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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Thermal Processes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

2

Low resistive p-type GaN using two-step rapid thermal annealing processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two-step thermal annealing processes were investigated for electrical activation of magnesium- doped galliumnitride layers. The samples were studied by room-temperature Hall measurements and photoluminescence spectroscopy at 16 K. After an annealing process consisting of a short-term step at 960?°C followed by a 600?°C dwell step for 5 min a resistivity as low as 0.84 ??cm is achieved for the activated sample which improves the results achieved by standard annealing (800?°C for 10 min) by 25% in resistivity and 100% in free hole concentration.Photoluminescence shows a peak centered at 3.0 eV which is typical for Mg-doped samples with high free hole concentrations.

M. Scherer; V. Schwegler; M. Seyboth; C. Kirchner; M. Kamp; A. Pelzmann; M. Drechsler

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Rapid Thermal Processing of High Efficiency n-Type Silicon Solar Cells with Al Back Junction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we report on the design, fabrication and modeling of 49 cm{sup 2}, 200-{micro}m thick, 1-5 {Omega}-cm, n- and p-type <111> and <100> screen-printed silicon solar cells. A simple process involving RTP front surface phosphorus diffusion, low frequency PECVD silicon nitride deposition, screen-printing of Al metal and Ag front grid followed by co-firing of front and back contacts produced cell efficiencies of 15.4% on n-type <111> Si, 15.1% on n-type <100> Si, 15.8% on p-type <111> Si and 16.1% on p-type <100> Si. Open circuit voltage was comparable for n and p type cells and was also independent of wafer orientation. High fill factor values (0.771-0.783) for all the devices ruled out appreciable shunting which has been a problem for the development of co-fired n-type <100> silicon solar cells with Al back junction. Model calculations were performed using PC1D to support the experimental results and provide guidelines for achieving >17% n-type silicon solar cells by rapid firing of Al back junction.

Ebong, A.; Upadhyaya, V.; Rounsaville, B.; Kim, D. S.; Meemongkolkiat, V.; Rohatgi, A.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Jones, K. M.; To, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Polyx multicrystalline silicon solar cells processed by PF+5 unanalysed ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of terrestrial solar cells as compared to classical furnace or pulsed laser annealing. Unfortunately, drawbacks695 Polyx multicrystalline silicon solar cells processed by PF+5 unanalysed ion implantation with classical furnace annealing or with classical diffusion process. Revue Phys. Appl. 22 (1987) 695-700 JUILLET

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

Solar Thermal Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of solar energy for desalination purposes was one of ... The process is based on the use of solar thermal energy to evaporate water, thus separating pure ... brine. In this chapter an overview of solar thermal

M.T. Chaibi; Ali M. El-Nashar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Ceramic thermal barrier coating for rapid thermal cycling applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier coating for metal articles subjected to rapid thermal cycling includes a metallic bond coat deposited on the metal article, at least one MCrAlY/ceramic layer deposited on the bond coat, and a ceramic top layer deposited on the MCrAlY/ceramic layer. The M in the MCrAlY material is Fe, Ni, Co, or a mixture of Ni and Co. The ceramic in the MCrAlY/ceramic layer is mullite or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The ceramic top layer includes a ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion less than about 5.4.times.10.sup.-6 .degree.C.sup.-1 and a thermal conductivity between about 1 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1 and about 1.7 J sec.sup.-1 m.sup.-1 .degree.C.sup.-1.

Scharman, Alan J. (Hebron, CT); Yonushonis, Thomas M. (Columbus, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Rapid Modeling of Power Electronics Thermal Management Technologies: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Describes a method of rapidly evaluating trade-offs associated with alternative packaging configurations and thermal management technologies for power electronics packaging.

Bennion, K.; Kelly, K.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Rapid Solar-thermal Dissociation of Natural Gas in an Aerosol Flow Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/or hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles could help to mitigate the energy supply and environmental problems black production. For solar-thermal processing, where carbon black is sold, fossil energy usageRapid Solar-thermal Dissociation of Natural Gas in an Aerosol Flow Reactor Jaimee Dahl a , Karen

9

Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Changing World Technologies' Changing World Technologies' Thermal Conversion Process Commercial Demonstration Plant DOE/EA 1506 Weld County, Colorado December 2004 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GOLDEN FIELD OFFICE 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology Commercial Demonstration - Weld County, CO TABLE OF CONTENTS Environmental Assessment Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) Technology Commercial Demonstration Project Weld County, Colorado SUMMARY............................................................................................................................. S-1 1.0 INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................1-1 1.1. National Environmental Policy Act and Related Procedures...........................1-1

10

Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment:...

11

Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from SiH4 and N2O  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SiO2 film. An optimal process window had been previously identified at a total pressure of 5 Torr, but also quantitative metrology for the film deposition process. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. S0734-211X the wafer. Radiative heating of the wafer was achieved through a quartz window by an array of halogen lamps

Rubloff, Gary W.

12

Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Massachusetts Institute of...

13

Solar Thermal Process Heat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarThermalProcessHeat&oldid267198" Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

14

Rapid Thermalization by Baryon Injection in Gauge/Gravity Duality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the AdS/CFT correspondence for strongly coupled gauge theories, we calculate thermalization of mesons caused by a time-dependent change of a baryon number chemical potential. On the gravity side, the thermalization corresponds to a horizon formation on the probe flavor brane in the AdS throat. Since heavy ion collisions are locally approximated by a sudden change of the baryon number chemical potential, we discuss implication of our results to RHIC and LHC experiments, to find a rough estimate of rather rapid thermalization time-scale t_{th} < 1 [fm/c]. We also discuss universality of our analysis against varying gauge theories.

Koji Hashimoto; Norihiro Iizuka; Takashi Oka

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

15

Thermo-and hydro-mechanical processes along faults during rapid slip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermo- and hydro-mechanical processes along faults during rapid slip James R. Rice & Eric M micro-contacts, and (2) Thermal pressurization of fault-zone pore fluid. Both have characteristics which

Dunham, Eric M.

16

Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process Opportunity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas Hydrate Formation Process Gas Hydrate Formation Process Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking collaborative research and licensing partners interested in implementing United States Non-provisional Patent Application entitled "Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process." Disclosed in this application is a method and device for producing gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas such as methane (CH 4 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone, which may be contained within the body of the spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction vessel, under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for gas hydrate formation. The reaction

17

Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Thermal processing systems for TRU mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes (TRUW) buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Anticipated waste stream components and problems are considered. Thermal processing conditions required to obtain a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic final waste form are considered. Five practical thermal process system designs are compared. Thermal processing of mixed waste and soils with essentially no presorting and using incineration followed by high temperature melting is recommended. Applied research and development necessary for demonstration is also recommended.

Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Method and apparatus for thermal processing of semiconductor substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method for thermal processing of semiconductor wafers. The apparatus and method provide the temperature stability and uniformity of a conventional batch furnace as well as the processing speed and reduced time-at-temperature of a lamp-heated rapid thermal processor (RTP). Individual wafers are rapidly inserted into and withdrawn from a furnace cavity held at a nearly constant and isothermal temperature. The speeds of insertion and withdrawal are sufficiently large to limit thermal stresses and thereby reduce or prevent plastic deformation of the wafer as it enters and leaves the furnace. By processing the semiconductor wafer in a substantially isothermal cavity, the wafer temperature and spatial uniformity of the wafer temperature can be ensured by measuring and controlling only temperatures of the cavity walls. Further, peak power requirements are very small compared to lamp-heated RTPs because the cavity temperature is not cycled and the thermal mass of the cavity is relatively large. Increased speeds of insertion and/or removal may also be used with non-isothermal furnaces.

Griffiths, Stewart K. (Danville, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Cardiss, CA); Mattson, Brad S. (Los Gatos, CA); Savas, Stephen E. (Alameda, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Method and apparatus for thermal processing of semiconductor substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method for thermal processing of semiconductor wafers. The apparatus and method provide the temperature stability and uniformity of a conventional batch furnace as well as the processing speed and reduced time-at-temperature of a lamp-heated rapid thermal processor (RTP). Individual wafers are rapidly inserted into and withdrawn from a furnace cavity held at a nearly constant and isothermal temperature. The speeds of insertion and withdrawal are sufficiently large to limit thermal stresses and thereby reduce or prevent plastic deformation of the wafer as it enters and leaves the furnace. By processing the semiconductor wafer in a substantially isothermal cavity, the wafer temperature and spatial uniformity of the wafer temperature can be ensured by measuring and controlling only temperatures of the cavity walls. Further, peak power requirements are very small compared to lamp-heated RTPs because the cavity temperature is not cycled and the thermal mass of the cavity is relatively large. Increased speeds of insertion and/or removal may also be used with non-isothermal furnaces.

Griffiths, Stewart K. (Danville, CA); Nilson, Robert H. (Cardiss, CA); Mattson, Brad S. (Los Gatos, CA); Savas, Stephen E. (Alameda, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Selective deposition of silicon and silicon-germanium alloys by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selective deposition of SiGe alloys by rapid thermal deposition has been studied using a commercially available Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (RTCVD) cluster tool. The precursors used in this work were dichlorosilane and germane diluted in either hydrogen or argon. An initial characterization was performed to find the appropriate temperature and GeH{sub 4} flow ranges to deposit epitaxial layers with low surface roughness. For layers with higher germanium concentration lower deposition temperatures are required to minimize surface roughness. The effects of the dilutant gas on the deposition were examined. An H{sub 2} dilutant affects the deposition by consuming chlorine released by the SiCl{sub 2}H{sub 2} and forming HCl. When Ar is used as the dilutant, more chlorine is available for other reactions that can result in etching of the silicon surface. Finally, the effects of pre-deposition treatment were determined. When compared to a wet HF dip, a gas/vapor phase HF/methanol native oxide removal treatment appears to increase the initiation time for the epitaxial deposition reaction. This is most likely due to increased fluorine termination of the surface. When a wet HF or HF/methanol native oxide removal is followed by a UV-Cl{sub 2} process, the deposition reaction initiation time is reduced. The UV-Cl{sub 2} process was also found to etch silicon through the native oxide.

Grant, J.M.; Ang, M.; Allen, L.R. [Sharp Microelectronics Technology, Inc., Camas, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes...

23

Thermal behavior in the LENS process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct laser metal deposition processing is a promising manufacturing technology which could significantly impact the length of time between initial concept and finished part. For adoption of this technology in the manufacturing environment, further understanding is required to ensure robust components with appropriate properties are routinely fabricated. This requires a complete understanding of the thermal history during part fabrication and control of this behavior. This paper will describe research to understand the thermal behavior for the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process, where a component is fabricated by focusing a laser beam onto a substrate to create a molten pool in which powder particles are simultaneously injected to build each layer. The substrate is moved beneath the laser beam to deposit a thin cross section, thereby creating the desired geometry for each layer. After deposition of each layer, the powder delivery nozzle and focusing lens assembly is incremented in the positive Z-direction, thereby building a three dimensional component layer additively. It is important to control the thermal behavior to reproducibly fabricate parts. The ultimate intent is to monitor the thermal signatures and to incorporate sensors and feedback algorithms to control part fabrication. With appropriate control, the geometric properties (accuracy, surface finish, low warpage) as well as the materials` properties (e.g., strength, ductility) of a component can be dialed into the part through the fabrication parameters. Thermal monitoring techniques will be described, and their particular benefits highlighted. Preliminary details in correlating thermal behavior with processing results will be discussed.

Griffith, M.L.; Schlienger, M.E.; Harwell, L.D. [and others

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Firearm suppressor having enhanced thermal management for rapid heat dissipation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A suppressor is disclosed for use with a weapon having a barrel through which a bullet is fired. The suppressor has an inner portion having a bore extending coaxially therethrough. The inner portion is adapted to be secured to a distal end of the barrel. A plurality of axial flow segments project radially from the inner portion and form axial flow paths through which expanding propellant gasses discharged from the barrel flow through. The axial flow segments have radially extending wall portions that define sections which may be filled with thermally conductive material, which in one example is a thermally conductive foam. The conductive foam helps to dissipate heat deposited within the suppressor during firing of the weapon.

Moss, William C.; Anderson, Andrew T.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

25

Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

26

Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

We are developing a continuous fabrication process for high thermal conductivity polyethylene (PE) films While high thermal conductivity in (PE) has been shown in isolated...

27

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSING OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR THERMAL INSULATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSING OF POLYURETHANE FOAM FOR THERMAL INSULATION CHANJOONG KIM was proposed and evaluated for the application of thermal insulation. For the production of polyurethane foam correspondence should be sent. #12;Key Words: Foam; Polyurethane; Thermal insulation; Nucleation; Growth

Kim, Chanjoong

28

Utilizing Solar Thermal Energy in Textile Processing Units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents the prospects of solar thermal energy utilization in the textile processing units in Pakistan. Various solar thermal technologies suitable for thermal energy production and their application...

Asad Mahmood; Khanji Harijan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Rapid thermal oxidation of silicon in mixtures of oxygen and nitrous oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation in nitrous oxide by conventional hot wall furnace processing and by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) has been a subject of much interest in recent years. RTO is a fundamentally different process than furnace oxidation, however, and the full effects of this type of processing on the oxidation kinetics are not well understood. Oxidation of silicon by RTO at a variety of pressures, temperatures, and oxidation gas mixtures has been studied. Although at lower temperatures (< 850 C) the atmospheric pressure oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is very close to that in oxygen, at higher temperatures the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is much lower than that in oxygen. At lower pressures in a RTO process, the oxidation rate in nitrous oxide is higher than that in oxygen. The effect of the nitrogen incorporated in the oxide acting as a diffusion barrier has been proposed as the mechanism of temperature dependence for atmospheric pressure oxidation in nitrous oxide. This does not explain the effects seen at lower pressure,s however, The authors propose that some of the intermediate species produced in the decomposition of nitrous oxide into molecular nitrogen, molecular oxygen, and nitric oxide play a role in the initial stages of oxidation by RTO in nitrous oxide.

Grant, J.M.; Karim, Z. [Sharp Microelectronics Technology, Inc., Camas, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Scale control in thermal desalination processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal desalination processes involve the heating of seawater to form water vapor which is then condensed to produce salt free water. Multiple Effect Evaporation (ME) and Multiple-Stage Flash distillation (MSF) are the two main processes used for thermal distillation. MSF distillation, currently is the dominant process. MSF distillation is run under pressure at relatively high temperatures (90--125 C). Scale formation is one of the most critical problems affecting both processes. In the case of MSF, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide and calcium sulfate are the main scale forming salts. The first two scale forming salts are usually controlled by keeping neutral the pH of the system by the addition of acid. Scale inhibitors are used to prevent calcium sulfate scale. Because of economical reasons, the trend in the industry is to operate systems at as high a temperature and concentration factor as possible in order to increase purified water production at a lower cost. Safety concerns have also increased the need for acid feed elimination as a mean of controlling pH. These practices increased the scaling tendencies in MSF processes and created the need for more effective treatment programs to control scale formation on heat exchangers. A new multi-component inhibitor program that enable operation of MSF systems without the need of acid feed for pH control has been developed. The program prevent scale formation and allows to operate the system under typical or higher concentration factors and temperatures than normally found in MSF evaporators operating with acid feed.

Perez, L.A.; Polizzotti, D.M. [BetzDearborn, Trevose, PA (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Synthesis report on thermally driven coupled processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main purpose of this report is to document observations and data on thermally coupled processes for conditions that are expected to occur within and around a repository at Yucca Mountain. Some attempt is made to summarize values of properties (e.g., thermal properties, hydrologic properties) that can be measured in the laboratory on intact samples of the rock matrix. Variation of these properties with temperature, or with conditions likely to be encountered at elevated temperature in the host rock, is of particular interest. However, the main emphasis of this report is on direct observation of thermally coupled processes at various scales. Direct phenomenological observations are vitally important in developing and testing conceptual models. If the mathematical implementation of a conceptual model predicts a consequence that is not observed, either (1) the parameters or the boundary conditions used in the calculation are incorrect or (2) the conceptual basis of the model does not fit the experiment; in either case, the model must be revised. For example, the effective continuum model that has been used in thermohydrology studies combines matrix and fracture flow in a way that is equivalent to an assumption that water is imbibed instantaneously from fractures into adjacent, partially saturated matrix. Based on this approximation, the continuum-flow response that is analogous to fracture flow will not occur until the effective continuum is almost completely saturated. This approximation is not entirely consistent with some of the experimental data presented in this report. This report documents laboratory work and field studies undertaken in FY96 and FY97 to investigate thermally coupled processes such as heat pipes and fracture-matrix coupling. In addition, relevant activities from past years, and work undertaken outside the Yucca Mountain project are summarized and discussed. Natural and artificial analogs are also discussed to provide a convenient source of material documenting the conceptual and mathematical basis for modeling coupled phenomena. The actual models and codes, and their specific empirical and theoretical bases, will be documented in a separate report to be delivered in FY99.

Hardin, E.L.

1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

List of Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Process Heat Incentives Process Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 204 Solar Thermal Process Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 204) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) Corporate Tax Credit Vermont Commercial Industrial Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat No APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Residential Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Daylighting Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Landfill Gas Other Distributed Generation Technologies Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Solar Pool Heating Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Process Heat

33

Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project to develop and validate a continuous manufacturing process for polyethylene fibers and sheets yielding a thermal conductivity value greater than 60 W/m.K.

34

MODELING OF THERMALLY DRIVEN HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES IN PARTIALLY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) incorporation of a full set of thermal-hydrological processes into a numerical simulator, (2) realistic AND BACKGROUND [2] The containment of spent fuel from nuclear power plants in a geological repositoryMODELING OF THERMALLY DRIVEN HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES IN PARTIALLY SATURATED FRACTURED ROCK Y. W

Jellinek, Mark

35

Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Process planning for an Additive/Subtractive Rapid Pattern Manufacturing system.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation presents a rapid manufacturing process for sand casting patterns using a hybrid additive/subtractive approach. This includes three major areas of research that will… (more)

Luo, Xiaoming

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Process and apparatus for thermal enhancement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal treatment apparatus for downhole deployment comprising a combustion stage with an elongated hot wall combustion zone for the substantially complete combustion of the fuel-air mixture and an ignition zone immediately upstream from the combustion zone in which a mixture of atomized liquid fuel and air at or below stoichiometric ratio is ignited; together with a water injection stage immediately downstream from the combustion zone through which essentially partuculate free high temperature combustion products flow from the combustion zone and into which water is sprayed. The resulting mixture of steam and combustion products is injected into an oil formation for enhancing the speed and effectiveness of reservoir response due to physical, chemical, and/or thermal stimulation interactions.

Burrill, Jr., Charles E. (Billerica, MA); Smirlock, Martin E. (Brimfield, MA); Krepchin, Ira P. (Newton Upper Falls, MA)

1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

38

THERMAL PROCESSING OF OIL SHALE/SANDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)-based simulation tools to a modified in-situ process for production of oil from oil shale. The simulation tools

Michal Hradisky; Philip J. Smith; Doe Award; No. De-fe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Thermal Analysis of Novel Underfill Materials with Optimum Processing Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal Analysis of Novel Underfill Materials with Optimum Processing Characteristics Yang Liu,1 Yi evolution. Boron nitride, silica-coated alu- minum nitride, and alumina ceramic powders were used as fillers poly- merization. The effects of the filler type and composition on the thermal and mechanical

Harmon, Julie P.

40

Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics The report addresses granular salt reconsolidation from three vantage points: laboratory testing, modeling, and petrofabrics. The experimental data 1) provide greater insight and understanding into the role of elevated temperature and pressure regimes on physical properties of reconsolidated crushed salt, 2) can supplement an existing database used to develop a reconsolidation constitutive model and 3) provide data for model evaluation. The constitutive model accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent

42

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics Coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical Processes in Salt, Hot Granular Salt Consolidation, Constitutive Model and Micromechanics The report addresses granular salt reconsolidation from three vantage points: laboratory testing, modeling, and petrofabrics. The experimental data 1) provide greater insight and understanding into the role of elevated temperature and pressure regimes on physical properties of reconsolidated crushed salt, 2) can supplement an existing database used to develop a reconsolidation constitutive model and 3) provide data for model evaluation. The constitutive model accounts for the effects of moisture through pressure solution and dislocation creep, with both terms dependent

43

Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, Howard L. (San Carlos, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

45

Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

Morman, James A. (Woodridge, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Thermal acidization and recovery process for recovering viscous petroleum  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal acidization and recovery process for increasing production of heavy viscous petroleum crude oil and synthetic fuels from subterranean hydrocarbon formations containing clay particles creating adverse permeability effects is described. The method comprises injecting a thermal vapor stream through a well bore penetrating such formations to clean the formation face of hydrocarbonaceous materials which restrict the flow of fluids into the petroleum-bearing formation. Vaporized hydrogen chloride is then injected simultaneously to react with calcium and magnesium salts in the formation surrounding the bore hole to form water soluble chloride salts. Vaporized hydrogen fluoride is then injected simultaneously with its thermal vapor to dissolve water-sensitive clay particles thus increasing permeability. Thereafter, the thermal vapors are injected until the formation is sufficiently heated to permit increased recovery rates of the petroleum.

Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Process efficiency in polymer extrusion: Correlation between the energy demand and melt thermal stability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermal stability is of major importance in polymer extrusion, where product quality is dependent upon the level of melt homogeneity achieved by the extruder screw. Extrusion is an energy intensive process and optimisation of process energy usage while maintaining melt stability is necessary in order to produce good quality product at low unit cost. Optimisation of process energy usage is timely as world energy prices have increased rapidly over the last few years. In the first part of this study, a general discussion was made on the efficiency of an extruder. Then, an attempt was made to explore correlations between melt thermal stability and energy demand in polymer extrusion under different process settings and screw geometries. A commodity grade of polystyrene was extruded using a highly instrumented single screw extruder, equipped with energy consumption and melt temperature field measurement. Moreover, the melt viscosity of the experimental material was observed by using an off-line rheometer. Results showed that specific energy demand of the extruder (i.e. energy for processing of unit mass of polymer) decreased with increasing throughput whilst fluctuation in energy demand also reduced. However, the relationship between melt temperature and extruder throughput was found to be complex, with temperature varying with radial position across the melt flow. Moreover, the melt thermal stability deteriorated as throughput was increased, meaning that a greater efficiency was achieved at the detriment of melt consistency. Extruder screw design also had a significant effect on the relationship between energy consumption and melt consistency. Overall, the relationship between the process energy demand and thermal stability seemed to be negatively correlated and also it was shown to be highly complex in nature. Moreover, the level of process understanding achieved here can help to inform selection of equipment and setting of operating conditions to optimise both energy and thermal efficiencies in parallel.

Chamil Abeykoon; Adrian L. Kelly; Javier Vera-Sorroche; Elaine C. Brown; Phil D. Coates; Jing Deng; Kang Li; Eileen Harkin-Jones; Mark Price

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

An automated vision-based method for rapid 3D energy performance modeling of existing buildings using thermal and digital imagery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Modeling the energy performance of existing buildings enables quick identification and reporting of potential areas for building retrofit. However, current modeling practices of using energy simulation tools do not model the energy performance of buildings at their element level. As a result, potential retrofit candidates caused by construction defects and degradations are not represented. Furthermore, due to manual modeling and calibration processes, their application is often time-consuming. Current application of 2D thermography for building diagnostics is also facing several challenges due to a large number of unordered and non-geo-tagged images. To address these limitations, this paper presents a new computer vision-based method for automated 3D energy performance modeling of existing buildings using thermal and digital imagery captured by a single thermal camera. First, using a new image-based 3D reconstruction pipeline which consists of Graphic Processing Unit (GPU)-based Structure-from-Motion (SfM) and Multi-View Stereo (MVS) algorithms, the geometrical conditions of an existing building is reconstructed in 3D. Next, a 3D thermal point cloud model of the building is generated by using a new 3D thermal modeling algorithm. This algorithm involves a one-time thermal camera calibration, deriving the relative transformation by forming the Epipolar geometry between thermal and digital images, and the MVS algorithm for dense reconstruction. By automatically superimposing the 3D building and thermal point cloud models, 3D spatio-thermal models are formed, which enable the users to visualize, query, and analyze temperatures at the level of 3D points. The underlying algorithms for generating and visualizing the 3D spatio-thermal models and the 3D-registered digital and thermal images are presented in detail. The proposed method is validated for several interior and exterior locations of a typical residential building and an instructional facility. The experimental results show that inexpensive digital and thermal imagery can be converted into ubiquitous reporters of the actual energy performance of existing buildings. The proposed method expedites the modeling process and has the potential to be used as a rapid and robust building diagnostic tool.

Youngjib Ham; Mani Golparvar-Fard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Eighth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Thermal and membrane processe economics: Optimized selection for seawater desalination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While the fuel cost has increased in the past years, the desalinated water demand has also increased sharply, especially in the deserted areas. The challenge is to be able to meet such future demand, minimizing the water production costs. The desalination concepts have evolved, achieving substantial progress: desalination thermal process is moving from MSF to MED, hybrids involving both thermal and membrane process are more and more implemented. Reduction in cost and the improved economics of desalination plants are essential elements for the development of communities. Energy, capital, and operating costs are key issues of water desalination economics. This will lead to an optimized process selection on a case by case approach: the choice will depend on the specific conditions prevailing on site, such as existing facilities, power and water demand increase, land availability, raw water quality of water to be produced, ratio between power and water production, ratio between thermal and membrane desalination. The presentation will focus on these various aspects of seawater desalination economics.

Jacques Andrianne; Félix Alardin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Wide-Area Thermal Processing of Light-Emitting Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon carbide based materials and devices have been successfully exploited for diverse electronic applications. However, they have not achieved the same success as Si technologies due to higher material cost and higher processing temperatures required for device development. Traditionally, SiC is not considered for optoelectronic applications because it has an indirect bandgap. However, AppliCote Associates, LLC has developed a laser-based doping process which enables light emission in SiC through the creation of embedded p-n junctions. AppliCote laser irradiation of silicon carbide allows two different interaction mechanisms: (1) Laser conversion or induced phase transformation which creates carbon rich regions that have conductive properties. These conductive regions are required for interconnection to the light emitting semiconducting region. (2) Laser doping which injects external dopant atoms into the substrate that introduces deep level transition states that emit light when electrically excited. The current collaboration with AppliCote has focused on the evaluation of ORNL's unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technique as a replacement for laser processing. Compared to laser processing, Pulse Thermal Processing can deliver similar energy intensities (20-50 kW/cm2) over a much larger area (up to 1,000 cm2) at a lower cost and much higher throughput. The main findings of our investigation; which are significant for the realization of SiC based optoelectronic devices, are as follows: (1) The PTP technique is effective in low thermal budget activation of dopants in SiC similar to the laser technique. The surface electrical conductivity of the SiC samples improved by about three orders of magnitude as a result of PTP processing which is significant for charge injection in the devices; (2) The surface composition of the SiC film can be modified by the PTP technique to create a carbon-rich surface (increased local C:Si ratio from 1:1 to 2.9:1). This is significant as higher thermal and electrical conductivities of the surface layer are critical for a successful development of integrated optoelectronic devices; and (3) PTP provides low thermal budget dopant activation with a controlled depth profile, which can be exploited for high performance device development with selective patterning of the substrate. This project has successfully demonstrated that a low thermal budget annealing technique, such as PTP, is critical to defining the path for low cost electronic devices integrated on glass or polymeric substrates. This project is complimentary to the goals of the Solid State Lighting Program within DOE. It involves new manufacturing techniques for light emitting materials that are potentially much lower cost and energy efficient than existing products. Significant opportunity exists for further exploration of AppliCote's material and device technology in combination with ORNL's PTP technique, modeling, and characterization capabilities.

Duty, C.; Quick, N. (AppliCote Associates, LLC) [AppliCote Associates, LLC

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

54

Analysis of Zinc 65 Contamination after Vacuum Thermal Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive contamination with a gamma energy emission consistent with {sup 65}Zn was detected in a glovebox following a vacuum thermal process. The contaminated components were removed from the glovebox and subjected to examination. Selected analytical techniques were used to determine the nature of the precursor material, i.e., oxide or metallic, the relative transferability of the deposit and its nature. The deposit was determined to be borne from natural zinc and was further determined to be deposited as a metallic material from vapor.

Korinko, Paul S.; Tosten, Michael H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Thermally stable booster explosive and process for manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermally stable booster explosive and process for the manufacture of the explosive. The product explosive is 2,4,7,9-tetranitro-10H-benzo[4,5]furo[3,2-b]indole (TNBFI). A reactant/solvent such as n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) or dimethyl formamide (DMF) is made slightly basic. The solution is heated to reduce the water content. The solution is cooled and hexanitrostilbene is added. The solution is heated to a predetermined temperature for a specific time period, cooled, and the product is collected by filtration.

Quinlin, William T. (Amarillo, TX); Thorpe, Raymond (Amarillo, TX); Lightfoot, James M. (Amarillo, TX)

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

56

High thermal stability and low Gilbert damping constant of CoFeB/MgO bilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by Al capping and rapid thermal annealing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate that the magnetic anisotropy of the CoFeB/MgO bilayer can be manipulated by adding an aluminum capping layer. After rapid thermal annealing, we can achieve large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoFeB with a high thermal stability factor (??=?72) while the Gilbert damping constant can be reduced down to only 0.011 simultaneously. The boron and residual oxygen in the bulk CoFeB layer are properly absorbed by the Al capping layer during annealing, leading to the enhanced exchange stiffness and reduced damping. The interfacial Fe-O bonding can be optimized by tuning annealing temperature and thickness of Al, resulting in enhanced perpendicular anisotropy.

Wang, Ding-Shuo; Lai, Shu-Yu; Lin, Tzu-Ying; Wang, Liang-Wei; Liao, Jung-Wei; Lai, Chih-Huang, E-mail: chlai@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chien, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Yung-Hung [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung, Taiwan (China); Ellsworth, David; Lu, Lei; Wu, Mingzhong [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

57

Carbon Nanostructures As Thermal Interface Materials: Processing And Properties.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The power density of electronic packages has substantially increased. The thermal interface resistance involves more than 50% of the total thermal resistance in current high-power… (more)

Memon, Muhammad Omar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Rapid Automated Dissolution and Analysis Techniques for Radionuclides in Recycle Process Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analysis of process samples for radionuclide content is an important part of current procedures for material balance and accountancy in the different process streams of a recycling plant. The destructive sample analysis techniques currently available necessitate a significant amount of time. It is therefore desirable to develop new sample analysis procedures that allow for a quick turnaround time and increased sample throughput with a minimum of deviation between samples. In particular new capabilities for rapid sample dissolution and radiochemical separation are required. Most of the radioanalytical techniques currently employed for sample analysis are based on manual laboratory procedures. Such procedures are time and labor intensive and not well suited for situations in which a rapid sample analysis is requires and/or large number of samples needed to be analyzed.

Sudowe, Ralf

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

59

Advanced thermal processing alternatives for solid waste management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990`s have seen a resurgence of interest in the development of new thermal processing alternatives for municipal solid waste (MSW). Sparked by increasingly stringent environmental regulations, much of this creative energy has been applied to technologies for the gasification of MSW: converting the solid, hard to handle material into a clean, medium to high-Btu fuel gas. Other developers have focussed on full combustion technology but with a {open_quotes}twist{close_quotes} that lowers emissions or reduces cost. A comprehensive study of these new technologies was recently completed under the sponsorship of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy. The study characterized the state-of-the-art among emerging MSW thermal processing technologies that have reached the point of `incipient commercialization.` More than 45 technologies now under development were screened to develop a short list of seven processes that have passed through the idea stage, laboratory and benchscale testing, and have been prototyped at an MSW feed rate of at least several tons per hour. In-depth review of these seven included inspections of operating pilot or prototype units and a detailed analysis of technical, environmental and economic feasibility issues. No attempt was made to select `the best` technology since best can only be defined in the context of the constraints, aspirations and circumstances of a specific, local situation. The basic flowsheet, heat and material balances and available environmental data were summarized to help the reader grasp the underlying technical concepts and their embodiment in hardware. Remaining development needs, as seen by the study team are presented. Economic analysis shows the general balance of capital and operating costs.

Niessen, W.R. [Camp Dresser & McKee Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Integration of solar thermal energy into processes with heat demand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An integration of solar thermal energy can reduce the utility cost and the environmental impact. A proper integration of solar thermal energy is required in order to achieve ... objective of this study is to maxi...

Andreja Nemet; Zdravko Kravanja…

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Thermally induced dispersion mechanisms for aluminum-based plate-type fuels under rapid transient energy deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermally induced dispersion model was developed to analyze for dispersive potential and determine onset of fuel plate dispersion for Al-based research and test reactor fuels. Effect of rapid energy deposition in a fuel plate was simulated. Several data types for Al-based fuels tested in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Japan and in the Transient Reactor Test in Idaho were reviewed. Analyses of experiments show that onset of fuel dispersion is linked to a sharp rise in predicted strain rate, which futher coincides with onset of Al vaporization. Analysis also shows that Al oxidation and exothermal chemical reaction between the fuel and Al can significantly affect the energy deposition characteristics, and therefore dispersion onset connected with Al vaporization, and affect onset of vaporization.

Georgevich, V.; Taleyarkham, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Kim, S.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

Enhanced oil recovery: miscible flooding; thermal methods; and process implementation. Annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The individual papers in this volume covering miscible flooding, thermal methods, and process implementation were indexed.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

On-line inspection and thermal properties comparison for laser deposition process .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??"This thesis is focused on comparing the laser deposition cladding with intended design model and comparing the effect of laser deposition process on thermal properties… (more)

Yang, Yu, 1973-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Thermal diffusion processes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental results for the Soret coefficients are variable, but suggest a trend with NaCl concentration that is consistent with electrolyte solution behavior. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficients is in approximate agreement with previous measurements obtained using other techniques. In general, the Soret coefficient values are best interpreted based on the expansion of the fluid inclusion migration fields. The high temperature values for {sigma} at 1.0 N NaCl concentration suggest an expansion of the migration field to smaller inclusion sizes, which for a single halite crystal at these conditions, approach a dimension of one micron. The corresponding fluid inclusion size for the polycrystalline material, where grain boundaries retard the migration, is approximately 10 microns. Although the Soret results obtained in the present study provide additional data for high temperature applications in nuclear waste isolation, more experimentation and new equipment design are required in order to obtain data at temperatures above 80{degree}C. The experimental approach utilized in this study is limited in that respect. The almost immeasurable nature of the thermal diffusion process for the brines as examined in the laboratory, suggests that this effect will be insignificant (outside of fluid inclusion migration) in most rock-water interactions associated with a rocksalt nuclear waste repository. Other effects, such as convective fluid transport, pressure solution, and groundwater flow, will be orders-of-magnitude more important in evaluating the critical nature of brine migration, waste canister corrosion, and the potential for leaching radioisotopes from waste repositories.

Cygan, R.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jarrell, G.D. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1992-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

65

Strain compensation in boron-indium coimplanted laser thermal processed silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strain compensation in boron-indium coimplanted laser thermal processed silicon Mark H. Clarka Strain in B-implanted laser thermal processed LTP silicon is reduced by coimplantation of In. Strain in the codoped layer is calculated using lattice constants measured by high-resolution x-ray diffraction

Florida, University of

66

Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Fourth Ed. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Fourth Ed. J. A. Duffie and W. A. Beckman 2 Last Eqn on page Second Ti should be Ti-1 #12;Corrigenda for Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes "radiation on" to "radiation at solar noon on" Second equation Change G to Gb + Gd Six lines from bottom

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

67

Representation of thermal energy in the design process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of thermal design is to go beyond the comfort zone. In spatial design architects don't just look up square footage requirements and then draw a rectangle that satisfies the givens. There must be an interpretation. ...

Roth, Shaun

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Silicon nucleation and film evolution on silicon dioxide using disilane: Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition of very smooth silicon at high deposition rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and H{sub 2} for rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) of silicon on SiO{sub 2} has been performed at temperatures ranging from 590 to 900 C and pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 Torr. Deposition at 590 C yields amorphous silicon films with the corresponding ultrasmooth surface with a deposition rate of 68 nm/min. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of a sample deposited at 625 C and 1 Torr reveals a bilayer structure which is amorphous at the growth surface and crystallized at the oxide interface. Higher temperatures yield polycrystalline films where the surface roughness depends strongly on both deposition pressure and temperature. Silane-based amorphous silicon deposition in conventional systems yields the expected ultrasmooth surfaces, but at greatly reduced deposition rates unsuitable for single-wafer processing. However, disilane, over the process window considered here, yields growth rates high enough to be appropriate for single-wafer manufacturing, thus providing a viable means for deposition of very smooth silicon films on SiO{sub 2} in a single-wafer environment.

Violette, K.E.; Oeztuerk, M.C.; Christensen, K.N.; Maher, D.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

A rapid estimation and sensitivity analysis of parameters describing the behavior of commercial Li-ion batteries including thermal analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, a methodology based on rigorous model fitting and sensitivity analysis is presented to determine the parameters describing the physicochemical behavior of commercial pouch Li-ion batteries of high-capacity (16 A h), utilized in electric vehicles. It is intended for a rapid estimation of the kinetic and transport parameters, state of charge and health of a Li-ion battery when chemical information is not available, or for a brand new system. A pseudo 2-D model comprised of different contributions reported in the literature is utilized to describe the mass, charge and thermal balances of the cell and porous electrodes; and adapted to the battery chemistry under study. The sensitivity analysis of key model parameters is conducted to determine confidence intervals, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for non-linear models. Also individual multi-parametric sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the impact of the model parameters on battery voltage. The battery is comprised of multiple cells in parallel containing carbon anodes and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) cathodes with maximum and cut-off voltages of 4.2 and 2.7 V, respectively. Mass and charge transfer limitations during the discharge/charge of the battery are discussed as a function of State of Charge (SOC). A thermal analysis is also conducted to estimate the temperature rise on the surface of the battery. This modeling methodology can be extended to the analysis of other chemistry types of Li-ion batteries, as well as the evaluation of other material phenomena including capacity fade.

Jorge Vazquez-Arenas; Leonardo E. Gimenez; Michael Fowler; Taeyoung Han; Shih-ken Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

1 000 000 "C/s thin film electrical heater: ln situ resistivity measurements of Al and Ti/Si thin films during ultra rapid thermal annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

introduce a new technique for rapidly heating (10' "C/s) thin films using an electrical thermal annealing- ently, most commercial RTA systems use radiation-heating techniques via tungsten-halogen lamps. These systems typi- cally have a maximum heating rate of 100-300 "C/s. We introduce an alternative methodfor

Allen, Leslie H.

71

Performance improvement of CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells after rapid thermal annealing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigated the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on solar cell performance. An opto-electric conversion efficiency of 11.75% (Voc = 0.64 V, Jsc = 25.88 mA/cm2, FF=72.08%) was obtained under AM 1.5G when the cell was annealed at 300 ?C for 30 s. The annealed solar cell showed an average absolute efficiency 1.5% higher than that of the as-deposited one. For the microstructure analysis and the physical phase confirmation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, front surface reflection (FSR), internal quantum efficiency (IQE), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were respectively applied to distinguish the causes inducing the efficiency variation. All experimental results implied that the RTA eliminated recombination centers at the p?n junction, reduced the surface optical losses, enhanced the blue response of the CdS buffer layer, and improved the ohmic contact between Mo and Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) layers. This leaded to the improved performance of CIGS solar cell.

Chen Dong-Sheng (???); Yang Jie (? ?); Xu Fei (? ?); Zhou Ping-Hua (???); Du Hui-Wei (???); Shi Jian-Wei (???); Yu Zheng-Shan (???); Zhang Yu-Hong (???); Brian Bartholomeusz; Ma Zhong-Quan (???)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Optimization and heat integration of hollow fiber based thermal swing adsorption process for CO2 capture from flue gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work studies the optimization of a hollow fiber contactor operated in a rapid temperature swing adsorption (RTSA) mode for CO2 capture from flue gas. A hollow fiber contactor enables rapid heat and mass transfer and an efficient heat integration whereby parasitic loads on power plants can be reduced significantly compared to the traditional thermal swing adsorption processes. In this paper we employ a dynamic optimization strategy to predict the optimal operating conditions of a hollow fiber RTSA process for different process design objectives. The objective function considered was to maximize the feed throughput of the process with constraints for the required CO2 purity and recovery. Furthermore, the external heat and cold utilities must be minimized. The optimization requires a dynamic heat integration i.e. redistributing the hot and cold stream outlet between different parts of a cycle which is challenging and unconventional. This has been performed using a binary decision variable which switches the outlet water stream between hot and cold tanks. We also show that a multi- objective optimization approach can be employed to determine the optimal trade-off between heat duty and process throughput. Optimization was performed using a single discretization approach within gPROMS.

Subramanian Swernath; Fateme Rezaei; Jayashree Kalyanaraman; Ryan. P. Lively; Matthew J. Realff; Yoshiaki Kawajiri

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Comparison of closed and open thermochemical processes, for long-term thermal energy storage applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Comparison of closed and open thermochemical processes, for long-term thermal energy storage-term thermal storage, second law analysis * Corresponding author: E-mail: mazet@univ-perp.fr Nomenclature c Energy Tecnosud, Rambla de la thermodynamique, 66100 Perpignan, France b Université de Perpignan Via

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

DETERMINATION OF THE UAV POSITION BY AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF THERMAL IMAGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF THE UAV POSITION BY AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF THERMAL IMAGES Wilfried Hartmann.hartmann, sebastian.tilch, henri.eisenbeiss, konrad.schindler)@geod.baug.ethz.ch KEY WORDS: Thermal, UAV, Camera, Calibration, Bundle, Photogrammetry, GPS/INS ABSTRACT: If images acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

Schindler, Konrad

75

Modeling Process Characteristics and Performance of Fixed and Fluidized Bed Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling Process Characteristics and Performance of Fixed and Fluidized Bed Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer ... (7)?Cheng, W.-H.; Chou, M.-S.; Lee, W.-S.; Huang, B.-J. Applications of Low-Temperature Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers to Treat Volatile Organic Compounds. ...

Pietropaolo Morrone; Francesco P. Di Maio; Alberto Di Renzo; Mario Amelio

2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

76

Non-thermal Plasma Processing for Dilute VOCs Decomposition Combined with the Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma process combined with the new catalyst for...2...) named as the carbon balance. For better carbon balance, SED of the electric discharge is more than 90 J/L which is pretty...

Tetsuji Oda; Hikaru Kuramochi; Ryo Ono

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation and Thermal Mass Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Energy Efficient Process Heating: Insulation and Thermal Mass Kevin Carpenter and Kelly Kissock-0210 Phone: (937) 229-2852 Fax: (937) 229-4766 Email: Kelly.Kissock@notes.udayton.edu ABSTRACT Open tanks

Kissock, Kelly

78

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two. The performance of energy conversion processes can be evaluated using several types of efficiencies.2 Nowadays Gross,*, Ad Verkooijen, and Signe Kjelstrup, Department of Process & Energy, Delft Uni

Kjelstrup, Signe

79

Applications of the thermal DeNO{sub x} process to FBC boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents graphical and tabular information on Exxon Research and Engineering Company`s proprietary NH{sub 3} based selective non-catalytic nitrogen oxides reduction process. The process is applicable to boilers, incinerators, and fired heaters. Process operating parameters, technology, and equipment are outlined. Thermal performance data and simplified flow diagrams are also presented.

McIntyre, A.D. [Exxon Research & Engineering Company, Florham Park, NJ (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

Automated Process for the Fabrication of Highly Customized Thermally...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Institute 2 of 2 A project member completes cuts foam insulating via a process known as computer numerically controlled (CNC) foam cutting. Image: Worcester Polytechnic Institute...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Processing and thermal properties of molecularly oriented polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High molecular weight polymers that are linear in molecular construction can be oriented such that some of their physical properties in the oriented direction are enhanced. For over 50 years polymer orientation and processing ...

Skow, Erik (Erik Dean)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Control of thermal processes in a fluidized bed combustor (FBC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat and mass balance equations for the transient process of a fluidized bed furnace are described. The equations involve heat release from char and volatiles combustion, heat consumption during moisture evaporation, and heating of char and circulating particles. Calculations and experimental data for steady-state and unsteady conditions are compared. The results show that the height of the dense bed, the excess-air ratio and kinetic features of the fuel affect the rate of the transient process. The time constant for a disturbance by a change of the air flow rate was found to be smaller than the one for a change of the fuel input.

Munts, V.A.; Filippovskij, N.F.; Baskakov, A.P.; Pavliok, E.J. [Ural State Technical Univ., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Heat Power Dept.; Leckner, B. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

A model of the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: Application to the cooling rates of chondrules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model of the thermal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: Application to the cooling for the thermal processing of particles in shock waves typical of the solar nebula. This shock model improves are accounted for in their ef fects on the mass, momentum and energy fluxes. Also, besides thermal exchange

Connolly Jr, Harold C.

84

Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

Kuester, J.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knowledge of the thermodynamic and morphological properties of coal associated with rapid heating decomposition pathways is essential to progress in coal utilization technology. Specifically, knowledge of the heat of devolatilization, surface area and density of coal as a function of rank characteristics, temperature and extent of devolatilization in the context of rapid heating conditions is essential to the fundamental determination of kinetic parameters of coal devolatilization. These same properties are also needed to refine existing devolatilization sub-models utilized in large-scale modeling of coal combustion systems. The objective of this research is to obtain data on the thermodynamic properties and morphology of coal under conditions of rapid heating. Specifically, the total heat of devolatilization, external surface area, BET surface area and true density will be measured for representative coal samples. The coal ranks to be investigated will include a high volatile A bituminous (PSOC 1451 D) and a low volatile bituminous (PSOC 1516D). An anthracite (PSOC 1468) will be used as a non-volatile coal reference. In addition, for one coal, the contribution of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization will be measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars.

Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost. 7 figs.

Colella, N.J.; Davidson, H.L.; Kerns, J.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

87

Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, Howard L. (San Carlos, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Systems Process and Systems Process and Components Laboratory may include: * CSP technology developers * Utilities * Certification laboratories * Government agencies * Universities * Other National laboratories Contact Us If you are interested in working with NREL's Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory, please contact: ESIF Manager Carolyn Elam Carolyn.Elam@nrel.gov 303-275-4311 Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory The focus of the Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to research, develop, test, and evaluate new techniques for thermal energy storage systems that are relevant to utility-scale concentrating solar power plants. The laboratory holds

89

Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping for Rapid Manufacturing of Dies with Protective Coatings and Improved Thermal Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the high pressure die casting process, molten metal is introduced into a die cavity at high pressure and velocity, enabling castings of thin wall section and complex geometry to be obtained. Traditional die materials have been hot work die steels, commonly H13. Manufacture of the dies involves machining the desired geometry from monolithic blocks of annealed tool steel, heat treating to desired hardness and toughness, and final machining, grinding and polishing. The die is fabricated with internal water cooling passages created by drilling. These materials and fabrication methods have been used for many years, however, there are limitations. Tool steels have relatively low thermal conductivity, and as a result, it takes time to remove the heat from the tool steel via the drilled internal water cooling passages. Furthermore, the low thermal conductivity generates large thermal gradients at the die cavity surfaces, which ultimately leads to thermal fatigue cracking on the surfaces of the die steel. The high die surface temperatures also promote the metallurgical bonding of the aluminum casting alloy to the surface of the die steel (soldering). In terms of process efficiency, these tooling limitations reduce the number of die castings that can be made per unit time by increasing cycle time required for cooling, and increasing downtime and cost to replace tooling which has failed either by soldering or by thermal fatigue cracking (heat checking). The objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of designing, fabricating, and testing high pressure die casting tooling having properties equivalent to H13 on the surface in contact with molten casting alloy - for high temperature and high velocity molten metal erosion resistance – but with the ability to conduct heat rapidly to interior water cooling passages. A layered bimetallic tool design was selected, and the design evaluated for thermal and mechanical performance via finite element analysis. H13 was retained as the exterior layer of the tooling, while commercially pure copper was chosen for the interior structure of the tooling. The tooling was fabricated by traditional machining of the copper substrate, and H13 powder was deposited on the copper via the Laser Engineered Net Shape (LENSTM) process. The H13 deposition layer was then final machined by traditional methods. Two tooling components were designed and fabricated; a thermal fatigue test specimen, and a core for a commercial aluminum high pressure die casting tool. The bimetallic thermal fatigue specimen demonstrated promising performance during testing, and the test results were used to improve the design and LENS TM deposition methods for subsequent manufacture of the commercial core. Results of the thermal finite element analysis for the thermal fatigue test specimen indicate that it has the ability to lose heat to the internal water cooling passages, and to external spray cooling, significantly faster than a monolithic H13 thermal fatigue sample. The commercial core is currently in the final stages of fabrication, and will be evaluated in an actual production environment at Shiloh Die casting. In this research, the feasibility of designing and fabricating copper/H13 bimetallic die casting tooling via LENS TM processing, for the purpose of improving die casting process efficiency, is demonstrated.

Brevick, Jerald R. [Ohio State University

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

91

Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of a Thermally Coupled Distillation Column Implemented on a Process with Recycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays, the installation and operation of systems with minimum energy and material consumption is a main objective in the industrial ambit; this goal can be achieved through the implementation of recycle streams to recover raw materials and the use of energy integration techniques to minimize utilities requirements. However, when a process is highly integrated, e.g. processes with recycle streams and energy integration or thermal couplings, systems can present control problems. Several studies for Reactor-Separation-Recycle (RSR) systems using separation systems with conventional distillation columns have been reported, but few works have focused on energy-integrated columns or thermally coupled distillation sequences. This work presents a comparison between the dynamic behavior of a thermally coupled distillation column with side rectifier implemented within a RSR system and that obtained with a conventional distillation sequence.

D. Mascote-Pérez; A. Sánchez-Hijar; N. Ramírez-Corona; A. Jiménez-Gutierrez

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process localiser la chambre à vapeur. INTRODUCTION [1] Huge quantities of heavy oils (heavy oil, extra heavy oil. Larribau 64018 Pau Cedex, France Oil and Gas Science and Technology 2012, 67 (6), 1029-1039, doi:10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Thermal Processing Techniques to Improve Metal Sulfide Mixed Alcohol Catalyst Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research over several decades by several institutions has shown that alkali-promoted metal sulfide catalysts are capable of producing mixed alcohols from syngas with high selectivity and yield. Unfortunately, process models suggest that syngas to mixed alcohol processes, and especially thermochemical biomass to mixed alcohol processes, require improvements to sulfide catalyst activity and/or selectivity for acceptable economics. These improvements, if incremental, cannot result in increased process complexity, capital expenditure, or catalyst costs. It is well accepted among catalyst researchers that thermal processing techniques like calcining and reduction can have profound effects on the properties and performance of finished catalysts, and that small variations in thermal processing do not usually affect the overall cost of the catalyst. Metal sulfide catalysts are no exception but surprisingly, little attention has been given to the effects of thermal treatment on bulk metal sulfide mixed alcohol catalysts. This presentation will discuss how parameters like temperature, dwell time, metal ratios, and purge gas affect the performance and physical properties of K-Co/Mo catalysts.

Hensley, J.; Menart, M.; Costelow, K.; Thibodeaux, J.; Yung, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

The component interaction network approach for modeling of complex thermal systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A practical approach for the thermal modeling of complex thermal systems, called the component interaction network (CIN) is presented. Its stages are explained: description of the thermal system as a set of non-overlapping components and their interactions ... Keywords: Component interaction network, Electric furnace, Experimental validation, Heat transfer, Rapid thermal processing, Thermal modeling

K. El Khoury; G. Mouawad; G. El Hitti; M. Nemer

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

96

Enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes. First amendment and extension to Annex IV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains the result of efforts under the several tasks of the First Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal processes. The report is presented in six sections (for each of the six tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each one of the tasks. Each section has been abstracted and processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 8-13. The first report on Annex IV, Venezuela-MEM/USE-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15), contains the results from the first seven tasks. That report is dated April 1983, entitled, EOR Thermal Processes.

Peterson, G.; Schwartz, E.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This technical brief is a guide to selecting high-temperature metallic materials for use in process heating applications such as burners, electrical heating elements, material handling, load support, and heater tubes, etc.

98

Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In thermally enhanced recovery processes like cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) or steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), continuous steam injection entails changes in pore fluid, pore pressure and temperature in the rock reservoir, that are most often unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sandstones. This in turn increases or decreases the effective stresses and changes the elastic properties of the rocks. Thermally enhanced recovery processes give rise to complex couplings. Numerical simulations have been carried out on a case study so as to provide an estimation of the evolution of pressure, temperature, pore fluid saturation, stress and strain in any zone located around the injector and producer wells. The approach of Ciz and Shapiro (2007) - an extension of the poroelastic theory of Biot-Gassmann applied to rock filled elastic material - has been used to model the velocity dispersion in the oil sand mass under different conditions of temperature and stress. A good agreement has been found between these pre...

Nauroy, Jean-François; Guy, N; Baroni, Axelle; Delage, Pierre; Mainguy, Marc; 10.2516/ogst/2012027

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

"ch01" --2009/7/4 --4:33 --page 3 --#3 Thermo-and hydro-mechanical processes along faults during rapid slip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"ch01" -- 2009/7/4 -- 4:33 -- page 3 -- #3 Thermo- and hydro-mechanical processes along faults at highly stressed frictional micro-contacts, and (2) Thermal pressurization of fault-zone pore fluid. Both

100

Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Reid, T B [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)] [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States); Colonomos, P [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)] [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Thermal Transients During Processing of 3003 Al-H18 Multilayer Build by Very High-Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Previous investigations suggested a gradient in bond microstructure along the height of a “build” made by very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing—a rapid prototyping process that is based...

M. R. Sriraman; Matt Gonser; Daniel Foster…

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A New Solar Carbon Capture Process: Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo (STEP) Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A New Solar Carbon Capture Process: Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo (STEP) Carbon Capture ... CO2 can be captured from 34% to over 50% solar energy efficiency (depending on the level of solar heat inclusion), as solid carbon and stored, or used as carbon monoxide to be available for a feedstock to synthesize (with STEP generated hydrogen) solar diesel fuel, synthetic jet fuel, or chemical production. ... STEP Iron, a Chemistry of Iron Formation without CO2 Emission: Molten Carbonate Solubility and Electrochemistry of Iron Ore Impurities ...

Stuart Licht; Baohui Wang; Susanta Ghosh; Hina Ayub; Dianlu Jiang; Jason Ganley

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

103

Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Liu Feifei [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Fyles, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.fyles@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Influence of embedded-carbon nanotubes on the thermal properties of copper matrix nanocomposites processed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-level mix- ing, exhibits CNTs homogeneously dispersed in the Cu matrix. Measured thermal conductivity: Metal matrix composites; Nanocomposite; Carbon and graphite; Thermal conductivity Carbon nanotubes (CNTs management applications, due to their extraordinarily low coefficient of thermal expan- sion (CTE) [1

Hong, Soon Hyung

105

Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Impulsive energy release and non-thermal emission in a confined M4.0 flare triggered by rapidly evolving magnetic structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present observations of a confined M4.0 flare from NOAA 11302 on 2011 September 26. Observations at high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution from Solar Dynamics Observatory, Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, and Nobeyama Radioheliograph enabled us to explore the possible triggering and energy release processes of this flare despite its very impulsive behavior and compact morphology. The flare light curves exhibit an abrupt rise of non-thermal emission with co-temporal hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) bursts that peaked instantly without any precursor emission. This stage was associated with HXR emission up to 200 keV that followed a power law with photon spectral index ($\\delta$) $\\sim$3. Another non-thermal peak, observed 32 s later, was more pronounced in the MW flux than the HXR profiles. Dual peaked structure in the MW and HXR light curves suggest a two-step magnetic reconnection process. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images exhibit a sequential evolution of the inner and oute...

Kushwaha, Upendra; cho, Kyung-suk; Veronig, Astrid; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Mathew, S K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Thermal Processing and Characterizations of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Nanostructured TiO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal Processing and Characterizations of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Nanostructured TiO2 ... This work reports an extensive study about the effects of thermal treatments on the performance of TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells. ... The current–voltage characteristics were measured using an Advantest R6243 current/voltage unit after a 10 min wait for achieving thermal equilibrium under AM 1.5G, simulated solar light of 100 mW cm–2 and irradiated from a WACOM super solar simulator. ...

Filippo Fabbri; Francesca Detto; Nicola Armani; Norifusa Satoh; Tullo Besagni; Maura Pavesi; Giancarlo Salviati

2013-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

108

Solar thermal hydrogen production process: Final report, January 1978-December 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under sponsorship by the United States Department of Energy, Westinghouse Advanced Energy-Systems Division has investigated the potential for using solar thermal energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. A hybrid thermochemical/electrochemical process, known as the Sulfur Cycle, has been the focus of these investigations. Process studies have indicated that, with adequate and ongoing research and development, the Sulfur Cycle can be effectively driven with solar heat. Also, economic analyses have indicated that the cycle has the potential to produce hydrogen in economic competitiveness with conventional methods (e.g. methane/steam reforming) by the turn of the century. A first generation developmental system has been defined along with its critical components, i.e. those components that need substantial engineering development. Designs for those high temperature components that concentrate, vaporize and decompose the process circulating fluid, sulfuric acid, have been prepared. Extensive experimental investigations have been conducted with regard to the selection of construction materials for these components. From these experiments, which included materials endurance tests for corrosion resistance for periods up to 6000 hours, promising materials and catalysts have been identified.

Not Available

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Growth of SiGe film by using a single-wafer rapid thermal processing UHV/CVD system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultra-high-vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) system displays excellent performance for the...T was 5.4 GHz with fmax 7.5 GHz under VCB=3 V, IC=10 mA.

Wentao Huang; Changchun Chen; Xiyou Li; Xiaoyi Xiong…

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

EVALUATION OF RAPID THERMAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS AND THEIR ROLE IN FABRICATION OF NEXT GENERATION CORE CMOS FABRICATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

versus photon energy for Ge_______13 2.9 Solar spectral radiance versus wavelength for different_____________________________45 3.3 Tool B: Furnace and pyrometer schematics________________________46 3.4 Tool C: Arrangement

Pearton, Stephen J.

111

The project RTPPP (Development of a realtime PPP processing facility) is planned to be a followup project of RAPPP (Innovative Algorithms for Rapid Precise Point Positioning),  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RTPPP The project RTPPP (Development of a realtime PPP processing facility) is planned to be a followup project of RAPPP (Innovative Algorithms for Rapid Precise Point Positioning), which has RAPPP, the proposed project RTPPP concentrates on the possibilities of the PPP technique within a real

Schuh, Harald

112

Eco Logic International gas-phase chemical reduction process: The thermal desorption unit. Applications analysis report. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report details the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation of the Eco Logic International`s gas-phase chemical reduction process, with an emphasis on their thermal desorption unit. The Eco Logic process employs a high temperature reactor filled with hydrogen as a means to destroy chlorinated organic wastes. The process is designed around a reduction reaction, which reduces the organic wastes into a high-BTU gas product. The thermal desorption unit is designed to work in conjunction with the Eco Logic Reactor system. It is intended to process soils and sludges, desorbing the organic contaminants into a hydrogen gas stream for subsequent treatment and destruction within the Reactor System. The demonstration program was conducted at the Middleground Island Landfill in Bay City, Michigan during October to December, 1992. The report provides details of the test program, summaries of analytical tests conducted on a variety of process streams, process economics, and case study information.

Sudell, G.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermal pretreated sludge: Role of microbial community structure and correlation with process performances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment coupled with Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (TAD) for Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) treatment is a promising combination to improve biodegradation kinetics during stabilization. However, to date there is a limited knowledge of the anaerobic biomass composition and its impact on TAD process performances. In this study, the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities selected in two semi-continuous anaerobic digesters, fed with untreated and thermal pretreated sludge, were investigated. The systems were operated for 250 days at different organic loading rate. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses allowed us to identify the majority of bacterial and archaeal populations. Proteolytic Coprothermobacter spp. and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter spp. living in strict syntrophic association were found to dominate in TAD process. The establishment of a syntrophic proteolytic pathway was favoured by the high temperature of the process and enhanced by the thermal pretreatment of the feeding sludge. Proteolytic activity, alone or with thermal pretreatment, occurred during TAD as proven by increasing concentration of soluble ammonia and soluble COD (sCOD) during the process. However, the availability of a readily biodegradable substrate due to pretreatment allowed to significant sCOD removals (more than 55%) corresponding to higher biogas production in the reactor fed with thermal pretreated sludge. Microbial population dynamics analysed by FISH showed that Coprothermobacter and Methanothermobacter immediately established a stable syntrophic association in the reactor fed with pretreated sludge in line with the overall improved TAD performances observed under these conditions.

M.C. Gagliano; C.M. Braguglia; A. Gianico; G. Mininni; K. Nakamura; S. Rossetti

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Automated Thermal Image Processing for Detection and Classification of Birds and Bats - FY2012 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surveying wildlife at risk from offshore wind energy development is difficult and expensive. Infrared video can be used to record birds and bats that pass through the camera view, but it is also time consuming and expensive to review video and determine what was recorded. We proposed to conduct algorithm and software development to identify and to differentiate thermally detected targets of interest that would allow automated processing of thermal image data to enumerate birds, bats, and insects. During FY2012 we developed computer code within MATLAB to identify objects recorded in video and extract attribute information that describes the objects recorded. We tested the efficiency of track identification using observer-based counts of tracks within segments of sample video. We examined object attributes, modeled the effects of random variability on attributes, and produced data smoothing techniques to limit random variation within attribute data. We also began drafting and testing methodology to identify objects recorded on video. We also recorded approximately 10 hours of infrared video of various marine birds, passerine birds, and bats near the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) at Sequim, Washington. A total of 6 hours of bird video was captured overlooking Sequim Bay over a series of weeks. An additional 2 hours of video of birds was also captured during two weeks overlooking Dungeness Bay within the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Bats and passerine birds (swallows) were also recorded at dusk on the MSL campus during nine evenings. An observer noted the identity of objects viewed through the camera concurrently with recording. These video files will provide the information necessary to produce and test software developed during FY2013. The annotation will also form the basis for creation of a method to reliably identify recorded objects.

Duberstein, Corey A.; Matzner, Shari; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Virden, Daniel J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Maxwell, Adam R.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Fundamental heat transfer processes related to phase change thermal storage media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research on fundamental heat transfer processes which occur in phase-change thermal storage systems is described. The research encompasses both melting and freezing, and includes both experiment and analysis. The status of four research problems is discussed. One of the freezing problems was focused on investigating, via experiment, the extent to which freezing can be enhanced by the attachment of fins to the external surface of a cooled vertical tube situated in a liquid phase-change medium. Very substantial enhancements were encountered which neutralize the degradation of freezing due to the thermal resistance of the frozen layer and to natural convection in the liquid phase. The second of the freezing problems was analytical in nature and sought to obtain solutions involving both the phase-change medium and the heat transfer fluid used either to add heat to or extract heat from the medium. For freezing on a plane wall, it was possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution, while for freezing about a coolant-carrying circular tube, a new numerical methodology was devised to obtain finite-difference solutions. For melting, quantitative design-quality heat transfer coefficients were determined experimentally for melting adjacent to a heated vertical tube. These experiments explored the effects of solid-phase subcooling and of open versus closed top containment on the coefficients. A dimensionless correlation enables these results to be used for a wide range of phase-change media. Studies on melting of a phase-change material situated within a circular tube are in progress.

Sparrow, E. M.; Ramsey, J. W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

Izequeido, Alexandor

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Characterization of penetration induced thermal runaway propagation process within a large format lithium ion battery module  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the mechanisms of penetration induced thermal runaway (TR) propagation process within a large format lithium ion battery pack. A 6-battery module is built with 47 thermocouples installed at critical positions to record the temperature profiles. The first battery of the module is penetrated to trigger a TR propagation process. The temperature responses, the voltage responses and the heat transfer through different paths are analyzed and discussed to characterize the underlying physical behavior. The temperature responses show that: 1) Compared with the results of TR tests using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) with uniform heating, a lower onset temperature and a shorter TR triggering time are observed in a penetration induced TR propagation test due to side heating. 2) The maximum temperature difference within a battery can be as high as 791.8 °C in a penetration induced TR propagation test. The voltage responses have a 5-stage feature, indicating that the TR happens in sequence for the two pouch cells packed inside a battery. The heat transfer analysis shows that: 1) 12% of the total heat released in TR of a battery is enough to trigger the adjacent battery to TR. 2) The heat transferred through the pole connector is only about 1/10 of that through the battery shell. 3) The fire has little influence on the TR propagation, but may cause significant damage on the accessories located above the battery. The results can enhance our understandings of the mechanisms of TR propagation, and provide important guidelines in pack design for large format lithium ion battery.

Xuning Feng; Jing Sun; Minggao Ouyang; Fang Wang; Xiangming He; Languang Lu; Huei Peng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

A Rapid Scanning Inspection Method for Insulated Ferromagnetic Tubing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Until the present there has been no effective way to rapidly scan thermally insulated refinery or process piping for corrosion or thin wall. Such defects, if left unattended, can lead to wasteful losses of time, energy and money. To date the most...

Marsh, G. M.; Milewits, M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

THERMAL ANALYSIS FOR IN-TANK ION-EXCHANGE COLUMN PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is stored in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. A small column ion-exchange (SCIX) process is being designed to treat dissolved saltcake waste before feeding it to the saltstone facility to be made into grout. The waste is caustic with high concentrations of various sodium salts and lower concentrations of radionuclides. Two cation exchange media being considered are a granular form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) and a spherical form of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin. CST is an inorganic material highly selective for cesium that is not elutable. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is absorbed into ion exchange media (either CST or RF) which is packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. If engineering designs cannot handle this thermal load, hot spots may develop locally which could degrade the performance of the ion-exchange media. Performance degradation with regard to cesium removal has been observed between 50 and 80 C for CST [1] and at 65 C for RF resin [2]. In addition, the waste supernate solution will boil around 130 C. If the columns boiled dry, the sorbent material could plug the column and lead to replacement of the entire column module. Alternatively, for organic resins such as RF there is risk of fire at elevated temperatures. The objective of the work is to compute temperature distributions across CST- and RF-packed columns immersed in waste supernate under accident scenarios involving loss of salt solution flow through the beds and, in some cases, loss of coolant system flow. For some cases, temperature distributions are determined as a function of time after the initiation of a given accident scenario and in other cases only the final steady-state temperature distributions are calculated. In general, calculations are conducted to ensure conservative and bounding results for the maximum temperatures achievable using the current baseline column design. This information will assist in SCIX design and facility maintenance.

Lee, S; Frank02 Smith, F

2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

120

Experimental study of slider–disk interaction process with thermal-flying-height controlled slider  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal flying height (TFC) controlled slider has been introduced in hard disk drive recently. Flying height at the read/write elements of ... protrusion. Interactions between the TFC slider and disk can be very ...

Yansheng Ma; Bo Liu

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Analysis of particle behavior in High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel thermal spraying process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the behavior of coating particle as well as the gas flow both of inside and outside the High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying gun by using quasi-one-dimensional analysis and numerical...

Hiroshi Katanoda; Kazuyasu Matsuo

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Solar-Thermal Processing of Methane to Produce Hydrogen and Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A solar-thermal aerosol flow reactor has been constructed, installed, and tested with the High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Experiments were successfully carried out for the dissociation of methane to ...

Jaimee K. Dahl; Joseph Tamburini; Alan W. Weimer; Allan Lewandowski; Roland Pitts; Carl Bingham

2001-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

123

A Reduced-Order Model of a Chevron Plate Heat Exchanger for Rapid Thermal Management by Using Thermo-Chemical Energy Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The heat flux demands for electronics cooling applications are quickly approaching the limits of conventional thermal management systems. To meet the demand of next generation electronics, a means for rejecting high heat fluxes at low temperatures...

Niedbalski, Nicholas

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

124

Thermal Energy Storage/Heat Recovery and Energy Conservation in Food Processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

discharges can be made more economically attrac tank holding several thousand gallons of water tive by incorporating thermal energy storage in a maintained at 128-130?F. This scald tank is con heat recovery system. Thermal energy storage can stantly... the ultimate energy end use. of wasting this hot water to the plant drain, a heat A project conducted by the Georgia Tech exchanger was installed at the Gold Kist plant to Engineering Experiment Station to demonstrate preheat scald tank makeup water...

Combes, R. S.; Boykin, W. B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Modeling the thermal-hydrologic processes in a large-scale underground heater test in partially saturated fractured tuff  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Drift Scale Test (DST) is being conducted in an underground facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to probe the coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical processes likely to occur in the fractured rock mass around a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Thermal-hydrological processes in the DST have been simulated using a three-dimensional numerical model. The model incorporates the realistic test configuration and all available site-specific measurements pertaining to the thermal and hydrological properties of the unsaturated fractured tuff of the test block. The modeled predictions were compared to the extensive set of measured data collected in the first year of this 8-year-long test. The mean error between the predictions and measurement at 12 months of heating for over 1600 temperature sensors is about 2 degrees C. Heat-pipe signature in the temperature data, indicating two-phase regions of liquid-vapor counterflow, is seen in both the measurements and simulated results. The redistribution of moisture content in the rock mass (resulting from vaporization and condensation) was probed by periodic air-injection testing and geophysical measurements. Good agreement also occurred between the model predictions and these measurements. The general agreement between predictions from the numerical simulations and the measurements of the thermal test indicates that our fundamental understanding of the coupled thermal-hydrologic processes at Yucca Mountain is sound. However, effects of spatial heterogeneity from discrete fractures that are observed in the temperature data are not matched by simulations from the numerical model, which treat the densely spaced fractures as a continuum.

Birkholzer, J.T.; Tsang, Y.W.

1999-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

126

Enhanced-oil-recovery thermal processes, annex IV. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE fossil-energy report IV-1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Agreement between the United States and Venezuela was designed to further energy research and development in six areas. This report focuses on Annex IV - Enhanced-Oil-Recovery Thermal Processes which was divided into seven tasks. This report will discuss the information developed within Task I related to the Department of Energy providing data on the performance of insulated oil-well tubulars. Surface generated steam has been traditionally used in thermal enhanced oil recovery processes. In past years the tubing through which the steam is injected into the reservoir has been bare with relatively high heat losses. In recent years however various materials and designs for insulating the tubing to reduce heat losses have been developed. Evaluation of several of these designs in an instrumented test tower and in an oil field test environment was undertaken. These tests and the resulting data are presented.

Peterson, G.; Schwartz, E.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Iron(III) Oxides from Thermal ProcessesSynthesis, Structural and Magnetic Properties, Mössbauer Spectroscopy Characterization, and Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Structural and magnetic properties, methods of synthesis, and applications of seven iron(III) oxide polymorphs, including rare beta, epsilon, amorphous, and high-pressure forms, are reviewed. ... Their discoveries as well as the majority of formation processes are connected with thermal transformations of iron-bearing materials in an oxidizing atmosphere. ... Iron(III) oxide in all its forms is one of the most used metal oxides with various applications in many scientific and industrial fields. ...

Radek Zboril; Miroslav Mashlan; Dimitris Petridis

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

128

Determination of Thermal Contact Conductance of Metal Tabs for Battery Ultrasonic Welding Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new experimental apparatus and data analysis algorithm were used to determine the thermal contact conductance between 0.2-mm-thick pure aluminum battery tabs as a function of contact pressure from 3.6 to 14.4 MPa. Specimens were sandwiched between one optically transparent and one infrared (IR) transparent glass windows, and heated up from one side by an intense short pulse of flash light. The temperature transient on the other side was measured by an IR camera. In order to determine the thermal contact conductance, two experiment configurations having different number of Al specimen layers were used. Numerical heat conduction simulations showed that the thermal contact conductance strongly depended on the ratio of the maximum temperature rise between the two configurations. Moreover, this ratio was not sensitive to the uncertainties of other thermal properties. Through the simulation results, a simple correlation between the gap conductance and the ratio was established. Therefore, once the ratio of the temperature rise between two configurations was experimentally measured, the thermal contact conductance could be readily determined from the correlation. The new method was fast and robust. Most importantly, the data analysis algorithm improved the measurement accuracy by considerably reducing the uncertainties associated with the thermophysical properties of materials and measurement system.

Chen, Jian [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL] [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

Balachandran, U.

1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

130

Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Description of Thermal and Micro-Structural Processes in Generalized Continua: Zhilin's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and its Modifications Elena Ivanova and Elena Vilchevskaya Abstract The method of description of thermal, Russia e-mail: elenaivanova239@post.ru E. Vilchevskaya Institute for Problems in Mechanical Engineering transitions and structural transformations, plastic flow, dynamics of bulk solids, dynamics of granular media

Ivanova, Elena A.

132

Investigations in cool thermal storage: storage process optimization and glycol sensible storage enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

device in order to meet the utility's mandate. The first part of this study looks at the effects of adding propylene glycol to a static-water ice thermal storage tank, in the pursuit of increasing storage capacity. The effects of glycol addition...

Abraham, Michaela Marie

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A Low-Temperature Thermal Process for the Decomposition of Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...indeed to become the energy carrier of the future...primary heat or solar energy into electricity would...and potentially even converters of solar to thermal energy. We present here a...the top layer of the ocean to meteorological events...

Bernard M. Abraham; Felix Schreiner

1973-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Solid state rapid thermocycling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

135

Atmospheric Pollutant Removal by Non?Thermal Plasmas: Basic Data Needs for Understanding and Optimization of the Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since fifteen years an increasing interest has been devoted to removal of atmospheric pollutant by non?thermal plasmas achieved using e?beams or pulsed discharges for the nitrous oxides the so?called de?NOx process or for Volatils Organic Compounds the so?called de?VOC process. However the physical and chemical mechanisms involved are not easy to understand: molecules or gas mixtures are quite complex and the transient plasma created by the type of discharge often used dielectric barrier or corona ones is non homogeneous in space. In this paper is discussed some data needs for understanding of the NO?removal process and the destruction of some selected VOC molecules TCE and TCA by pulsed discharge plasmas. Some experimental studies performed to get insight into the discharge plasma kinetic involved in the pollutant removal are presented in particular about the hydroxyl radical OH which play an important role in this kinetic.

S. Pasquiers; M. Cormier; O. Motret

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Coal liquefaction quenching process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

A comparison of thermal decomposition energy and nitrogen content of nitrocellulose in non-fat process of linters by DSC and EA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigations of nitrogen content and thermal decomposition activation energy (E a) of two different kinds of nitrocellulose (NC) products, NMNC and MNC from the non-fat and original processes of...

C. -P. Lin; C. -M. Shu

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Modelling thermal processes in buildings using an object-oriented approach and Modelica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most of today’s modelling and simulation concepts originate from the times and methods of analog computers. Usually, it is assumed that the model must be expressed in an explicit state-space form. Consequently, the topology of the system gets lost and any future extension and reuse of the model is tedious and error-prone. In other words, it is the modeller’s task to consider the computational order of the operations during a simulation. In this paper we discuss the re-implementation of a passive-solar- building simulator in an object-oriented environment; it was originally built in the non-object-oriented simulation environment of Matlab–Simulink. The former simulator was designed to resemble a real physical test chamber with regard to the thermal and solar radiation flows. However, due to the lack of object orientation in Matlab–Simulink it was very difficult to apply any configuration modifications and extensions. We start with a brief description of the mathematical modelling which includes thermal dynamics and solar radiation. Then the implementation in Modelica is presented. So, a much superior environment in comparison with Matlab-Simulink was obtained, giving us the possibility of high-level modular and object-oriented modelling. The model is also extremely efficient in multidisciplinary projects in which control-engineering specialists (our group) cooperate with specialists from civil engineering, because civil engineers can more easily understand graphical and textual models in Modelica than schemes in Simulink. We expect that such a model will fulfil and significantly improve several model properties in comparison to the Matlab–Simulink implementation, i.e., a better understanding of the influences of thermal and radiation flows on comfortable living conditions, a model-based control-system design, which will enable the harmonization of active and passive energy resources, important energy savings, and a very suitable environment for education in modelling, simulation and control.

Anton Sodja; Borut Zupan?i?

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Measuring bubble nucleation temperature on the surface of a rapidly heated thermal ink-jet heater immersed in a pool of water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nucleation is appropriate to the physics of the surface boiling process...Analysis To better understand the physics of the bubble nucleation process...June 16. Lide, D. R. 1992 Handbook of chemistry and physics, 72nd edn, pp. 1234. Boston...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Controlled Thermal-Mechanical Processing of Tubes and Pipes for Enhanced Manufacturing and Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Alloy Steel Business of The Timken Company won an award for the controlled thermo-mechanical processing (CTMP) project and assembled a strong international public/private partnership to execute the project. The premise of the CTMP work was to combine Timken's product understanding with its process expertise and knowledge of metallurgical and deformation fundamentals developed during the project to build a predictive process design capability. The CTMP effort succeeded in delivering a pc-based capability in the tube optimization model, with a virtual pilot plant (VPP) feature to represent the desired tube making process to predict the resultant microstructure tailored for the desired application. Additional tasks included a system for direct, online measurement of grain size and demonstration of application of CTMP via robotically enhanced manufacturing.

Kolarik, Robert V.

2005-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

An AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process)/ANP (Analytic Network Process)-based multi-criteria decision approach for the selection of solar-thermal power plant investment projects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) and the ANP (Analytic Network Process) are applied to help the managing board of an important Spanish solar power investment company to decide whether to invest in a particular solar-thermal power plant project and, if so, to determine the order of priority of the projects in the company's portfolio. Project management goes through a long process, from obtaining the required construction permits and authorizations, negotiating with different stakeholders, complying with complex legal regulations, to solving the technical problems associated with plant construction and distribution of the energy generated. The whole process involves high engineering costs. The decision approach proposed in this paper consists of three phases. In the first two phases, the managing board must decide whether to accept or reject a project according to a set of criteria previously identified by the technical team. The third phase consists of establishing a priority order among the projects that have proven to be economically profitable based on project risk levels and execution time delays. This work analyzes the criteria that should be taken into account to accept or reject proposals for investment, as well as the risks used to prioritize some projects over others.

Pablo Aragonés-Beltrán; Fidel Chaparro-González; Juan-Pascual Pastor-Ferrando; Andrea Pla-Rubio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The Chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx Process: A Review of the Technology's Possible Application to control of NOx from Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the Thermal DeNOx process with respect to its application to control of NOx emissions from diesel engines. The chemistry of the process is discussed first in empirical and then theoretical terms. Based on this discussion the possibilities of applying the process to controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines is considered. Two options are examined, modifying the requirements of the chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx process to suit the conditions provided by diesel engines and modifying the engines to provide the conditions required by the process chemistry. While the former examination did not reveal any promising opportunities, the latter did. Turbocharged diesel engine systems in which the turbocharger is a net producer of power seem capable of providing the conditions necessary for NOx reduction via the Thermal DeNOx reaction.

Lyon, Richard

2001-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

143

Assessing the Power Generation Solution by Thermal-chemical Conversion of Meat Processing Industry Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper presents a waste to energy conversion solution using a pyro-air-gasification process applied to biodegradable residues from meat processing industry integrated with small scale thermodynamic cycle for power generation. The solution of air- gasification at atmospheric pressure is based on experimental research and engineering computation developed during the study. The input data, such as: waste chemical composition, low/high heating value and proximate analysis, correspond to real waste products, sampled directly from the industrial processing line. Separate drying as first stage pre-treatment and integrated partial drying inside the reactor was used. The syngas low heating value of about 4.3 MJ/Nm3 is insured by its combustible fraction (H2– 12.2%, CO – 19.2%, CH4 – 1.6%). According to syngas composition the thermodynamic cycle was chosen – Otto gas engine. For a given waste feed-in flow considered in our computation of about 110 kg/h the power output obtained is about 50 kWel. The global energy efficiency of the unit is about 15%. The results offer answers to energy recovery waste disposal for residues with characteristics that are not suitable for classic incineration or limit the energy efficiency of the process making it non-economical (the average humidity of the raw waste is about 42% in mass). The research focused on waste to energy conversion process energy efficiency, waste neutralization and power generation.

Cosmin Marculescu; Florin Alexe

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma: Screening for gentle process conditions and antibacterial efficiency on perishable fresh produce  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fresh fruits and vegetables, destined to be eaten raw or minimally processed only, harbor the risk of conveying pathogenic microorganisms. Factors such as weather conditions, which favor survival or growth of microorganisms, and improper handling during cultivation or in the postharvest chain, can contribute to outbreaks of food-borne illness. Application of chemical sanitizers or physical treatments often shows a limited efficiency or does not meet consumer acceptance. Availability of gentle and effective techniques for disinfection of fresh produce, therefore, is highly desirable. Non-thermal gas plasma (NTP) treatment is a promising novel technique to reduce the microbial load on fresh fruits and vegetables. However, knowledge on practical applicability of NTP for fresh fruits and vegetables is very limited. In this study, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (CFI) was used to elucidate suitable process parameters for application of an atmospheric pressure plasma-jet (kINPen 09, INP Greifswald, Germany) on corn salad, a perishable leafy green. Keeping a distance of 17 mm to the plasma-jet, corn salad leaves could be treated for up to 60 s at a fixed power (8 W) and 5 L min? 1 of argon mixed with 0.1% oxygen. Surface temperature on leaves did never exceed 35.2 °C. Antibacterial tests were performed on corn salad, cucumber, apple, and tomato and achieved an inactivation of artificially inoculated Escherichia coli DSM 1116 of 4.1 ± 1.2, 4.7 ± 0.4, 4.7 ± 0, and 3.3 ± 0.9 log units, respectively, after 60 s treatment time. Additional tests with a dielectric barrier discharge plasma and indirect plasma treatment within a remote exposure reactor, fed by a microwave induced plasma torch, did not result in equivalent levels of quality retention as observed using the plasma-jet. Industrial relevance Development of gentle non-thermal disinfection methods aims to provide the industry with new tools to actively improve the microbial status of fresh produce beyond the preventive benefits of good hygiene practices and the limited efficacy of post-harvest washing. The presented study shows how cold plasma can be applied to heat-sensitive lettuce leaves without detrimental effects to product quality. The additional microbiological tests offer insights into the antibacterial capacity of cold plasma on different produce surfaces. The results contribute to prompt the development of appropriate large-scale plasma sources to establish a new plasma-based sanitation technique for fresh fruits and vegetables, which should also be implementable into running process lines.

Matthias Baier; Mandy Görgen; Jörg Ehlbeck; Dietrich Knorr; Werner B. Herppich; Oliver Schlüter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Acetaldehyde removal using an atmospheric non-thermal plasma combined with a packed bed: Role of the adsorption process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work is an attempt in order to help towards understanding the influence of the adsorption process on the removal of a VOC (acetaldehyde, CH3CHO) using cyclic non thermal plasma (NTP) combined with a packed-bed of a catalyst support, ?-Al2O3. In the first part, the results obtained by placing the saturated alumina pellets inside the plasma discharge zone are discussed, in terms of acetaldehyde removal, CO and CO2 production. In the second part, adsorption of CH3CHO, CO, CO2 and O3 was carried out, from single and multicomponent mixtures of the different compounds. The results showed that (i) the adsorption capacities followed the order CH 3 CHO ? ? ? CO 2 ? > ? CO ; (ii) O3 was decomposed on the alumina surface; (iii) CO oxidation occurred on the surface when O3 was present. In the third part, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to follow the alumina surface during acetaldehyde adsorption. DRIFTS measurements demonstrated that besides the bands of molecularly adsorbed acetaldehyde, several absorptions appeared on the spectra showing the intermediate surface transformation of acetaldehyde already at 300 K. Finally, the relationship between the adsorption results and the NTP combined with a packed-bed process is discussed.

C. Klett; X. Duten; S. Tieng; S. Touchard; P. Jestin; K. Hassouni; A. Vega-González

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Modeling shear failure and permeability enhancement due to coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical processes in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The connectivity and accessible surface area of flowing fractures, whether natural or man-made, is possibly the single most important factor, after temperature, which determines the feasibility of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Rock deformation and in-situ stress changes induced by injected fluids can lead to shear failure on preexisting fractures which can generate microseismic events, and also enhance the permeability and accessible surface area of the geothermal formation. Hence, the ability to accurately model the coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) processes in fractured geological formations is critical in effective EGS reservoir development and management strategies. The locations of the microseismic events can serve as indicators of the zones of enhanced permeability, thus providing vital information for verification of the coupled THM models. We will describe a general purpose computational code, FEHM, developed for this purpose, that models coupled THM processes during multiphase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code incorporates several models of fracture aperture and stress behavior combined with permeability relationships. We provide field scale examples of applications to geothermal systems to demonstrate the utility of the method.

Kelkar, Sharad [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Third ammendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains the results of efforts under the seven tasks of the Third Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of effort under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 25 through 31. The first, second, and third reports on Annex IV, ((Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, and IV-3 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, and DOE/BC-86/2/SP)) contain the results from the first 24 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, and March 1986. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

Peterson, G.; Munoz, J.D.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Novel integration options of concentrating solar thermal technology with fossil-fuelled and CO2 capture processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Concentrating solar thermal (CST) technology has been commercially proven in utility-scale power plants that have been in operation since the 1980’s. CST uses reflecting surfaces to focus solar energy onto collectors, generating extreme heat than can be used for a variety of purposes. The current focus of CST is large-scale electrical power generation. However, new applications, such as solar fuels, are quickly gaining momentum. One key shortcoming of CST technology is its sensitivity to disruptions in sunlight availability over time. CST systems require either thermal energy storage or backup systems to operate during heavy cloud periods or at night. On the other hand, fossil-based energy systems have high availability and reliability, but they generate substantial CO2 emissions compared to equivalent CST processes. A novel solution would combine the benefits of CST technology and of fossil-fueled energy systems. Such a solar-fossil hybrid system would guarantee energy availability in the absence of sunlight or stored solar energy. The addition of carbon capture to these systems could reduce their carbon intensity to almost zero. This paper introduces three important solar-fossil hybrid energy systems: (1) Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC), (2) Solar-assisted post-combustion capture (SAPCAP), and (3) Solar gasification with CO2 capture. These novel concepts have great potential to overcome the inherent limitations of their component technologies and to achieve superior greenhouse gas mitigation techno-economic performance in large-scale applications. The paper describes the features of the three solar-fossil hybrid systems described earlier, discusses its advantages and disadvantages, and provides examples of applications. The goal of this manuscript is to introduce experts in the CCS and CST fields to the opportunities of integration between these technologies and their potential benefits.

Guillermo Ordorica-Garcia; and Alfonso Vidal Delgado; Aranzazu Fernandez Garcia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Modeling Thermal-Hydrologic Processes for a Heated Fractured Rock System: Impact of a Capillary-Pressure Maximum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

drift-scale thermal test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Lawrencemechanical analyses of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test–waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The modeling

Sun, Y.; Buscheck, T. A.; Lee, K. H.; Hao, Y.; James, S. C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Thermal energy recovery of low grade waste heat in hydrogenation process; Återvinning av lågvärdig spillvärme från en hydreringsprocess.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The waste heat recovery technologies have become very relevant since many industrial plants continuously reject large amounts of thermal energy during normal operation which… (more)

Hedström, Sofia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Experimental investigation of an innovative thermochemical process operating with a hydrate salt and moist air for thermal storage of solar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and moist air for thermal storage of solar energy: global performance Benoit Michela, *, Nathalie Mazeta-gas reaction, hydration, thermal storage, seasonal storage, solar energy * Corresponding author: E-mail: mazet in solar energy. Solar energy is widely affordable and has the capability to meet household demand over

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Atmospheric  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities The Atmospheric Processing platform in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated tools for depositing, processing, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. In particular, this platform focuses on different methods to deposit ("write") materials onto a variety of substrates and then further process into optoelectronic materials using rapid thermal processing. You can read more on the rationale for developing this platform and its capabilities. Contact Maikel van Hest for more details on these capabilities. The Atmospheric Processing platform will allow deposition in any sequence and is applicable to activities in all Technology Roadmaps, which include

153

Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ~10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

S. Zweben

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

154

MASSIVELY PARALLEL FULLY COUPLED IMPLICIT MODELING OF COUPLED THERMAL-HYDROLOGICAL-MECHANICAL PROCESSES FOR ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing) to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. In order to increase our understanding of how reservoirs behave under these conditions, we have developed a physics-based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by coupling a discrete element model (DEM) for fracturing with a continuum multiphase flow and heat transport model. In DEM simulations, solid rock is represented by a network of discrete elements (often referred as particles) connected by various types of mechanical bonds such as springs, elastic beams or bonds that have more complex properties (such as stress-dependent elastic constants). Fracturing is represented explicitly as broken bonds (microcracks), which form and coalesce into macroscopic fractures when external load is applied. DEM models have been applied to a very wide range of fracturing processes from the molecular scale (where thermal fluctuations play an important role) to scales on the order of 1 km or greater. In this approach, the continuum flow and heat transport equations are solved on an underlying fixed finite element grid with evolving porosity and permeability for each grid cell that depends on the local structure of the discrete element network (such as DEM particle density). The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which therefore deforms and fractures. Such deformation/fracturing in turn changes the permeability, which again changes the evolution of fluid pressure, coupling the two phenomena. The intimate coupling between fracturing and fluid flow makes the meso-scale DEM simulations necessary, as these methods have substantial advantages over conventional continuum mechanical models of elastic rock deformation. The challenges that must be overcome to simulate EGS reservoir stimulation, preliminary results, progress to date and near future research directions and opportunities will be discussed.

Robert Podgorney; Hai Huang; Derek Gaston

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Cool Bottom Processes on the Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch and the Isotopic Composition of Circumstellar Dust Grains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine the effects of cool bottom processing (CBP) on the isotopic ratios 18O/16O, 17O/16O, 14N/15N, 26Al/27Al, C/O, and N/O in the convective envelope during the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase of evolution in a 1.5 M? initial mass star of solar initial composition. We use a parametric model that treats extra mixing by introducing mass flow between the convective envelope and the underlying radiative zone. The parameters of this model are the mass circulation rate () and the maximum temperature (TP) experienced by the circulating material. The effects of nuclear reactions in the flowing matter were calculated using a set of static structures of the radiative zone selected from particular times in a complete stellar evolution calculation. The compositions of the flowing material were obtained, and the resulting changes in the envelope determined. No major shifts in the star's energy budget occur from the imposed CBP if log TP 26Al were essentially independent of the time chosen if log TP > 7.6. Abundant 26Al was produced by CBP for log TP > 7.65. While 26Al/27Al depends on TP, the other isotopic ratios depend dominantly on the circulation rate. The relationship is shown between models of CBP as parameterized by a diffusion formalism within the stellar evolution model and those using the mass-flow formalism employed here. They are shown to be effectively equivalent. In general, the CBP treatment readily permits calculation of envelope compositions as affected by different degrees of extra mixing, based on stellar structures computed by normal stellar evolution models. Using these results, the isotopic ratios under conditions of C/O 1 are compared with the data on circumstellar dust grains. It is found that the 18O/16O, 17O/16O, and 26Al/27Al observed for oxide grains formed at C/O 15N/14N, 12C/13C, and 26Al/27Al in carbide grains (C/O > 1) require that many of their stellar sources must have had 14N/15N at least a factor of 4 lower than the solar value. This allows a self-consistent description of all these isotopes in most SiC grains. The rare grains with 12C/13C

Kenneth M. Nollett; M. Busso; G. J. Wasserburg

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Plutonium pit manufacturing unit process separation options for rapid reconstitution, a joint position paper of Lawrence Livemore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document addressed technical issues regarding the manufacturing processes involved in making plutonium pits. It addresses acceptable approaches from a technical standpoint as to how the manufacturing processes can be separated and distributed among different manufacturing sites. Site selections, costs, and intra-site transfers are not addressed in this document.

Hart, M.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wood, W.T.; Olivas, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

157

Development of processing techniques for advanced thermal protection materials. Annual progress report, 1 June 1994-31 May 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main purpose of this work has been in the development and characterization of materials for high temperature applications. Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) are constantly being tested, and evaluated for increased thermal shock resistance, high temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to environmental effects. Materials development was carried out through the use of many different instruments and methods, ranging from extensive elemental analysis to physical attributes testing. The six main focus areas include: (1) protective coatings for carbon/carbon composites; (2) TPS material characterization; (3) improved waterproofing for TPS; (4) modified ceramic insulation for bone implants; (5) improved durability ceramic insulation blankets; and (6) ultra-high temperature ceramics. This report describes the progress made in these research areas during this contract period.

Selvaduray, G.S.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Proceedings of the ASME Heat Transfer Division. Volume 4: Natural convection within a horizontal circular cylinder heated from below and cooled from above; Numerical methods for coupled fluid-thermal-structural interaction; Thermal analysis in waste processing and disposal; Heat transfer in fire and combustion systems; HTD-Volume 335  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first two sections as listed in the title contain 7 papers. The third section on thermal analysis contains 18 papers arranged into the following topical areas: Thermal treatment and municipal wastes; Thermal hydraulics in hazardous and nuclear waste processing and disposal; and Waste processing. Heat transfer in fire and combustion systems contains 17 papers arranged into the following topical sections: Soot/radiation; Combustion systems; Multiphase combustion; and Flames and fires. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Pepper, D.W. [ed.] [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Douglass, R.W. [ed.] [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heinrich, J.C. [ed.] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Investigation of Thermal Decomposition as the Kinetic Process That Causes the Loss of Crystalline Structure in Sucrose Using a Chemical Analysis Approach (Part II)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Thermal Decomposition as the Kinetic Process That Causes the Loss of Crystalline Structure in Sucrose Using a Chemical Analysis Approach (Part II) ... In the fast heating method, initial decomposition components, glucose (0.365%) and 5-HMF (0.003%), were found in the sucrose sample coincident with the onset temperature of the first endothermic peak. ... Three sample pans of sucrose were loaded in the DSC cell; one pan was placed on the sample platform, and the others were placed on the bottom of the DSC cell. ...

Joo Won Lee; Leonard C. Thomas; John Jerrell; Hao Feng; Keith R. Cadwallader; Shelly J. Schmidt

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

160

Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination with feedwater heating, would result in heat rate reductions of 7.43 percent for PRB coal and 10.45 percent for lignite.

Edward Levy

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Assessing thermal energy storage technologies of concentrating solar plants for the direct coupling with chemical processes. The case of solar-driven biomass gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Dynamic simulation, design improvements and control issues in solar power plants might compete with special considerations on energy storing techniques. In order to provide the stability in production of power or chemical commodities in spite of discontinuity in the source of energy, i.e., sun, overall concerns in the details of solar power plant, competition and comparison of common storing technologies should be taken into account to ensure the effectiveness and continuity of the supply. This research activity is aimed at extending the study from the power generation purpose to the solar-supplied chemical commodities production, highlighting the limitations of certain well-established thermal energy storage techniques when concentrating solar is directly coupled with chemical processes. The (intrinsically dynamic and closed-loop) simulation of solar power plants and direct thermal energy storage technologies is performed for the direct thermal energy storage technologies and, only for the case of thermocline, it is coupled with computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) studies for the proper assessment of molten salt and steam temperature trends. To investigate benefits/restrictions of the storage technologies, the solar steam generation is integrated with the gasification of biomasses for syngas production. Also, first-principles dynamic model for the biomass gasifier is provided.

Flavio Manenti; Andres R. Leon-Garzon; Zohreh Ravaghi-Ardebili; Carlo Pirola

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850��������C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys���¢�������� weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation on Cr-carbide on the graphite surface. Ni-electroplating dramatically reduced corrosion of alloys, although some diffusion of Fe and Cr were observed occur through the Ni plating. A pyrolytic carbon and SiC (PyC/SiC) CVD coating was also investigated and found to be effective in mitigating corrosion. The KCl-MgCl2 molten salt was less corrosive than FLiNaK fluoride salts for corrosion tests performed at 850oC. Cr dissolution in the molten chloride salt was still observed and consequently Ni-201 and Hastelloy N exhibited the least depth of attack. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (as measured by weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. Because Cr dissolution is an important mechanism of corrosion, molten salt electrochemistry experiments were initiated. These experiments were performed using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Using this technique, the reduction potential of Cr was determined against a Pt quasi-reference electrode as well as against a Ni(II)-Ni reference electrode in molten FLiNaK at 650 oC. The integrated current increased linearly with Cr-content in the salt, providing for a direct assessment of the Cr concentration in a given salt of unknown Cr concentration. To study heat transfer mechanisms in these molten salts over the forced and mixed convection regimes, a forced convective loop was constructed to measure heat transfer coefficients, friction factors and corrosion rates in different diameter tubes in a vertical up flow configuration in the laminar flow regime. Equipment and instrumentation for the forced convective loop was designed, constructed, and tested. These include a high temperature centrifugal pump, mass flow meter, and differential pressure sensing capabilities to an uncertainty of < 2 Pa. The heat transfer coefficient for the KCl-MgCl2 salt was measured in t

Kumar Sridharan; Mark Anderson; Todd Allen; Michael Corradini

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

Process-circuit and layout solutions for steam-turbine units and performance efficiency of thermal power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Criteria for evaluating process-circuit and layout solutions adopted in designing steam-turbine units are presented together with their values for a number of steam-turbine units produced by the Ural Turbine Work...

A. A. Gol’dberg; T. L. Shibaev

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplkment au no 7 , Tome 41, Juillet 1980, page C6-257 Novel rapid technique for the simulation of thermal vibration figures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of simple solids, particularly oxides, halides and silica- tes are not only of theoretical interest, but also of industrial and geological importance. Procedures for the direct measurement of self motion of ions in any crystal structure to be obtain- ed rapidly with the minimum of input data

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

166

Influence of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma on cellular structures and processes in human keratinocytes (HaCaT)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background The use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma in dermatology to improve the healing of chronic wounds is a promising application. The antimicrobial properties of physical plasma offer on the one hand the killing of bacteria, which are often a problem in chronic wounds. On the other hand, plasma can activate cells which are involved in the wound closure. Objective To guarantee a safe application it is essential to understand basic interactions between physical plasma and human skin cells. Methods In our study, human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were directly plasma treated with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source and effects on viability, DNA, cell cycle, intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis were observed. Results A treatment time-dependent loss of recovered adherent HaCaT cells after 24 h and a linear increase of DNA damage were observed, which was no longer evident 24 h after plasma stimulation, except for long treatment times. An accumulation of HaCaT cells in G2/M phase and a decrease in the G1 phase was caused by DBD plasma. The increasing formation of intracellular ROS is also attributed to plasma treatment. In contrast to other studies we did not find clear evidences for apoptosis in adherent HaCaT cells. A culture medium exchange subsequently after plasma treatment weakened the observed effects. Conclusion DBD plasma treatment resulted in oxidative stress in human keratinocytes which is related to deficient cell performance.

Susanne Blackert; Beate Haertel; Kristian Wende; Thomas von Woedtke; Ulrike Lindequist

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Development of CFD-Based Simulation Tools for In-Situ Thermal Processing of Oil Shale/Sands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In our research, we are taking the novel approach of developing and applying high performance computing, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulation tools to a modified in-situ process for production of oil from oil shale. The simulation tools being developed capture the relevant physical processes and data from a large-scale system. The modified in-situ application is a pilot-scale heat transfer process inside Red Leaf Resourcesâ?? EcoShale capsule. We demonstrate the need to understand fluid flow behavior in the convective channels of the rubblized shale bed as convective heating greatly decreases the time required to heat the oil shale to the production temperature when compared with conductive heating alone. We have developed and implemented a geometry creation strategy for a representative section of the EcoShale capsule, developed a meshing approach to deal with the complicated geometry and produce a well-behaved mesh, analyzed the effects of boundary conditions on the simulation results, and devised a new operator splitting solution algorithm that reduces computational costs by taking advantage of the differing convective and conductive time scales occurring in the simulation. These simulation tools can be applied to a wide range of processes involving convective fluid flow heating in rubblized beds.

None

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

A review of test results on parabolic dish solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted rankine engines and for production of process steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies. Most of the tests were at modules and assemblies that used a dish-mounted, organic Rankine cycle turbine for production of electric power. Some tests were also run on equipment for production of process steam or for production of electricity using dish-mounted reciprocating steam engines. These tests indicate that early modules achieve efficiencies of about 18 percent in converting sunlight to electricity (excluding the inverter but including parasitics). A number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other operating experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

Jaffe, L.D.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Thermal neutron capture cross-section to {sup 113}Cd isomer for the study of s-process origin of {sup 115}Sn  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The astrophysical origin of a p-nucleus {sup 115}Sn has remained still an open question. The nucleus {sup 115}Sn may be produced by a weak branch of the s-process through a beta-unstable isomer in {sup 113}Cd. However, a neutron capture cross-section to this isomer has not been measured with high accuracy at any energy. A neutron capture cross-section for the {sup 112}Cd(n,gamma){sup 113}Cd{sup m} reaction has been measured with neutrons provided from a nuclear reactor. The nucleus {sup 115}Sn may be produced by a nucleosynthesis flow through {sup 113}Cd{sup m} in the s-process. We have obtained the thermal neutron capture cross-section of 0.028+-0.009[b] and the resonance integral of 1.1+-0.3[b] using a cadmium difference method. The cross-section ratio of the isomer to the ground state has been calculated as a function of the incident neutron energy, E, by using a statistical model. The calculated ratios are almost constant over a wide range of E<100 keV. We have evaluated the s-process contribution to the solar abundance of {sup 115}Sn using the classical steady-flow model. This calculated result has shown that the production through {sup 113}Cd{sup m} may be minor contribution to {sup 115}Sn.

Hayakawa, Takehito; Shizuma, Toshiyuki [Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Chiba, Satoshi; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Harada, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kajino, Toshitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

RAPID/Roadmap/7-CA-e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Siting Process.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Permit Overview In California, the California Energy Commission (CEC) has jurisdiction over the siting process for proposed thermal...

171

Development of Spatio-Temporal Wavelet Post Processing Techniques for Application to Thermal Hydraulic Experiments and Numerical Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Re=2.06E5 .................... 55 xiv Page Figure 34 Zoom of 1D Wavelet transform after the SEO for Re=2.06E5 ....................... 56 Figure 35 1D Wavelet transform semblance plot of low frequency pressure signals before and after the SEO... fields of straddling PTV ?t sensitivity study for times (a) 0.001s, (b) 0.0005s, (c) 0.00033s, and (d) 0.00025s at z=3.0? ........................ 75 Figure 56 Sensitivity study to the number of image pairs used in averaging process...

Salpeter, Nathaniel

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

172

Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

Hebert, Peter H. (Glendale, CA); Brandt, Randolph J. (Palmdale, CA)

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

173

Chemical analysis of HfO{sub 2}/Si (100) film systems exposed to NH{sub 3} thermal processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen incorporation in HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} films utilized as high-k gate dielectric layers in advanced metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors has been investigated. Thin HfO{sub 2} blanket films deposited by atomic layer deposition on either SiO{sub 2} or NH{sub 3} treated Si (100) substrates have been subjected to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} anneal processing. Several high resolution techniques including electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectra, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been utilized to elucidate chemical composition and crystalline structure differences between samples annealed in NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} ambients as a function of temperature. Depth profiling of core level binding energy spectra has been obtained by using variable kinetic energy x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with tunable photon energy. An 'interface effect' characterized by a shift of the Si{sup 4+} feature to lower binding energy at the HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interface has been detected in the Si 1s spectra; however, no corresponding chemical state change has been observed in the Hf 4f spectra acquired over a broad range of electron take-off angles and surface sensitivities. The Si 2p spectra indicate Si-N bond formation beneath the HfO{sub 2} layer in the samples exposed to NH{sub 3} anneal. The NH{sub 3} anneal ambient is shown to produce a metastable Hf-N bond component corresponding to temperature driven dissociation kinetics. These findings are consistent with elemental profiles across the HfO{sub 2}/Si(100) interface determined by electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements. X-ray diffraction measurements on similarly treated films identify the structural changes resulting from N incorporation into the HfO{sub 2} films.

Lysaght, Patrick S.; Barnett, Joel; Bersuker, Gennadi I.; Woicik, Joseph C.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Foran, Brendan; Tseng, Hsing-Huang; Jammy, Raj [Front End Process Division, SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, Texas 78741-6499 (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Physical Characterization Laboratory, Advanced Technology Development Facility, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, Texas 78741-6499 (United States); Front End Process Division, SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Drive, Austin, Texas 78741-6499 (United States)

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Thermal Recovery Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal Recovery Methods describes the basic concepts of thermal recovery and explains the injection patterns used to exploit reservoir conditions. Basic reservoir engineering is reviewed with an emphasis on changes in flow characteristics caused by temperature. The authors discuss an energy balance for steam and combustion drive, and they explain in situ reactions. Heat loss, combustion drive, and steam displacement also are examined in detail, as well as cyclic steam injection, downhole ignition, well heating, and low-temperature oxidation. Contents: Thermal processes; Formation and reservoir evaluations; Well patterns and spacing; Flow and process equations; Laboratory simulation of thermal recovery; Heat loss and transmission; Displacement and production; Equipment; Basic data for field selection; Laboratory evaluation of combustion characteristics; Thermal properties of reservoirs and fluids.

White, P.D.; Moss, J.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Thermal Stability of Chelated Indium Activable Tracers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal stability of indium tracer chelated with organic ligands ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was measured for reservoir temperatures of 150, 200, and 240 C. Measurements of the soluble indium concentration was made as a function of time by neutron activation analysis. From the data, approximate thermal decomposition rates were estimated. At 150 C, both chelated tracers were stable over the experimental period of 20 days. At 200 C, the InEDTA concentration remained constant for 16 days, after which the thermal decomposition occurred at a measured rate constant of k = 0.09 d{sup -1}. The thermal decomposition of InNTA at 200 C showed a first order reaction with a measured rate constant of k = 0.16 d{sup -1}. At 240 C, both indium chelated tracers showed rapid decomposition with rate constants greater than 1.8 d{sup -1}. The data indicate that for geothermal reservoir with temperatures up to about 200 C, indium chelated tracers can be used effectively for transit times of at least 20 days. These experiments were run without reservoir rock media, and do not account for concomitant loss of indium tracer by adsorption processes.

Chrysikopoulos, Costas; Kruger, Paul

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

176

Computational simulations of latent heat thermal energy storage systems - with innovative and first-principles based simulation for the underlying unsteady melting (and solidification) processes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This thesis develops an effective modeling and simulation procedure for a specific thermal energy storage system commonly used and recommended for various applications (such… (more)

Gumaste, Rohan Achyut

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Room-temperature thermally induced relaxation effect in a two-dimensional cyano-bridged Cu-Mo bimetal assembly and thermodynamic analysis of the relaxation process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We observed a photo-switching effect in [Cu{sup II}(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclodecane)]{sub 2}[Mo{sup IV}(CN){sub 8}]{center_dot}10H{sub 2}O by irradiation with 410-nm light around room temperature using infrared spectroscopy. This photo-switching is caused by the photo-induced charge transfer from Mo{sup IV} to Cu{sup II}. The photo-induced phase thermally relaxed to the initial phase with a half-life time of 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1}, 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1}, and 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} s at 293, 283, and 273 K, respectively. The relaxation process was analyzed using Hauser's equation, k=k{sub 0}exp[-(E{sub a}+E{sub a}{sup *}{gamma}) /k{sub B}T], where k is the rate constant of relaxation, k{sub 0} is the frequency factor, E{sub a} is the activation energy, E{sub a}{sup *} is the additional activation energy due to the cooperativity, and {gamma} is the fraction of the photo-induced phase. k{sub 0}, E{sub a}, and E{sub a}{sup *} were evaluated as 1.28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7}{+-} 2.6 s{sup -1}, 4002 {+-} 188 cm{sup -1}, and 546 {+-} 318 cm{sup -1}, respectively. The value of E{sub a} is much larger than that of the relaxation process for the typical light-induced spin crossover effect (E{sub a} Almost-Equal-To 1000 cm{sup -1}). Room-temperature photo-switching is an important issue in the field of optical functional materials. The present system is useful for the demonstration of high-temperature photo-switching material.

Umeta, Yoshikazu; Ozaki, Noriaki [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tokoro, Hiroko [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); NEXT, JSPS, 8 Ichibancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); CREST, JST, K's Gobancho, 7 Gobancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Solar-thermal reaction processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In an embodiment, a method of conducting a high temperature chemical reaction that produces hydrogen or synthesis gas is described. The high temperature chemical reaction is conducted in a reactor having at least two reactor shells, including an inner shell and an outer shell. Heat absorbing particles are included in a gas stream flowing in the inner shell. The reactor is heated at least in part by a source of concentrated sunlight. The inner shell is heated by the concentrated sunlight. The inner shell re-radiates from the inner wall and heats the heat absorbing particles in the gas stream flowing through the inner shell, and heat transfers from the heat absorbing particles to the first gas stream, thereby heating the reactants in the gas stream to a sufficiently high temperature so that the first gas stream undergoes the desired reaction(s), thereby producing hydrogen or synthesis gas in the gas stream.

Weimer, Alan W; Dahl, Jaimee K; Lewandowski, Allan A; Bingham, Carl; Raska Buechler, Karen J; Grothe, Willy

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

179

Rapidity Dependence of Elliptic Flow at RHIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The measured elliptic flow (v2) of identified particles as a function of pT and centrality at RHIC suggests the created medium in Au+Au collisions achieves early local thermal equilibrium that is followed by hydrodynamic expansion. It is not known if the eta dependence on v2 is a general feature of elliptic flow or reflects other changes in the particle spectra in going from mid-rapidity to foward rapidities. The BRAHMS experiment provides a unique capability compared to the other RHIC experiments to measure v2 for identified particles over a wide rapidity range. From Run 4 Au+Au collision at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200GeV, identified elliptic flow is studied using the BRAHMS spectrometers, which cover 0

Erik Johnson

2006-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

180

RAPID/Roadmap/11-NM-b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Resources Contribute Contact Us 11-NM-b Cultural Resource Investigation Process...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

RAPID/Roadmap/11-NM-d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Resources Contribute Contact Us 11-NM-d Cultural Resource Discovery Process 11-NM-d...

182

RAPID/Roadmap/11-NM-c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Resources Contribute Contact Us 11-NM-c Human Burial Discovery Process 11-NM-c Human...

183

The Synchrotron Boiler a Thermalizer in Seyfert Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are difficulties in understanding what keeps the plasma thermalized in compact sources, especially during rapid variations of the emitted flux. Particle-particle collisions are too inefficient in hot rarefied plasmas, and a faster process is called for. Synchrotron absorption is such a process. We show that relativistic electrons can thermalize in a few synchrotron cooling times by emitting and absorbing cyclo-synchrotron photons. The resulting equilibrium distribution is a Maxwellian at low energies, with a high energy power law tail when Compton cooling is important. Assuming that the particles emit completely self absorbed synchrotron radiation while they at the same time Compton scatter ambient UV photons, we calculate the time dependent behavior of the distribution function, and the final high energy spectra.

Ghisellini, G; Svensson, R; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Haardt, Francesco; Svensson, Roland

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

The Synchrotron Boiler: a Thermalizer in Seyfert Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are difficulties in understanding what keeps the plasma thermalized in compact sources, especially during rapid variations of the emitted flux. Particle-particle collisions are too inefficient in hot rarefied plasmas, and a faster process is called for. Synchrotron absorption is such a process. We show that relativistic electrons can thermalize in a few synchrotron cooling times by emitting and absorbing cyclo-synchrotron photons. The resulting equilibrium distribution is a Maxwellian at low energies, with a high energy power law tail when Compton cooling is important. Assuming that the particles emit completely self absorbed synchrotron radiation while they at the same time Compton scatter ambient UV photons, we calculate the time dependent behavior of the distribution function, and the final high energy spectra.

Gabriele Ghisellini; Francesco Haardt; Roland Svensson

1996-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

185

Evolutions of rapid product development with rapid manufacturing: concepts and applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper relates to the recent evolutions of rapid product development and mainly on technological point of view. Critical issues are of several nature, methodologies, product-process knowledge-based approaches, new technologies and applications. The idea is to take into account the knowledge related to the additive manufacturing technologies when defining the main characteristics of the products. The evolution of the capacities of the actual rapid manufacturing technologies enlarges the scope of new product design and manufacturing. The final goal is to increase the efficiency of the rapid product development processes by the use of new technologies and new methodologies.

A. Bernard; G. Taillandier; K.P. Karunakaran

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

Mara, L.M.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

188

Rapid road repair vehicle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

Mara, Leo M. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

7 -ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 7 - ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be: 1. Scattering 2. Absorption/Thermal Emission scattering, although the results won't change much when this condition is relaxed. #12;2 Absorption/Thermal Emission Free-free (continuum) ("Bremsstrahlung") Emission/Absorption Bound-Bound & Bound-Free Processes

Sitko, Michael L.

190

Neutron stars - thermal emitters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Confronting theoretical models with observations of thermal radiation emitted by neutron stars is one of the most important ways to understand the properties of both, superdense matter in the interiors of the neutron stars and dense magnetized plasmas in their outer layers. Here we review the theory of thermal emission from the surface layers of strongly magnetized neutron stars, and the main properties of the observational data. In particular, we focus on the nearby sources for which a clear thermal component has been detected, without being contaminated by other emission processes (magnetosphere, accretion, nebulae). We also discuss the applications of the modern theoretical models of the formation of spectra of strongly magnetized neutron stars to the observed thermally emitting objects.

Potekhin, A Y; Pons, J A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Salicidation process using NiSi and its device application R. A. Johnson, P. M. Asbeck, and S. S. Lau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature window. In this article, the formation of nickel mono-silicide NiSi using rapid thermal annealing. In the recent past, there have been concerns related to the in- crease of TiSi2 film resistivity on submicron resistivity C54 phase.5,6 The TiSi2 process- ing temperature window is relatively narrow due to the high

Asbeck, Peter M.

192

12.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/32 4. Refrigeration process comparison;  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Kylteknik ("KYL") Refrigeration course # 424503.0 v. 2014 �A 424503 Refrigeration / Kylteknik 12.11.2014�bo Akademi Univ - Thermal voltage part for T-E) see ---- boundaries in the figures below The energy input occurs at the point where

Zevenhoven, Ron

193

Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the coupling of thermal and mechanical behaviors at small scales, a Campaign 6 project was created to investigate thermomechanical phenomena in microsystems. This report documents experimental measurements conducted under the auspices of this project. Since thermal and mechanical measurements for thermal microactuators were not available for a single microactuator design, a comprehensive suite of thermal and mechanical experimental data was taken and compiled for model validation purposes. Three thermal microactuator designs were selected and fabricated using the SUMMiT V{sup TM} process at Sandia National Laboratories. Thermal and mechanical measurements for the bent-beam polycrystalline silicon thermal microactuators are reported, including displacement, overall actuator electrical resistance, force, temperature profiles along microactuator legs in standard laboratory air pressures and reduced pressures down to 50 mTorr, resonant frequency, out-of-plane displacement, and dynamic displacement response to applied voltages.

Baker, Michael Sean; Epp, David S.; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Conventional machining methods for rapid prototyping and direct manufacturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The material and product accuracy limitations of rapid prototyped products can often prevent the use of rapid prototyping (RP) processes for production of final end-use products. Conventional machining processes are well-developed technologies with the capability of employing a wide range of materials in the creation of highly accurate components. This paper presents an overview of how conventional machining processes can be used for RP and direct manufacturing processes. The methodologies of computer numerical control machining for rapid prototyping (CNC-RP) and wire electronic discharge machining for rapid prototyping (WEDM-RP) are presented in this paper. A general discussion of selection criteria and cost comparisons among both current additive RP and conventional machining approaches to rapid manufacturing are also presented.

Zhi Yang; Richard A. Wysk; Sanjay Joshi; Matthew C. Frank; Joseph E. Petrzelka

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Transformations of the Micro-Domain Structure of Polyimide Films during Thermally Induced Chemical Conversion:? Characterization via Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To find ?ys? and ??uo uniquely interrelated is a hallmark of the model developed here. ... Rows obsd. in the process are attributed to surface diffusion processes conducted by local stresses in oriented surface layers. ...

Hanns-Georg Kilian; Sergei Bronnikov; Tatiana Sukhanova

2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

196

Thermal treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal treatment can be regarded as either a pre-treatment of waste prior to final disposal, or as a means of valorising waste by recovering energy. It includes both the burning of mixed MSW in municipal inciner...

Dr. P. White; Dr. M. Franke; P. Hindle

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Thermal plasmonic interconnects in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As one emerging plasmonic material, graphene can support surface plasmons at infrared and terahertz frequencies with unprecedented properties due to the strong interactions between graphene and low-frequency photons. Since graphene surface plasmons exist in the infrared and terahertz regime, they can be thermally pumped (excited) by the infrared evanescent waves emitted from an object. Here we show that thermal graphene plasmons can be efficiently excited and have monochromatic and tunable spectra, thus paving a way to harness thermal energy for graphene plasmonic devices. We further demonstrate that “thermal information communication” via graphene surface plasmons can be potentially realized by effectively harnessing thermal energy from various heat sources, e.g., the waste heat dissipated from nanoelectronic devices. These findings open up an avenue of thermal plasmonics based on graphene for different applications ranging from infrared emission control, to information processing and communication, to energy harvesting.

Baoan Liu; Yongmin Liu; Sheng Shen

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

198

7 -ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 7 - ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be: 1. Scattering 2. Absorption/Thermal Emission scattering, although the results won't change much when this condition is relaxed. Absorption/Thermal Emission Free-free (continuum) ("Bremsstrahlung") Emission/Absorption #12;2 Bound-Bound & Bound

Sitko, Michael L.

199

Thermo-chemical dynamics and chemical quasi-equilibrium of plasmas in thermal non-equilibrium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine both processes of ionization by electron and heavy-particle impact in spatially uniform plasmas at rest in the absence of external forces. A singular perturbation analysis is used to study the following physical scenario, in which thermal relaxation becomes much slower than chemical reactions. First, electron-impact ionization is investigated. The dynamics of the system rapidly becomes close to a slow dynamics manifold that allows for defining a unique chemical quasi-equilibrium for two-temperature plasmas and proving that the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied. Then, all ionization reactions are taken into account simultaneously, leading to a surprising conclusion: the inner layer for short time scale (or time boundary layer) directly leads to thermal equilibrium. Global thermo-chemical equilibrium is reached within a short time scale, involving only chemical reactions, even if thermal relaxation through elastic collisions is assumed to be slow.

Massot, Marc [Laboratoire EM2C, UPR 288 CNRS - Ecole Centrale Paris (France); Graille, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Mathematiques d'Orsay, UMR 8628 CNRS - Universite Paris-Sud (France); Magin, Thierry E. [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (Belgium)

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

200

Integrated Modeling for Intelligent Battery Thermal Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effective thermal management is crucial to the optimal operation of lithium ion batteries and its health management. However, the thermal behaviors of batteries are governed by complex chemical process whose parameters will degrade over time and different ... Keywords: integrated modeling, distributed parameter system, battery thermal management, intelligent learning

Zhen Liu; Han-Xiong Li

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

RAPID/Contribute | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Contribute < RAPID Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Resources...

202

RAPID/Roadmap/20 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPID | Roadmap Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Resources...

203

Category:RAPID Forms | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPID Forms Jump to: navigation, search This category contains forms used to generate content within the RAPID toolkit. Pages in category "RAPID Forms" The following 13 pages are...

204

A finishing cutter selection algorithm for additive/subtractive rapid pattern manufacturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The additive/subtractive rapid pattern manufacturing (RPM) process sequentially deposits thick material ... layer-by-layer manner. Although most rapid manufacturing systems mainly intend to increase flexibility i...

Xiaoming Luo; Ye Li; Matthew C. Frank

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Numerical Simulation of the Thermal Management for Traction Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The electrification of vehicle powertrains is a rapidly developing technology. Especially for the development of the used high-voltage batteries, an elaborated thermal management is needed to secure their perform...

Xiao Hu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Waste package degradation from thermal and chemical processes in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper summarizes modeling of waste container degradation in performance assessments conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased, modeling of container degradation evolved from a component of the source term in 1984 to a separate module describing both container and drip shield degradation in 2008. A thermal module for evaluating the influence of higher heat loads from more closely packed, large waste packages was also introduced. In addition, a module for evaluating drift chemistry was added in later \\{PAs\\} to evaluate the potential for localized corrosion of the outer barrier of the waste container composed of Alloy 22, a highly corrosion-resistant nickel–chromium–tungsten–molybdenum alloy. The uncertainty of parameters related to container degradation contributed significantly to the estimated uncertainty of performance measures (cumulative release in assessments prior to 1995 and individual dose, thereafter).

Rob P. Rechard; Joon H. Lee; Ernest L. Hardin; Charles R. Bryan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

Tsang, C.-F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Rapid prototyping is coming of age  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article examines how, by accelerating the design process and speeding tooling development, rapid prototyping technology helps manufacturers cut new product cycle times and costs. During the last decade, a class of technologies has emerged by which a computer-aided design file of an object can be converted into a physical model through special sintering, layering, or deposition techniques. Called rapid prototyping (RP), or solid free-form fabrication, the major application for this technology has been early verification of product designs and quick production of prototypes for testing. Multiple prototypes can now be reproduced more economically by using the RP master as a pattern for creating molded or soft tooling. Interest in desktop (or more accurately, office) rapid prototyping for visualization and design verification is growing, but it is not yet easy to cost-justify. Recently, the fabrication of patterns for limited-run production tooling has become more common. Today, the most popular rapid tooling options are silicone rubber (RTV) molding and epoxy and spray metal tooling. For metal part production, the choices are investment, plaster, spin, and sand casting.

Ashley, S.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Live pathogens: rapid detection technique developed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

January » January » Live Pathogens: Rapid Detection Technique Developed Live pathogens: rapid detection technique developed The technique relies on bacteria being critically dependent upon the key nutrient iron. January 24, 2013 Colorized scanning electron micrograph of E. coli. Colorized scanning electron micrograph of E. coli. Photo credit: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention LANL's new method eliminates the need for laboratory culture and greatly speeds the process. Los Alamos researchers have developed a better technique for quick detection of live pathogens in the field. Identification of viable bacteria in a complex environment is scientifically challenging. Current detection and diagnostic techniques are inadequate in major public health emergencies, such as outbreaks of food-borne illness. Detection of live

210

Gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rapidly rotating neutron stars in Low Mass X-ray Binaries have been proposed as an interesting source of gravitational waves. In this chapter we present estimates of the gravitational wave emission for various scenarios, given the (electromagnetically) observed characteristics of these systems. First of all we focus on the r-mode instability and show that a 'minimal' neutron star model (which does not incorporate exotica in the core, dynamically important magnetic fields or superfluid degrees of freedom), is not consistent with observations. We then present estimates of both thermally induced and magnetically sustained mountains in the crust. In general magnetic mountains are likely to be detectable only if the buried magnetic field of the star is of the order of $B\\approx 10^{12}$ G. In the thermal mountain case we find that gravitational wave emission from persistent systems may be detected by ground based interferometers. Finally we re-asses the idea that gravitational wave emission may be balancing the accretion torque in these systems, and show that in most cases the disc/magnetosphere interaction can account for the observed spin periods.

Brynmor Haskell; Nils Andersson; Caroline D`Angelo; Nathalie Degenaar; Kostas Glampedakis; Wynn C. G. Ho; Paul D. Lasky; Andrew Melatos; Manuel Oppenoorth; Alessandro Patruno; Maxim Priymak

2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

211

Rapid scanning mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mass spectrometers and residual gas analyzers (RGA) are used in a variety of applications for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile materials. Analysis is performed by detecting fragments of gas molecules, based on their mass to charge ratio, which are generated in the mass spectrometer. When used as a detector for a gas chromatograph, they function as a means to quantitatively identify isolated volatile species which have been separated from other species via the gas chromatograph. Vacuum Technology, Inc., (VTI) produces a magnetic sector mass spectrometer/RGA which is used in many industrial and laboratory environments. In order to increase the utility of this instrument, it is desirable to increase the mass scanning speed, thereby increasing the number of applications for which it is suited. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will replace. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AEROVAC mass spectrometer. (3) The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

Leckey, J.H. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boeckmann, M.D. [Vacuum Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

212

Realistic Financial Planning and Rapid  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Realistic Financial Planning and Rapid Realistic Financial Planning and Rapid Modification to Project Execution are Essential PMLL Identifier: PMLL-2010-LLNL-NIF-0001 (Source: User Submitted) Validator: Victoria Pratt Date: 4/27/2010 Contact: 202-586-7358 Statement: Schedule and cost impacts can be reduced by accounting for potential annual funding delays as well as by adjusting project execution rapidly Discussion: The NIF Project was funding constrained, and planned (per Acquisition Executive direction) with the assumption that the full annual funding in the budget profile would be available early in October. Any delays or changes in the annual funding availability required extraordinary measures both for obtaining the funding required to avoid significant project impacts in a timely manner, and in rapidly adjusting project execution.

213

Rapid prototyping of green composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rapid prototyping employs digital fabrication techniques to quickly manufacture parts. However, the available materials are not yet suitable for making strong, large or durable objects. Composites are materials which are ...

Peek, Nadya (Nadya Meile)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Rapid deployment intrusion detection system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs.

Graham, R.H.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Innovation Ecosystems Spur Rapid Growth for Startups, Entrepreneurs |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Innovation Ecosystems Spur Rapid Growth for Startups, Entrepreneurs Innovation Ecosystems Spur Rapid Growth for Startups, Entrepreneurs Innovation Ecosystems Spur Rapid Growth for Startups, Entrepreneurs September 14, 2011 - 4:22pm Addthis Rich Earley, CEO of Clean Urban Energy presents at Clean Energy Trust's Clean Energy Challenge in March 2011 | Courtesy of Clean Energy Trust Rich Earley, CEO of Clean Urban Energy presents at Clean Energy Trust's Clean Energy Challenge in March 2011 | Courtesy of Clean Energy Trust Sarah Jane Maxted Special Assistant, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy What does this project do? Smart grid start-up company Clean Urban Energy secured $75,000 for its energy storage and smart grid performance optimization technology. Their system harnesses a building's inherent thermal mass to drive

216

Risk D&D Rapid Prototype: Scenario Documentation and Analysis Tool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Report describes process and methodology associated with a rapid prototype tool for integrating project risk analysis and health & safety risk analysis for decontamination and decommissioning projects.

Unwin, Stephen D.; Seiple, Timothy E.

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

High-speed thermal cycling system and method of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal cycling system and method of use are described. The thermal cycling system is based on the circulation of temperature-controlled water directly to the underside of thin-walled polycarbonate plates. The water flow is selected from a manifold fed by pumps from heated reservoirs. The plate wells are loaded with typically 15-20 microliters of reagent mix for the PCR process. Heat transfer through the thin polycarbonate is sufficiently rapid that the contents reach thermal equilibrium with the water in less than 15 seconds. Complete PCR amplification runs of 40 three-step cycles have been performed in as little as 14.5 minutes, with the results showing substantially enhanced specificity compared to conventional technology requiring run times in excess of 100 minutes. The plate clamping station is designed to be amenable to robotic loading and unloading of the system. It includes a heated lid, thus eliminating the need for mineral oil overlay of the reactants. The present system includes three or more plate holder stations, fed from common reservoirs but operating with independent switching cycles. The system can be modularly expanded. 13 figs.

Hansen, A.D.A.; Jaklevic, J.M.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

218

High-speed thermal cycling system and method of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal cycling system and method of use are described. The thermal cycling system is based on the-circulation of temperature-controlled water directly to the underside of thin-walled polycarbonate microtiter plates. The water flow is selected from a manifold fed by pumps from heated reservoirs. The plate wells are loaded with typically 15-20 .mu.l of reagent mix for the PCR process. Heat transfer through the thin polycarbonate is sufficiently rapid that the contents reach thermal equilibrium with the water in less than 15 seconds. Complete PCR amplification runs of 40 three-step cycles have been performed in as little as 14.5 minutes, with the results showing substantially enhanced specificity compared to conventional technology requiring run times in excess of 100 minutes. The plate clamping station is designed to be amenable to robotic loading and unloading of the system. It includes a heated lid, thus eliminating the need for mineral oil overlay of the reactants. The present system includes three or more plate holder stations, fed from common reservoirs but operating with independent switching cycles. The system can be modularly expanded.

Hansen, Anthony D. A. (Berkely, CA); Jaklevic, Joseph M. (Lafayette, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermal-Hydraulics Thermal-Hydraulics Dr. Tanju Sofu, Argonne National Laboratory In a power reactor, the energy produced in fission reaction manifests itself as heat to be removed by a coolant and utilized in a thermodynamic energy conversion cycle to produce electricity. A simplified schematic of a typical nuclear power plant is shown in the diagram below. Primary coolant loop Steam Reactor Heat exchanger Primary pump Secondary pump Condenser Turbine Water Although this process is essentially the same as in any other steam plant configuration, the power density in a nuclear reactor core is typically four orders of magnitude higher than a fossil fueled plant and therefore it poses significant heat transfer challenges. Maximum power that can be obtained from a nuclear reactor is often limited by the

220

Thermalization through parton transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A radiative transport model is used to study kinetic equilibration during the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision. The parton system is found to be able to overcome expansion and move toward thermalization via parton collisions. Scaling behaviors show up in both the pressure anisotropy and the energy density evolutions. In particular, the pressure anisotropy evolution shows an approximate alpha_s scaling when radiative processes are included. It approaches an asymptotic time evolution on a time scale of 1 to 2 fm/c. The energy density evolution shows an asymptotic time evolution that decreases slower than the ideal hydro evolution. These observations indicate that partial thermalization can be achieved and viscosity is important for the evolution during the early longitudinal expansion stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision.

Bin Zhang

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, June 1, 1996--July 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved thermal barrier coating system with good reliability and thermal performance is described. The report discusses the coating process, manufacturing, repair, deposition, and microstructure of the coatings.

NONE

1996-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

222

Adaptive Restoration of Airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM Thermal Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images.

D. Yuan; E. Doak; P. Guss; A. Will

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

224

Microwavable thermal energy storage material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

225

Microwavable thermal energy storage material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

226

RAPID/Roadmap/Coverage | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Resources Contribute Contact Us Rapid-rr-selected.png Regulatory Roadmap Getting Started...

227

Application of quantum-inspired binary gravitational search algorithm for thermal unit commitment with wind power integration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As the application of wind power energy is rapidly developing, it is very important to analyze the effects of wind power fluctuation on power system operation. In this paper, a model of thermal unit commitment problem with wind power integration is established and chance constrained programming is applied to simulate the effects of wind power fluctuation. Meanwhile, a combination of quantum-inspired binary gravitational search algorithm and chance constrained programming is proposed to solve the thermal unit commitment problem with wind power integration. In order to reduce the searching time and avoid the premature convergence, a priority list of thermal units and a local mutation adjustment strategy are utilized during the optimization process. The priority list of thermal units is based on the weight between average full-load cost and maximal power output. Then, a stochastic simulation technique is used to deal with the probabilistic constraints. In addition, heuristic search strategies are used to handle deterministic constraints of thermal units. Furthermore, the impacts of different confidence levels and different prediction errors of wind fluctuation on system operation are analyzed respectively. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by the test system with wind power integration, and the results are compared with those using binary gravitational search algorithm and binary particle swarm optimization. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed quantum-inspired binary gravitational search algorithm has a higher efficiency in solving thermal unit commitment problem with wind power integration.

Bin Ji; Xiaohui Yuan; Xianshan Li; Yuehua Huang; Wenwu Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was the implementation of a Product Information Management System that supports secure concurrent engineering in an open environment.

Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

229

Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Seasonal thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

RAPID-CURE COATINGS SYSTEM  

Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

The Naval Research Laboratory has developed a durable, rapid cure coatings system that is designed for harsh environments. Developed for the maritime industry, it is suit-able for the interior & exterior of shipboard structures and tanks as well as other appli-cations where performance counts...

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thermal unobtainiums? The perfect thermal conductor and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contribute to thermal resistance · Isotopically pure diamond has highest thermal conductivity of any material materials: disordered layered crystals Conclude with some thoughts on promising, high-risk, research even in a computer model. #12;Thermal resistance is created by Umklapp scattering (U

Braun, Paul

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - astrophysical rapid proton-capture Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Neutron and proton capture reactions... explosions 3, as well ass type I X-ray bursts (rapid proton capture process, rp-process) 4, and might... iron 2. Meanwhile...

234

Thermal Imaging Control of Furnaces and Combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The object if this project is to demonstrate and bring to commercial readiness a near-infrared thermal imaging control system for high temperature furnaces and combustors. The thermal imaging control system, including hardware, signal processing, and control software, is designed to be rugged, self-calibrating, easy to install, and relatively transparent to the furnace operator.

David M. Rue; Serguei Zelepouga; Ishwar K. Puri

2003-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

235

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, School of Ocean depths of 20 m (surface water) and 1,000 m. OTEC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, the process Energy Conversion. At first, OTEC plantships providing electricity, via submarine power cables, to shore

236

Thermal Control & System Integration  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

237

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has long been recognized that evaporative cooling is an effective and logical substitute for mechanical cooling in hot-arid climates. This paper explores the application of evaporative coolers to the hot-humid climates using a controlled...

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Method For Brazing And Thermal Processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes a method for brazing of two objects or heat treatment of one object. First, object or objects to be treated are selected and initial conditions establishing a relative geometry and material characteristics are determined. Then, a first design of an optical system for directing heat energy onto the object or objects is determined. The initial conditions and first design of the optical system are then input into a optical ray-tracing computer program. The program is then run to produce a representative output of the heat energy input distribution to the object or objects. The geometry of the object or objects, material characteristics, and optical system design are then adjusted until an desired heat input is determined.

Milewski, John O. (Santa Fe, NM); Dave, Vivek R. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dane (Livermore, CA); Carpenter, II, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

239

Energy Recovery Efficiency and Cost Analysis of VOC Thermal Oxidation Pollution Control Technology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Respective cost models were derived for recuperative thermal oxidizer (TO) and regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO). ... In a thermal oxidation process, VOC-laden air is thermally treated (oxidized/decomposed) at temperatures about 730?850 °C. ... Choi and Yi(4) worked on the simulation and optimization of regenerative thermal oxidizers. ...

Aruna S. K. Warahena; Yew Khoy Chuah

2009-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

240

VacuumProcesses  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Processes Processes Manufacturing Technologies The vacuum processing capabilities in the Thin Film, Vacuum, & Packaging Laboratory encompass several areas. Capabilities include vacuum, inert gas and hydrogen firing; thermal desorption mass spectroscopy; vacuum out- gassing rate measurement; ion beam milling; and cermet densification. Capabilities * Expertise in the development of cleaning processes and materials characterization of vacuum materials and components * Vacuum and hydrogen firing of components for oxide reduction and cleaning of vacuum components * Large scale cleaning processes, vapor degreasing and vacu- um firing for large vol- ume components * Thermal desorption mass spectroscopy of material and components with controlled tem- perature ramp rates to 1500°C in a UHV

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Exergy in the Thermal Systems Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exergy analysis has been developed as a result ... imperfection of industrial thermal processes. Precursors of exergy analysis were Gouy [1] and Stodola ... due to the thermodynamic irrevesibility. The term exergy

J. Szargut

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Laser perforation of screen vacuum thermal insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of the process of laser perforation of screen vacuum thermal insulation and shows that it has high efficiency. The use of various types of IR lasers...

Sysoev, V K; Vyatlev, P A; Zakharchenko, A V

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Thermal treatment for VOC control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic and thermal oxidation are well-established technologies for controlling volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Oxidation destroys pollutants, rather than capturing them. Oxidation units can destroy nearly 100% of VOC and toxic emissions targeted by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990--some systems attain destruction efficiencies over 99.99%. To assist in the design of these systems, an engineer will often look a/t the heat of combustion of the gas stream, along with the type of pollutant, to best determine the correct type of oxidation device to use. The paper discusses catalytic and thermal oxidation, energy recovery, and equipment for these processes.

Cloud, R.A. [Huntington Environmental Systems, Schaumburg, IL (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In August–September 2010, NASA, NOAA, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) conducted separate but closely coordinated hurricane field campaigns, bringing to bear a combined seven aircraft with both new and mature observing technologies. NASA's ...

Scott A. Braun; Ramesh Kakar; Edward Zipser; Gerald Heymsfield; Cerese Albers; Shannon Brown; Stephen L. Durden; Stephen Guimond; Jeffery Halverson; Andrew Heymsfield; Syed Ismail; Bjorn Lambrigtsen; Timothy Miller; Simone Tanelli; Janel Thomas; Jon Zawislak

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Thermal Pretreatment For TRU Waste Sorting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted a study on thermal treatment of TRU waste to develop a removal technology for materials that are forbidden for disposal. The thermal pretreatment in which hot nitrogen and/or air is introduced to the waste is a process of removing combustibles, liquids, and low melting point metals from PVC wrapped TRU waste. In this study, thermal pretreatment of simulated waste was conducted using a desktop thermal treatment vessel and a laboratory scale thermal pretreatment system. Combustibles and low melting point metals are effectively separated from wastes by choosing appropriate temperature of flowing gases. Combustibles such as papers, PVC, oil, etc. were removed and low melting point metals such as zinc, lead, and aluminum were separated from the simulated waste by the thermal pretreatment. (authors)

Sasaki, T.; Aoyama, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Yamaguchi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Thermal Shock-resistant Cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Thermal Management of Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a better thermal conductance and when ceramic particles areor ceramic fillers that enhances thermal conductivity. Solid

Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Hybrid rapid manufacturing of metallic objects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While CNC machining, the subtractive method, is the only option when it comes to high quality components, the need for human intervention to generate the CNC programs makes it a slow and costly route. On the other hand, rapid prototyping (RP), the additive method, is able to convert the design into the physical objects without any human intervention but its total automation comes with compromises in the qualities of geometry and material. A balance between these two extremes is hybrid rapid manufacturing (HRM). In HRM, the near-net shape of the component is built in layers (additive method) and the same is finish-machined (subtractive method). While the priority during material addition is material integrity, the same is on geometric quality during material subtraction. As the focuses in both these steps are different, they are very fast. The existing HRM processes for metallic objects are reviewed in this paper followed by a brief description of ArcHLM under development at IIT Bombay. The generic ArcHLM facility or Hybrid FMS will be able to demonstrate its various applications of for fresh manufacture and repair of tools and components.

K.P. Karunakaran; S. Suryakumar; U. Chandrasekhar; A. Bernard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Rapidity Charge Densities and the Leading-Particle Effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rapidity charge density in inelastic proton-proton collisions is discussed. Within a short-range-order picture, the experimental data are useful in defining the central plateau region of production processes where the properties of the initial particles are unimportant.

Dennis Sivers

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Early Events in Protein Folding Explored by Rapid Mixing Methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

15 Early Events in Protein Folding Explored by Rapid Mixing Methods Heinrich Roder, Kosuke Maki for Understanding Protein Folding As with any complex reaction, time-resolved data are essential for elucidating the mechanism of protein folding. Even in cases where the whole process of folding occurs in a single step

Roder, Heinrich

251

Ceramics in non-thermal plasma discharge for hydrogen generation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Recent interest in hydrogen as an energy source has resulted in development of new technologies such as non-thermal plasma processing of natural gas. We report… (more)

Vintila, Ramona Roxana

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Rapid reconnaissance of geothermal prospects using shallow temperature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Second technical report Second technical report Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Rapid reconnaissance of geothermal prospects using shallow temperature surveys. Second technical report Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The previously examined geothermal sites at Long Valley and Coso were studied in much greater detail. Techniques for correcting the 2-m temperature data were evaluated. Using a preliminary model and analysis of the Coso data, the importance of measuring soil thermal diffusivity data at each temperature probe site was shown. Corrected 2-m temperature anomaly at Coso was compared with a low altitude aeromagnetic anomaly and an anomaly outlined by electrical resistivity methods obtained independently. Preliminary tests were made with a simple thermal conductivity probe

253

Thermal insulation constructal optimization for steel rolling reheating furnace wall based on entransy dissipation extremum principle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analogizing with the heat conduction process, the entransy dissipation extremum principle for thermal insulation process can be described as: for a ... heat loss) with certain constraints, the thermal insulation ...

HuiJun Feng; LinGen Chen; ZhiHui Xie; FengRui Sun

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

Bowman, C.D.

1992-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

255

Rapid starting methanol reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Holographic thermalization patterns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the behaviour of various correlators in N=4 super Yang Mills theory, taking finite coupling corrections into account. In the thermal limit we investigate the flow of the quasinormal modes as a function of the 't Hooft coupling. Then by using a specific model of holographic thermalization we investigate the deviation of the spectral densities from their thermal limit in an out-of-equilibrium situation. The main focus lies on the thermalization pattern with which the various plasma constituents of different energies approach their final thermal distribution as the coupling constant decreases from the infinite coupling limit. All results point towards the weakening of the usual top down thermalization pattern.

Stefan Stricker

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

258

Holographic thermalization patterns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the behaviour of various correlators in N=4 super Yang Mills theory, taking finite coupling corrections into account. In the thermal limit we investigate the flow of the quasinormal modes as a function of the 't Hooft coupling. Then by using a specific model of holographic thermalization we investigate the deviation of the spectral densities from their thermal limit in an out-of-equilibrium situation. The main focus lies on the thermalization pattern with which the various plasma constituents of different energies approach their final thermal distribution as the coupling constant decreases from the infinite coupling limit. All results point towards the weakening of the usual top down thermalization pattern.

Stricker, Stefan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Agricultural Genotyping RAPiD Genomics is a DNA genotyping and genetic data analysis company providing tools for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agricultural Genotyping RAPiD Genomics is a DNA genotyping and genetic data analysis company or animal even before the seed germinates or the animal is born. The system developed by RAPiD Genomics in parallel, at a cost of several hundred dollars per sample. RAPiD Genomics has short- ened this process

Jawitz, James W.

260

Non-thermal Plasma Chemistry Non-thermal Thermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

automotive industry optics biomedical technology environmental technology Plasma Technology Quote from: Pla-thermal Plasma Chemical Flow Reactor #12;Werner von Siemens ,, ... construction of an apparatus generation (1857) pollution control volatile organic components, NOx reforming, ... radiation sources excimer

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Digital Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Rapid Manufacturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The emergence of stereolithography in 1998 is a milestone for an entirely new class of layer-based manufacturing processes. This new manufacturing approach which allows direct digital manufacturing from CAD to a ...

K. K. B. Hon

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Underground Coal Thermal Treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

263

Acoustic energy dissipation and thermalization in carbon nanotubes: Atomistic modeling and mesoscopic description  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The exchange of energy between low-frequency mechanical oscillations and high-frequency vibrational modes in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a process that plays an important role in a range of dynamic phenomena involving the dissipation of mechanical energy in both individual CNTs and CNT-based materials. The rates and channels through which acoustic energy deposited instantaneously in individual CNTs is dissipated are investigated in a series of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Several distinct regimes of energy dissipation, dependent on the initial stretching or bending deformations, are established. The onset of axial or bending buckling marks the transition from a regime of slow thermalization to a regime in which the energy associated with longitudinal and bending oscillations is rapidly damped. In the case of stretching vibrations, an intermediate regime is revealed in which dynamic coupling between longitudinal vibrational modes and the radial “squash” mode causes delayed axial buckling followed by a rapid transfer of energy to high-frequency vibrations. The results of the atomistic simulations are used in the design and parameterization of a “heat bath” description of thermal energy in a mesoscopic model, which is capable of simulating systems consisting of thousands of interacting CNTs. Two complementary methods for the description of mechanical energy dissipation in the mesoscopic model are developed. The relatively slow dissipation of acoustic vibrations in the absence of buckling is described by adding a damping force to the equations of motion of the dynamic elements of the mesoscopic model. The sharp increase in the energy dissipation rate at the onset of buckling is reproduced by incorporating a hysteresis loop into the strain energy that accounts for localized thermalization in the vicinity of buckling kinks. The ability of the mesoscopic model to reproduce the complex multistep processes of acoustic energy dissipation predicted by the atomistic simulations is demonstrated in mesoscopic simulations of free stretching and bending vibrations of individual CNTs.

William M. Jacobs; David A. Nicholson; Hagit Zemer; Alexey N. Volkov; Leonid V. Zhigilei

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

264

Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Optical loss reduction in HIC chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A rapid thermal reflow technique is applied to high-index-contrast, sub-micron waveguides in As[subscript 2]S[subscript 3] chalcogenide glass to reduce sidewall roughness and associated optical scattering loss. Up to 50% ...

Hu, Juejun

266

RAPID: A Reachable Anytime Planner for Imprecisely-sensed Domains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite the intractability of generic optimal partially observable Markov decision process planning, there exist important problems that have highly structured models. Previous researchers have used this insight to construct more efficient algorithms for factored domains, and for domains with topological structure in the flat state dynamics model. In our work, motivated by findings from the education community relevant to automated tutoring, we consider problems that exhibit a form of topological structure in the factored dynamics model. Our Reachable Anytime Planner for Imprecisely-sensed Domains (RAPID) leverages this structure to efficiently compute a good initial envelope of reachable states under the optimal MDP policy in time linear in the number of state variables. RAPID performs partially-observable planning over the limited envelope of states, and slowly expands the state space considered as time allows. RAPID performs well on a large tutoring-inspired problem simulation with 122 state variables, cor...

Brunskill, Emma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Thermal contact resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work deals with phenomena of thermal resistance for metallic surfaces in contact. The main concern of the work is to develop reliable and practical methods for prediction of the thermal contact resistance for various ...

Mikic, B. B.

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Thermal Neutron Scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of its title. It is not for the nuclear physicist, nor even for the neutron physicist, but for the student of solids and liquids. "Thermal ... physicist, but for the student of solids and liquids. "Thermal neutron ...

G. E. BACON

1968-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

269

Thermal neutron detection system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

Moreno, G.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Multiwavelength Thermal Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

California at Santa Cruz, University of

272

RAPID toolkit/FAQ | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » RAPID toolkit/FAQ Jump to: navigation, search Rapid selected.png RAPIDtoolkit About FAQ Contact Us Presentations Outreach Get Involved Tools Frequently Asked Questions What does RAPID offer? The RAPID web site provides tools to aid in the permitting of renewable energy and bulk transmission projects. RAPID covers federal and state regulations for selected states. Additional states and technologies are continuously being added, so check back for new information. Does RAPID address bills that have not been enacted or regulations that have not been fully approved? No. How is RAPID maintained?

273

ARM - Evaluation Product - Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsMultispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) ProductsMultispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) 2000.10.01 - 2003.05.02 Site(s) NSA SGP General Description The Multispectral Thermal Imager is a space-based research and development project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. MTI's primary objective is to demonstrate advanced multispectral and thermal imaging, image processing, and associated technologies that could be used in future systems for detecting and characterizing facilities producing weapons of mass destruction. However, ARM and the MTI have an arrangement that allows ARM to receive MTI images.

274

Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.

Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

275

Thermal Insulation in Solar Thermal Devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal Insulation is a device or a practice which is used in a system for minimising heat losses caused due to transfer of heat from hotter to colder regions. It is one of the cheapest methods of energy conse...

B. C. Raychaudhuri

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Non-thermal radio astronomy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This presentation starts with Karl Jansky’s discovery of cosmic radio emission in 1933 and notes the striking similarities to Hess’s discovery of cosmic-rays in 1912. At first it was assumed that this radio emission was thermal but in 1939 Grote Reber discovered that it was stronger at longer wavelengths, requiring a non-thermal emission process. These discoveries had a revolutionary impact on astronomy and radio astronomy was born. The interpretation of this non-thermal radiation as synchrotron emission from high energy particles in the interstellar medium did not occur until the late 1940s but then it provided the link between radio astronomy and cosmic-ray research. Ginzburg, in particular, saw that cosmic-ray astrophysics was now possible using radio waves to trace sources of cosmic-rays. We discuss the discovery of extragalactic active galactic nuclei leading to the discovery of quasars and the first evidence for black holes in the nuclei of galaxies. We summarise the present status and future of some of the main radio telescopes used to image the non-thermal emission from external galaxies. Finally, we include a short description of the use of radio signals for the direct detection of cosmic-rays and UHE neutrinos.

R.D. Ekers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Energy Issues in Desalination Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The future of humankind will be affected by three interrelated major endeavors—water, energy, and environmental protection. ... Thermal distillation processes suffer from the disadvantage of a high energy penalty associated with irreversibilities in the process. ... processes for wastewater treatment, food processing, and seawater/brackish water desalination. ...

Raphael Semiat

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

278

Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Temperature Gradient Drilling Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Temperature Gradient Drilling Abstract Temperature gradient drilling has historically been a key tool in the exploration for geothermal resources in the Great Basin, USA, but regulatory, environmental, and accessibility issues, as well as the expense of drilling, are increasingly limiting its use. In cases where thermal groundwater is not overlain by near-surface cold aquifers, it is possible to augment temperature gradient drilling with temperatures measured from a 2-meter depth. We discuss the development of a rapid, efficient, and

279

Process evaluation of the gasification of leningrad oil shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of experiments on the thermal processing of Leningrad oil shale in a laboratory reactor under the conditions...

Yu. A. Strizhakova; N. Ch. Movsum-Zade; T. A. Avakyan; T. V. Usova

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloy rapid solidification Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

solidification process (1-5). One of the most attractive system is the Al-Fe-Si-Transition metal... of Structural Metals by Rapid Solidification, ed. F.H.Froes and S.J....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

RAPID/Geothermal/General Construction | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDGeothermalGeneral Construction < RAPID | Geothermal Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk...

282

RAPID/BulkTransmission/General Construction | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDBulkTransmissionGeneral Construction < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit...

283

RAPID/Geothermal/Land Use/Federal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GeothermalLand UseFederal < RAPID | Geothermal | Land Use Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About...

284

RAPID/Solar/Land Access | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDSolarLand Access < RAPID | Solar(Redirected from RAPIDSolarLeasing) Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID...

285

RAPID/Geothermal/Air Quality | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDGeothermalAir Quality < RAPID | Geothermal Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk...

286

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Air Quality | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDBulkTransmissionAir Quality < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About...

287

RAPID/Roadmap/17-CA-a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDRoadmap17-CA-a < RAPID | Roadmap Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission...

288

RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/Alaska | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDGeothermalWater UseAlaska < RAPID | Geothermal | Water Use Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit...

289

RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/California | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDGeothermalWater UseCalifornia < RAPID | Geothermal | Water Use Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID...

290

RAPID/Geothermal/Water Quality | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDGeothermalWater Quality < RAPID | Geothermal Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk...

291

RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/Oregon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GeothermalWater UseOregon < RAPID | Geothermal | Water Use Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About...

292

RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/Utah | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDGeothermalWater UseUtah < RAPID | Geothermal | Water Use Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit...

293

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water Quality | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDBulkTransmissionWater Quality < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About...

294

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water Use | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDBulkTransmissionWater Use < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk...

295

RAPID/Geothermal/Water Quality/Alaska | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPIDGeothermalWater QualityAlaska < RAPID | Geothermal | Water Quality Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID...

296

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Power Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BulkTransmissionPower Plant < RAPID | BulkTransmission Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk...

297

Mid-year report: IPC liaison and chemistry of thermal reconstitution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program of investigation into the chemistry of alkaline Hanford Site tank waste is being conducted. The investigations have two main subtasks: liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences and further laboratory testing of the chemistry of thermal reconstitution of Hanford Site tank waste. Progress to date includes: (1) a technical dialogue has been established with the Institute scientists; (2) editing of a technical literature review on the chemistry of the transuranic elements and technetium in alkaline media written by researchers at the Institute is complete; (3) four tasks from the Institute have been selected for support by the US Department of Energy; (4) technical information has been supplied to the Institute describing the composition of Hanford Site tank waste; (5) tests, using genuine waste from tank 104-S (a REDOX Process sludge), comparing the performance of thermal reconstitution with enhanced sludge washing show markedly improved dissolution of aluminum achieved by the thermal treatment; (6) a reduction/coprecipitation method was tested and shown to remove plutonium, solubilized by thermal treatment, rapidly and efficiently from solution; (7) technical chemistry support was provided to calciner kinetics tests at the University of Idaho; (8) tests to determine the speciation of plutonium and neptunium solubilized by thermal treatment show dissolved Pu(V) and Np(V) hydroxide complexes are produced, a Np(V) peroxide complex also was identified; (9) recently published data on Pu(IV) carbonate complexation in moderately alkaline (pH 12 to 13) solution led to reexamination of previous investigations of plutonium complexation in highly alkaline (3 to 5 molar NaOH) solutions.

Delegard, C.H.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly Developing Countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For example, “Air Pollution and Health – Studies in theAssessment of Air Pollution and Health” is illustrative inReview: Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly Developing

Bucher, Scott

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

RAPID/Tools | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon RAPIDTools < RAPID(Redirected from RAPIDResources)...

300

RAPID/Tools | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon RAPIDTools < RAPID Jump to: navigation, search...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Rapid formation of large dust grains in the luminous supernova SN 2010jl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The origin of dust in galaxies is still a mystery. The majority of the refractory elements are produced in supernova explosions but it is unclear how and where dust grains condense and grow, and how they avoid destruction in the harsh environments of star-forming galaxies. The recent detection of 0.1-0.5 solar masses of dust in nearby supernova remnants suggests in situ dust formation, while other observations reveal very little dust in supernovae the first few years after explosion. Observations of the bright SN 2010jl have been interpreted as pre-existing dust, dust formation or no dust at all. Here we report the rapid (40-240 days) formation of dust in its dense circumstellar medium. The wavelength dependent extinction of this dust reveals the presence of very large (> 1 micron) grains, which are resistant to destructive processes. At later times (500-900 days), the near-IR thermal emission shows an accelerated growth in dust mass, marking the transition of the supernova from a circumstellar- to an ejecta-...

Gall, Christa; Watson, Darach; Dwek, Eli; Maund, Justyn R; Fox, Ori; Leloudas, Giorgos; Malesani, Daniele; Day-Jones, Avril C

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Chapter One - Design and Application of Thermal Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter covers the minimum requirements for thermal insulation of pipework, vessels, tanks, and other equipment. It is aimed at thermal insulation usage in the oil, gas, petrochemical, and other similar industries mainly for refineries, chemical, petrochemical, and natural gas processing plants. The chapter explains the fundamental requirements for insulation systems, including insulation materials of sufficient quality and thicknesses, weatherproofing, and finishing. Also, there is discussion on the design issues related to thermal insulation, including selection of the thermal insulation system, corrosion under thermal insulation, and the general applications of insulation. In addition, the characteristics and selection of insulation and accessory materials are presented.

Alireza Bahadori

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Processing of Underway CTD Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A processing methodology for computation of accurate salinity from measurements with an underway CTD (UCTD) is presented. The UCTD is a rapidly profiling sensor package lacking a pump that relies on instrument motion to produce flow through the ...

David S. Ullman; David Hebert

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to design and demonstrate an approach to upgrade low-BTU methane streams from coal mines to pipeline-quality natural gas. The objective of Phase I of the project was to assess the technical feasibility and cost of upgrading low-BTU methane streams using ultra-fast thermal swing adsorption (TSA) using Velocys modular microchannel process technology. The objective of Phase II is to demonstrate the process at the bench-scale. Natural gas upgrading systems have six main unit operations: feed compressor, dehydration unit, nitrogen rejection unit, deoxygenator, carbon dioxide scrubber, and a sales compressor. The NRU is the focus of the development program, and a bench-scale demonstration has been initiated. The Velocys NRU system targets producing methane with greater than 96% purity and at least 90% recovery for final commercial operation. A preliminary cost analysis of the methane upgrading system, including the Velocys NRU, suggests that costs below $2.00 per million (MM) BTU methane may be achieved. The cost for a conventional methane upgrading system is well above $2.30 per MM BTU, as benchmarked in an Environmental Protection Agency study. The project is on schedule and on budget. Task 4, a bench-scale demonstration of the ultra-fast TSA system is complete. Rapid thermal swing of an adsorbent bed using microchannels has been successfully demonstrated and the separation of a 70% methane and 30% nitrogen was purified to 92% methane. The bench-scale demonstration unit was small relative to the system dead volume for the initial phase of experiments and a purge step was added to sweep the dead volume prior to desorbing the bed and measuring purity. A technical and economic feasibility assessment was completed in Task 3. The proposed Velocys technology appears feasible for the methane upgrading market. Evaluated categories include adsorbent selection, rapid-cycle valve selection, microchannel manufacturability assessment, and system design and cost. The selected adsorbent, granular microporous carbon from either Barnaby-Sutcliffe or Calgon, experimentally demonstrated sufficient methane capacity under differential temperature at 100 pounds per square inch gauge. Several valve options were identified, including candidates that can operate millions of cycles between refurbishment. The microchannel adsorber and desorber designs were made using internal Velocys manufacturability standards, and the associated costs are acceptable as included with the complete nitrogen rejection unit (NRU) cost projection. A system design and cost estimate was completed for the NRU section of the methane upgrading system. As integrated into the complete system, the cost is in line with the market requirement.

Anna Lee Tonkovich

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Magnetorheological polishing of rapid tool parts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetorheological (MR) polishing is a relatively new finishing process that uses an electromagnetic field to produce a magnetic abrasive brush. The brush consists of a ferromagnetic material, an abrasive material and oil, which is used primarily as a binder. When the brush is brought into contact with the surface of the part and there is relative motion between the two, polishing occurs. The magnetic field strength, the make up of the fluid, the relative motion speed, the working gap between the electromagnet and the workpiece surface and the duration of polishing can all potentially affect the surface finish and the material removal rate. Preliminary tests have shown that the polishing of aluminium and Rapid Tooling (RT) samples is possible. The polishing of RT samples present a different challenge because of their magnetic characteristics. Results have shown that the working gap and the electromagnet voltage are the two main parameters that affect the surface finish Ra value of the aluminium samples. The composition of the magnetic brush, although not affecting the Ra value has a major influence on the polishing action produced. This can vary from a loose abrasive type finish to a fixed abrasive finish.

John O'Brien; Gerard Ryder

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

W-320 Project thermal modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of thermal analysis performed to provide a technical basis in support of Project W-320 to retrieve by sluicing the sludge in Tank 241-C-106 and to transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. Prior theraml evaluations in support of Project W-320 safety analysis assumed the availability of 2000 to 3000 CFM, as provided by Tank Farm Operations, for tank floor cooling channels from the secondary ventilation system. As this flow availability has no technical basis, a detailed Tank 241-AY-102 secondary ventilation and floor coating channel flow model was developed and analysis was performed. The results of the analysis show that only about 150 cfm flow is in floor cooLing channels. Tank 241-AY-102 thermal evaluation was performed to determine the necessary cooling flow for floor cooling channels using W-030 primary ventilation system for different quantities of Tank 241-C-106 sludge transfer into Tank 241-AY-102. These sludge transfers meet different options for the project along with minimum required modification of the ventilation system. Also the results of analysis for the amount of sludge transfer using the current system is presented. The effect of sludge fluffing factor, heat generation rate and its distribution between supernatant and sludge in Tank 241-AY-102 on the amount of sludge transfer from Tank 241-C-106 were evaluated and the results are discussed. Also transient thermal analysis was performed to estimate the time to reach the steady state. For a 2 feet sludge transfer, about 3 months time will be requirad to reach steady state. Therefore, for the purpose of process control, a detailed transient thermal analysis using GOTH Computer Code will be required to determine transient response of the sludge in Tank 241-AY-102. Process control considerations are also discussed to eliminate the potential for a steam bump during retrieval and storage in Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102 respectively.

Sathyanarayana, K., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

307

Thermal comfort during surgery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THERMAL COMFORT DURING SURGERY A Thesis by DAVID HAROLD MANNING Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Industrial... Engineering THERMAL COMFORT DURING SURGERY A Thesis by DAVID HAROLD MANNING Approved as to style and content by: airman of C it ee Head of Department Member Me er December 1978 ABSTRACT Thermal Comfort During Surgery (December 1978) David Harold...

Manning, David Harold

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Innovative Process and Materials Technologies | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

110 trillion Btu per year. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets (Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Cambridge, MA) A...

309

Waste Gasification by Thermal Plasma: A Review Frdric Fabry*, Christophe Rehmet, Vandad Rohani, Laurent Fulcheri  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 Waste Gasification by Thermal Plasma: A Review Frédéric Fabry*, Christophe Rehmet, Vandad Rohani proposes an overview of waste-to-energy conversion by gasification processes based on thermal plasma, of various waste gasification processes based on thermal plasma (DC or AC plasma torches) at lab scale versus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

310

RAPID/Overview/Geothermal/Exploration/Idaho | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

< RAPID | Overview | Geothermal | Exploration(Redirected from RAPIDAtlasGeothermalExplorationIdaho) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT RAPID...

311

RAPID/Overview/Geothermal/Exploration/Nevada | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

< RAPID | Overview | Geothermal | Exploration(Redirected from RAPIDAtlasGeothermalExplorationNevada) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT RAPID...

312

RAPID/Overview/Geothermal/Exploration/Texas | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

< RAPID | Overview | Geothermal | Exploration(Redirected from RAPIDAtlasGeothermalExplorationTexas) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT RAPID...

313

Rapid Model Parameterization from Traffic Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rapid Model Parameterization from Traffic Measurements KUN-CHAN LAN and JOHN HEIDEMANN USC Information Sciences Institute The utility of simulations and analysis heavily relies on good models. In this paper, we describe approaches and tools that support rapid parameterization of traffic models from live

Heidemann, John

314

RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY SOIL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for samples up to 2 grams in emergency response situations. The actinides in soil method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha sources are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency soil samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinides in soil results were reported within 4-5 hours with excellent quality.

Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

315

Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

316

Process characterization of Electrical Discharge Machining of highly doped silicon ; Process characterization of EDM of highly doped silicon .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is an advanced machining process that removes material via thermal erosion through a plasma arc. The machining process is accomplished through… (more)

Crawford, Gregory Allan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

Amber Lynn Genau

2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

318

NANO REVIEW Open Access Thermal conductivity and thermal boundary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NANO REVIEW Open Access Thermal conductivity and thermal boundary resistance of nanostructures and the thermal transport prop- erties is a key point to design materials with preferred thermal properties with the heat dissipation on them. The influence of the interfacial roughness on the thermal conductivity

Boyer, Edmond

319

Rapid reconnaissance of geothermal prospects using shallow temperature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Semi-annual technical report Semi-annual technical report Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Rapid reconnaissance of geothermal prospects using shallow temperature surveys. Semi-annual technical report Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Shallow (2-m) soil temperature data have been collected at 27 sites at Long Valley, California, and at 102 sites at Coso, California. These geothermal areas are locations where traditional deep reconnaissance geothermal survey bore holes have been emplaced, allowing us to compare directly our shallow temperature results with standard geothermal exploration techniques. The effects of surface roughness, albedo, soil thermal diffusivity, topography and elevation were considered in making the necessary corrections to our 2-m temperature data. The corrected data for

320

Thermal Insulation of Houses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... THE Thermal Insulation (Dwellings) Bill which Mr. G. Nabarro introduced into the House of Commons on ... , sponsored by members of both major political parties, extends the principle of the Thermal Insulation (Industrial Buildings) Act of July 1957 to all new dwelling houses built in the ...

1958-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has, and ground- based mechanical systems. Instrument Design Building on decades of design experience that has evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

322

Automatic rapid attachable warhead section  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

Trennel, Anthony J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

323

IMPROVEMENTS IN CODED APERTURE THERMAL NEUTRON IMAGING.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new thermal neutron imaging system has been constructed, based on a 20-cm x 17-cm He-3 position-sensitive detector with spatial resolution better than 1 mm. New compact custom-designed position-decoding electronics are employed, as well as high-precision cadmium masks with Modified Uniformly Redundant Array patterns. Fast Fourier Transform algorithms are incorporated into the deconvolution software to provide rapid conversion of shadowgrams into real images. The system demonstrates the principles for locating sources of thermal neutrons by a stand-off technique, as well as visualizing the shapes of nearby sources. The data acquisition time could potentially be reduced two orders of magnitude by building larger detectors.

VANIER,P.E.

2003-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

324

Tunable thermal link  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Solar thermal aircraft  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

326

Thermal optimization of high power LED arrays with a fin cooling system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe an optimization process of thermal design for the light lamp which utilizes the Light Emitting Diode (LED) module as a lighting source. The thermal performance of the LED module was sho...

Sun Ho Jang; Moo Whan Shin

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

List of Ocean Thermal Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Incentives Thermal Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 96 Ocean Thermal Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 96) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Business Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC) (Federal) Corporate Tax Credit United States Agricultural Commercial Industrial Utility Anaerobic Digestion Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Fuel Cells Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydroelectric energy Landfill Gas Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Ocean Thermal Photovoltaics Small Hydroelectric Small Wind Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat Tidal Energy Wave Energy Wind energy Yes CCEF - Project 150 Initiative (Connecticut) State Grant Program Connecticut Commercial Solar Thermal Electric

328

Process / CI Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Process/Continual Improvement Rev. 11_0406 Page 1 of 6 2 Process/Continual Improvement Rev. 11_0406 Page 1 of 6 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: Process/Continual Improvement Document Number: P-012 Rev 11_0406 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: David Rocha Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: Q-001 Quality Manual Notify of Changes: EOTA Staff Referenced Document(s): F-016 Process/Continual Improvement Form, P-001 Document Control Process, P-008 Corrective Action and Preventive Action, P-004 Business System Management Review P-012 Process/Continual Improvement Rev. 11_0406 Page 2 of 6 Revision History:

329

Plates for vacuum thermal fusion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Video digitisation and thermal analysis of a PCB  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermal analysis of a naturally-cooled printed-circuit-board (PCB) has been performed under prescribed conditions. A fast-action camera with image digitisation and pre-processing capabilities was employed to input the PCB image to a thermal-analysis template. Isotherms and isometric colour projections were predicted. This technique can solve thermal problems of electronic and electrical packages faster and more efficiently than other conventional methods.

H.E. George; R.F Babus'Haq; P.W. O'Callaghan

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Fast Onset Medications through Thermally Generated Aerosols Joshua D. Rabinowitz, Martin Wensley, Peter Lloyd, Daniel Myers, William Shen, Amy Lu,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Peter Lloyd, Daniel Myers, William Shen, Amy Lu, Craig Hodges, Ron Hale, Daniel Mufson, and Alejandro to elevated temperatures, thereby preventing its thermal decomposition. The vaporized, gas-phase drug rapidly

Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

332

Rapid manufacturing: impact on supply chain methodologies and practice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates the use of Rapid Manufacturing (RM) as the enabling technology for flexible manufacturing in a number of industrial sectors. This paper discusses the evolution of Rapid Prototyping (RP) to RM and the current issues that require further research for the successful integration of this technology within manufacturing companies. The use of RM will have particular impact on supply chain management paradigms such as lean and agile and has particular strategic fit with mass customisation. The effect of RM will have on these paradigms is discussed and confirmed with example cases from automotive production, motor sport and medical devices industries. In conclusion, RM has already been shown in the three cases to offer benefits, particularly where fast reconfiguration of the manufacturing process is required and with the production of customised components.

Christopher Tuck; Richard Hague; Neil Burns

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

City of Grand Rapids Building Solar Roof Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grand Rapids, Michigan is striving to reduce it environmental footprint. The municipal government organization has established environmental sustainability policies with the goal of securing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2020. This report describes the process by which the City of Grand Rapids evaluated, selected and installed solar panels on the Water/Environmental Services Building. The solar panels are the first to be placed on a municipal building. Its new power monitoring system provides output data to assess energy efficiency and utilization. It is expected to generate enough clean solar energy to power 25 percent of the building. The benefit to the public includes the economic savings from reduced operational costs for the building; an improved environmentally sustainable area in which to live and work; and increased knowledge about the use of solar energy. It will serve as a model for future energy saving applications.

DeClercq, Mark; Martinez, Imelda

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Award Number: DE-EE00025828 Report Date: March 15, 2013 PI: Stephen Obrey * Technical approach is focused on...

335

Measuring Processing Speed Deficits in Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Reaction Time and Rapid Serial Processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2. Group diferences in the number of correct responses for related and unrelated words 33 3. Subinterval responses for groups on W, C, CW, and RI measures of the Stroop 37 4. Responses for patients and controls on each subinterval of the SDMT...; Arnet et al., 1997; Brasington & 8 Marsh, 1998; Zakzanis, 2000; DeLuca, Barbieri-Berger, & Johnson, 1994; Grigsby, Kaye, & Busenbark, 1994; Rao, et al., 1993; Coolidge, Middleton, Griego, & Schmidt, 1996;Beaty, Goodkin, Monson, Beaty, & Hersgard...

Hughes, Abbey Jean

2010-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

336

Advancements in rapid load test data regression.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Rate-dependent effects introduced during rapid and/or dynamic events have typically been oversimplified to compensate for deficiencies in present analyses. As load test results are generally… (more)

Stokes, Michael Jeffrey

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Rapidly Rotating Pulsars and Jacobi Ellipsoids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In connection with the evolution of a rotating Jacobi ellipsoid through the emission of gravitational radiation, we discuss the possibility that rapidly rotating pulsars can assume such triaxial, nonaxisymmetrical configurations.

W. Y. Chau and P. Srulovicz

1971-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Locality, entanglement, and thermalization of isolated quantum systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A way to understand thermalization in an isolated system is to interpret it as an increase in entanglement between subsystems. Here we test this idea through a combination of analytical and Krylov-subspace-based numerical methods applied to a quantum gas of bosons. We find that the entanglement entropy of a subsystem is rapidly generated at the initial state of the evolution, to quickly approach the thermal value. Our results also provide an accurate numerical test of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), according to which a single energy eigenstate of an isolated system behaves in certain respects as a thermal state. In the context of quantum black holes, we propose that the ETH is a quantum version of the classical no-hair theorem.

S. Khlebnikov and M. Kruczenski

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

339

Identification of Staphylococcus species and subspecies with the MicroScan Pos ID and Rapid Pos ID panel systems.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hybridization. The Pos ID panel uses a battery of 18 tests, and the Rapid Pos ID panel uses a battery of 42 tests for the identification of Staphylococcus...Johnson. 1969. A batch procedure for thermal elution of DNA from hydroxyapatite. Anal...

W E Kloos; C G George

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

On the rapid intensification of typhoons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of several individual cases of extreme intensification, to gain some observational insight into favorable upper tropospheric circulation patterns. 3. DEEPENING STAGE a. Data discussion Rapid intensification is best evaluated by the rate of fall... of temperatures in both hurricanes snd typhoons respectively. 4. ASPECTS OF STORM ORGANIZATION v ~d To gain an idea of organizational time required before commence- ment of rapid deepening, an evaluation was made of best track analyses for individual typhoons...

Holliday, Charles Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Theory of delayed thermal fluorescence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theory of nonradiative thermal activation involved in delayed thermal fluorescence has been developed from the viewpoint of the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation.

S. H. Lin

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Thermal insulations using vacuum panels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

343

Thermal history sensing with thermographic phosphors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability to measure temperatures on high thermal loaded components in gas turbines and similar prime movers is critical during the design phase if the performance of cooling strategies is to be confirmed. Restricted access and the extreme environment mean that on-line temperature measurement is not always possible and that off-line temperature techniques employing thermal history sensors are sometimes necessary. The authors have developed a new type of sensor based on ceramic phosphors. These show bright narrow band emission that is easily detected and distinguished from the background. Crystallization phase change and diffusion are all temperature dependent processes that affect the emission characteristics and that with proper calibration can be used to form a phosphor based thermal history sensor. Results from the calibration of crystallization in Y 2 SiO 5 :Tb and its application in the form of a temperature indicating paint are reviewed. A new embodiment of the phosphor thermal history sensor concept is then presented comprising a YSZ/YAG:Dy composite applied using air plasma spraying in the form of a thermal barrier coating. The coating is shown to function as a thermal history sensor albeit with a limited dynamic range.

A. L. Heyes; A. Rabhiou; J. P. Feist; A. Kempf

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Thermally driven circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several problems connected by the theme of thermal forcing are addressed herein. The main topic is the stratification and flow field resulting from imposing a specified heat flux on a fluid that is otherwise confined to a ...

Nelken, Haim

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Manipulation of Thermal Phonons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials — phononic crystals — might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many...

Hsu, Chung-Hao

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

346

Solar Thermal Energy Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various types of thermal energy storage systems are introduced and their importance and desired characteristics are outlined. Sensible heat storage, which is one of the most commonly used storage systems in pract...

E. Paykoç; S. Kakaç

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Contact thermal lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Texas Thermal Comfort Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

thermal comfort thermal comfort Too often, the systems in our houses are both physically and intellectually inaccessible. In the SNAP House, HVAC components are integrated into the overall structure, and act as an experiential threshold between public and private spaces. They are located in a central, structural chase that supports the clerestory and gives the systems a functional presence within the interior. Each individual component is contained within a single chase

349

Photovoltaic-thermal collectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

350

Dynamic modelling for thermal micro-actuators using thermal networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic modelling for thermal micro-actuators using thermal networks Beatriz L´opez-Wallea,1 and analytical calculations. Key words: Micro-actuators, Thermal modelling, Electrical analogy, Thermal network 1 and MicroMechatronic Systems Department (AS2M), 24 rue Alain Savary, 25000 Besan¸con, France Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

P.7 / G. Yoo A Maskless Laser-Write Lithography Processing of Thin-Film Transistors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and solar-cell panel processing, as substrate sizes increase, the cost of mask fabrication rapidly increases

Kanicki, Jerzy

352

The effects of thermal cycling on the rock mechanics of carrara marble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from the Amoco building in Chicago. Up to 574 thermal cycles at 130'F, 225'F and 300'F were performed. Point load tests show a rapid initial decrease in tensile strength of approximately 25% to 30 lo after 15 thermal cycles, then a gradual levelling... at 225'F, panel V. 136. . . . 31 9 Point load tensile strengths and standard deviations versus number of thermal cycles at 300'F, panel V. 136. . 32 10 Point load tensile strengths and standard deviations versus number of thermal cycles at 130'F...

Hastedt, Margaret Jean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

353

List of Solar Thermal Electric Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electric Incentives Electric Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 548 Solar Thermal Electric Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-548) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) Corporate Tax Credit Vermont Commercial Industrial Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat No APS - Net Metering (Arizona) Net Metering Arizona Commercial Industrial Residential Nonprofit Schools Local Government State Government Fed. Government Agricultural Institutional Solar Thermal Electric Photovoltaics Wind energy Biomass No Advanced Energy Fund (Ohio) Public Benefits Fund Ohio Commercial Industrial Institutional

354

ANALYSIS OF THE EARLY STAGE OF THERMAL RUNAWAY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......given by or Although deflagration and thermal-expansion effects (arising from a fuller consideration of the combustion processes than is possible with equation (1)) may invalidate equation (60) before these times are reached, this result......

J. W. DOLD

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

356

Development of an Innovative High-Thermal Conductivity UO2 Ceramic Composites Fuel Pellets with Carbon Nano-Tubes Using Spark Plasma Sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the most common fuel material in commercial nuclear power reactors. Despite its numerous advantages such as high melting point, good high-temperature stability, good chemical compatibility with cladding and coolant, and resistance to radiation, it suffers from low thermal conductivity that can result in large temperature gradients within the UO2 fuel pellet, causing it to crack and release fission gases. Thermal swelling of the pellets also limits the lifetime of UO2 fuel in the reactor. To mitigate these problems, we propose to develop novel UO2 fuel with uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that can provide high-conductivity thermal pathways and can eliminate fuel cracking and fission gas release due to high temperatures. CNTs have been investigated extensively for the past decade to explore their unique physical properties and many potential applications. CNTs have high thermal conductivity (6600 W/mK for an individual single- walled CNT and >3000 W/mK for an individual multi-walled CNT) and high temperature stability up to 2800°C in vacuum and about 750°C in air. These properties make them attractive candidates in preparing nano-composites with new functional properties. The objective of the proposed research is to develop high thermal conductivity of UO2–CNT composites without affecting the neutronic property of UO2 significantly. The concept of this goal is to utilize a rapid sintering method (5–15 min) called spark plasma sintering (SPS) in which a mixture of CNTs and UO2 powder are used to make composites with different volume fractions of CNTs. Incorporation of these nanoscale materials plays a fundamentally critical role in controlling the performance and stability of UO2 fuel. We will use a novel in situ growth process to grow CNTs on UO2 particles for rapid sintering and develop UO2-CNT composites. This method is expected to provide a uniform distribution of CNTs at various volume fractions so that a high thermally conductive UO2-CNT composite is obtained with a minimal volume fraction of CNTs. The mixtures are sintered in the SPS facility at a range of temperatures, pressures, and time durations so as to identify the optimal processing conditions to obtain the desired microstructure of sintered UO2-CNT pellets. The second objective of the proposed work is to identify the optimal volume fraction of CNTs in the microstructure of the composites that provides the desired high thermal conductivity yet retaining the mechanical strength required for efficient function as a reactor fuel. We will systematically study the resulting microstructure (grain size, porosity, distribution of CNTs, etc.) obtained at various SPS processing conditions using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). We will conduct indentation hardness measurements and uniaxial strength measurements as a function of volume fraction of CNTs to determine the mechanical strength and compare them to the properties of UO2. The fracture surfaces will be studied to determine the fracture characteristics that may relate to the observed cracking during service. Finally, we will perform thermal conductivity measurements on all the composites up to 1000° C. This study will relate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal properties at various volume fractions of CNTs. The overall intent is to identify optimal processing conditions that will provide a well-consolidated compact with optimal microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. The deliverables include: (1) fully characterized UO2-CNT composite with optimal CNT volume fraction and high thermal conductivity and (2) processing conditions for production of UO2-CNT composite pellets using SPS method.

Subhash, Ghatu; Wu, Kuang-Hsi; Tulenko, James

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

357

Ultrafast thermalization of photoexcited carriers in polar semiconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast thermalization of high-energy carriers photogenerated by femtosecond laser excitation in GaAs and InP. Luminescence up-conversion is used to monitor the spectral and temporal evolution of the carrier distribution with a time resolution of about 100 fs. A rapid redistribution of electrons and holes over a wide energy range is found within the first 100 fs after excitation. The experimental results are analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations including a molecular-dynamics scheme to describe the carrier kinetics. We show that the Coulomb interaction among carriers is responsible for the initial ultrafast thermalization.

Lucio Rota; Paolo Lugli; Thomas Elsaesser; Jagdeep Shah

1993-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

RAPID DETERMINATION OF RA-226 IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for emergency response or routine sample analyses. The need for rapid analyses in the event of a Radiological Dispersive Device or Improvised Nuclear Device event is well-known. In addition, the recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid analyses for radionuclides in environmental samples in the event of a nuclear accident. {sup 226}Ra (T1/2 = 1,620 years) is one of the most toxic of the long-lived alpha-emitters present in the environment due to its long life and its tendency to concentrate in bones, which increases the internal radiation dose of individuals. The new method to determine {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method for solid samples, calcium carbonate precipitation to preconcentrate Ra, and rapid column separation steps to remove interferences. The column separation process uses cation exchange resin to remove large amounts of calcium, Sr Resin to remove barium and Ln Resin as a final purification step to remove {sup 225}Ac and potential interferences. The purified {sup 226}Ra sample test sources are prepared using barium sulfate microprecipitation in the presence of isopropanol for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed good chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of {sup 226}Ra in environmental samples can be performed in less than 16 h for vegetation, concrete, brick, soil, and air filter samples with excellent quality for emergency or routine analyses. The sample preparation work takes less than 6 h. {sup 225}Ra (T1/2 = 14.9 day) tracer is used and the {sup 225}Ra progeny {sup 217}At is used to determine chemical yield via alpha spectrometry. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory radium particles are effectively digested. The preconcentration and column separation steps can also be applied to aqueous samples with good results.

Maxwell, S.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

359

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when the temperature difference between the warmer, top layer of the ocean and the colder, deep ocean water is about 36°F (20°C). These conditions exist in tropical coastal areas, roughly between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer. To bring the cold water to the surface, ocean thermal energy conversion plants require an expensive, large-diameter intake pipe, which is submerged a mile or more into the ocean's depths. Some energy experts believe that if ocean thermal energy conversion can become cost-competitive with conventional power technologies, it could be

360

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when the temperature difference between the warmer, top layer of the ocean and the colder, deep ocean water is about 36°F (20°C). These conditions exist in tropical coastal areas, roughly between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer. To bring the cold water to the surface, ocean thermal energy conversion plants require an expensive, large-diameter intake pipe, which is submerged a mile or more into the ocean's depths. Some energy experts believe that if ocean thermal energy conversion can become cost-competitive with conventional power technologies, it could be

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Rock Rapids Municipal Utility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rapids Municipal Utility Rapids Municipal Utility Jump to: navigation, search Name Rock Rapids Municipal Utility Place Iowa Utility Id 16206 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Power (Single-Phase) Commercial Commercial Power (Three-Phase) Commercial Residential Power Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.0807/kWh Commercial: $0.0633/kWh Industrial: $0.0899/kWh

362

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

Rapid Analysis of PAHs in Fly Ash Using Thermal Desorption and Fast GC-TOF-MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Department of Chemistry, Western...of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology...Carbon chemistry Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...incomplete combustion of organic...Department of Chemistry, Western...of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology......

Daozhong Zou; Kunlei Liu; Wei-Ping Pan; John T. Riley; Yiqan Xu

364

Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Fabricated by Pulsed Rapid Thermal Annealing of Amorphous Silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). The gas supply into the reactor through the mass flow controllers include: N2 (ultra high purity, Acetylene Oxygen Company), N2 (semiconductor, 99.9999% purity, Praxair), Ar (semiconductor, 99.9999% purity, Praxair), SiH4 (semiconductor, 99.999% Air... Liquide), B2H6 (2 % in H2, 99.999% purity, Air Liquide), PH3 (7.1 % in H2, 99.999%, Air Liquide), NH3 (semiconductor, 99.999% purity, Matheson Tri-Gas), and H2 (semiconductor, 99.9999% purity, Praxair). Figure 4 shows the heating zones and the dimension...

Lee, I-Syuan

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

365

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effect of pressure on solid oxide fuel cell performance," inand flat plate solid oxide fuel cells," in Proceedings ofSymposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Electrochem. Soc. 1993,

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Rapid Analysis of PAHs in Fly Ash Using Thermal Desorption and Fast GC-TOF-MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system...Technology (NIST) data base, which...at 8 C/min, heat to 250 C at 5...8 h after the combustion condi- tions...Based on the data presented in...Fossil Fuel Combustion: A Source Book...Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Update......

Daozhong Zou; Kunlei Liu; Wei-Ping Pan; John T. Riley; Yiqan Xu

367

Global depression in gene expression as a response to rapid thermal changes in vent mussels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...potential relationship between natural genetic variation, stress...attributable to specific gene cascades that can be up- or downregulated...Massive emissions of toxic gas in the Atlantic. Nature 415...explore a relationship between natural genetic variation, gene expression...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

In Situ Monitoring of Crystallinily and Temperature during Rapid Thermal Crystallization of Silicon on Glass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Glass V. Subramanian, F. L Degertekin, P. Dankoski, B. 1. Khuri-Yakub, and K. C. Saraswatt Department crystal displays (AMLCDs). There is substantial interest in the development of a glass-com- patible the incorporation of driver circuitry onto glass display sub- strates,' improving performance at a reduced cost. Low

Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T. "Pierre"

369

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Land Access | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us RAPID Bulk Transmission Land Access Regulatory...

370

Rapid Compression Machine ? A Key Experimental Device to Effectively...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Rapid Compression Machine A Key Experimental Device to Effectively Collaborate with Basic Energy Sciences Rapid Compression Machine A Key Experimental Device to Effectively...

371

RAPID/BulkTransmission/Siting/California | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Resources Contribute Contact Us RAPID Bulk Transmission Siting California Bulk...

372

RAPID/Roadmap/14-AK-a | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Resources Contribute Contact Us 14-AK-a Nonpoint Source...

373

RAPID/Roadmap/3-TX-d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us 3-TX-d Lease of Permanent...

374

RAPID/Roadmap/3-TX-g | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us 3-TX-g Lease of...

375

RAPID/Best Practices/Public Involvement | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Resources Contribute Contact Us Best Practice: Public...

376

RAPID/Roadmap/3-FD-c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us 3-FD-c Right-of-Way Access...

377

RAPID/Roadmap/14-CA-d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Resources Contribute Contact Us 14-CA-d 401 Water...

378

RAPID/Roadmap/8-FD-d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us 8-FD-d FERC Electric...

379

RAPID/Roadmap/14-WA-b | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA RAPID Toolkit About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us 14-WA-b NPDES Permit...

380

Investigation of magnetic nanoparticles for the rapid extraction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nanoparticles for the rapid extraction and assay of alpha-emitting radionuclides from urine: Investigation of magnetic nanoparticles for the rapid extraction and assay of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Modeling and Control of High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) Thermal Spray: A Tutorial Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vs. Fuzzy Logic: Simple Tools to Predict and Control Complexfuzzy logic (Ref 73, 74). For the HVOF thermal spray process, a feedback control

Li, Mingheng; Christofides, Panagiotis D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Thermal Stress Analysis of LCA-based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This research characterizes the thermal stress resulting from temperature gradients in hybrid solid oxide fuel cells that are processed using a novel oxide powder slurry… (more)

LeMasters, Jason Augustine

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

RRTT - Rapid Response Team for Transmission  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Rapid Response Team- Rapid Response Team- Transmission Exploring the Business Link Opportunity: Transmission & Clean Energy Development in the West TRIBAL LEADER FORUM SERIES February 7, 2012 Laura Smith Morton Department of Energy Laura.morton@hq.doe.gov Nine Agency MOU * Improves uniformity, consistency, and transparency - Establishes the roles and responsibilities of the nine signatory agencies regarding electric transmission infrastructure project applicants * Provides single point of contact for coordinating all federal authorizations required to locate electric transmission facilities on federal land * Establishes DOE (under authority pursuant to section 216(h) of the FPA) as lead agency for coordinating all federal authorizations and related environmental

384

The Boussinesq approximation in rapidly rotating flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the classical formulation of the Boussinesq approximation centrifugal buoyancy effects related to differential rotation, as well as strong vortices in the flow, are neglected. However, these may play an important role in rapidly rotating flows, such as in astrophysical and geophysical applications, and also in turbulent convection. We here provide a straightforward approach resulting in a Boussinesq-type approximation that consistently accounts for centrifugal effects. We further compare our new approach to the classical one in fluid flows confined between two differentially heated and rotating cylinders. The results justify the need of using the proposed approximation in rapidly rotating flows.

Lopez, Jose M; Avila, Marc

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Rapid molecular theranostics in infectious diseases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The increasing availability of rapid and sensitive nucleic acid testing assays for infectious diseases will revolutionize the practice of medicine by gradually reducing the need for standard culture-based microbiological methods that take at least two days. Molecular theranostics in infectious diseases is an emerging concept in which molecular biology tools are used to provide rapid and accurate diagnostic assays to enable better initial management of patients and more efficient use of antimicrobials. Essential conditions and the quality control required for the development and validation of such molecular theranostic assays are reviewed.

François J Picard; Michel G Bergeron

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Rapid Changes for Academic Medical Centers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...unlikely that the new Republican Congress will alleviate these anxieties. Thus, in the short term, these centers will be greatly influenced by the invisible hand of the marketplace and by state efforts to enact reforms. Given the rapidity of change in most regions, many academic medical centers will be... With the rapid growth of managed care and the demise of comprehensive health care reform, most academic medical centers now seem to recognize that they can no longer operate as specialty-driven institutions largely divorced from trends that favor lower ...

Iglehart J.K.

1995-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

387

Definition: Thermal Ion Dispersion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dispersion Dispersion Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Thermal Ion Dispersion Thermal Ion Dispersion (TID) is a method used by the precious-metals industry to determine the movement of hot, mineral-bearing waters through rocks, gravels, and soils. The survey involves collection of soil samples and analyses of ions by an enzyme leach process done by commercial laboratories. The method utilizes the property of elements to be dissolved, transported, or deposited depending on the temperature of the thermal waters.{{#tag:ref|[[Final Technical Report}}[1][2][3][4] Also Known As enzyme leach References ↑ Geothermal Resource Evaluation And Definitioni (Gred) Program-Phases I ↑ Ii ↑ And Iii For The Animas Valley ↑ Nm Geothermal Resource]] {{#set:Reference URI={{#explode:{{#replace:[[Final Technical Report|[|}}|

388

THERMAL NEUTRON BACKSCATTER IMAGING.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objects of various shapes, with some appreciable hydrogen content, were exposed to fast neutrons from a pulsed D-T generator, resulting in a partially-moderated spectrum of backscattered neutrons. The thermal component of the backscatter was used to form images of the objects by means of a coded aperture thermal neutron imaging system. Timing signals from the neutron generator were used to gate the detection system so as to record only events consistent with thermal neutrons traveling the distance between the target and the detector. It was shown that this time-of-flight method provided a significant improvement in image contrast compared to counting all events detected by the position-sensitive {sup 3}He proportional chamber used in the imager. The technique may have application in the detection and shape-determination of land mines, particularly non-metallic types.

VANIER,P.; FORMAN,L.; HUNTER,S.; HARRIS,E.; SMITH,G.

2004-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

389

The effect of thermal contact resistance on heat management in the electronic packaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effect of thermal contact resistance on heat management in the electronic packaging M. Grujicic the role of thermal contact resistance on heat management within a simple central processing unit (CPU interface materials on the maximum temperature experienced by the CPU. Two classes of thermal interface

Grujicic, Mica

390

Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arctic Natural Sciences, Antarctic Earth Sciences, Antarcticof Microbial Processes in the Earth Lee Slater 1 , Estellaa rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates

Slater, L.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Westinghouse thermal barrier coatings development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Westinghouse, in conjunction with the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has embarked upon a program for the development of advanced thermal barrier coatings for industrial gas turbines. Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) for industrial gas turbines has relied heavily on the transfer of technology from the aerospace industry. Significant differences in the time/temperature/stress duty cycles exist between these two coating applications. Coating systems which perform well in aerospace applications may not been optimized to meet power generation performance requirements. This program will focus on development of TBC`s to meet the specific needs of power generation applications. The program is directed at developing a state-of-the-art coating system with a minimum coating life of 25,000 hours at service temperatures required to meet increasing operating efficiency goals. Westinghouse has assembled a team of university and industry leaders to accomplish this goal. Westinghouse will coordinate the efforts of all program participants. Chromalloy Turbine Technologies, Inc. and Sermatech International, Inc. will be responsible for bond coat and TBC deposition technology. Praxair Specialty Powders, Inc. will be responsible for the fabrication of all bond coat and ceramic powders for the program. Southwest Research Institute will head the life prediction modelling effort; they will also be involved in coordinating nondestructive evaluation (NDE) efforts. Process modelling will be provided by the University of Arizona.

Goedjen, J.G.; Wagner, G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Thermal ignition combustion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

393

Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

"This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

394

Thermal ignition combustion system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Thermal ignition combustion system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermal ignition combustion system adapted for use with an internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) means for providing ignition chamber walls defining an ignition chamber, the chamber walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m/sup 0/C. and a specific heat greater than 480J/kg/sup 0/C., the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber; (b) means for maintaining the temperature of the chamber walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel; and (c) means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

396

Thermal test options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Simulation and experimental study on honeycomb-ceramic thermal energy storage for solar thermal systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A honeycomb-ceramic thermal energy storage (TES) was proposed for thermal utilization of concentrating solar energy. A numerical model was developed to simulate the thermal performances, and TES experiments were carried out to demonstrate and improve the model. The outlet temperature difference between simulation and experimental results was within 5% at the end of a charging period, indicating the simulation model was reasonable. The simulation model was applied to predict the effects of geometric, thermo-physical parameters and flow fluxes on TES performances. The temperature dropped more quickly and decreased to a lower temperature in discharging period when the conductivity was smaller. The storage capacity increased with the growth of volumetric heat capacity. As to a TES with big channels and thin walls, the outlet temperature increased quickly and greatly in a charging process and dropped sharply in a discharging process.

Zhongyang Luo; Cheng Wang; Gang Xiao; Mingjiang Ni; Kefa Cen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Dynamic control of remelting processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method of controlling a remelting process by providing measured process variable values to a process controller; estimating process variable values using a process model of a remelting process; and outputting estimated process variable values from the process controller. Feedback and feedforward control devices receive the estimated process variable values and adjust inputs to the remelting process. Electrode weight, electrode mass, electrode gap, process current, process voltage, electrode position, electrode temperature, electrode thermal boundary layer thickness, electrode velocity, electrode acceleration, slag temperature, melting efficiency, cooling water temperature, cooling water flow rate, crucible temperature profile, slag skin temperature, and/or drip short events are employed, as are parameters representing physical constraints of electroslag remelting or vacuum arc remelting, as applicable.

Bertram, Lee A. (Dublin, CA); Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Evans, David G. (Clinton, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

High precision, rapid laser hole drilling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

400

The rapid tooling testbed: a distributed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the manufacturing activity, and that little additional communication between these activities is necessary. UnderThe rapid tooling testbed: a distributed design-for- manufacturing system David W. Rosen Yong Chen Engineer at 3D Systems, Valencia, California, USA. Shiva Sambu is a Manufacturing Engineer at Align

Chen, Yong

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Analytical electron microscopy of rapidly solidified metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Examples of the need to characterize rapidly solidified metals on submicron scale are given for centrifugally atomized steel powder and electrohydrodynamically atomized submicron spheres. Materials studied include Fe-40wt% Ni, 304 SS, Fe-20at.%Co, and pure V.

Kelly, T.F.; Holzman, L.M.; Shin, K.; Kim, Y.W.; Bae, J.C.; Flinn, J.E.; Camus, P.P.; Melmed, A.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

Relativistic rapidity as change in musical pitch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relativistic rapidity is usually presented as a computational device. As Levy-Leblond has shown, it is also the velocity that would be imputed by an ideal Newtonian inertial guidance system, taking c=1*neper=1. Here, we show that it can also be interpreted as the change in musical pitch of radiation fore and aft along the direction of motion.

Alma Teao Wilson

2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

403

Rapidly Convergent Series of the Divisors Functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This note gives a few rapidly convergent series representations of the sums of divisors functions. These series have various applications such as exact evaluations of some power series, computing estimates and proving the existence results of some special values of the sums of divisors functions.

N. A. Carella

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

404

Thermally Activated Desiccant Technology for Heat Recovery and Comfort  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling is an important part of the diverse portfolio of Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) designed for conversion of heat for the purpose of indoor air quality control. Thermally activated desiccant cooling incorporates a desiccant material that undergoes a cyclic process involving direct dehumidification of moist air and thermal regeneration. Desiccants fall into two categories: liquid and solid desiccants. Regardless of the type, solid or liquid, the governing principles of desiccant dehumidification systems are the same. In the dehumidification process, the vapor pressure of the moist air is higher than that of the desiccant, leading to transfer of moisture from the air to the desiccant material. By heating the desiccant, the vapor pressure differential is reversed in the regeneration process that drives the moisture from the desiccant. Figure 1 illustrates a rotary solid-desiccant dehumidifier. A burner or a thermally compatible source of waste heat can provide the required heat for regeneration.

Jalalzadeh, A. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS,”Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermalfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anCHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

Hardin, Corey Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

409

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcrystals obtained from rapid calcination in domestic microwave oven  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The simple way to prepare In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcrystals is reported in this paper. The precursor, In(OH){sub 3} microstructures, were obtained using the Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal (MAH) Method. By annealing as-prepared In(OH){sub 3} precursor at 500 {sup o}C for 5 min in a domestic microwave oven (MO), In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcrystals were prepared, inheriting the morphology of their precursor while still slightly distorted and collapsed due to the In(OH){sub 3} dehydration process which was studied by thermal analysis. The In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. These techniques confirm the chemical dehydration of In(OH){sub 3} and the formation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders. The domestic MO promotes a rapid structural organization as compared with a CF (conventional furnace). The MAH method and the subsequent annealing in a domestic MO were shown to be a low cost route for the production of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with the advantages of lower temperature and smaller time.

Motta, F.V., E-mail: fabiana@liec.ufscar.br [LIEC, IQ, UNESP, Rua Francisco Degni s/n, CEP 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Lima, R.C. [IQ, UFU, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902 Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)] [IQ, UFU, Av. Joao Naves de Avila, 2121, CEP 38400-902 Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Marques, A.P.A.; Leite, E.R. [LIEC, DQ, UFSCar, Via Washington Luiz, km 235, CEP 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)] [LIEC, DQ, UFSCar, Via Washington Luiz, km 235, CEP 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Varela, J.A.; Longo, E. [LIEC, IQ, UNESP, Rua Francisco Degni s/n, CEP 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)] [LIEC, IQ, UNESP, Rua Francisco Degni s/n, CEP 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Thermal barrier coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Thermal management of nanoelectronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-state thermoelectric on- spot cooling, requiring efficient thermoelectric materials that can be integrated with the IC are further complicated by the fact that the material's ability to conduct heat deteriorates when at the packaging level but also at the nanoscale materials and device levels. THERMAL CHALLENGES AT NANOSCALE One

413

Thermal Reactor Safety  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Organic pollutants abatement and biodecontamination of brewery effluents by a non-thermal quenched plasma at atmospheric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A preliminary study was carried out to investigate possible decontamination of the waste waters from a Cameroonian brewery by using a non-thermal atmospheric plasma. Samples of waste waters collected during periods of intense activity of production were first analysed for organoleptic, physical–chemical and organic parameters, and then exposed to a humid air electric discharge at ambient temperature and pressure. The resultant pollution abatement and germicidal effects are both ascribed to strong oxidising effects of OH and NO radicals formed in the plasma. The BOD removal efficiency of the process with brewery industrial wastewaters under BOD concentration of 385 and 1018 mg l?1 were 74% and 98% respectively. The alkaline wastewaters are rapidly neutralised due to the pH lowering effects of the plasma treatment.

A. Doubla; S. Laminsi; S. Nzali; E. Njoyim; J. Kamsu-Kom; J.-L. Brisset

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

FARADAYIC ElectroPhoretic Deposition of YSZ for Use in Thermal Barrier Coatings - Faraday Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FARADAYIC ElectroPhoretic Deposition FARADAYIC ElectroPhoretic Deposition of YSZ for Use in Thermal Barrier Coatings-Faraday Technology Background Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are employed to protect gas turbine engine components. These coating systems provide thermal, oxidation, and mechanical protection; reduce thermal gradients; and lower the metal substrate surface temperature, extending the life of the engine components. Faraday Technology, Inc. (Faraday) is developing a new manufacturing process, the

416

High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3 Q1 High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this Los Alamos National Laboratory...

417

Impact of Ageing on Thermal Efficiency of Solar Thermal Collectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Today it is common practice to calculate the performance of solar thermal systems or solar collectors based on the results of a thermal performance test carried out with a new solar collector. However, for an int...

Elke Streicher; Stephan Fischer…

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

A Declarative Toolkit for Rapid Experimentation Wireless Mesh Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

patterns. Lack of systematic tools for rapid prototyping. #12;3 Motivation Simulation studies are useful: The Approach A development toolkit that unifies rapid prototyping, simulation and experimentation. IntegratesRapidMesh A Declarative Toolkit for Rapid Experimentation of Wireless Mesh Networks http

Loo, Boon Thau

419

Preliminary requirements for thermal storage subsystems in solar thermal applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methodologies for the analysis of value and comparing thermal storage concepts are presented. Value is a measure of worth and is determined by the cost of conventional fuel systems. Value data for thermal storage in large solar thermal electric power applications are presented. Thermal storage concepts must be compared when all are performing the same mission. A method for doing that analysis, called the ranking index, is derived. Necessary data to use the methodology are included.

Copeland, R.J.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Flameless thermal oxidation. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Flameless Thermal Oxidizer (FTO) is a commercial technology offered by Thermatrix, Inc. The FTO has been demonstrated to be an effective destructive technology for process and waste stream off-gas treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and in the treatment of VOC and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) off-gases generated during site remediation using either baseline or innovative in situ environmental technologies. The FTO process efficiently converts VOCs and CVOCs to carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen chloride. When FTO is coupled with a baseline technology, such as soil vapor extraction (SVE), an efficient in situ soil remediation system is produced. The innovation is in using a simple, reliable, scalable, and robust technology for the destruction of VOC and CVOC off-gases based on a design that generates a uniform thermal reaction zone that prevents flame propagation and efficiently oxidizes off-gases without forming products of incomplete combustion (PICs).

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Evidence for thermalization of surface-desorbed molecules at heating rates of 108  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evidence for thermalization of surface-desorbed molecules at heating rates of 108 K/s C. R of aniline-d7 from a single-crystal surface 0001 of sapphire Al2O3 at a heating rate on the order of 108 K.e., pulsed heating of the sapphire surface on the nanosecond time scale leads to thermal desorption and rapid

Zare, Richard N.

422

MATERIALS PHYSICS AND PROCESSING (MPP) Project Team: J.L. Jordan-Sweet  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MATERIALS PHYSICS AND PROCESSING (MPP) MATERIALS PHYSICS AND PROCESSING (MPP) Project Team: J.L. Jordan-Sweet 1 , V. Kiryukhin 2 , C. Lavoie 1 , C.E. Murray 1 , C.S. Nelson 3 , I.C. Noyan 4 1 IBM Research Division, 2 Rutgers University, 3 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 4 Columbia University TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS SPECIFIC PROJECTS / ADDITIONAL INFORMATION * High-throughput, real-time, in-situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) studies of structural changes in thin films, film stacks, and nanopatterned samples: * Phase transformations, texture changes, barrier failure, interfacial roughening, etc. * X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scattering techniques on solids, including thin films, stacks, nanopatterned samples, magnetic and strongly correlated systems, and bulk materials. Capability for

423

Innovative Powder Processing of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened ODS Ferritic Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative gas atomization reaction synthesis technique was employed as a viable method to dramatically lower the processing cost for precursor oxide dispersion forming ferritic stainless steel powders (i.e., Fe-Cr-(Hf,Ti)-Y). During this rapid solidification process the atomized powders were enveloped by a nano-metric Cr-enriched metastable oxide film. Elevated temperature heat treatment was used to dissociate this metastable oxide phase through oxygen exchange reactions with Y-(Hf,Ti) enriched intermetallic compound precipitates. These solid state reactions resulted in the formation of highly stable nano-metric mixed oxide dispersoids (i.e., Y-Ti-O or Y-Hf-O) throughout the alloy microstructure. Subsequent high temperature (1200 C) heat treatments were used to elucidate the thermal stability of each nano-metric oxide dispersoid phase. Transmission electron microscopy coupled with X-ray diffraction was used to evaluate phase evolution within the alloy microstructure.

Rieken, Joel; Anderson, Iver; Kramer, Matthew

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Sequential elution process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus are disclosed for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials. 1 fig.

Kingsley, I.S.

1987-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

425

Enhancing Thermal Conductivity and Reducing Friction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laboratory currently has several projects underway to develop advanced fluids, films, coatings, and Laboratory currently has several projects underway to develop advanced fluids, films, coatings, and processes to improve thermal conductivity and reduce friction. These measures are helping to increase energy efficiency for next-generation transportation applications. Superhard and Slick Coating (SSC) Opportunity: Friction, wear, and lubrication strongly affect the energy efficiency, durability, and environmental compatibility of

426

Small solar (thermal) water-pumping system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small solar (thermal) water pump phototype was tested. The pump works on an organic Rankine cycle using refrigerant R113. The design of the pump is described. Detailed temperature and pressure measurements of the working fluid for different operating conditions are performed. The behaviour of the cycle is analysed to get a clear picture of the thermodynamic process. Power-characteristic curves are obtained by a systematic variation of water temperature, pumping head and heat input. 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Spindler, K.; Hahne, E. [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)] [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Chandwalker, K. [Stiletto Engineers, Hyderabad (India)] [Stiletto Engineers, Hyderabad (India)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Combined Thermal and Power Energy Management Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 'various types of prime movers (e.g. boilers, waste heat recovery, steam and gas turbines, etc.), and varying requirements for process heat and electrical power, particularly if bulk power is being dispatched to a utility grid. The ability...) maintaining the operating security of the energy supply system and equipment, and 3) optimization of energy use to meet given loads and constraints at the lowest costs. The thermal dispatch of power system boilers and turbines is the key function which...

Ahner, D. J.; Priestley, R. R.

428

Thermal Storage of Solar Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal storage is needed to improve the efficiency and usefulness of solar thermal systems. The paper indicates the main storage ... which would greatly increase the practical use of solar energy — is more diffi...

H. Tabor

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Exploitation of a Self-limiting Process for Reproducible Formation of Ultrathin Ni(1-x)Pt(x) Silicide Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This letter reports on a process scheme to obtain highly reproducible Ni{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x} silicide films of 3-6 nm thickness formed on a Si(100) substrate. Such ultrathin silicide films are readily attained by sputter deposition of metal films, metal stripping in wet chemicals, and final silicidation by rapid thermal processing. This process sequence warrants an invariant amount of metal intermixed with Si in the substrate surface region independent of the initial metal thickness, thereby leading to a self-limiting formation of ultrathin silicide films. The crystallographic structure, thickness, uniformity, and morphological stability of the final silicide films depend sensitively on the initial Pt fraction.

Z Zhang; B Yang; Y Zhu; S Gaudet; S Rossnagel; A Kellock; A Ozcan; C Murray; P Desjardins; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

430

Rapid Scan AERI Observations: Benefits and Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rapid Scan AERI Observations: Benefits and Analysis Rapid Scan AERI Observations: Benefits and Analysis W. F. Feltz, D. D. Turner, R. O. Knuteson, and R. G. Dedecker Space Science and Engineering Center Cooperative Institute of Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin D. D. Turner Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has funded the development of the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI). This has led to a hardened, autonomous system that measures downwelling infrared (IR) radiance at high-spectral resolution. Seven AERI systems have been deployed around the world as part of the ARM Program. The initial goal of these instruments was to characterize the clear-sky IR emission from the atmosphere,

431

Why are gasoline prices falling so rapidly?  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Why are gasoline prices falling so rapidly? Why are gasoline prices falling so rapidly? As of October 29, 2001, the national average retail price of regular gasoline was $1.235 per gallon, its lowest level since November 8, 1999 (Figure 1). The average price has fallen 29 cents in 6 weeks since September 17, with further declines perhaps to come. The sharpest decline has been in the Midwest (Petroleum Administration for Defense District 2), where the average has dropped 57 cents in 8 weeks since Labor Day (September 3). Additionally, this decline comes on the heels of a 33-cent drop in the national average in 10 weeks from Memorial Day through August 6, interrupted only by a brief 17-cent rise in August. In total, the national average retail gasoline price has fallen nearly 48 cents from its peak on May 14. This is already the widest one-year range in retail prices

432

Cedar Rapids Wind Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wind Project Wind Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Cedar Rapids Wind Project Facility Cedar Rapids Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Location NE Coordinates 41.562199°, -98.148048° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.562199,"lon":-98.148048,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

433

On seismic signatures of rapid variation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an improved model for an asteroseismic diagnostic contained in the frequency spacing of low-degree acoustic modes. By modelling in a realistic manner regions of rapid variation of dynamically relevant quantities, which we call acoustic glitches, we can derive signatures of the gross properties of those glitches. In particular, we are interested in measuring properties that are related to the helium ionization zones and to the rapid variation in the background state associated with the lower boundary of the convective envelope. The formula for the seismic diagnostic is tested against a sequence of theoretical models of the Sun, and is compared with seismic diagnostics published previously by Monteiro & Thompson (1998, 2005) and by Basu et al. (2004).

G. Houdek; D. O. Gough

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Process / CI Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 Post Travel Summary 11_0221 Page 1 of 3 7 Post Travel Summary 11_0221 Page 1 of 3 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: Post Travel Summary Document Number: ADMF-017 Post Travel Summary 11_0221 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: ADMP-004, Contractor Travel Process Notify of Changes: EOTA Staff Referenced Document(s): ADMF-007 EOTA Pre-Travel Authorization Form ADMF-017 Post Travel Summary 11_0221 Page 2 of 3 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change 11_0221 Initial Release ADMF-017 Post Travel Summary 11_0221 Page 3 of 3

435

Process for making carbon foam  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The process obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications.

Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak Ridgefor Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage: An Overview of the DOE-

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Electric Motor Thermal Management | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape030bennion2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Electric Motor Thermal Management Electric Motor Thermal Management...

438

Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management...

439

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and Solarsolar captors, thermal effluents, low cost energy duringSeale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and Solar

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withconcept of thermal energy storage in aquifers was suggestedAnnual Thermal Energy Storage Contractors' Information

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Rapid Tunneling and Percolation in the Landscape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motivated by the possibility of a string landscape, we reexamine tunneling of a scalar field across single/multiple barriers. Recent investigations have suggested modifications to the usual picture of false vacuum decay that lead to efficient and rapid tunneling in the landscape when certain conditions are met. This can be due to stringy effects (e.g. tunneling via the DBI action), or by effects arising due to the presence of multiple vacua (e.g. resonance tunneling). In this paper we discuss both DBI tunneling and resonance tunneling. We provide a QFT treatment of resonance tunneling using the Schr\\"odinger functional approach. We also show how DBI tunneling for supercritical barriers can naturally lead to conditions suitable for resonance tunneling. We argue using basic ideas from percolation theory that tunneling can be rapid in a landscape where a typical vacuum has multiple decay channels and discuss various cosmological implications. This rapidity vacuum decay can happen even if there are no resonance/DBI tunneling enhancements, solely due to the presence of a large number of decay channels. Finally, we consider various ways of circumventing a recent no-go theorem for resonance tunneling in quantum field theory.

Sash Sarangi; Gary Shiu; Benjamin Shlaer

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

444

Non-thermal plasma enhanced heavy oil upgrading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A process was proposed for upgrading heavy oil using non-thermal plasma technology in a conventional thermal cracking system under atmospheric pressure. Results from a comparison of the reactivity of a N2, H2 and CH4 plasma showed that the plasma can increase the trap oil yield significantly. The trap oil yield increased by ?9% when the N2 plasma was applied and showed a further increase of ?19% when the H2 or CH4 plasma was applied. A detailed study on the H2 plasma-enhanced upgrading process was carried out and the results showed that the trap oil yields of the plasma-on runs can be 8–33% higher than those of the plasma-off runs, depending on experimental conditions. Compared with the plasma-off runs, trap oil from the plasma-on runs had a higher (H/C)atomic but less heteroatoms (S and N). Over-balanced hydrogen in the products from plasma-on runs revealed the H2 plasma reactivity, which was further demonstrated by an increase in the substitution and condensation indices of trap oil from the plasma-on runs. Although thermal cracking was mainly involved whether the plasma was applied or not, the electrical field for generating the plasma and the generated plasma may assist with hydrocarbon bond cleavage. This was shown by the increased trap oil yield with the N2 plasma and the hydrogen and carbon residue distribution. Compared with the feedstock, more aromatic and ?-hydrogen (HA and H?, respectively) and less ?- and ?-hydrogen (H? and H?, respectively) were present in the residues, which agrees with the bond dissociation energy data. Similarly, the amounts of saturated (Cs) and alkyl (Cp) carbons in the residues were significantly lower than those in the feedstock while the amount of aromatic carbons (Ca) in the residues was higher than the feedstock. The changes in hydrogen and carbon distribution were more significant for the plasma-on runs. This implies that mainly side chain losses and bridged bond breakage are involved in the processes. This was demonstrated further by the molecular weight distribution. In general, the molecular weight of the residues was lower than that of the feedstock, especially for residues from the plasma-on runs. However, compared with the feedstock, the residues contained less saturated, aromatic and resin fractions but more asphaltene and toluene insoluble fractions. This implies that intra-molecular condensation was more significant than inter-molecular condensation, especially in the plasma-on runs. This should be attributed to the higher stabilization ability of the H2 plasma for fragments or radicals and gas (plasma) flow by which the fragments or radicals are separated rapidly.

Haigang Hao; Bao S. Wu; Jianli Yang; Qiang Guo; Yong Yang; Yong W. Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the School conductivity of the coatings. The minimum thermal conductivity occurs at a low rotation rate and is 0.8 W intrinsic thermal conductivity, good phase stability and greater resistance to sintering and CMAS attack

Wadley, Haydn

446

LSPE Interim Stowage Thermal Constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-arm and thermal battery timers require operating temperatures at or above +40°F for reliable starting when·, ' LSPE Interim Stowage Thermal Constraints· Nl,;. ATM1080 PAGE 1 OF 13 DATE 15 December l97l constraints required for thermal integrity are defined. Prepared by:.:Z4·:..=..-~31!::..--.::..·~-:·::....-c

Rathbun, Julie A.

447

Thermally efficient compact fluorescent fixture systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compact fluorescent lamps that can be inserted into conventional light fixtures are rapidly gaining acceptance as both a viable retrofit and new design approach to reducing lighting loads. Ideally, the compact fluorescent lamp should have the same light output as the incandescent lamp it replaces, but overheating inside typically small enclosed fixtures can reduce lumen output and hence lighting fixture efficiency by 15 to 20 percent. Fortunately, simple fixture modifications can erase this efficiency penalty, so that the full efficiency benefit of replacing incandescent lamps with fluorescent lamps can be realized. The paper describes such modifications and presents experimental data documenting the potential efficiency enhancement associated with thermal control systems. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Packer, M.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Combustion Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When a fuel mixture is placed into a closed vessel heated to a certain temperature T, the mixture also rapidly heats to this temperature. The time of heating is proportional to pressure; at atmospheric pressur...

Professor Victor N. Kondratiev; Professor Evgeni? E. Nikitin

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

EXERGY METRIC FOR THE ASSESMENT OF MATERIAL PROCESSING IN MANUFACTURING.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Exergy utilization calculations have been in the past repeatedly used to quantify the quality and quantity of energy used in thermal energy processes. This thesis… (more)

Boddapati, Venkata- Sandeep

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

RAPID RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES IN SUPPORT OF FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is an increasing need to develop faster analytical methods for emergency response, including emergency soil and air filter samples. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed analyses on samples received from Japan in April, 2011 as part of a U.S. Department of Energy effort to provide assistance to the government of Japan, following the nuclear event at Fukushima Daiichi, resulting from the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Of particular concern was whether it was safe to plant rice in certain areas (prefectures) near Fukushima. The primary objectives of the sample collection, sample analysis, and data assessment teams were to evaluate personnel exposure hazards, identify the nuclear power plant radiological source term and plume deposition, and assist the government of Japan in assessing any environmental and agricultural impacts associated with the nuclear event. SRNL analyzed approximately 250 samples and reported approximately 500 analytical method determinations. Samples included soil from farmland surrounding the Fukushima reactors and air monitoring samples of national interest, including those collected at the U.S. Embassy and American military bases. Samples were analyzed for a wide range of radionuclides, including strontium-89, strontium-90, gamma-emitting radionuclides, and plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes. Technical aspects of the rapid soil and air filter analyses will be described. The extent of radiostrontium contamination was a significant concern. For {sup 89,90}Sr analyses on soil samples, a rapid fusion technique using 1.5 gram soil aliquots to enable a Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of <1 pCi {sup 89,90} Sr /g of soil was employed. This sequential technique has been published recently by this laboratory for actinides and radiostrontium in soil and vegetation. It consists of a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion, pre-concentration steps using iron hydroxide and calcium fluoride precipitations, followed by Sr-Resin separation and gas flow proportional counting. To achieve a lower detection limit for analysis of some of the Japanese soil samples, a 10 gram aliquot of soil was taken, acid-leached and processed with similar preconcentration chemistry. The MDA using this approach was ~0.03 pCi/g (1.1 mBq/g)/, which is less than the 0.05-0.10 pCi/g {sup 90}Sr levels found in soil as a result of global fallout. The chemical yields observed for the Japanese soil samples was typically 75-80% and the laboratory control sample (LCS) and matrix spike (MS) results looked very good for this work Individual QC results were well within the ± 25% acceptable range and the average of these results does not show significant bias. Additional data for a radiostrontium in soil method for 50 gram samples will also be presented, which appears to be a significant step forward based on looking at the current literature, with higher chemical yields for even larger sample aliquots and lower MDA. Hou et al surveyed a wide range of separation methods for Pu in waters and environmental solid samples. While there are many actinide methods in the scientific literature, few would be considered rapid due to the tedious and time-consuming steps involved. For actinide analyses in soil, a new rapid method for the determination of actinide isotopes in soil samples using both alpha spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed. The new rapid soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates were used to reduce analytical time. Challenges associated with the mineral content in the volcanic soil will be discussed. Air filter samples were reported within twenty-four (24) hours of receipt using rapid techniques published previously. The r

Maxwell, S.

2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

451

Rapid Radiochemical Analyses in Support of Fukushima Nuclear Accident - 13196  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is an increasing need to develop faster analytical methods for emergency response, including emergency soil and air filter samples [1, 2]. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed analyses on samples received from Japan in April, 2011 as part of a U.S. Department of Energy effort to provide assistance to the government of Japan, following the nuclear event at Fukushima Daiichi, resulting from the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Of particular concern was whether it was safe to plant rice in certain areas (prefectures) near Fukushima. The primary objectives of the sample collection, sample analysis, and data assessment teams were to evaluate personnel exposure hazards, identify the nuclear power plant radiological source term and plume deposition, and assist the government of Japan in assessing any environmental and agricultural impacts associated with the nuclear event. SRNL analyzed approximately 250 samples and reported approximately 500 analytical method determinations. Samples included soil from farmland surrounding the Fukushima reactors and air monitoring samples of national interest, including those collected at the U.S. Embassy and American military bases. Samples were analyzed for a wide range of radionuclides, including strontium-89, strontium-90, gamma-emitting radionuclides, and plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes. Technical aspects of the rapid soil and air filter analyses will be described. The extent of radiostrontium contamination was a significant concern. For {sup 89,90}Sr analyses on soil samples, a rapid fusion technique using 1.5 gram soil aliquots to enable a Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of <1 pCi {sup 89,90}Sr /g of soil was employed. This sequential technique has been published recently by this laboratory for actinides and radiostrontium in soil and vegetation [3, 4]. It consists of a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion, pre-concentration steps using iron hydroxide and calcium fluoride precipitations, followed by Sr-Resin separation and gas flow proportional counting. To achieve a lower detection limit for analysis of some of the Japanese soil samples, a 10 gram aliquot of soil was taken, acid-leached and processed with similar preconcentration chemistry. The MDA using this approach was ?0.03 pCi/g (1.1 mBq/g)/, which is less than the 0.05-0.10 pCi/g {sup 90}Sr levels found in soil as a result of global fallout. The chemical yields observed for the Japanese soil samples was typically 75-80% and the laboratory control sample (LCS) and matrix spike (MS) results looked very good for this work Individual QC results were well within the ± 25% acceptable range and the average of these results does not show significant bias. Additional data for a radiostrontium in soil method for 50 gram samples will also be presented, which appears to be a significant step forward based on looking at the current literature, with higher chemical yields for even larger sample aliquots and lower MDA [5, 6, 7] Hou et al surveyed a wide range of separation methods for Pu in waters and environmental solid samples [8]. While there are many actinide methods in the scientific literature, few would be considered rapid due to the tedious and time-consuming steps involved. For actinide analyses in soil, a new rapid method for the determination of actinide isotopes in soil samples using both alpha spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed. The new rapid soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. [9, 10] Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates were used to reduce analytical time. Challenges associated with the mineral content in the volcanic soil will be discussed. Air filter samples were reported within twenty-four (24) hours of receipt using rapid te

Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Thermal energy storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various types of thermal stares for solar systems are surveyed which include: long-term water stores for solar systems; ground storage using soil as an interseasonal energy store; ground-water aquifers; pebble or rock bed storage; phase change storage; solar ponds; high temperature storage; and cold stores for solar air conditioning system. The use of mathematical models for analysis of the storage systems is considered

W.E.J. Neal

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Cylindrical thermal contact conductance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Mahr-Federal, Inc. respectively facilitated and provided the necessary surface metrology data of the test pieces. Mr. Claude Davis of Corning, Inc. obtained the thermophysical properties of the Ultra Low Expansion Titanium Silicate glass used... as thermal expansion standard. The engineers at National Instruments provided some much-needed advice and software for programming the data acquisition system. The TAMU Physics Machine Shop provided design advice and a couple of last...

Ayers, George Harold

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

454

Thermally actuated thermionic switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

455

Mobile Window Thermal Test  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mobile Window Thermal Test (MoWiTT) Facility Mobile Window Thermal Test (MoWiTT) Facility winter.jpg (469135 bytes) The window has come a long way since the days when it was a single pane of glass in a wood frame. Low-emissivity windows were designed to help buildings retain some of the energy that would have leaked out of less efficient windows. Designing efficient window-and-frame systems is one strategy for reducing the energy use of buildings. But the net energy flowing through a window is a combination of temperature- driven thermal flows and transmission of incident solar energy, both of which vary with time. U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), the window properties that control these flows, depend partly on ambient conditions. Window energy flows can affect how much energy a building uses, depending on when the window flows are available to help meet other energy demands within the building, and when they are adverse, adding to building energy use. This leads to a second strategy for reducing building energy use: using the beneficial solar gain available through a window, either for winter heating or for daylighting, while minimizing adverse flows.

456

Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

Viall, Arthur J. (Colstrip, MT); Richards, Jeff M. (Colstrip, MT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

Viall, Arthur J. (Colstrip, MT); Richards, Jeff M. (Colstrip, MT)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

1999-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

459

NUMERICAL FORECAST OF THE MELTING AND THERMAL HISTORIES OF PARTICLES INJECTED IN A PLASMA JET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NUMERICAL FORECAST OF THE MELTING AND THERMAL HISTORIES OF PARTICLES INJECTED IN A PLASMA JET Jorge of the melting process of a particle injected in a plasma jet. The plasma process is nowadays applied to produce devices. Among the different coating systems, the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are commonly used

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

460

Dry, laser?assisted rapid HBr etching of GaAs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry rapid etching of GaAs has been accomplished using an excimer laser (ArF 193 nm) with HBr etching gas by photochemical initiation. Spatially uniform etch rates of up to 8 ?m/min have been achieved on large?area masked substrates. Selective crystallographic etching is observed and controlled in the process.

P. D. Brewer; D. McClure; R. M. Osgood Jr.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Framework for the Rapid Development of Modeling Environments kos Ldeczi, Mikls Marti and Pter Vlgyesi1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of domain models, support the design process by automated systems analysis and simulation and automatically1 Framework for the Rapid Development of Modeling Environments Ákos Lédeczi, Miklós Maróti are integrated sets of modeling, model analysis, simulation and code generation tools that aid the design

Maróti, Miklós

462

Earth Observations for rapid response to large earthquakes Supervisors: Dr Zhenhong Li and Prof Trevor Hoey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Earth Observations for rapid response to large earthquakes Supervisors: Dr Zhenhong Li and Prof Trevor Hoey School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, UK Earthquakes, together of the earth system; they are messengers of the fundamental processes that shape the surface of the Earth

Guo, Zaoyang

463

Synthesis of Graphene Films by Rapid Heating and Quenching at Ambient Pressures and Their Electrochemical Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ion battery 1. INTRODUCTION Atomically thin two-dimensional honeycomb lattice structure of graphene and itsSynthesis of Graphene Films by Rapid Heating and Quenching at Ambient Pressures, Michigan 48109, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We study the process of graphene growth

Zhong, Zhaohui

464

Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Bionics in textiles: flexible and translucent thermal insulations for solar thermal applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...translucent thermal insulations for solar thermal applications Thomas Stegmaier...Denkendorf73770 Denkendorf, Germany Solar thermal collectors used at present consist...transparent thermal insulation|solar thermal collector| 1. Introduction...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK CALIFORNIA PUBLIC UTILITIES California Solar Initiative Thermal Program Handbook i 1. Introduction to CSI-Thermal Program ..........................................................................3 2.1 Participants in the CSI-Thermal Program

467

Chapter 12 - Assessment of Thermal Energy Storage Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The foremost challenges of energy supply in meeting the energy demand apply to the development of energy efficient technologies to achieve energy security and environmental emissions. In the spectrum of energy-efficient technologies, thermal energy storage systems offer huge potential to bridge the mismatch between energy supply and energy demand. The overall operational performance of thermal storage systems depends on the quality of energy content and the energy degradation effects exhibited during the cyclic charging and discharging processes. The assessment pertaining to the exergy efficiency in addition to energy efficiency can have a pivotal role to enable thermal storage systems to outperform on a long-term basis.

S. Kalaiselvam; R. Parameshwaran

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuel’s photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MIT’s technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuels—called Hybrisol—can also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

None

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

469

Validation of the rapid geoacoustic characterization (RGC) algorithm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rapid geoacoustic characterization (RGC) algorithm was developed to perform near?real time geoacoustic inversion in shallow water using the striations of passing surface ships of opportunity. It has been applied to inversion workshop data [Heaney IEEE J. Ocean Eng. 2004 (1)] and measured surface ship data [Heaney IEEE J. Ocean Eng. 2004 (1)]. It is currently under review for inclusion in the Navy’s Ocean Atmospheric Media Library (OAML). As part of the OAML approval process a set of seven test cases was generated for the independent validation and verification of the code. These cases span the range of simulated to measured data and range?independent to range?dependent environments. The method as well as results of the application of this algorithm to these test cases will be presented. The limitations of the algorithm will be addressed.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

471

Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Systems (VTMS) Analysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Characterization and Development of Advanced Heat Transfer Technologies...

472

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline DiamondSilicon Carbide...

473

Report on workshop on thermal property measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of thermogravimetric analysis of basalt is discussed. Heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion are specifically addressed. (CBS)

Robertson, E.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

A progress update for the pressure controlled atomization process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two engineering tests series were conducted to qualify the Pressure Controlled Atomization Process (PCAP) for use as a replacement for hard chromium electroplating as a means of refurbishing US Air Force aviation parts. The test series, Boeing and Wright Laboratory Test Series, were conducted on PCAP-coated specimens that were sprayed by MSE, Inc., and then tested by Boeing and the Wright Laboratory. Tests conducted included fatigue, abrasion, corrosion, adhesion, internal stress, chemistry, metallurgy, hardness, and materials compatibility and workability. In addition to the two test series, modifications to the spray system have been implemented to make the PCAP repeatable and controllable by a single operator. Modifications included installation of a vacuum/pressure spray chamber, design and installation of a new high temperature 1,800 C (3,272 F) inert gas heating system, and an automated tundish pressure control system to regulate the spray process. As the PCAP process has been refined, potential research and development applications have also been identified. These applications are well-suited to the characteristic narrow spray plume, low thermal input, and high deposition efficiency of the PCAP. Potential applications include development of a self-locking threaded fastener, development of anew method for rapid manufacturing of printed circuit boards, and possibly spraying ceramics as near-net shape components.

Tierney, J.C.; Glovan, R.J. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

Improving virtual environments analysis process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of Virtual Environments (VEs) is increasing rapidly and people are demanding easier and more credible ways to interact with these new sites. We define a VE as a special kind of 3D virtual environment, inhabited by avatars which represent humans ... Keywords: analysis process, software engineering, use concept, virtual environment

Maria-Isabel Sánchez-Segura; Angelica De Antonio; Antonio De Amescua

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Execution of rapid prototyping technology - an Indian manufacturing industry's perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since independence, India has endeavoured to bring economic and social change through science and technology. While India's economic growth in the recent years has been impressive, many challenges remain to be met to create a strong and vibrant innovation eco-system. This requires a culture and value system which supports both basic and applied research and technology development. One of those technologies, rapid prototyping (RP) technology, is the automatic construction of physical objects using additive manufacturing technology. It can be defined as an automated and patternless process which allows solid physical parts to be made directly from computer data in a short time. RP acts as the 'manufacturing middle' to link up the computer-aided design (CAD) process and manufacturing processes. It includes the making of prototypes for design verification and even the making of tooling for production. With the trend towards concurrent engineering and the widespread use of CAD, RP has quickly become a booming business in the past few years. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the execution of RP technology in India and the critical decision factors in executing RP for the Indian manufacturing industry.

Rajesh Kumar; Rupinder Singh; I.P.S. Ahuja

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Rapid Sampling Tools - Nuclear Engineering Multimedia  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nonproliferation and National Security Nonproliferation and National Security > Multimedia > Rapid Sampling Tools Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library About Nuclear Energy Nuclear Reactors Designed by Argonne Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Opportunities within NE Division Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) Argonne OutLoud on Nuclear Energy Argonne Energy Showcase 2012 Nonproliferation and National Security - Multimedia Bookmark and Share NPNS Multimedia, a collection of videos and audios featuring activities related to Nonproliferation and National Security

478

Charged particle rapidity distributions at relativistic energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- describe the measured net baryon rapidity distribution, we have included in the Lund string fragmentation model the popcorn mechanism for baryon-antibaryon production with equal probabilities for baryon-meson-antibaryon and baryon- antibaryon... to the hadronic interactions than PACS number~s!: 25.75.2q, 24.10.Lx owing effect on parton production via the gluon recombina- tion mechanism of Mueller-Qiu @11#. After the colliding nu- clei pass through each other, the Gyulassy-Wang model @12# is then used...

Lin, ZW; Pal, S.; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba; Zhang, B.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

A digital process for additive manufacturing of occlusal splints: a clinical pilot study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...articles 1004 17 23 26 A digital process for additive manufacturing of occlusal splints: a clinical pilot study...computer-aided design|computer-aided manufacturing|additive manufacturing|rapid prototyping|rapid manufacturing...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Thermally switchable dielectrics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rapid thermal processing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Thermal Management of Solar Cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The focus on solar cells as a source of photovoltaic energy is rapidly increasing nowadays. The amount of sun's energy entering earth surface in one… (more)

Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Process oil manufacturing process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for producing a naphthenic process oil having reduced sulfur, nitrogen and polynuclear aromatics contents from a naphthenic feed containing same and having an atmospheric boiling range of about 650/sup 0/ to about 1200/sup 0/F. comprising: A. passing the feed into a first hydrotreating stage having a hydrotreating catalyst therein, the stage maintained at a temperature of about 600/sup 0/ to about 750/sup 0/F. and at a hydrogen partial pressure of about 400 to about 1500 psig, to convert at least a portion of the sulfur to hydrogen sulfide and the nitrogen to ammonia; B. passing the hydrotreated feed from the first hydrotreating stage in an intermediate stripping stage wherein hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, or both is removed; C. passing the hydrotreated feed from the intermediate stage into a second hydrotreating stage having therein a hydrotreating catalyst selected from the group consisting of nickel-molybdenum, cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-tungsten and mixtures thereof, the second hydrotreating stage maintained at a temperature lower than that of the first hydrotreating stage and at a hydrogen partial pressure ranging between about 400 and about 1,500 psig; D. monitoring the polynuclear aromatics content, the degree of saturation, or both of the product exiting the second hydrotreating stage; and, E. adjusting the temperature in the second hydrotreating stage to keep the polynuclear aromatics content, the degree of saturation, or both below a limit suitable for process oil.

Corman, B.G.; Korbach, P.F.; Webber, K.M.

1989-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

484

Performance of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test in an outbreak setting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Performance of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test in an outbreak setting Adriana Peci 1 Anne-Luise Winter 1...Toronto, Toronto, Canada BACKGROUND: Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests (RIDTs) may be useful during institutional respiratory outbreaks...

Adriana Peci; Anne-Luise Winter; Eddie-Chong King; Joanne Blair; Jonathan B. Gubbay

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

485

Geothermal Technology Advancement for Rapid Development of Resources...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Geothermal Technology Advancement for Rapid Development of Resources in the U.S. Webinar, 6-23-2011 Geothermal Technology Advancement for Rapid Development of Resources in the U.S....

486

Performance of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Testing in Outbreak Settings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Ontario, Canada Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) may be useful during institutional...influenza virus, rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs), such as immunochromatographic tests or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, were...

Adriana Peci; Anne-Luise Winter; Eddie-Chong King; Joanne Blair; Jonathan B. Gubbay

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

487

The Rapidity Dependence of Jet Quenching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The suppression of high transverse momentum (P_T) jets and hadrons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions with respect to a p-p baseline in terms of the nuclear suppression factor R_AA is one of the key observables to gauge the density of a hot and dense QCD medium. However, the suppression measured by R_AA is not a straightforward measure of the medium properties, the value of the observable also depends on the ratio of quark to gluon jets and on the slope of the hard parton spectrum, which explains why R_AA is found to be fairly similar at RHIC and LHC despite the very different dynamics. Measuring high P_T jets and hadrons at forward rapidity offers the same possibility of varying medium density, parton mixture and spectral slope without the need to compare across different sqrt(s) and experiments. In this work, the well-tested jet quenching Monte-Carlo (MC) framework YaJEM is utilized to compute the rapidity dependence of R_AA for three test cases.

Thorsten Renk

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

488

Rapid transport of polyacrylates in dextran matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have observed the rapid transport of polyacrylate(PA) in the matrix of dextran. (1) In the salt-free media, the transport of PA depended on the kind of its couterions. The rates were in the following order: tetramethylammonium > Li+ > tetrabutylammonium > Na+ > NH{sub 4}+ > Cs+. (2) The transport rate of PAA in buffer solutions of about 30mM ionic strength increased with the degree of ionization {alpha} but remained constant in the range of {alpha} greater than about 0.4. The effect of the counterion condensation on the transport rate was thus clearly demonstrated. (3) The transport rate of NaPA was nearly identical in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl and no added salt. It decreased to less than half in 0.2 M NaCl and in 0.5 M NaCl no rapid transport was observed any more and ordinary diffusion behavior was observed instead.

Maeda, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sasaki, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

489

Fuel cell system logic for differentiating between rapid and normal shutdown commands  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of controlling the operation of a fuel cell system wherein each shutdown command for the system is subjected to decision logic which determines whether the command should be a normal shutdown command or rapid shutdown command. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a normal shutdown command, then the system is shutdown in a normal step-by-step process in which the hydrogen stream is consumed within the system. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a rapid shutdown command, the hydrogen stream is removed from the system either by dumping to atmosphere or routing to storage.

Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Funding Opportunity: Technology Advancement for Rapid Development...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

an opportunity for potential applicants to begin developing partnerships and begin the process of gathering data to prepare their application. GTP's goal is to address the high...

491

RAPID/Roadmap/4 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

04ExplorationPermittingOverview (3).pdf Click to View Fullscreen Permit Overview The exploration process requires consideration of right of way access, geothermal leasing, and...

492

RAPID/Roadmap/2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

process as requirements can vary. Contact Information United States Forest Service Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Land Management Western Governors' Association Do I Need...

493

Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same m...

Saint-Hilaire, P; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Benz, Arnold O.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A 10% increase in shaft work is directly attributable to modified thermal heat capacity Engineering HTF Specific heat yields modified power output. 27 127 227 327 427 527...

495

Thermal tests of MC3811 rigid/flex printed wiring boards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rigid/flex multilayer printed wiring boards are more sensitive to thermal environmental changes than conventional printed wiring boards. This is manifested because of a composition of dissimilar materials used within the construction of this type of product. During fabrication and assembly, stresses can develop within the plated-through holes from differences in thermal properties of the rigid and flexible materials, primarily thermal coefficient of expansion. Thermal shock and thermal stress tests and rework simulation as defined in MIL-P-50884 have been performed in this study as indicators of processing quality to detect faults and to verify improvements in board reliability. 3 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Gentry, F.L.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

RAPID/Overview/Geothermal/Exploration/Oregon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oregon < RAPID | Overview | Geothermal | Exploration(Redirected from RAPIDAtlasGeothermalExplorationOregon) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT...

497

RAPID/Overview/Geothermal/Exploration/Montana | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Montana < RAPID | Overview | Geothermal | Exploration(Redirected from RAPIDAtlasGeothermalExplorationMontana) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT...

498

Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis was used to assess stability and composition of organic matter in three diverse municipal waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were compared with C mineralization during 90-day incubation, FTIR and {sup 13}C NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis reflected the differences between the organic wastes before and after the incubation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated energy density showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional and thermal methods provide complimentary means of characterizing organic wastes. - Abstract: The use of organic municipal wastes as soil amendments is an increasing practice that can divert significant amounts of waste from landfill, and provides a potential source of nutrients and organic matter to ameliorate degraded soils. Due to the high heterogeneity of organic municipal waste streams, it is difficult to rapidly and cost-effectively establish their suitability as soil amendments using a single method. Thermal analysis has been proposed as an evolving technique to assess the stability and composition of the organic matter present in these wastes. In this study, three different organic municipal waste streams (i.e., a municipal waste compost (MC), a composted sewage sludge (CS) and a thermally dried sewage sludge (TS)) were characterized using conventional and thermal methods. The conventional methods used to test organic matter stability included laboratory incubation with measurement of respired C, and spectroscopic methods to characterize chemical composition. Carbon mineralization was measured during a 90-day incubation, and samples before and after incubation were analyzed by chemical (elemental analysis) and spectroscopic (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) methods. Results were compared with those obtained by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Total amounts of CO{sub 2} respired indicated that the organic matter in the TS was the least stable, while that in the CS was the most stable. This was confirmed by changes detected with the spectroscopic methods in the composition of the organic wastes due to C mineralization. Differences were especially pronounced for TS, which showed a remarkable loss of aliphatic and proteinaceous compounds during the incubation process. TG, and especially DSC analysis, clearly reflected these differences between the three organic wastes before and after the incubation. Furthermore, the calculated energy density, which represents the energy available per unit of organic matter, showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Results obtained support the hypothesis of a pote