1} ({ge}162 ppm), and {Sigma}REE concentrations in sinter are {ge}181 ppm. REE abundances and patterns in drill core material from YNP indicate some REE mobility. Relative to the host rocks the REE patterns of the fluids are variably depleted in HREEs and LREEs, and usually have a pronounced positive Eu anomaly. This decoupling of Eu from the REE suite suggests that (1) Eu has been preferentially removed either from the host rock glass or from the host rock minerals, or (2) the waters are from a high temperature or reducing environment where Eu{sup 2+} is more soluble than the trivalent REEs. Since the latter is inconsistent with production of acid-sulphate springs in a low temperature, oxidising near-surface environment, we suggest that the positive Eu anomalies in the fluids result from preferential dissolution of a Eu-rich phase in the host rock. Spatial and temporal variations in major element chemistry and pH of the springs sampled from Norris Geyser Basin and Crater Hills accompany variations in REE concentrations and patterns of individual geothermal springs. These are possibly related to changes in subsurface plumbing, which results in variations in mixing and dilution of the geothermal fluids and may have lead to changes in the extent and nature of REE complexing. 37 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. High energy product permanent magnet having improved intrinsic coercivity and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Berkeley, CA); Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A high energy rare earth-ferromagnetic metal permanent magnet is disclosed which is characterized by improved intrinsic coercivity and is made by forming a particulate mixture of a permanent magnet alloy comprising one or more rare earth elements and one or more ferromagnetic metals and forming a second particulate mixture of a sintering alloy consisting essentially of 92-98 wt. % of one or more rare earth elements selected from the class consisting of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and mixtures of two or more of such rare earth elements, and 2-8 wt. % of one or more alloying metals selected from the class consisting of Al, Nb, Zr, V, Ta, Mo, and mixtures of two or more of such metals. The permanent magnet alloy particles and sintering aid alloy are mixed together and magnetically oriented by immersing the mixture in an axially aligned magnetic field while cold pressing the mixture. The compressed mixture is then sintered at a temperature above the melting point of the sintering aid and below the melting point of the permanent magnet alloy to thereby coat the particle surfaces of the permanent magnetic alloy particles with the sintering aid while inhibiting migration of the rare earth element in the sintering aid into the permanent magnet alloy particles to thereby raise the intrinsic coercivity of the permanent magnet alloy without substantially lowering the high energy of the permanent magnet alloy.

  20. Exchange-Spring Magnets: Nanocomposite Exchange-Spring Magnets for Motor and Generator Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: ANL will develop a cost-effective exchange-spring magnet to use in the electric motors of wind generators and EVs that uses no rare earth materials. This ANL exchange-spring magnet combines a hard magnetic outer shell with a soft magnetic inner core—coupling these together increases the performance (energy density and operating temperature). The hard and soft magnet composite particles would be created at the molecular level, followed by consolidation in a magnetic field. This process allows the particles to be oriented to maximize the magnetic properties of low-cost and abundant metals, eliminating the need for expensive imported rare earths. The ultimate goal of this project is to demonstrate this new type of magnet in a prototype electric motor.

  1. Disordered electronic and magnetic systems - transition metal (Mn) and rare earth (Gd) doped amorphous group IV semiconductors (C, Si, Ge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    for semiconductor spintronics. e Nature Phys. , 3(3):153,and D. M. Treger. Spintronics: a spin-based electronicsapplications, such as spintronics and quantum computing. Our

  2. Disordered electronic and magnetic systems - transition metal (Mn) and rare earth (Gd) doped amorphous group IV semiconductors (C, Si, Ge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    a test bed for simple spintronic devices. (In, Mn)As and (in novel electronic and spintronic materials have drawnpotential applications as spintronic materials. While many

  3. Interplay of superconductivity, magnetism, and density waves in rare-earth tritellurides and iron-based superconducting materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zocco, Diego Andrés

    2011-01-01

    is applied with a hydraulic press to a tungsten-carbide (WC)force applied with the hydraulic press at room temperatureload is applied with a hydraulic press and main- tained by

  4. Disordered electronic and magnetic systems - transition metal (Mn) and rare earth (Gd) doped amorphous group IV semiconductors (C, Si, Ge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    for semiconductor spintronics. e Nature Phys. , 3(3):153,and D. M. Treger. Spintronics: a spin-based electronicsa test bed for simple spintronic devices. (In, Mn)As and (

  5. New high pressure rare earth tantalates RE{sub x}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5+1.5x} (RE=La, Eu, Yb)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zibrov, Igor P.; Filonenko, Vladimir P.; Zakharov, Nikolai D.; Nikishina, Elena E.; Lebedeva, Elena N.

    2013-07-15

    Rare earth tantalates La{sub 0.075}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.113}, Eu{sub 0.089}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.134} and Yb{sub 0.051}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.077} have been prepared by solid state reaction at P=7.0 GPa and T=1050–1100 °C and studied by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy. Low hydrated amorphous tantalum, lanthanum, europium and ytterbium hydroxides were used as starting materials. Aqueous as well as anhydrous compounds were obtained. Title tantalates are crystallized in the structure type of F–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} [Zibrov et al. Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 48 (2003) 464–471] [5]. The structure was refined by the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffractometer data: La{sub 0.075}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.113}, a=10.5099(2), b=7.2679(1), c=6.9765(1) Å, V=532.90(1) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam; Eu{sub 0.089}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.134}, a=10.4182(3), b=7.2685(1), c=6.9832(1) Å, V=528.80(2) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam; Yb{sub 0.051}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5.077}, a=10.4557(2), b=7.3853(1), c=6.8923(1) Å, V=532.21(1) Å{sup 3}, Z=6, space group Ibam. RE atoms do not replace the tantalum in its positions but the only water in the channels of the structure. Highly charged cations RE{sup +3} compress the unit cell so that its volume becomes less than that of F–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Significant decrease of the unit cell volume after water removal from the structure is possible due to the puckering of pentagonal bipyramid layers and change of the corrugation angle in the layer. - Graphical abstract: The structure of RE{sub x}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5+1.5x} and its HRTEM image (“A” arrows show empty channel, “B” arrows show filled channel). - Highlights: • We synthesized new tantalates of RE under high pressure high temperature conditions. • RE atoms replace water molecules in the channels of the structure. • Aqueous as well as anhydrous tantalates were obtained. • Highly charged cations RE{sup +3} compress the unit cell decreasing RE–O distances.

  6. Electronic structure of rare-earth chromium antimonides RECrSb{sub 3} (RE=La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy, Yb) by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crerar, Shane J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada); Grosvenor, Andrew P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5C9 (Canada)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5C9 (Canada)

    2012-12-15

    The electronic structure of the ternary rare-earth chromium antimonides RECrSb{sub 3} (RE=La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy, Yb) has been examined by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the first time. The RE 3d or 4d core-line spectra are substantially complicated by the presence of satellite peaks but their general resemblance to those of RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} tends to support the presence of trivalent RE atoms in RECrSb{sub 3}. However, the Yb 4d spectrum of YbCrSb{sub 3} also shows peaks that are characteristic of divalent ytterbium. The Cr 2p core-line spectra exhibit asymmetric lineshapes and little change in binding energy (BE) relative to Cr metal, providing strong evidence for electronic delocalization. The Sb 3d core-line spectra reveal slightly negative BE shifts relative to elemental antimony, supporting the presence of anionic Sb species in RECrSb{sub 3}. The experimental valence band spectrum of LaCrSb{sub 3} matches well with the calculated density of states, and it can be fitted to component peaks belonging to individual atoms to yield an average formulation that agrees well with expectations ('La{sup 3+}Cr{sup 3+}(Sb{sup 2-}){sub 3}'). On progressing from LaCrSb{sub 3} to NdCrSb{sub 3}, the 4f-band in the valence band spectra grows in intensity and shifts to higher BE. The valence band spectrum for YbCrSb{sub 3} also supports the presence of divalent ytterbium. - Graphical Abstract: In their valence band spectra, the 4f-band intensifies and shifts to higher BE on progressing from LaCrSb{sub 3} to NdCrSb{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-resolution core-line and valence band XPS spectra were measured for RECrSb{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Divalent Yb is present in YbCrSb{sub 3}, in contrast to trivalent RE in other members. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asymmetric Cr 2p spectral lineshape confirms delocalization of Cr valence electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small negative Sb 3d BE shifts support assignment of anionic Sb atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fitted valence band spectra show shifts in the 4f band as RE is changed.

  7. Method of making permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-09-07

    A method for making an isotropic permanent magnet comprises atomizing a melt of a rare earth-transition metal alloy (e.g., an Nd--Fe--B alloy enriched in Nd and B) under conditions to produce protectively coated, rapidly solidified, generally spherical alloy particles. Wherein a majority of the particles are produced/size classified within a given size fraction (e.g., 5 to 40 microns diameter) exhibiting optimum as-atomized magnetic properties and subjecting the particles to concurrent elevated temperature and elevated isotropic pressure for a time effective to yield a densified, magnetically isotropic magnet compact having enhanced magnetic properties and mechanical properties. 13 figures.

  8. JOURNALDE PHYSIQUE ColloqueC1, suppl4mentau nO 1 , Tome41,janvier 1980,page C1-25 ELECTRONIC R E W T I O N IN RARE EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS -A NON-KRAFZERS W P L E : m3+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    T I O N IN RARE EARTH METALS AND ALLOYS - A NON-KRAFZERS W P L E : m3+ N.S. Dixon, L.S. F r i t z , Y relaxation i n rare earth materials has been a subject of considerable i n t e r e s t i n recent years. Several metallic thulium compounds, Tm, TmA1, h C u , and Tm,Y1-xCu, were studied using MEssbauer

  9. Ternary rare-earth ruthenium and iridium germanides RE{sub 3}M{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (RE=Y, Gd–Tm, Lu; M=Ru, Ir)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliynyk, Anton O.; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca

    2013-06-15

    Through arc-melting reactions of the elements and annealing at 800 °C, the ternary rare-earth germanides RE{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} and RE{sub 3}Ir{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} have been prepared for most of the smaller RE components (RE=Y, Gd–Tm, Lu). In the iridium-containing reactions, the new phases RE{sub 2}IrGe{sub 2} were also generally formed as by-products. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed orthorhombic Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type structures (space group Cmcm, Z=4) for RE{sub 3}M{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (M=Ru, Ir) and monoclinic Sc{sub 2}CoSi{sub 2}-type structures (space group C2/m, Z=4) for RE{sub 2}IrGe{sub 2}. Full crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction for all members of RE{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (a=4.2477(6) Å, b=10.7672(16) Å, c=13.894(2) Å for RE=Y; a=4.2610(3)–4.2045(8) Å, b=10.9103(8)–10.561(2) Å, c=14.0263(10)–13.639(3) Å in the progression of RE from Gd to Lu) and for Tb{sub 3}Ir{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (a=4.2937(3) Å, b=10.4868(7) Å, c=14.2373(10) Å). Both structures can be described in terms of CrB- and ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type slabs built from Ge-centred trigonal prisms. However, band structure calculations on Y{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} support an alternative description for RE{sub 3}M{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} based on [M{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}] layers built from linked MGe{sub 4} tetrahedra, which emphasizes the strong M–Ge covalent bonds present. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of RE{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} generally indicates metallic behaviour but with low-temperature transitions visible for some members (RE=Gd, Tb, Dy) that are probably associated with magnetic ordering of the RE atoms. Anomalously, Y{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} exhibits semiconductor-like behaviour of uncertain origin. Magnetic measurements on Dy{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} reveal antiferromagnetic ordering at 3 K and several unusual field-dependent transitions suggestive of complex spin reorientation processes. - Graphical abstract: RE{sub 3}M{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (M=Ru, Ir) adopts the Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type structure containing slabs built up from Ge-centred trigonal prisms. - Highlights: • Crystal structures of RE{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (RE=Y, Gd–Tm, Lu) and Tb{sub 3}Ir{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} were determined. • Strong M–Ge covalent bonds were confirmed by band structure calculations. • Most RE{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} members except Y{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} exhibit metallic behaviour. • Dy{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} displays unusual field-dependent magnetic transitions.

  10. High anisotropy materials for magnetic nanotechnologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipton, Erik G.

    2011-01-01

    anisotropy in rare earth transition metal alloys originatesfor transition metals than for rare earth. The atomicmetal sublattice and negative exchange between the CoPd and the rare earth

  11. Photoluminescence properties of rare earths (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) activated NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} wolframite host lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asiri Naidu, S.; Boudin, S. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et Sciences des Materiaux, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen (France); Varadaraju, U.V. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Raveau, B., E-mail: bernard.raveau@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et Sciences des Materiaux, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen (France)

    2012-01-15

    The photoluminescence (PL) studies on NaIn{sub 1-x}RE{sub x}W{sub 2}O{sub 8}, with RE=Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} phases have shown that the relative contribution of the host lattice and of the intra-f-f emission of the activators to the PL varies with the nature of the rare earth cation. In the case of Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} activators, with yellow and blue emission, respectively, the energy transfer from host to the activator plays a major role. In contrast for Eu{sup 3+}, with intense red emission, the host absorption is less pronounced and the intra-f-f transitions of the Eu{sup 3+} ions play a major role, whereas for Tb{sup 3+} intra-f-f transitions are only observed, giving rise to green emission. - Graphical abstract: NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} double tungstate doped with Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}and Tm{sup 3+} shows characteristic emission of intense red for Eu{sup 3+}, yellow for Dy{sup 3+}, green for Tb{sup 3+} and blue for Tm{sup 3+}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic emissions of rare earths (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) are observed NaInW{sub 2}O{sub 8} wolframite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy transfer from host to the activators (Eu{sup 3+} Dy{sup 3+} Tm{sup 3+} is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL properties of rare earth ions depend on minor structural variations in the host lattice.

  12. Many-body Interactions in Magnetic Films and Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen D. Kevan

    2012-12-12

    We describe results supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER46158, which focused on magnetic interaction at surfaces, in thin films, and in metallic nanostructures. We report on three general topics: 1) The Rashba spin splitting at magnetic surfaces of rare earth metals, 2) magnetic nanowires self-assembled on stepped tungsten single crystals, and 3) magnetic interaction in graphene films doped with hydrogen atoms.

  13. Method for forming permanent magnets with different polarities for use in microelectromechanical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-04-24

    Methods are provided for forming a plurality of permanent magnets with two different north-south magnetic pole alignments for use in microelectromechanical (MEM) devices. These methods are based on initially magnetizing the permanent magnets all in the same direction, and then utilizing a combination of heating and a magnetic field to switch the polarity of a portion of the permanent magnets while not switching the remaining permanent magnets. The permanent magnets, in some instances, can all have the same rare-earth composition (e.g. NdFeB) or can be formed of two different rare-earth materials (e.g. NdFeB and SmCo). The methods can be used to form a plurality of permanent magnets side-by-side on or within a substrate with an alternating polarity, or to form a two-dimensional array of permanent magnets in which the polarity of every other row of the array is alternated.

  14. Uniqueness of Herndon's Georeactor: Energy Source and Production Mechanism for Earth's Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Marvin Herndon

    2009-07-03

    Herndon's georeactor at the center of Earth is immune to meltdown, which is not the case for recently published copy-cat georeactors, which would necessarily be subject to hot nuclear fuel, prevailing high temperature environments, and high confining pressures. Herndon's georeactor uniquely is expected to be self-regulating through establishing a balance between heat production and actinide settling out. The seventy year old idea of convection in the Earth's fluid core is refuted because thermal expansion cannot overcome the 23 percent higher density at the core's bottom than at its top. The dimensionless Rayleigh Number is an inappropriate indicator of convection in the Earth's core and mantle as a consequence of the assumptions under which it was derived. Implications bearing on the origin of the geomagnetic field, the physical impossibility of mantle convection, and the concomitant refutation of plate tectonics theory are briefly described.

  15. Uniqueness of Herndon's Georeactor: Energy Source and Production Mechanism for Earth's Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2009-01-01

    Herndon's georeactor at the center of Earth is immune to meltdown, which is not the case for recently published copy-cat georeactors, which would necessarily be subject to hot nuclear fuel, prevailing high temperature environments, and high confining pressures. Herndon's georeactor uniquely is expected to be self-regulating through establishing a balance between heat production and actinide settling out. The seven decade old idea of convection in the Earth's fluid core is refuted because thermal expansion cannot overcome the 23 percent higher density at the core's bottom than at its top. Some implications of geomagnetic field production within Herndon's georeactor are briefly described.

  16. KINEMATIC FAST DYNAMO PROBLEMS Stars and planets possess magnetic elds that permanently change. Earth, for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khesin, Boris A.

    CHAPTER V KINEMATIC FAST DYNAMO PROBLEMS Stars and planets possess magnetic elds that permanently that the time pattern of the switches forms a Cantor-type set on the time scale (see AnS]). The mechanism the subject of dynamo theory. Kinematic dynamo theory studies what kind of uid motion can induce exponential

  17. Preparation and spectroscopic properties of rare-earth (RE) (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) phosphate in vacuum ultraviolet region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Xiao; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100039 ; Zhao, Jing-Tai; Zhang, Guo-Bin

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? We report the VUV spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions in K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. ? The O{sup 2?}-Eu{sup 3+} charge transfer bands at about 220 nm have been observed. ? The 4f–5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+} have been observed. ? There is energy transfer between the host and rare-earth activators. -- Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Tm)-activated K{sub 2}LnZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (Ln = Y, La, Gd and Lu) have been synthesized by solid-state reaction method, and their vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation luminescent characteristics have been investigated. The band in the wavelength range of 130–157 nm and the other one range from 155 to 216 nm with the maximum at about 187 nm in the VUV excitation spectra of these compounds are attributed to the host lattice absorption and O–Zr charge transfer transition, respectively. The charge transfer bands (CTB) of O{sup 2?}-Sm{sup 3+}, O{sup 2?}-Dy{sup 3+} and O{sup 2?}-Tm{sup 3+}, in Sm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}-activated samples, have not been obviously observed probably because the 2p electrons of oxygen are tightly bound to the zirconium ion in the host lattice. For Eu{sup 3+}-activated samples, the relatively weak O{sup 2?}-Eu{sup 3+} CTB at about 220 nm is observed. And for Tb{sup 3+}-activated samples, the bands at 223 and 258 nm are related to the 4f-5d spin-allowed and spin-forbidden transitions of Tb{sup 3+}, respectively. It is observed that there is energy transfer between the host lattice and the luminescent activators (e.g. Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}). From the standpoint of luminescent efficiency, color purity and chemical stability, K{sub 2}GdZr(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}:Sm{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} are attractive candidates for novel yellow, red, green-emitting PDP phosphors.

  18. EARTH SCIENCES DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    of electrolytes: IX, rare earth chlorides, nitrates, andU E OF AQUIFER RESPONSE TO EARTH TIDES AS A MEANS O F SLawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Earth Sciences Division, 1977.

  19. Dual-spacecraft reconstruction of a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope at the Earth's magnetopause

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hasegawa, H.; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Eriksson, S.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Kawano, H.

    2015-02-03

    We present the first results of a data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2011), for reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D), magnetohydrostatic structures from data taken as two closely spaced satellites traverse the structures. The method is applied to a magnetic flux transfer event (FTE), which was encountered on 27 June 2007 by at least three (TH-C, TH-D, and TH-E) of the five THEMIS probes near the subsolar magnetopause. The FTE was sandwiched between two oppositely directed reconnection jets under a southward interplanetary magnetic field condition, consistent with its generation by multiple X-line reconnection. The recovered 3-D field indicates that amore »magnetic flux rope with a diameter of ~ 3000 km was embedded in the magnetopause. The FTE flux rope had a significant 3-D structure, because the 3-D field reconstructed from the data from TH-C and TH-D (separated by ~ 390 km) better predicts magnetic field variations actually measured along the TH-E path than does the 2-D Grad–Shafranov reconstruction using the data from TH-C (which was closer to TH-E than TH-D and was at ~ 1250 km from TH-E). Such a 3-D nature suggests that the field lines reconnected at the two X-lines on both sides of the flux rope are entangled in a complicated way through their interaction with each other. The generation process of the observed 3-D flux rope is discussed on the basis of the reconstruction results and the pitch-angle distribution of electrons observed in and around the FTE.« less

  20. Dual-spacecraft reconstruction of a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope at the Earth's magnetopause

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, H. [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara (Japan). Institute of Space and Astronautical Science.] (ORCID:000000021172021X); Sonnerup, B. U. Ö. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Eriksson, S. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nakamura, T. K. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kawano, H. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria)

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results of a data analysis method, developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa (2011), for reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D), magnetohydrostatic structures from data taken as two closely spaced satellites traverse the structures. The method is applied to a magnetic flux transfer event (FTE), which was encountered on 27 June 2007 by at least three (TH-C, TH-D, and TH-E) of the five THEMIS probes near the subsolar magnetopause. The FTE was sandwiched between two oppositely directed reconnection jets under a southward interplanetary magnetic field condition, consistent with its generation by multiple X-line reconnection. The recovered 3-D field indicates that a magnetic flux rope with a diameter of ~ 3000 km was embedded in the magnetopause. The FTE flux rope had a significant 3-D structure, because the 3-D field reconstructed from the data from TH-C and TH-D (separated by ~ 390 km) better predicts magnetic field variations actually measured along the TH-E path than does the 2-D Grad–Shafranov reconstruction using the data from TH-C (which was closer to TH-E than TH-D and was at ~ 1250 km from TH-E). Such a 3-D nature suggests that the field lines reconnected at the two X-lines on both sides of the flux rope are entangled in a complicated way through their interaction with each other. The generation process of the observed 3-D flux rope is discussed on the basis of the reconstruction results and the pitch-angle distribution of electrons observed in and around the FTE.

  1. High-Energy Composite Permanent Magnets: High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-02-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Delaware is developing permanent magnets that contain less rare earth material and produce twice the energy of the strongest rare earth magnets currently available. The University of Delaware is creating these magnets by mixing existing permanent magnet materials with those that are more abundant, like iron. Both materials are first prepared in the form of nanoparticles via techniques ranging from wet chemistry to ball milling. After that, the nanoparticles must be assembled in a 3-D array and consolidated at low temperatures to form a magnet. With small size particles and good contact between these two materials, the best qualities of each allow for the development of exceptionally strong composite magnets.

  2. Manganese-Based Magnets: Manganese-Based Permanent Magnet with 40 MGOe at 200°C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: PNNL is working to reduce the cost of wind turbines and EVs by developing a manganese-based nano-composite magnet that could serve as an inexpensive alternative to rare-earth-based magnets. The manganese composite, made from low-cost and abundant materials, could exceed the performance of today’s most powerful commercial magnets at temperature higher than 200°C. Members of PNNL’s research team will leverage comprehensive computer high-performance supercomputer modeling and materials testing to meet this objective. Manganese-based magnets could withstand higher temperatures than their rare earth predecessors and potentially reduce the need for any expensive, bulky engine cooling systems for the motor and generator. This would further contribute to cost savings for both EVs and wind turbines.

  3. Evolution of stable and metastable phases and coercivity in rare-earth-rich alloys of the Fe-Nd and Fe-Pr systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, F.A.O. ); Gama, S. )

    1990-09-01

    The authors have studied eutectic alloys of the Fe-Nd and Fe-Pr systems regarding their magnetic behavior in the as-cast state and heat-treated at 600 C for different periods. In both systems the initial precipitation of a metastable phase is observed. This phase transforms into Fe{sub 17}Nd{sub 2} and this finally into a second phase with Fe{sub 17}Nd{sub 5} stoichiometry that is stable. For the Fe-Pr system the precipitation of two metastable phases that transform into the stable Fe{sub 17}Pr{sub 2} is observed. The authors have also measured the influence of these transformations on the coercivity of these alloys.

  4. Batch fabrication of precision miniature permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM); Garino, Terry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Venturini, Eugene L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of processes for fabrication of precision miniature rare earth permanent magnets is disclosed. Such magnets typically have sizes in the range 0.1 to 10 millimeters, and dimensional tolerances as small as one micron. Very large magnetic fields can be produced by such magnets, lending to their potential application in MEMS and related electromechanical applications, and in miniature millimeter-wave vacuum tubes. This abstract contains simplifications, and is supplied only for purposes of searching, not to limit or alter the scope or meaning of any claims herein.

  5. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  6. High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy Uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjipanayis, George C. [University of Delaware] [University of Delaware; McCallum, William R. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory; Sellmyer, David J. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Harris, Vincent [Northeastern University] [Northeastern University; Carpenter, Everett E. [Virginia Commonwealth University] [Virginia Commonwealth University; Liu, Jinfang [Electron Energy Corporation] [Electron Energy Corporation

    2013-12-17

    The report summarizes research undertaken by a multidisciplinary team aimed at the development of the next generation high-energy permanent magnets. The principal approach was relied on bottom-up fabrication of anisotropic nanocomposite magnets. Our efforts resulted in further development of the theoretical concept and fabrication principles for the nanocomposites and in synthesis of a range of rare-earth-based hard magnetic nanoparticles. Even though we did not make a breakthrough in the assembly of these hard magnetic particles with separately prepared Fe(Co) nanoparticles and did not obtain a compact nanocomposite magnet, our performed research will help to direct the future efforts, in particular, towards nano-assembly via coating, when the two phases which made the nanocomposite are first organized in core-shell-structured particles. Two other approaches were to synthesize (discover) new materials for the traditional singe-material magnets and the nanocomposite magnets. Integrated theoretical and experimental efforts lead to a significant advance in nanocluster synthesis technique and yielded novel rare-earth-free nanostructured and nanocomposite materials. Examination of fifteen R-Fe-X alloy systems (R = rare earth), which have not been explored earlier due to various synthesis difficulties reveal several new ferromagnetic compounds. The research has made major progress in bottom-up manufacturing of rare-earth-containing nanocomposite magnets with superior energy density and open new directions in development of higher-energy-density magnets that do not contain rare earths. The advance in the scientific knowledge and technology made in the course of the project has been reported in 50 peer-reviewed journal articles and numerous presentations at scientific meetings.

  7. Cerium-Based Magnets: Novel High Energy Permanent Magnet Without Critical Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Ames Laboratory will develop a new class of permanent magnets based on the more commonly available element cerium for use in both EVs and renewable power generators. Cerium is 4 times more abundant and significantly less expensive than the rare earth element neodymium, which is frequently used in today’s most powerful magnets. Ames Laboratory will combine other metal elements with cerium to create a new magnet that can remain stable at the high temperatures typically found in electric motors. This new magnetic material will ultimately be demonstrated in a prototype electric motor, representing a cost-effective and efficient alternative to neodymium-based motors.

  8. Modeling of optical amplifier waveguide based on silicon nanostructures and rare earth ions doped silica matrix gain media by a finite-difference time-domain method: comparison of achievable gain with Er3+ or Nd3+ ions dopants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardin, Julien; Dufour, Christian; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study of the gain achievement is performed in a waveguide optical amplifier whose active layer is constituted by a silica matrix containing silicon nanograins acting as sensitizer of either neodymium ions (Nd 3+) or erbium ions (Er 3+). Due to the large difference between population levels characteristic times (ms) and finite-difference time step (10 --17 s), the conventional auxiliary differential equation and finite-difference time-domain (ADE-FDTD) method is not appropriate to treat such systems. Consequently, a new two loops algorithm based on ADE-FDTD method is presented in order to model this waveguide optical amplifier. We investigate the steady states regime of both rare earth ions and silicon nanograins levels populations as well as the electromagnetic field for different pumping powers ranging from 1 to 10 4 mW.mm-2. Furthermore, the three dimensional distribution of achievable gain per unit length has been estimated in this pumping range. The Nd 3+ doped waveguide shows a higher gross...

  9. Rare-earth-rich tellurides: Gd{sub 4}NiTe{sub 2} and Er{sub 5}M{sub 2}Te{sub 2} (M=Co, Ni)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magliocchi, Carmela; Meng, Fanqin; Hughbanks, Timothy . E-mail: trh@mail.chem.tamu.edu

    2004-11-01

    Three new rare earth metal-rich compounds, Gd{sub 4}NiTe{sub 2}, and Er{sub 5}M{sub 2}Te{sub 2} (M=Ni, Co), were synthesized in direct reactions using R, R{sub 3}M, and R{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (R=Gd, Er; M=Co, Ni) and single-crystal structures were determined. Gd{sub 4}NiTe{sub 2} is orthorhombic and crystallizes in space group Pnma with four formula units per cell. Lattice parameters at 110(2)K are a=15.548(9), b=4.113(2), c=11.7521(15)A. Er{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Te{sub 2} and Er{sub 5}Co{sub 2}Te{sub 2} are isostructural and crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Cmcm with two formula units per cell. Lattice parameters at 110(2)K are a=3.934(1), b=14.811(4), c=14.709(4)A, and a=3.898(1), b=14.920(3), c=14.889(3)A, respectively. Metal-metal bonding correlations were analyzed using the empirical Pauling bond order concept.

  10. ANISO TROPIE ET MAGNETOSTRICTION MAGNETOCRYS T A L L N AM SOTROPYIN RARE EARTHSANDTHEIRALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . -Magnetocrystalline anisotropy of rare earth impurities doped in Gd metal was measured by torque method constants of rare earth metals was first attempted by Liu and al. [I]for Dy through the observation determination of the aniso- tropy constants. In the present experiments, one species of rare earth metals

  11. High frequency transformers and high Q factor inductors formed using epoxy-based magnetic polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Robert O. (Los Lunas, NM); Gunewardena, Shelton (Walnut, CA); Masi, James V. (Cape Elizabeth, ME)

    2007-11-27

    An electrical component in the form of an inductor or transformer is disclosed which includes one or more coils and a magnetic polymer material located near the coils or supporting the coils to provide an electromagnetic interaction therewith. The magnetic polymer material is preferably a cured magnetic epoxy which includes a mercaptan derivative having a ferromagnetic atom chemically bonded therein. The ferromagnetic atom can be either a transition metal or rare-earth atom.

  12. High frequency transformers and high Q factor inductors formed using epoxy-based magnetic polymer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Robert O.; Gunewardena, Shelton; Masi, James V.

    2005-03-29

    An electrical component in the form of an inductor or transformer is disclosed which includes one or more coils and a magnetic polymer material located near the coils or supporting the coils to provide an electromagnetic interaction therewith. The magnetic polymer material is preferably a cured magnetic epoxy which includes a mercaptan derivative having a ferromagnetic atom chemically bonded therein. The ferromagnetic atom can be either a transition metal or rare-earth atom.

  13. Mixed Conduction in Rare-Earth Phosphates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Hannah Leung

    2012-01-01

    polymer   electrolyte   membrane   fuel   cells   (PEMFC),   alkaline   fuel   cells   (AFC),   molten   carbonate  

  14. Mixed Conduction in Rare-Earth Phosphates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Hannah Leung

    2012-01-01

    the   amount   of   useful   energy  extracted  from  the  1.8)   ?  =  useful  energy  /  total  energy  Fuel  cells  extract  useful  energy  from  a  chemical  

  15. Mixed Conduction in Rare-Earth Phosphates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Hannah Leung

    2012-01-01

    of   delivered   energy   today  is  produced  using  energy   conversion   and   storage   problems   faced   by   the   world   today.  today.   i   Contents   1  Introduction .1   1.1  Motivation   ..1   1.1.1  Electrochemical  Energy  

  16. Mixed Conduction in Rare-Earth Phosphates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Hannah Leung

    2012-01-01

    membrane   fuel   cells   (PEMFC),   alkaline   fuel  temperature   Catalyst   PEMFC   Polymer   membrane   H 3 Oof   the   SOFC   and   PEMFC   membrane   materials  

  17. Rapporteur's Report - workshop on rare earth elements

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    below and above ground, and the material flows that connect them Common underpinning science giving opportunities for joint research or exchange of research tools. A range of...

  18. Mixed Conduction in Rare-Earth Phosphates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Hannah Leung

    2012-01-01

    5   A  comparison  of  the  PEM,  SOFC,  and  PCFC  fuel  solid   oxide   fuel   cells   (SOFC).    The  electrolyte  immobilized)   OH -­?   MCFC   SOFC   Molten   Ceramic  

  19. rare earth recycling | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D- 6 0 4 2 r m m m m port m

  20. Engineering Magnetic Anisotropy in Nanostructured 3d and 4f Ferromagnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chin-Jui

    2012-01-01

    of deformation in h.c.p. rare-earth metals," Journal of theelectronic structure of rare-earth metals and alloys: the

  1. Cosmic magnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with the cosmic magnetism in a non-mathematical way. It uses Faraday's very powerful and highly pictorial concept of lines of magnetic force and their associated physical properties to explain the structure and behavior of magnetic fields in extraterrestrial objects. Contents include: forces of nature; magnetic field of earth; solar and interplanetary magnetic fields; magnetic fields in the solar system; stars and pulsars; and magnetic fields of the milky way and other galaxies.

  2. LANL Studies Earth's Magnetosphere

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Daughton, Bill

    2014-08-12

    A new 3-D supercomputer model presents a new theory of how magnetic reconnection works in high-temperature plasmas. This Los Alamos National Laboratory research supports an upcoming NASA mission to study Earth's magnetosphere in greater detail than ever.

  3. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    86 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society of London

  4. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

  5. Calculations of the magnetic entropy change in amorphous through a microscopic anisotropic model: Applications to Dy{sub 70}Zr{sub 30} and DyCo{sub 3.4} alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranke, P. J. von Nóbrega, E. P.; Ribeiro, P. O.; Alvarenga, T. S. T.; Lopes, P. H. O.; Sousa, V. S. R. de; Oliveira, N. A. de; Caldas, A.; Alho, B. P.; Carvalho, G.; Magnus, A.

    2014-10-14

    We report theoretical investigations on the magnetocaloric effect, described by the magnetic entropy change in rare earth—transition metal amorphous systems. The model includes the local anisotropy on the rare earth ions in Harris-Plischke-Zuckermann assumptions. The transition metals ions are treated in terms of itinerant electron ferromagnetism and the magnetic moment of rare earth ions is coupled to the polarized d-band by a local exchange interaction. The magnetocaloric effect was calculated in DyCo{sub 3.4} system, which presents amorphous sperimagnetic configuration. The calculations predict higher refrigerant capacity in the amorphous DyCo{sub 3.4} than in DyCo{sub 2} crystal, highlighting the importance of amorphous magnetocaloric materials. Our calculation of the magnetocaloric effect in Dy{sub 70}Zr{sub 30}, which presents amorphous asperomagnetic configuration, is in good agreement with the experimental result. Furthermore, magnetic entropy changes associated with crystal-amorphous configurations change are estimated.

  6. Three series of quaternary rare-earth transition-metal pnictides with CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structures: RECuZnAs{sub 2}, REAgZnP{sub 2}, and REAgZnAs{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Ramachandran, Krishna K.; Blanchard, Peter E.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada); Rosmus, Kimberly A.; Aitken, Jennifer A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    Three series of quaternary rare-earth transition-metal pnictides REMM?Pn{sub 2} (M=Cu, Ag; M?=Zn; Pn=P, As) have been prepared by reaction of the elements at 800 °C, with crystal growth promoted through the addition of iodine. The extent of RE substitution is broad in these series: RECuZnAs{sub 2} (RE=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd–Lu), REAgZnP{sub 2} (RE=La–Nd, Sm, Gd–Dy), and REAgZnAs{sub 2} (RE=La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Dy). Powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that they adopt the trigonal CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure (space group P3{sup ¯}m1, Z=1), in which Cu or Ag atoms are disordered with Zn atoms over the unique tetrahedrally coordinated transition-metal site. Magnetic measurements indicated Curie–Weiss behavior for several members of the RECuZnAs{sub 2} and REAgZnP{sub 2} series. Core-line X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) collected on some RECuZnAs{sub 2} members corroborate the charge assignment deduced by the Zintl concept for these compounds, (RE{sup 3+})(M{sup 1+})(Zn{sup 2+})(Pn{sup 3?}){sub 2}. Optical diffuse reflectance spectra and valence band XPS spectra established that these compounds are small band-gap semiconductors (up to ?0.8 eV in REAgZnP{sub 2}) or semimetals (RECuZnAs{sub 2}). Band structure calculations also support this electronic structure and indicate that the band gap can be narrowed through appropriate chemical substitution (RE=smaller atoms, M=Cu, and Pn=As). - Graphical abstract: Cu or Ag atoms are disordered with Zn atoms over the tetrahedral site within relatively rigid [M{sub 2}Pn{sub 2}] slabs in three series of quaternary pnictides adopting the CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. - Highlights: • Three series (comprising 25 compounds) of pnictides REMM'Pn{sub 2} were prepared. • Cu or Ag atoms are disordered with Zn atoms within relatively rigid [M{sub 2}Pn{sub 2}] slabs. • They are semimetals or small band-gap semiconductors. • RECuZnAs{sub 2} and REAgZnP{sub 2} are generally paramagnetic.

  7. Development and testing of FIDELE: a computer code for finite-difference solution to harmonic magnetic-dipole excitation of an azimuthally symmetric horizontally and radially layered earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1981-04-01

    The FORTRAN IV computer code FIDELE simulates the high-frequency electrical logging of a well in which induction and receiving coils are mounted in an instrument sonde immersed in a drilling fluid. The fluid invades layers of surrounding rock in an azimuthally symmetric pattern, superimposing radial layering upon the horizonally layered earth. Maxwell's equations are reduced to a second-order elliptic differential equation for the azimuthal electric-field intensity. The equation is solved at each spatial position where the complex dielectric constant, magnetic permeability, and electrical conductivity have been assigned. Receiver response is given as the complex open-circuit voltage on receiver coils. The logging operation is simulated by a succession of such solutions as the sonde traverses the borehole. Test problems verify consistency with available results for simple geometries. The code's main advantage is its treatment of a two-dimensional earth; its chief disadvantage is the large computer time required for typical problems. Possible code improvements are noted. Use of the computer code is outlined, and tests of most code features are presented.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of monodisperse spherical SiO{sub 2}-RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} (RE=rare earth elements) and SiO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Tb, Dy, Sm, Er, Ho) particles with core-shell structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Yang, J.; Zhang, C.M. [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Lin, J., E-mail: jlin@ciac.jl.c [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Spherical SiO{sub 2} particles have been coated with rare earth oxide layers by a Pechini sol-gel process, leading to the formation of core-shell structured SiO{sub 2}-RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} (RE=rare earth elements) and SiO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Tb, Dy, Sm, Er, Ho) particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence spectra as well as lifetimes were used to characterize the resulting SiO{sub 2}-RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} (RE=rare earth elements) and SiO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}) samples. The obtained core-shell phosphors have perfect spherical shape with narrow size distribution (average size ca. 380 nm), smooth surface and non-agglomeration. The thickness of shells could be easily controlled by changing the number of deposition cycles (40 nm for two deposition cycles). Under the excitation of ultraviolet, the Ln{sup 3+} ion mainly shows its characteristic emissions in the core-shell particles from Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+}) shells. - Graphical abstract: The advantages of core-shell phosphors are the easy availability of homogeneous spherical morphology in different size, and its corresponding luminescence color can change from red, yellow to green.

  9. Model for the Magnetic Order and Pairing Channels in Fe Pnictide Superconductors M. Daghofer,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Model for the Magnetic Order and Pairing Channels in Fe Pnictide Superconductors M. Daghofer,1,2 A 2008; published 4 December 2008) A two-orbital model for Fe-pnictide superconductors is investigated of superconductiv- ity in the layered rare-earth oxypnictides compounds LnO1ÀxFxFeAs (Ln ¼ La, Pr, Ce, Sm) has

  10. Rare earths for life: an 85th birthday visit with Mr. Rare Earth | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation |Publications The NREL QueueTechnologies |

  11. Earth's Three

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-11-17

    Broadcast Transcript: From Mongolia, land of fermented mare's milk, comes this beguiling morsel of nomadic oral tradition. It's called yertonciin gorav or Earth's Three. Earth's three what? Well, Earth's three top things in a number of categories...

  12. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    84 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) and among the most research-intensive in Europe. Features * The Department of Earth and Environmental

  13. Chemical pressure and hidden one-dimensional behavior in rare...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report on the first optical measurements of the rare-earth tri-telluride charge-density-wave systems. Our data, collected over an extremely broad spectral range, allow us to...

  14. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Steyert, W.A.

    1981-01-27

    An apparatus and method for refrigeration are disclosed which provides efficient refrigeration over temperature ranges in excess of 20/sup 0/C and which requires no maintenance and is, therefore, usable on an unmanned satellite. The apparatus comprises a superconducting magnet which may be solenoidal. A piston comprising a substance such as a rare earth substance which is maintained near its Curie temperature reciprocates through the bore of the solenoidal magnet. A magnetic drive rod is connected to the piston and appropriate heat sinks are connected thereto. The piston is driven by a suitable mechanical drive such as an electric motor and cam. In practicing the invention, the body of the piston is magnetized and demagnetized as it moves through the magnetic field of the solenoid to approximate any of the following cycles or a condition thereof as well as, potentially, other cycles: Brayton, Carnot, Ericsson, and Stirling. Advantages of the present invention include: that refrigeration can be accomplished over at least a 20/sup 0/C scale at superconducting temperatures as well as at more conventional temperatures; very high efficiency, high reliability, and small size. (LCL)

  15. System Cost Analysis for an Interior Permanent Magnet Motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Campbell

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this program is to provide an assessment of the cost structure for an interior permanent magnet ('IPM') motor which is designed to meet the 2010 FreedomCAR specification. The program is to evaluate the range of viable permanent magnet materials for an IPM motor, including sintered and bonded grades of rare earth magnets. The study considers the benefits of key processing steps, alternative magnet shapes and their assembly methods into the rotor (including magnetization), and any mechanical stress or temperature limits. The motor's costs are estimated for an annual production quantity of 200,000 units, and are broken out into such major components as magnetic raw materials, processing and manufacturing. But this is essentially a feasibility study of the motor's electromagnetic design, and is not intended to include mechanical or thermal studies as would be done to work up a selected design for production.

  16. An iterative finite element time-domain method for simulating three-dimensional electromagnetic diffusion in earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Um, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    of an axially symmetric earth for vertical magnetic dipoleDevelopment Grants from Earth Sciences Division. Editor Dr.electromagnetic diffusion in earth Evan Schankee Um, 1 Jerry

  17. Superconducting and magnetic properties of a new EuAsFeO0.85F0.15 superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Dmitriev; I. E. Kostyleva; E. P. Khlybov; A. J. Zaleski; A. V. Terekhov; L. F. Rybaltchenko; E. V. Khristenko; L. A. Ishchenko

    2009-01-16

    Polycrystalline samples of a new superconducting EuAsFeO0.85F0.15 compound with critical temperature Tc=11K were prepared by solid state synthesis. Its electric and magnetic properties have been investigated in magnetic fields from 0.1 to 140000 Oe. Critical magnetic fields Hc1, and Hc2 were measured and hence the magnetic penetration depths and the coherence length have been estimated. The temperature dependence Hc2 (T) exhibits clear hyperbolic - type behavior starting with the lowest fields. The data derived were used to estimate probable high Tc and Hc2 in compounds doped with rare-earths having small atomic radii.

  18. Single crystal Processing and magnetic properties of gadolinium nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shreve, Andrew John [Ames Laboratory

    2012-11-02

    GdNi is a rare earth intermetallic material that exhibits very interesting magnetic properties. Spontaneous magnetostriction occurs in GdNi at T{sub C}, on the order of 8000ppm strain along the c-axis and only until very recently the mechanism causing this giant magnetostriction was not understood. In order to learn more about the electronic and magnetic structure of GdNi, single crystals are required for anisotropic magnetic property measurements. Single crystal processing is quite challenging for GdNi though since the rare-earth transition-metal composition yields a very reactive intermetallic compound. Many crystal growth methods are pursued in this study including crucible free methods, precipitation growths, and specially developed Bridgman crucibles. A plasma-sprayed Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} W-backed Bridgman crucible was found to be the best means of GdNi single crystal processing. With a source of high-quality single crystals, many magnetization measurements were collected to reveal the magnetic structure of GdNi. Heat capacity and the magnetocaloric effect are also measured on a single crystal sample. The result is a thorough report on high quality single crystal processing and the magnetic properties of GdNi.

  19. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering in holmium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, D.

    1991-01-01

    We review the results of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering experiments on the rare earth metal holmium. When the incident incident x-ray energy is tuned near the L{sub III} absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering and resonant integer harmonics are observed. These results are analyzed within the theory of x-ray resonance exchange scattering assuming electric dipole (2p {yields} 5d) and quadrupole (2p {yields} 4f) transitions among atomic orbitals. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Novel pre-alloyed powder processing of modified alnico 8: Correlation of microstructure and magnetic properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson, I. E.; Kassen, A. G.; White, E. M. H.; Zhou, L.; Tang, W.; Palasyuk, A.; Dennis, K. W.; McCallum, R. W.; Kramer, M. J.

    2015-04-13

    Progress is reviewed on development of an improved near-final bulk magnet fabrication process for alnico 8, as a non-rare earth permanent magnet with promise for sufficient energy density and coercivity for electric drive motors. This study showed that alnico bulk magnets in near-final shape can be made by simple compression molding from spherical high purity gas atomized pre-alloyed powder. Dwell time at peak sintering temperature (1250°C) greatly affected grain size of the resulting magnet alloys. This microstructure transformation was demonstrated to be useful for gaining partially aligned magnetic properties and boosting energy product. While a route to increased coercivity wasmore »not identified by these experiments, manufacturability of bulk alnico magnet alloys in near-final shapes was demonstrated, permitting further processing and alloy modification experiments that can target higher coercivity and better control of grain anisotropy during grain growth.« less

  1. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density. 14 figs.

  2. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-08-31

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  3. Permanent magnet with MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu, E-mail: yamamoto@appchem.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ishihara, Atsushi; Tomita, Masaru [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    Superconductors with persistent zero-resistance currents serve as permanent magnets for high-field applications requiring a strong and stable magnetic field, such as magnetic resonance imaging. The recent global helium shortage has quickened research into high-temperature superconductors (HTSs)—materials that can be used without conventional liquid-helium cooling to 4.2?K. Herein, we demonstrate that 40-K-class metallic HTS magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) makes an excellent permanent bulk magnet, maintaining 3?T at 20?K for 1 week with an extremely high stability (<0.1 ppm/h). The magnetic field trapped in this magnet is uniformly distributed, as for single-crystalline neodymium-iron-boron. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the MgB{sub 2} permanent bulk magnet was determined. Because MgB{sub 2} is a simple-binary-line compound that does not contain rare-earth metals, polycrystalline bulk material can be industrially fabricated at low cost and with high yield to serve as strong magnets that are compatible with conventional compact cryocoolers, making MgB{sub 2} bulks promising for the next generation of Tesla-class permanent-magnet applications.

  4. 146 Earth Science 147 Earth Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    146 Earth Science 147 Earth Science ESCI 101 The Earth or ESCI 102 Evolution of the Earth or ESCI 107 Oceans and Global Change or ESCI 108 Crises of the Earth ESCI 105 Introductory Lab for Earth Geophysics I ESCI 444 Exploration Geophysics II or ESCI 446 Solid Earth Geophysics Math and Other Sciences

  5. Earth's Magnetosphere

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    50 years ago - are a pair of donut shaped zones of charged particles that surround Earth and occupy the inner region of our planet's Magnetosphere. The outer belt contains...

  6. Life Before Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexei A. Sharov; Richard Gordon

    2013-03-28

    An extrapolation of the genetic complexity of organisms to earlier times suggests that life began before the Earth was formed. Life may have started from systems with single heritable elements that are functionally equivalent to a nucleotide. The genetic complexity, roughly measured by the number of non-redundant functional nucleotides, is expected to have grown exponentially due to several positive feedback factors: gene cooperation, duplication of genes with their subsequent specialization, and emergence of novel functional niches associated with existing genes. Linear regression of genetic complexity on a log scale extrapolated back to just one base pair suggests the time of the origin of life 9.7 billion years ago. This cosmic time scale for the evolution of life has important consequences: life took ca. 5 billion years to reach the complexity of bacteria; the environments in which life originated and evolved to the prokaryote stage may have been quite different from those envisaged on Earth; there was no intelligent life in our universe prior to the origin of Earth, thus Earth could not have been deliberately seeded with life by intelligent aliens; Earth was seeded by panspermia; experimental replication of the origin of life from scratch may have to emulate many cumulative rare events; and the Drake equation for guesstimating the number of civilizations in the universe is likely wrong, as intelligent life has just begun appearing in our universe. Evolution of advanced organisms has accelerated via development of additional information-processing systems: epigenetic memory, primitive mind, multicellular brain, language, books, computers, and Internet. As a result the doubling time of complexity has reached ca. 20 years. Finally, we discuss the issue of the predicted technological singularity and give a biosemiotics perspective on the increase of complexity.

  7. Alternating magnetic anisotropy of Li2(Li1–xTx)N(T=Mn,Fe,Co,andNi)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jesche, A.; Ke, L.; Jacobs, J. L.; Harmon, B.; Houk, R. S.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-05-11

    Substantial amounts of the transition metals Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni can be substituted for Li in single crystalline Li2(Li1–xTx)N. Isothermal and temperature-dependent magnetization measurements reveal local magnetic moments with magnitudes significantly exceeding the spin-only value. The additional contributions stem from unquenched orbital moments that lead to rare-earth-like behavior of the magnetic properties. Accordingly, extremely large magnetic anisotropies have been found. Most notably, the magnetic anisotropy alternates as easy plane?easy axis?easy plane?easy axis when progressing from T = Mn ? Fe ? Co ? Ni. This behavior can be understood based on a perturbation approach in an analytical, single-ion model.more »As a result, the calculated magnetic anisotropies show surprisingly good agreement with the experiment and capture the basic features observed for the different transition metals.« less

  8. Alternating magnetic anisotropy of Li 2 ( Li 1 - x T x ) N ( T = Mn , Fe , Co , and Ni )

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jesche, A.; Ke, L.; Jacobs, J. L.; Harmon, B.; Houk, R. S.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial amounts of the transition metals Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni can be substituted for Li in single crystalline Li?(Li1-xTx)N. Isothermal and temperature-dependent magnetization measurements reveal local magnetic moments with magnitudes significantly exceeding the spin-only value. The additional contributions stem from unquenched orbital moments that lead to rare-earth-like behavior of the magnetic properties. Accordingly, extremely large magnetic anisotropies have been found. Most notably, the magnetic anisotropy alternates as easy plane?easy axis?easy plane?easy axis when progressing from T = Mn ? Fe ? Co ? Ni. This behavior can be understood based on a perturbation approach in an analytical, single-ion model.more »The calculated magnetic anisotropies show surprisingly good agreement with the experiment and capture the basic features observed for the different transition metals.« less

  9. Alternating magnetic anisotropy of Li 2 ( Li 1 - x T x ) N ( T = Mn , Fe , Co , and Ni )

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jesche, A.; Ke, L.; Jacobs, J. L.; Harmon, B.; Houk, R. S.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial amounts of the transition metals Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni can be substituted for Li in single crystalline Li?(Li1-xTx)N. Isothermal and temperature-dependent magnetization measurements reveal local magnetic moments with magnitudes significantly exceeding the spin-only value. The additional contributions stem from unquenched orbital moments that lead to rare-earth-like behavior of the magnetic properties. Accordingly, extremely large magnetic anisotropies have been found. Most notably, the magnetic anisotropy alternates as easy plane?easy axis?easy plane?easy axis when progressing from T = Mn ? Fe ? Co ? Ni. This behavior can be understood based on a perturbation approach in an analytical, single-ion model. The calculated magnetic anisotropies show surprisingly good agreement with the experiment and capture the basic features observed for the different transition metals.

  10. Brookhaven-Built Magnet Will Catch Subatomic Debris

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Wanderer

    2013-07-22

    Peter Wanderer, head of Brookhaven's Superconducting Magnet Division, describes the magnet that's being built for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams at Michigan State University

  11. RARE BOOKS DIVISION SPECIAL COLLECTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Dale H.

    . The Rare Books Division holds materials totaling approximately 80,000 items including books, pamphlets

  12. Influence of high magnetic field on the luminescence of Eu{sup 3+}-doped glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Wei; Chen, Weibo; Chen, Ping; Xu, Beibei; Zheng, Shuhong; Guo, Qiangbing; Liu, Xiaofeng E-mail: qjr@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Junpei; Han, Junbo; Qiu, Jianrong E-mail: qjr@zju.edu.cn

    2014-09-28

    Rare earth (RE) doped materials have been widely exploited as the intriguing electronic configuration of RE ions offers diverse functionalities from optics to magnetism. However, the coupling of magnetism with photoluminescence (PL) in such materials has been rarely reported in spite of its fundamental significance. In the present paper, the effect of high pulsed magnetic field on the photoluminescence intensity of Eu{sup 3+}-doped nano-glass-ceramics has been investigated. In our experiment, Eu-doped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramic were prepared by the conventional melt-quenching process and controlled heat treatment. The results demonstrate that the integrated PL intensity of Eu{sup 3+} decreases with the enhancement of magnetic field, which can be interpreted in terms of cooperation effect of Zeeman splitting and magnetic field induced change in site symmetry. Furthermore, as a result of Zeeman splitting, both blue and red shift in the emission peaks of Eu{sup 3+} can be observed, and this effect becomes more prominent with the increase of magnetic field. Possible mechanisms associated with the observed magneto-optical behaviors are suggested. The results of the present paper may open a new gate for modulation of luminescence by magnetic field and remote optical detection of magnetic field.

  13. Rare Hadronic B Decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevan, A.J.

    2006-06-07

    Rare hadronic B-meson decays allow us to study CP violation. The class of B-decays final states containing two vector mesons provides a rich set of angular correlation observables to study. This article reviews some of the recent experimental results from the BABAR and Belle collaborations.

  14. Earth Videos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES Science Network Requirements Report ofEnergyEarlyEarthEarth

  15. Mechanical stiffening and thermal softening of rare earth chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shriya, S.; Varshney, Dinesh [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhavan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore-452001 (India); Singh, Namita, E-mail: namita.singh.2050@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Ranchi College, Ranchi University Ranchi- 834008, Jharkhand (India); Varshney, M. [Department of Physics, M. B. Khalsa College, Raj Mohallah, Indore-452002 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The pressure and temperature dependent elastic properties such as melting temperature nature in REX; (RE = La, Pr, Eu; X = O, S, Se, Te) chalcogenides is computed with emphasis on charge transfer interactions and covalent contribution in the effective interionic interaction potential. The pressure dependent elastic constants and melting temperature confirms that REX chalcogens lattice get stiffened as a consequence of bond compression and bond strengthening, however thermal softening arose due to bond expansion and bond weakening is evidenced from temperature dependence of melting temperature (T{sub M})

  16. DOE Announces Second RFI on Rare Earth Metals | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    materials in other technologies, such as fluid cracking catalysts in petroleum refineries. Finally, the updated strategy will identify specific steps forward for...

  17. Non-Rare Earth High-Performance Wrought Magnesium Alloys

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. Behavior of Rare Earth Elements in Geothermal Systems- A New...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Systems- A New ExplorationExploitation Tool? Abstract NA Author Scott A. Wood Published Department of Geology and Geological Engineering University of Idaho, 2001...

  19. Ames Lab scientist hopes to improve rare earth purification process...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a joint educational effort by Ames Laboratory Public Affairs and the Green School of Journalism and Communication at Iowa State University. Students in Greenlee Professor Michael...

  20. A High Efficiency Rare Earth-Free Orange Emitting Phosphor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polikarpov, Evgueni; Catalini, David; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Das, Partha; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-04-01

    This work reports the synthesis at relatively low temperatures of a highly emissive AlN:Mn2+ emitter. Though the AlN matrix shows an emission peak at a similar position to the emission peak observed for AlN:Mn product, the Mn-containing species generates red emission by a different mechanism, which was supported by the emission life time studies. The PLQY of the AlN:Mn emitter was measured to be 82%, the highest ever reported on a RE free-based phosphor.

  1. Synthesis, Structure and Characterization Of Polynuclear Rare Earth Alkoxide Clusters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dempsey, Scotty Lee

    2014-04-30

    The versatile polyol/polyamine supporting ligand TDCI (1,3,5-tris(dimethylamino)- 1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol was synthesized, and several lanthanide complex clusters of this ligand were produced.The coordination chemistry ...

  2. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ray, Hannah L.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-12-03

    The structure and conductivity of cerium and lanthanum phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. The effects of varying the metal to phosphate ratio in the glasses, doping LaP3O9 glasses with Ce, and recrystallization of CeP3O9 glasses, on the glasses' microstructure and total conductivity were investigated using XRD, SEM, and AC impedance techniques. Strong increases in conductivity occurred when the glasses were recrystallized: the conductivity of a cerium metaphosphate glass increased conductivity after recrystallization from 10-7.5 S/cm to 10-6 S/cm at 400oC.

  3. Research project -Master Thesis Investigation of mixed rare earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to their superior flux pinning properties and high critical transition temperature. The latter renders this family and environmentally friendly energy landscape in the future [1]. Such wires may stimulate the production of CO2 to an energy reduction comparable to 42 energy plants. High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) wires based

  4. Ultracold chemistry with alkali-metal-rare-earth molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makrides, C; Pradhan, G B; Petrov, A; Kendrick, B K; González-Lezana, T; Balakrishnan, N; Kotochigova, S

    2014-01-01

    A first principles study of the dynamics of $^6$Li($^{2}$S) + $^6$Li$^{174}$Yb($^2\\Sigma^+$)$ \\to ^6$Li$_2(^1\\Sigma^+$) + $^{174}$Yb($^1$S) reaction is presented at cold and ultracold temperatures. The computations involve determination and analytic fitting of a three-dimensional potential energy surface for the Li$_2$Yb system and quantum dynamics calculations of varying complexities, ranging from exact quantum dynamics within the close-coupling scheme, to statistical quantum treatment, and universal models. It is demonstrated that the two simplified methods yield zero-temperature limiting reaction rate coefficients in reasonable agreement with the full close-coupling calculations. The effect of the three-body term in the interaction potential is explored by comparing quantum dynamics results from a pairwise potential that neglects the three-body term to that derived from the full interaction potential. Inclusion of the three-body term in the close-coupling calculations was found to reduce the limiting rate ...

  5. Naphthacene Based Organic Thin Film Transistor With Rare Earth Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konwar, K. [Department of Physics, Digboi College, Digboi-786171, Assam (India); Baishya, B. [Department of Physics, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh-786004, Assam (India)

    2010-12-01

    Naphthacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have been fabricated using La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as the gate insulator. All the OTFTs have been fabricated by the process of thermal evaporation in vacuum on perfectly cleaned glass substrates with aluminium as source-drain and gate electrodes. The naphthacene film morphology on the glass substrate has been studied by XRD and found to be polycrystalline in nature. The field effect mobility, output resistance, amplification factor, transconductance and gain bandwidth product of the OTFTs have been calculated by using theoretical TFT model. The highest value of field effect mobility is found to be 0.07x10{sup -3} cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1} for the devices annealed in vacuum at 90 deg. C for 5 hours.

  6. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Chirayil, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Feenstra, Roeland (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0

  7. Ultracold chemistry with alkali-metal-rare-earth molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Makrides; J. Hazra; G. B. Pradhan; A. Petrov; B. K. Kendrick; T. González-Lezana; N. Balakrishnan; S. Kotochigova

    2014-10-28

    A first principles study of the dynamics of $^6$Li($^{2}$S) + $^6$Li$^{174}$Yb($^2\\Sigma^+$)$ \\to ^6$Li$_2(^1\\Sigma^+$) + $^{174}$Yb($^1$S) reaction is presented at cold and ultracold temperatures. The computations involve determination and analytic fitting of a three-dimensional potential energy surface for the Li$_2$Yb system and quantum dynamics calculations of varying complexities, ranging from exact quantum dynamics within the close-coupling scheme, to statistical quantum treatment, and universal models. It is demonstrated that the two simplified methods yield zero-temperature limiting reaction rate coefficients in reasonable agreement with the full close-coupling calculations. The effect of the three-body term in the interaction potential is explored by comparing quantum dynamics results from a pairwise potential that neglects the three-body term to that derived from the full interaction potential. Inclusion of the three-body term in the close-coupling calculations was found to reduce the limiting rate coefficients by a factor of two. The reaction exoergicity populates vibrational levels as high as $v=19$ of the $^6$Li$_2$ molecule in the limit of zero collision energy. Product vibrational distributions from the close-coupling calculations reveal sensitivity to inclusion of three-body forces in the interaction potential. Overall, the results indicate that a simplified model based on the long-range potential is able to yield reliable values of the total reaction rate coefficient in the ultracold limit but a more rigorous approach based on statistical quantum or quantum close-coupling methods is desirable when product rovibrational distribution is required.

  8. What would we do without rare earths? | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  9. Thermoelectric Properties of Rare-Earth-Ruthenium-Germanium Compounds |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnologyTel: Name:Departmentand inreceiver survey

  10. Mr. Rare Earth easing into retirement | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMissionStressMove dataKiel ing , ActingActingP. O.Mr.

  11. CMI Webinar: Recycling of Rare Earth Elements: A Microbiological Approach |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  12. Rare-earth nanoparticles for catalysis | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  13. Microsoft Word - rare earth speech 3-18 6am

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE SafetyofDepartment. " 21Strategies,AmericanInspector231.1BU.S.

  14. DOE Science Showcase - Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  15. CMI Offers Webinars on Critical Materials and Rare Earths | Critical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  16. Mr. Rare Earth easing into retirement | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Behavior Of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems, A New

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  18. Behavior of Rare Earth Elements in Geothermal Systems- A New

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYorkColorado StateWindIncExploration/Exploitation Tool? |

  19. The Ames Process for Rare Earth Metals | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week Day Year(active tab) 2016 « Prev NextDirectory:

  20. What are the Rare Earths? | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricNCubic Feet)CompletesResearchWhat areWhat

  1. Estimated Rare Earth Reserves and Deposits | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice ofofWind ProjectsEfficiencyPreparedKYAQuarter 2013Erin

  2. Rare Earth Metals & Alloys | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProton DeliveryRadioactive MaterialsTechnologiesNNSA

  3. Rare Earth Metals for Science | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProton DeliveryRadioactive MaterialsTechnologiesNNSARare

  4. Rare Earths -- The Fraternal Fifteen | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-RichProton DeliveryRadioactive

  5. DOE Announces RFI on Rare Earth Metals | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle10 DOE ASSESSMENTathas released a Request for Information

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of Mg{sub 3}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C and related rare earth compounds RE{sub 3?x}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C (RE=Y, Gd–Lu)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, Thilo; Pediaditakis, Alexis; Sagawe, Vanessa; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2013-08-15

    We report on the synthesis and characterisation of Mg{sub 3}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C. Black single crystals of hexagonal shape were yielded from the elements at 1600 °C in h-BN crucibles welded in Ta ampoules. The crystal structure (space group R3{sup ¯}m, a=10.0793(13) Å, c=16.372(3) Å, 660 refl., 51 param., R{sub 1}(F)=0.019; wR{sub 2}(F{sup 2})=0.051) is characterized by a Kagome-net of B{sub 12} icosahedra, ethane like Si{sub 8}-units and disordered SiC-dumbbells. Vibrational spectra show typical features of boron-rich borides and Zintl phases. Mg{sub 3}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C is stable against HF/HNO{sub 3} and conc. NaOH. The micro-hardness is 17.0 GPa (Vickers) and 14.5 GPa (Knoop), respectively. According to simple electron counting rules Mg{sub 3}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C is an electron precise compound. Band structure calculations reveal a band gap of 1.0 eV in agreement to the black colour. Interatomic distances obtained from the refinement of X-ray data are biased and falsified by the disorder of the SiC-dumbbell. The most evident structural parameters were obtained by relaxation calculation. Composition and carbon content were confirmed by WDX measurements. The small but significant carbon content is necessary by structural reasons and frequently caused by contaminations. The rare earth compounds RE{sub 3?x}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C (RE=Y, Dy–Lu) are isotypic. Single crystals were grown from a silicon melt and their structures refined. The partial occupation of the RE-sites fits to the requirements of an electron-precise composition. According to the displacement parameters a relaxation should be applied to obtain correct structural parameters. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of the new boridesilicide Mg{sub 3}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C were obtained from the elements in a Si-melt. Besides B{sub 12}-icosahedra and ethan-like Si{sub 8}-units it contains a disordered SiC-dumbbell. Correct distances were obtained by relaxation calculation based on the X-ray data. Highlights: • Black single crystals of Mg{sub 3}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C were yielded from the elements at 1600 °C. • The rare earth compounds RE{sub 3–x}B{sub 36}Si{sub 9}C (RE=Y, Gd–Lu) are isotypic. • Correct structural parameters result from X-ray data and subsequent relaxation.

  7. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    metals cobalt and terbium. These are systems in which the interaction of the localized rare-earth electrons in terbium and the itinerant transition-metal electrons in cobalt are...

  8. ur solid Earth undergoes constant change from motions within its core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLeod, Dennis

    O ur solid Earth undergoes constant change from motions within its core to the surface. Solid Earth is the physical planet we live on, not the oceans or atmosphere. Motions near Earth's cen- ter affect the geodynamo, which generates the Earth's magnetic field. Convection within Earth's mantle drives plate

  9. A Star on Earth

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Prager, Stewart; Zwicker, Andrew; Hammet, Greg; Tresemer, Kelsey; Diallo, Ahmed

    2014-06-06

    At the Energy Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, scientists are trying to accomplish what was once considered the realm of science fiction: create a star on Earth. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a magnetic fusion device that is used to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas -- hot ionized gases in which, under the right conditions, nuclear fusion will occur. Fusion is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. Not just limited to theoretical work, the NSTX is enabling cutting-edge research to develop fusion as a future energy source.

  10. A Star on Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prager, Stewart; Zwicker, Andrew; Hammet, Greg; Tresemer, Kelsey; Diallo, Ahmed

    2014-03-05

    At the Energy Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, scientists are trying to accomplish what was once considered the realm of science fiction: create a star on Earth. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a magnetic fusion device that is used to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas -- hot ionized gases in which, under the right conditions, nuclear fusion will occur. Fusion is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. Not just limited to theoretical work, the NSTX is enabling cutting-edge research to develop fusion as a future energy source.

  11. Breaking Earth Poems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Scott Mcnaul

    2012-01-01

    CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE Breaking Earth Poems A Thesis submittedFestival……………………………………………………………………..…..14 Earth Against Mylittle else in their hands. Earth Against My Back I lay in

  12. Earth & Environmental Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth & Environmental Science Earth & Environmental Science1354608000000Earth & Environmental ScienceSome of these resources are LANL-only and will require Remote Access.No...

  13. Rare B Decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, P.D.; /Victoria U.

    2006-02-24

    Recent results from Belle and BaBar on rare B decays involving flavor-changing neutral currents or purely leptonic final states are presented. Measurements of the CP asymmetries in B {yields} K*{gamma} and b {yields} s{gamma} are reported. Also reported are updated limits on B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}, B{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu} and the recent measurement of B {yields} X{sub s}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  14. Study on corrosion behaviors of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets in different environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. J.; Li, A. H.; Zhu, M. G.; Pan, W.; Li, W.

    2011-04-01

    Nd-Fe-B magnets have outstanding magnetic properties, but their corrosion resistance is poor because the rare-earth-rich phases in them are easily oxidized. In this article, we report an investigation of the corrosion behaviors of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with varied compositions in different corrosion conditions. The weight losses of the magnets after corrosion testing were measured after brushing off the corrosion products. The magnetic flux losses of the magnets were measured using a fluxmeter. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray analysis system was employed to observe the corrosion morphology. It was found that the humid-heat resistance of the magnets was obviously improved by partially substituting Dy for Nd and adding minor Co. The corrosion products and morphologies of Nd-Fe-B magnets for the autoclave test were different from those for the constant humid-heat test. The corrosion rates of the magnets for the former were much slower than for the latter; this is probably because the high-pressure steam led to an oxygen-deficient atmosphere, and the liquid film on the surface of the magnet specimens hindered the diffusion of oxygen into the bulk for the autoclave test.

  15. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C4, supplkment au no 5, Tome 35, Mai 1974,page C4-265 A NEW MODEL FOR MAGNETISM IN AMORPHOUS METALS (*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    properties of the sputtered material. We suggested that other rare-earth transition-metal com- pounds the assumption that the non-crystalline state of rare- earth transition-metal compounds has a topologically proprietks magnetiques des materiaux. Abstract. -The structure of amorphous rare-earth transition

  16. Basics and prospective of magnetic Heusler compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felser, Claudia Wollmann, Lukas; Chadov, Stanislav; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2015-04-01

    Heusler compounds are a remarkable class of materials with more than 1000 members and a wide range of extraordinary multi-functionalities including halfmetallic high-temperature ferri- and ferromagnets, multi-ferroics, shape memory alloys, and tunable topological insulators with a high potential for spintronics, energy technologies, and magneto-caloric applications. The tunability of this class of materials is exceptional and nearly every functionality can be designed. Co{sub 2}-Heusler compounds show high spin polarization in tunnel junction devices and spin-resolved photoemission. Manganese-rich Heusler compounds attract much interest in the context of spin transfer torque, spin Hall effect, and rare earth free hard magnets. Most Mn{sub 2}-Heusler compounds crystallize in the inverse structure and are characterized by antiparallel coupling of magnetic moments on Mn atoms; the ferrimagnetic order and the lack of inversion symmetry lead to the emergence of new properties that are absent in ferromagnetic centrosymmetric Heusler structures, such as non-collinear magnetism, topological Hall effect, and skyrmions. Tetragonal Heusler compounds with large magneto crystalline anisotropy can be easily designed by positioning the Fermi energy at the van Hove singularity in one of the spin channels. Here, we give a comprehensive overview and a prospective on the magnetic properties of Heusler materials.

  17. GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith-Konter, Bridget

    GOOGLE EARTH QUICK GUIDE (1)Google Earth Features The Google Earth of the Google Earth window. Often when opening up the Google Earth program, the view screen will be a view of the entire Earth from space. Navigation bar

  18. Quantum Error Correction with magnetic molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    José J. Baldoví; Salvador Cardona-Serra; Juan M. Clemente-Juan; Luis Escalera-Moreno; Alejandro Gaita-Ariño; Guillermo Mínguez Espallargas

    2014-08-22

    Quantum algorithms often assume independent spin qubits to produce trivial $|\\uparrow\\rangle=|0\\rangle$, $|\\downarrow\\rangle=|1\\rangle$ mappings. This can be unrealistic in many solid-state implementations with sizeable magnetic interactions. Here we show that the lower part of the spectrum of a molecule containing three exchange-coupled metal ions with $S=1/2$ and $I=1/2$ is equivalent to nine electron-nuclear qubits. We derive the relation between spin states and qubit states in reasonable parameter ranges for the rare earth $^{159}$Tb$^{3+}$ and for the transition metal Cu$^{2+}$, and study the possibility to implement Shor's Quantum Error Correction code on such a molecule. We also discuss recently developed molecular systems that could be adequate from an experimental point of view.

  19. Protecting Life on Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2011-01-01

    Review: Protecting Life on Earth: An Introduction to thePeter B. Protecting Life on Earth: An Introduction to theof Protecting Life on Earth is “to explain to an intelligent

  20. Microstructure evolution of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B anisotropic magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J. Hono, K.; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Hioki, K.; Hattori, A.

    2014-05-07

    The microstructural evolution of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets in each stage of hot-deformation process was studied using transmission electron microscopy and three dimensional atom probe (3DAP). The anisotropic growth of initially isotropic grains in rapidly solidified alloy occurs by annealing without pressing. 3DAP analyses showed a higher concentration of rare-earth elements in the intergranular phase parallel to the flat surface of platelet shaped Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains compared to that in the intergranular phase at the side of platelets.

  1. Earth and Environmental Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EES Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES) Sustainable energy, climate impacts, nuclear threat detection, and environmental management are primary focus areas of earth and...

  2. Rise Report No. 358 Ris National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Rare Earth Metals and Compounds by Per-Anker Lindgård April 1978 Sales distributors: Jul. Gjellerup of Anisotropic Magnets Magnetic Properties of Rare Earth Metals and Compounds by Per-Anker Lindgård Physics dominated systems 25 4. Rare Earth Metals 27 5. Magnetic Alloys 36 5.1. Rare earth alloys 37 5. 2. Rare

  3. Earth's Mineral Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    Earth's Mineral Evolution :: Astrobiology Magazine - earth science - evol...rth science evolution Extreme Life Mars Life Outer Planets Earth's Mineral Evolution Summary (Nov 14, 2008): New research. Display Options: Earth's Mineral Evolution Based on a CIW news release Mineral Kingdom Has Co

  4. Earth Structure Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earth Structure Introduction Earth Structure (2nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm © WW Norton, unless noted otherwise #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 210/4/2010 Aerial views #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 310/4/2010 http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/Ben/ES/ #12

  5. Earth coupled cooling techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grondzik, W.T.; Boyer, L.L.; Johnston, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    Earth coupled cooling is an important consideration for residential and commercial designers, owners, and builders in many regions of the country. The potential benefits which can be expected from passive earth contact cooling are reviewed. Recommendations for the design of earth sheltered structures incorporating earth coupled cooling strategies are also presented.

  6. The Earth: its formation, structure and composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimmo, Francis

    the core to the mantle. The rate of core cooling has been sufficient to power the Earth's magnetic field of a metallic core overlain by a silicate mantle and thin crust. The cooling rate of the mantle is determined by the balance between sur- face heat loss, mantle heating by radioactive decay, and transfer of heat from

  7. Exploring the Earth from Mars David T. Sandwell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandwell, David T.

    orthogonal ridge/transform patterns, and a magnetic field that reverses at just the right rate to be recorded of kilometers (miles) across the mantle of the Earth at rates that are too slow to be observed without the aid further to claim that it is the optimal mechanism for the Earth to shed excess radiogenic heat produced

  8. Investigation on the two-stage active magnetic regenerative refrigerator for liquefaction of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Inmyong; Park, Jiho; Jeong, Sangkwon; Kim, Youngkwon

    2014-01-29

    An active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) is expected to be useful for hydrogen liquefaction due to its inherent high thermodynamic efficiency. Because the temperature of the cold end of the refrigerator has to be approximately liquid temperature, a large temperature span of the active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is indispensable when the heat sink temperature is liquid nitrogen temperature or higher. Since magnetic refrigerants are only effective in the vicinity of their own transition temperatures, which limit the temperature span of the AMR, an innovative structure is needed to increase the temperature span. The AMR must be a layered structure and the thermophysical matching of magnetic field and flow convection effects is very important. In order to design an AMR for liquefaction of hydrogen, the implementation of multi-layered AMR with different magnetic refrigerants is explored with multi-staging. In this paper, the performance of the multi-layered AMR using four rare-earth compounds (GdNi{sub 2}, Gd{sub 0.1}Dy{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 2}, Dy{sub 0.85}Er{sub 0.15}Al{sub 2}, Dy{sub 0.5}Er{sub 0.5}Al{sub 2}) is investigated. The experimental apparatus includes two-stage active magnetic regenerator containing two different magnetic refrigerants each. A liquid nitrogen reservoir connected to the warm end of the AMR maintains the temperature of the warm end around 77 K. High-pressure helium gas is employed as a heat transfer fluid in the AMR and the maximum magnetic field of 4 T is supplied by the low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet. The temperature span with the variation of parameters such as phase difference between magnetic field and mass flow rate of magnetic refrigerants in AMR is investigated. The maximum temperature span in the experiment is recorded as 50 K and several performance issues have been discussed in this paper.

  9. Anisotropic magnetization and transport properties of RAgSb{sub 2} (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Kenneth D.

    1999-11-08

    This study of the RAgSb{sub 2} series of compounds arose as part of an investigation of rare earth intermetallic compounds containing antimony with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry. Materials with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry frequently manifest strong anisotropies and rich complexity in the magnetic properties, and yet are simple enough to analyze. Antimony containing intermetallic compounds commonly possess low carrier densities and have only recently been the subject of study. Large single grain crystals were grown of the RAgSb{sub 2} (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm) series of compounds out of a high temperature solution. This method of crystal growth, commonly known as flux growth is a versatile method which takes advantage of the decreasing solubility of the target compound with decreasing temperature. Overall, the results of the crystal growth were impressive with the synthesis of single crystals of LaAgSb{sub 2} approaching one gram. However, the sample yield diminishes as the rare earth elements become smaller and heavier. Consequently, no crystals could be grown with R=Yb or Lu. Furthermore, EuAgSb{sub 2} could not be synthesized, likely due to the divalency of the Eu ion. For most of the RAgSb{sub 2} compounds, strong magnetic anisotropies are created by the crystal electric field splitting of the Hund's rule ground state. This splitting confines the local moments to lie in the basal plane (easy plane) for the majority of the members of the series. Exceptions to this include ErAgSb{sub 2} and TmAgSb{sub 2}, which have moments along the c-axis (easy axis) and CeAgSb{sub 2}, which at intermediate temperatures has an easy plane, but exchange coupling at low temperatures is anisotropic with an easy axis. Additional anisotropy is also observed within the basal plane of DyAgSb{sub 2}, where the moments are restricted to align along one of the {l_angle}110{r_angle} axes. Most of the RAgSb{sub 2} compounds containing magnetic rare earths, antiferromagnetically ordered at low temperatures. The ordering temperatures of these compounds are approximately proportional to the de Gennes factor, which suggests that the RKKY interaction is the dominant exchange interaction between local moments. Although metamagnetic transitions were observed in many members of the series, the series of sharp step-like transitions in DyAgSb{sub 2} are impressive. In this compound, up to 11 different magnetic states are stable depending on the magnitude and direction of the applied field. The saturated magnetization of these states and the critical fields needed to induce a phase transition vary with the direction of the applied field. Through detailed study of the angular dependence of the magnetization and critical fields, the net distribution of magnetic moments was determined for most, of the metamagnetic states. In DyAgSb{sub 2}, the crystal electric field (CEF) splitting of the Hund's rule ground state creates a strong anisotropy where the local Dy{sup 3+} magnetic moments are constrained to one of the equivalent {l_angle}110{r_angle} directions within the basal plane. The four position clock model was introduced to account for this rich metamagnetic system. Within this model, the magnetic moments are constrained to one of four equivalent orientations within the basal plane and interactions are calculated for up third nearest neighbors. The theoretical phase diagram, generated from the coupling constants is in excellent agreement with the experimental phase diagram. Further investigation of this compound using magnetic X-ray or neutron diffraction would be extremely useful to verify the net distributions of moments and determine the wave vectors of each of the ordered states.

  10. Argonne's Earth Day 2011

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    Argonne celebrated Earth Day on April 21, 2011 with an event that featured green activities and information booths.

  11. Rare decays at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, S.M.; /Liverpool U.

    2006-01-01

    The confidence level limits of the CDF and D0 searches for the B{sub s}{sup 0}, B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}{phi} rare decays are presented.

  12. Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH THE UNH Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space (EOS) Earth Systems Research Center is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrative scientists and students study the Earth's ecosystems, atmosphere, water, and ice using field measurements

  13. Earth Planets Space, 62, 333345, 2010 Cosmic ray and solar energetic particle flux in paleomagnetospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

    Earth Planets Space, 62, 333­345, 2010 Cosmic ray and solar energetic particle flux of the shield prohibiting energetic particles of solar and cosmic origin directly hitting the Earth surface particles. 1. Introduction Planet Earth possesses a global magnetic field since at least 3.2 billion years

  14. Search Print this chapter Cite this chapter CLIMATE AND WEATHER OF THE SUN -EARTH SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Search Print this chapter Cite this chapter CLIMATE AND WEATHER OF THE SUN - EARTH SYSTEM Ilya.4. Solar Wind and Magnetospheric Disturbances 5. Sun-Earth Relations and Implications For The Earth Climate Sketches Summary The Sun is a variable star whose output, including electromagnetic radiation, magnetic

  15. Review: Rare Plants of Washington State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Ryder W.

    2013-01-01

    to the Rare Plants of Washington Pamela Camp and John G.John G. , eds. Field Guide to the Rare Plants of Washington.Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2011. 408pp.

  16. Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery Print Friday, 26 September 2014 14:37 Jian ware (or Tenmoku) ceramic bowls, famous for their...

  17. New CMI process recycles magnets from factory floor | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the rare-earth metals for reuse. But CMI scientist Ikenna Nlebedim said he and co-inventor Bill McCallum wanted to push further. "We decided to see if there is a possibility of...

  18. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth Zaki Hasnain n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Shane

    Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth Zaki Hasnain n , Christopher A. Lamb, Shane D. Ross Keywords: Near-Earth asteroids Asteroid capture a b s t r a c t The list of detected near-Earth asteroids metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating

  19. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque Cl, supplment au n" 3, Tome 40, mars 1979, page C2-211 EASY DIRECTION OF MAGNETIZATION IN GdFe2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    that some of the rare-earth impurities invol- ved in Gd metals play an important role in determiningFe2 made of the Gd(C) metal with higher purity (see Table I) and added a small amount of a rare-earth containing Fe, including the intermetallic compounds with the cubic Laves struc- ture RFe2 where R is a rare-earth

  20. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; Sellmyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. The effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. The coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x?1.5). The maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5?MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2?MGOe forx=1.5. The smallest domain size with a relativelymore »short magnetic correlation length of 128?nm and largest root-mean-square phase shift?rmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. The optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  1. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  2. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2014-02-26

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  3. LABORATOIRE DE PHYSIQUE DES SOLIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    State University Fermi surface and magnetic order in heavy rare-earth metals: a new type of the magnetic phase transition. A wide variety of complex magnetic structures in heavy rare earth metals is known

  4. Earth Day 2010: Earth Day 40th Anniversary Poster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowacka, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    EGJ Issue 30 Earth Day 2010 ISSN 1076-7975 In celebration of 40 Earth Day the Electronic GreenEconomics, Poznan, Poland. Earth image used from www.sxc.hu.

  5. Achievement of high coercivity in sintered R-Fe-B magnets based on misch-metal by dual alloy method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, E Wang, Zhen-Xi; Chen, Zhi-An; Rao, Xiao-Lei; Hu, Bo-Ping; Chen, Guo-An; Zhao, Yu-Gang; Zhang, Jin

    2014-03-21

    The R-Fe-B (R, rare earth) sintered magnets prepared with different ratio of alloys of MM-Fe-B (MM, misch-metal) and Nd-Fe-B by dual alloy method were investigated. As expected, the high ratio of MM-Fe-B alloy degrades the hard magnetic properties heavily with intrinsic coercivity lower than 5 kOe. When the atomic ratio MM/R???21.5% the magnetic properties can reach a practical level of B{sub r}???12.1 kGs, H{sub cj}???10.7 kOe, and (BH){sub max}???34.0 MGOe. And the effect of H{sub cj} enhancement by the grain boundary diffusion process is obvious when MM/R???21.5%. It is revealed that the decrement of intrinsic magnetic properties of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B matrix phase is not the main reason of the degradation of the magnets with high MM ratio. The change of deteriorated microstructure together with phase component plays fundamental roles in low H{sub cj}. In high MM ratio magnets, (a) after annealing, Ce atoms inside main phase are inclined to be segregated in the outer layer of the main phase grains; (b) there is no thin layer of Ce-rich phase as an analogue of Nd-rich phase to separate main phase grains; (c) excessive Ce tends to form CeFe{sub 2} grains.

  6. Stellar Magnetism C. Neiner and J.-P. Zahn (eds)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owocki, Stanley P.

    magnetospheres, with em- phasis on the central competition between confinement by the magnetic field vs measurements of plasma trapped by the magnetic field of earth and other planets. But over the years "wind magnetic confinement parameter", B2 R2 / Mv. For large , closed magnetic looops can confine

  7. Characterization of a high-temperature superconducting conductor on round core cables in magnetic fields up to 20 T

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Laan, Danko [Advanced Conductor Technologies; Noyes, Patrick [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory; Miller, George [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory; Weijers, Hubertus [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory; Willering, Gerard [CERN

    2013-02-13

    The next generation of high-field magnets that will operate at magnetic fields substantially above 20 T, or at temperatures substantially above 4.2 K, requires high-temperature superconductors (HTS). Conductor on round core (CORC) cables, in which RE-Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (RE = rare earth) (REBCO) coated conductors are wound in a helical fashion on a fl?exible core, are a practical and versatile HTS cable option for low-inductance, high-field magnets. We performed the first tests of CORC magnet cables in liquid helium in magnetic fields of up to 20 T. A record critical current I{sub c} of 5021 A was measured at 4.2 K and 19 T. In a cable with an outer diameter of 7.5 mm, this value corresponds to an engineering current density J{sub e} of 114 A mm{sup -2} , the highest J{sub e} ever reported for a superconducting cable at such high magnetic fields. Additionally, the first magnet wound from an HTS cable was constructed from a 6 m-long CORC cable. The 12-turn, double-layer magnet had an inner diameter of 9 cm and was tested in a magnetic field of 20 T, at which it had an I{sub c} of 1966 A. The cables were quenched repetitively without degradation during the measurements, demonstrating the feasibility of HTS CORC cables for use in high-field magnet applications.

  8. The Crystal Structures of Some RM and RM2 Compounds (where R=rare earth metal and M=non-rare earth metal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A. Gschneidner, Jr; Ya. Mudryk; A.T. Becker; J.L. Larson

    2008-08-05

    The non-cubic crystal structures of YIn, YPd and YAu are reported for the first time. YIn has the disordered tetragonal L1{sub 0} CuAu-type structure, and both YPd and YAu are isostructural with the orthorhombic B33 CrB -type structure. The lattice parameters for some C15 MgCu{sub 2}-type Laves phase (Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 1-x})Al{sub 2} alloys (x=0.25,0.50,0.75 and 1.0) have been measured and are found to vary linearly with composition between x=0.25 and 1.0.

  9. Earth Sciences | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fully coupled, and intermodel comparison are underway. Moving forward, Earth system models that imbed a stochastic representation of variable Earth system behavior such...

  10. Earth Sciences | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fully coupled, and intermodel comparison are underway. Moving forward, Earth system models that imbed a stochastic representation of variable Earth system behavior such...

  11. Earth-Abundant Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE funds research into Earth-abundant materials for thin-film solar applications in response to the issue of materials scarcity surrounding other photovoltaic (PV) technologies. The sections below...

  12. Rammered Earth Wall 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    "And Man Shall Have Dominion Over the Earth": Rhetorical Evangelical Christians are not typically associated with mainstream environmentalism. This thesis examines the mythical traditions underpinning the efforts by some Evangelicals to re...

  13. Physical Earth Science Is Physical Earth Science right for me?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Physical Earth Science Is Physical Earth Science right for me? If you are interested in learning a Physical Earth Science degree. The skills you will gain are wide-ranging and will provide a good basis for employment in almost any sector. Are all Physical Earth Science degrees the same? Universities do not have

  14. Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids Impact Hazard to Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids and the Impact Hazard to Earth Henry Throop! Physics on Earth Potchefstroom Parys Sasolburg 20 km #12;Parys 3 km #12;Vredefort Impact Crater Looking from outer Impactor? · Origin: One of several million Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) · a = 1.6 AU; e = 0.5; i = 4

  15. Earth Day 2014 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth Day 2014 Earth Day 2014 Earth Day 2014 This year, we're celebrating Earth Day all week long. It's Earth Week on Energy.gov We're focusing on climate change, highlighting...

  16. A high-precision search for magnetic field oscillations in the roAp star HD 24712

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Kochukhov; G. A. Wade

    2007-02-28

    We have obtained a time series of 81 high-cadence circular polarization observations of the rapidly oscillating Ap star HD 24712 with the new ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at CFHT. We used the high-S/N, high-resolution Stokes I and V spectra to investigate possible variation of the mean longitudinal field over the pulsation cycle in this roAp star. Our multiline magnetic field and radial velocity measurements utilized 143 spectral lines of rare-earth elements, attaining precision better than 13 G and 19 m/s, respectively. A multiperiodic radial velocity variation with an amplitude of 40-136 m/s is clearly detected at the known pulsation frequencies of HD 24712. At the same time, no evidence for pulsational changes of the magnetic field can be found. We derive a 3sigma upper limit of 10 G, or about 1% of the mean longitudinal field strength, for magnetic field oscillations in the upper atmosphere of HD 24712. The absence of detectable pulsational variability of the magnetic field provides a valuable constraint for the interaction between pulsations and magnetic field in roAp stars and is compatible with the recent predictions of detailed theoretical models of stellar magnetoacoustic oscillations.

  17. Modeling the earth system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojima, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  18. Course Outline and General Information Courses: THE DYNAMIC EARTH GEOL1340

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakhmouradian, Anton

    . Gravity. Earth's magnetic field. Heat flow. Ocean floor 2 & 18 Origin of the oceans. Sea floor and transportation. Types and rate of weathering. Origin and evolution of soils. Types of soils. Sedimentary rocks 9

  19. ELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 7183 Geochronology and palaeomagnetism of the Hunnedalen dykes,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsvik, Trond Helge

    1999-01-01

    ELSEVIER Earth and Planetary Science Letters 169 (1999) 71­83 Geochronology and palaeomagnetism magnetic polarity, and, when considered in the context of the new geochronologic data, require. Keywords: paleomagnetism; geochronology; upper Proterozoic; Grenvillian orogeny 1. Introduction

  20. Earth shelter goes international

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.

    1983-06-01

    Since the mid-1970's earth sheltered buildings in the US have become more numerous and important as a contemporary passive building concept. Further, an intense international interest has now developed, as evidenced by a number of important activities. One of these events is the 1983 International Conference on Energy Efficient Buildings with Earth Shelter Protection to be conducted during 1-6 August in Sydney, Australia. A review of past activities leading up to this event, as well as a brief review of the conference program, is the subject of this discussion.

  1. Earth sheltered housing phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.

    1981-06-21

    Both national and international attention has recently been focused on earth sheltered construction as an emerging energy alternative. This is especially true for the High Plains region of the central United States. Traditionally, inhabitants of this region have been sensitized to the need for windstorm protection. However, the dramatic potentials for energy savings have served as a strong secondary inducement to the burgeoning construction activity in what is now viewed as a contemporary dwelling concept. The typical characteristics of such dwellings are reviewed as well as the educational challenge awaiting professional input to this developing boom in earth sheltered construction. 12 refs.

  2. Earth System Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear Profile 2010Mesoscopy andSaving onEarth Day Earth Day An error4

  3. SUN-EARTH CONNECTION Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MISSIONS SUN-EARTH CONNECTION STEREO Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory Hinode CORONAL MASS. Twin spacecraft, placed in different orbits, take images to produce 3-D pictures of the Sun and Solar Japanese/US/UK mission to study interactions between the Sun's magnetic field and its outer atmosphere

  4. The Sun-Earth Connection The Temperature of the Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The Sun-Earth Connection #12;The Temperature of the Earth The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun absorbed from the Sun with ­the heat radiated by the Earth. Heat in = heat out #12; 4R 2T 4 (1-a) R 2 (L / 4 d2) Energy Balance #12;Heat In · Energy input comes from the Sun (internal heat is negligible

  5. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interpretation of XMLD data. Magnetism and X Rays The ancient Greeks and also the Chinese knew about strange and rare stones with the power to attract iron. Moreover, when...

  6. Measurement of the somatosensory magnetic evoked potential 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pashkoff, Benjamin Lewis

    1983-01-01

    and the element, and the direction of movement of j (see figure 1). The -7 constant, s0, the permeability of free space, is 4s*10 Tesla- meter/ampere. The total magnetic field is the vector sum of these separate elements. Any magnetic field with a source... of the surrounding magnetic noise is greater than the amplitude of the signal from the brain by many orders of magnitude. The steady -4 magnetic field of the Earth is on the order of 1~10 Tesla (T), while the average amplitude of the magnetic field of the brain...

  7. Advances in Magnetized Plasma Propulsion and Radiation Shielding Robert Winglee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Simon

    Advances in Magnetized Plasma Propulsion and Radiation Shielding Robert Winglee Department of Earth Propulsion (M2P2)3,4 . In this scheme a magnetic field attached to the spacecraft is expanded-mangetosphere, that is magnetic field inflated by the injection of plasma have several applications key to the exploration

  8. Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability, and Peace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron

    2006-01-01

    Review: Earth Democracy: Justice, Sustainability, and PeaceUniversity, USA Vandana Shiva. Earth Democracy: Justice,Acid-free, recycled paper. Earth Democracy is a movement

  9. Novel 3d-4f Magnetic Intermetallic Materials by Design | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    both itinerant 3d electrons of transition metals and localized 4f electrons of rare earth metals could yield large 3d-4f exchange interactions that are prospective for many...

  10. Chapter 32: Beyond the earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    1 Chapter 32: Beyond the earth Did you read chapter 32 before coming to class? A. Yes B the planets. We began our study of the history of the solar system by studying the history of the earth decreased. How about the rest of the solar system? Some stats on the Sun Time for light to reach Earth · 8

  11. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, John T.; D'Urso, Brian R.

    2012-07-10

    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  12. f all Earth's natural hazards, tsunamis are among the most irregular and infrequent. Yet,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O f all Earth's natural hazards, tsunamis are among the most irregular and infrequent. Yet, they pose a major threat to coastal populations. Although tsunamis cannot be prevented, community tsunami in Japan and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami have focused world attention on the rare but very real

  13. Theoretical aspects of the magnetism in the ferromagnetic A Fe sub 2 systems ( A =U, Np, Pu, and Am)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eriksson, O.; Johansson, B. ); Brooks, M.S.S. )

    1990-05-01

    We report on spin-polarized energy-band calculations for the cubic Laves-phase systems UFe{sub 2}, NpFe{sub 2}, PuFe{sub 2}, and AmFe{sub 2}. The calculations were performed with the local-density approximation for the exchange and correlation potential together with a term that shifts the one-electron eigenvalues and takes into account the different interelectronic repulsions for electrons with different 5{ital f} magnetic quantum numbers. The spin-orbit interaction was also included in the band Hamiltonian. Thus the parameter-free calculations incorporate Hund's first, second, and third rules. The magnetism in the first three compounds was found to be dominated by a large orbital contribution coupled antiparallel to the spin moment. In the calculations for AmFe{sub 2}, the 5{ital f} electrons were treated as core electrons. The magnetism was here found to behave very much like the magnetism of similar rare-earth Laves-phase compounds.

  14. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering of Rare-Earth and Copper Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kvashnina, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    container. In most nuclear waste management programs, thisthe Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), bythe Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), by

  15. Rare earth-iron magnetostrictive materials and devices using these materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savage, Howard T. (Greenbelt, MD); Clark, Arthur E. (Adelphi, MD); McMasters, O. Dale (Ames, IA)

    1981-12-29

    Grain-oriented polycrystalline or single crystal magnetostrictive materials n the general formula Tb.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2-w, Tb.sub.x Ho.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2-w, Sm.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.x-w, Sm.sub.x Ho.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2-w, Tb.sub.x Ho.sub.y Dy.sub.z Fe.sub.2-w, or Sm.sub.x Ho.sub.y Dy.sub.z Fe.sub.2-w, wherein O.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.0.20, and x+y+z=1. X, y, and z are selected to maximize the magnetostrictive effect and the magnetomechanical coupling coefficient K.sub.33. These material may be used in magnetostrictive transducers, delay lines, variable frequency resonators, and filters.

  16. From the subtropics to the central equatorial Pacific Ocean: Neodymium isotopic composition and rare earth element

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    From the subtropics to the central equatorial Pacific Ocean: Neodymium isotopic composition, and S. Cravatte (2013), From the subtropics to the central equatorial Pacific Ocean: Neodymium isotopic waters (112 samples) in the Southern Tropical Pacific. The relatively detailed picture of these tracer

  17. THERMAL EXPANSION AND PHASE INVERSION OF RARE-EARTH OXIDES By...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    are sufficient and binders are not required. 3 4. Measurements can be made on each crystalline phase in samples con- taining multiple components. Thermal expansion data are...

  18. Rare earth : geomantic formulae for the production of works of art

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan-Bernard, Mei-ling

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of my study of the influence of chinese geomancy on my art. The emphasis is on art forms created for the transportation of my mind to the audience within encompassing space and sculpted ...

  19. Spectroscopy of quadrupole and octupole states in rare-earth nuclei from a Gogny force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Nomura; R. Rodríguez-Guzmán; L. M. Robledo

    2015-07-17

    Collective quadrupole and octupole states are described in a series of Sm and Gd isotopes within the framework of the interacting boson model (IBM), whose Hamiltonian parameters are deduced from mean field calculations with the Gogny energy density functional. The link between both frameworks is the ($\\beta_2\\beta_3$) potential energy surface computed within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov framework in the case of the Gogny force. The diagonalization of the IBM Hamiltonian provides excitation energies and transition strengths of an assorted set of states including both positive and negative parity states. The resultant spectroscopic properties are compared with the available experimental data and also with the results of the configuration mixing calculations with the Gogny force within the generator coordinate method (GCM). The structure of excited $0^{+}$ states and its connection with double octupole phonons is also addressed. The model is shown to describe the empirical trend of the low-energy quadrupole and octupole collective structure fairly well, and turns out to be consistent with GCM results obtained with the Gogny force.

  20. Generation and Characterization of Anisotropic Microstructures in Rare Earth-Iron-Boron Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oster, Nathaniel

    2012-04-23

    The goal of this work is to investigate methods in which anisotropy could be induced in fine-grained alloys. We have identified two general processing routes to creating a fine, textured microstructure: form an amorphous precursor and devitrify in a manner that induces texture or form the fine, textured microstructure upon cooling directly from the liquid state. Since it is possible to form significant amounts of amorphous material in RE-Fe-B alloys, texture could be induced through biasing the orientationof the crystallites upon crystallization of the amorphous material. One method of creating this bias is to form glassy material and apply uniaxial pressure during crystallization. Experiments on this are presented. All of the work presented here utilizes melt-spinning, either to create precursor material, or to achieve a desired final microstructure. To obtain greater control of the system to process these materials, a study was done on the effects of heating the wheel and modifying the wheel’s surface finish on glass formation and phase selection. The second general approach—creating the desired microstructure directly from the liquid—can be done through directional rapid solidification. In particular, alloys melt-spun at low tangential wheel speeds often display directional columnar growth through a portion of the ribbon. By refining and stabilizing the columnar growth, a highly textured fine microstructure is achieved. The effects of adding a segregating element (Ag) on the columnar growth are characterized and presented.