National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rapid expansion coal

  1. World NGL markets continue rapid expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.; Gist, R.; Whitley, C.; Haun, R.

    1998-06-08

    The international LPG industry has expanded rapidly during the 1990s and undergone significant changes. LPG consumption has expanded at nearly twice the rate of world petroleum demand. In particular, LPG use in residential and commercial markets has more than doubled in many developing countries. Markets for LPG and other petroleum products have been opened in many countries, accelerating demand growth and creating investment opportunities in all downstream segments. This has led to an overall strengthening of global LPG pricing and the development of many new export gas-processing projects. The paper discusses world LPG demand in residential and commercial markets and in petrochemicals, world LPG supply, regional increases, international trade, the US situation in natural gas, NGL supply, and NGL demand.

  2. Rapid Qualitative Risk Assessment for Contaminant Leakage From Coal Seams During Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S J

    2004-07-02

    One of the major risks associated with underground coal gasification is contamination of local aquifers with a variety of toxic compounds. It is likely that the rate, volume, extent, and concentrations of contaminant plumes will depend on the local permeability field near the point of gasification. This field depends heavily on the geological history of stratigraphic deposition and the specifics of stratigraphic succession. Some coals are thick and isolated, whereas others are thinner and more regionally expressed. Some coals are overlain by impermeable units, such as marine or lacustrine shales, whereas others are overlain by permeable zones associated with deltaic or fluvial successions. Rapid stratigraphic characterization of the succession provides first order information as to the general risk of contaminant escape, which provides a means of ranking coal contaminant risks by their depositional context. This risk categorization could also be used for ranking the relative risk of CO{sub 2} escape from injected coal seams. Further work is needed to verify accuracy and provide some quantification of risks.

  3. Accelerated Cartesian expansions for the rapid solution of periodic multiscale problems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Dault, Daniel L.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2012-07-03

    We present an algorithm for the fast and efficient solution of integral equations that arise in the analysis of scattering from periodic arrays of PEC objects, such as multiband frequency selective surfaces (FSS) or metamaterial structures. Our approach relies upon the method of Accelerated Cartesian Expansions (ACE) to rapidly evaluate the requisite potential integrals. ACE is analogous to FMM in that it can be used to accelerate the matrix vector product used in the solution of systems discretized using MoM. Here, ACE provides linear scaling in both CPU time and memory. Details regarding the implementation of this method within themore » context of periodic systems are provided, as well as results that establish error convergence and scalability. In addition, we also demonstrate the applicability of this algorithm by studying several exemplary electrically dense systems.« less

  4. Critical studies of the rapid pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of coal. Final project report, January 1, 1977-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes major findings from a study of the effects of reaction conditions on the rapid pyrolysis behavior of coal in inert and hydrogen atmospheres. The independent effects of final temperature (150 to 1100/sup 0/C), reaction time at final temperature (0 to 30 s), heating rate (10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 4/ /sup 0/C/s), total pressure (0.0001 to 100 atm), hydrogen partial pressure (0 to 69 atm), and particle size (45 to 1000 ..mu..m), on product yields and compositions were determined for a Montana lignite and a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam bituminous coal. Kinetic data were obtained for formation of specific pyrolysis products from each coal. A new mass transfer model for rapid hydrogasification of softening coal was also formulated. Effects of native mineral matter and selected inorganic additives on the pyrolysis behavior of the Pittsburgh Seam coal and of a Wyodak subbituminous coal were also studied. Detailed project findings are included in papers appended to the main body of the report. Important results include: (1) temperature and residence time are major parameters in determining pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis behavior; (2) coal type is also important, since major differences are observed in the yields, compositions, and evolution kinetics of products from rapid pyrolysis of the bituminous coal and of the lignite; (3) hydrogen can react rapidly with decomposing coal during the early stages of pyrolysis and, under conditions minimizing the elevated temperature contacting of hydrogen and pyrolysis tars, methane accounts for most of the resulting increased conversion; (4) secondary reactions of tar have a major role in determining product yields, compositions, and evolution kinetics in pyrolysis of the bituminous coal; and (5) increased CO production and decreased tar evolution are obtained by treating the bituminous coal with lime or calcite before pyrolysis.

  5. Rapid analysis of scattering from periodic dielectric structures using accelerated Cartesian expansions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Miller, Nicholas C.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2012-03-22

    Here, the analysis of fields in periodic dielectric structures arise in numerous applications of recent interest, ranging from photonic bandgap structures and plasmonically active nanostructures to metamaterials. To achieve an accurate representation of the fields in these structures using numerical methods, dense spatial discretization is required. This, in turn, affects the cost of analysis, particularly for integral-equation-based methods, for which traditional iterative methods require Ο(Ν2) operations, Ν being the number of spatial degrees of freedom. In this paper, we introduce a method for the rapid solution of volumetric electric field integral equations used in the analysis of doubly periodic dielectricmore » structures. The crux of our method is the accelerated Cartesian expansion algorithm, which is used to evaluate the requisite potentials in Ο(Ν) cost. Results are provided that corroborate our claims of acceleration without compromising accuracy, as well as the application of our method to a number of compelling photonics applications.« less

  6. Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant amount of our nation’s electricity.

  7. Maturation of biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology pathways for rapid expansion of biofuels production: A system dynamics perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian W.; Hsu, Dave D.; Inman, Daniel; Peterson, Steven O.

    2014-08-12

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system-dynamics simulation model intended to explore the potential for rapid expansion of the biofuels industry. The model is not predictive — it uses scenario assumptions based on various types of data to simulate industry development, emphasizing how incentives and technological learning-by-doing might accelerate industry growth. The BSM simulates major sectors of the biofuels industry, including feedstock production and logistics, conversion, distribution, and end uses, as well as interactions among sectors. The model represents conversion of biomass to biofuels as a set of technology pathways, each of which has allowable feedstocks, capital and operating costs, allowable products, and other defined characteristics. This study and the BSM address bioenergy modeling analytic needs that were identified in recent literature reviews. Simulations indicate that investments are most effective at expanding biofuels production through learning-by-doing when they are coordinated with respect to timing, pathway, and target sector within the biofuels industry. Effectiveness metrics include timing and magnitude of increased production, incentive cost and cost effectiveness, and avoidance of windfall profits. Investment costs and optimal investment targets have inherent risks and uncertainties, such as the relative value of investment in more-mature versus less mature pathways. These can be explored through scenarios, but cannot be precisely predicted. Dynamic competition, including competition for cellulosic feedstocks and ethanol market shares, intensifies during times of rapid growth. Ethanol production increases rapidly, even up to Renewable Fuel Standards-targeted volumes of biofuel, in simulations that allow higher blending proportions of ethanol in gasoline-fueled vehicles. Published 2014. This document is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts, Biorefining published by John Wiley

  8. Maturation of biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology pathways for rapid expansion of biofuels production: A system dynamics perspective

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura J.; Bush, Brian W.; Hsu, Dave D.; Inman, Daniel; Peterson, Steven O.

    2014-08-12

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system-dynamics simulation model intended to explore the potential for rapid expansion of the biofuels industry. The model is not predictive — it uses scenario assumptions based on various types of data to simulate industry development, emphasizing how incentives and technological learning-by-doing might accelerate industry growth. The BSM simulates major sectors of the biofuels industry, including feedstock production and logistics, conversion, distribution, and end uses, as well as interactions among sectors. The model represents conversion of biomass to biofuels as a set of technology pathways, each of which has allowable feedstocks, capital and operatingmore » costs, allowable products, and other defined characteristics. This study and the BSM address bioenergy modeling analytic needs that were identified in recent literature reviews. Simulations indicate that investments are most effective at expanding biofuels production through learning-by-doing when they are coordinated with respect to timing, pathway, and target sector within the biofuels industry. Effectiveness metrics include timing and magnitude of increased production, incentive cost and cost effectiveness, and avoidance of windfall profits. Investment costs and optimal investment targets have inherent risks and uncertainties, such as the relative value of investment in more-mature versus less mature pathways. These can be explored through scenarios, but cannot be precisely predicted. Dynamic competition, including competition for cellulosic feedstocks and ethanol market shares, intensifies during times of rapid growth. Ethanol production increases rapidly, even up to Renewable Fuel Standards-targeted volumes of biofuel, in simulations that allow higher blending proportions of ethanol in gasoline-fueled vehicles. Published 2014. This document is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Biofuels, Bioproducts, Biorefining published by John

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

  10. Accelerated Cartesian expansion (ACE) based framework for the rapid evaluation of diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein-Gordon potentials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Vikram, Melapudi; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Kempel, Leo

    2010-08-27

    Diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein–Gordon equations find numerous applications in practical problems across a range of diverse disciplines. The temporal dependence of all three Green’s functions are characterized by an infinite tail. This implies that the cost complexity of the spatio-temporal convolutions, associated with evaluating the potentials, scales as O(Ns2Nt2), where Ns and Nt are the number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, respectively. In this paper, we discuss two new methods to rapidly evaluate these spatio-temporal convolutions by exploiting their block-Toeplitz nature within the framework of accelerated Cartesian expansions (ACE). The first scheme identifies a convolution relation inmore » time amongst ACE harmonics and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for efficient evaluation of these convolutions. The second method exploits the rank deficiency of the ACE translation operators with respect to time and develops a recursive numerical compression scheme for the efficient representation and evaluation of temporal convolutions. It is shown that the cost of both methods scales as O(NsNtlog2Nt). Furthermore, several numerical results are presented for the diffusion equation to validate the accuracy and efficacy of the fast algorithms developed here.« less

  11. United States: coal's renaissance may be at hand. [Coal; 1970 to 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quenon, R.H.

    1980-11-01

    During the first half of 1980 steam coal exports from the United States to overseas customers increased nearly eight-fold to more than 5,100,000 tons. Total coal exports for the same period increased by 37 percent to 38,400,000 tons. Despite the recent growth in demand, the United States coal industry still finds itself a seriously demand-constrained industry. As a result, mines have been closed, miners put out of work, and expansion plans shelved. At present, the industry has the capacity to produce about 100,000,000 tons more coal each year than the market is absorbing. This situation exists largely because of capacity expansions begun in the early and mid-1970's following the oil embargo and the expectation of a much more rapid growth in coal use than actually occurred. This excess capacity can be brought on line quickly and additional capacity can be added if there is a greater demand for coal. Since the 1973 oil embargo, United States government policies designed to increase the use of coal have been largely offset by government actions increasing the costs of mining and using coal. In fact, while price and security of supply advantages lead to increased coal use, the rate of increase has been and will continue to be held down by government policies and requirements. The coal industry is continuing to work to bring about greater governmental and political awareness of actions which hold down the rate of increase in coal use. The National Coal Association identified 44 specific problem areas where government policies or requirements are impeding coal production and use. (LTN)

  12. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal In response to concerns of climate change, the United States is contemplating a complete and rapid transformation of the way it both produces and consumes energy to significantly reduce its carbon emissions. The integrated Coal Program focuses on retaining the benefits of continuing to use coal to produce electric power. This strategy can help us depend less on foreign sources of energy, respond to the world's growing climate concerns, and compete economically. It also will ensure that our

  13. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is

  14. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with

  15. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  16. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  17. Role of coal in the world and Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.; Li, B.

    1994-10-01

    This paper examines the changing role of coal in the world and in Asia. Particular attention is given to the rapidly growing demand for coal in electricity generation, the importance of China as a producer and consumer of coal, and the growing environmental challenge to coal. Attention is given to the increasing importance of low sulfur coal and Clean Coal Technologies in reducing the environmental impacts of coal burning.

  18. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Glossary FAQS Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports ...

  19. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  20. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Markets | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly coal commodity spot prices dollars per short ton Week ending Week ago change Central Appalachia 12,500 Btu, 1.2 SO2 Northern Appalachia 13,000 Btu, < 3.0 SO2 Illinois Basin 11,800 Btu, 5.0 SO2 Powder River Basin 8,800 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Uinta Basin 11,700 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Source: With permission, SNL Energy Note: Coal prices shown reflect those of relatively high-Btu coal selected in each region

  1. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal ...

  2. Occupational and traning requirements for expanded coal production (as of October 1980). [Forecasting to 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This study was initiated because of the anticipated rapid growth in trained personnel requirements in bituminous coal mining, and because the industry had already experienced significant problems in recruiting skilled manpower in the course of its employment expansion during the 1970's. Employment in bituminous coal mining is projected to nearly double, from 234,000 in 1977 to 456,000 in 1995, as the net result of a projected threefold increase in coal output to nearly 2.0 billion in 1995 and of an expected significant improvement in overall productivity. A large proportion of current coal mining employees are in occupations which require significant amounts of training for effective work performance. Employment growth to 1955 will be most rapid in those occupations requiring the greatest training or educational preparation. The new training infrastructure which has emerged to meet these needs includes both internal, company-operated training programs and those offered by various external providers. Among the latter are: Vocational schools, community colleges, and university extension departments; public agencies, such as MSHA and state mining departments; coal industry trade associations; and vendors or training consultant groups. The Conference Board survey of coal industry training programs, conducted in late 1979, was designed to provide comprehensive data on the scope of the coal industry's own training activities and on related training issues, based on a mail questionnaire survey addressed to all companies producing 300,000 or more tons per year. The training programs are described with emphasis on time changes, regional effects and implications for a coordinated plan.

  3. Virginia coal industry: a study of the infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbard, W.R. Jr.; Chisholm, R.H.; Valdes, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the Virginia coal industry concludes that since coal quality from Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky is similar, then delivered cost is the key to steam coal sales to Virginia electric utilities. While the future looks good for the industry, coal from eastern Kentucky and West Virginia was delivered at a lower cost, which put Virginia coal at a disadvantage. Increased Virginia coal sales require the close cooperation of coal suppliers, transporters, and users. Negotiators directly representing the governor might be able to help bring this about. The report concludes with several recommendations, including the expansion of the Norfolk Southern railroad system, the requirement that state installations use state coal, consultation services to small operators, and the publication and dissemination of information to coal users. 3 figures, 26 tables.

  4. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users" and Form EIA-7A, "Coal Production and Preparation Report." Appendix A Assigning Missing Data to EIA-923...

  5. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  6. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  7. Keystone coal industry manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The 1994 Keystone Coal Industry Manual is presented. Keystone has served as the one industry reference authority for the many diverse organizations concerned with the supply and utilization of coal in the USA and Canada. Through the continuing efforts of coal producers, buyers, users, sellers, and equipment designers and manufacturers, the coal industry supplies an abundant and economical fuel that is indispensable in meeting the expanding energy needs of North America. The manual is divided into the following sections: coal sales companies, coal export, transportation of coal, consumer directories, coal associations and groups, consulting and financial firms, buyers guide, industry statistics and ownership, coal preparation, coal mine directory, and coal seams.

  8. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Turning coal into liquid fuels like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, with biomass to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, is the main goal of the Coal and ...

  9. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ...

  10. Microwave-assisted sample preparation of coal and coal fly ash for subsequent metal determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srogi, K.

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this paper is to review microwave-assisted digestion of coal and coal fly ash. A brief description of microwave heating principles is presented. Microwave-assisted digestion appears currently to be the most popular preparation technique, possibly due to the comparatively rapid sample preparation and the reduction of contamination, compared to the conventional hot-plate digestion methods.

  11. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  12. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Coal Distribution Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: August 17, 2016 Next Release Date: December 22, 2016 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009

  13. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  14. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  15. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  16. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  17. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  18. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal

  19. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Origin State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal

  20. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  1. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.; Chen, James M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  2. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report ...

  3. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  4. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  5. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  6. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  7. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  8. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  9. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  10. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  11. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  12. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  13. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  14. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  15. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  16. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  17. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  18. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  19. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  20. NETL: Coal Gasification Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Coal Gasification is a process that can turn coal into clean power, chemicals, hydrogen and transportation fuels, and can be used to capture the carbon from ...

  1. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  2. Coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  3. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehoe, D. )

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  4. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  5. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlin, Walter A.; Gorski, Alan; Jaehnig, Leo J.; Moskal, Clifford J.; Naylor, Joseph D.; Parimi, Krishnia; Ward, John V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  6. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  7. Coal production 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    Coal Production 1988 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1989. 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  8. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  9. Optimal Electric Utility Expansion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-10-10

    SAGE-WASP is designed to find the optimal generation expansion policy for an electrical utility system. New units can be automatically selected from a user-supplied list of expansion candidates which can include hydroelectric and pumped storage projects. The existing system is modeled. The calculational procedure takes into account user restrictions to limit generation configurations to an area of economic interest. The optimization program reports whether the restrictions acted as a constraint on the solution. All expansionmore » configurations considered are required to pass a user supplied reliability criterion. The discount rate and escalation rate are treated separately for each expansion candidate and for each fuel type. All expenditures are separated into local and foreign accounts, and a weighting factor can be applied to foreign expenditures.« less

  10. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  11. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  12. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  13. Coal feed lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  14. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  15. Pelletization of fine coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

  16. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  17. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Chemicals from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  19. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  20. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W.; Lewis, Susan N.

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  1. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  2. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  3. "Annual Coal Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Coal Report Data Released: January 20, 2015 Data for: 2013 Re-Release Date: April 23, 2015 (CORRECTION) Annual Coal Report 2013 CorrectionUpdate April 23, 2015 The Annual ...

  4. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K.

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  5. Coal Fleet Aging Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2016 MEMORANDUM TO: Dr. Ian Mead Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and Uranium Analysis Team SUBJECT: Notes from the Coal Fleet Aging Meeting held on June 14, 2016 Attendees (36) *Indicates attendance via WebEx. 2 Framing the question This adjunct meeting of the AEO Coal Working Group (CWG) was held as a follow up to the previous Future Operating and Maintenance Considerations for the

  6. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, John L.; Scott, Robert G.; Studier, Martin H.

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  7. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  8. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  9. Coal Combustion Products

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge.

  10. Coal Study Guide for Elementary School

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate change concerns.

  11. Coal Data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-26

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  12. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J.; Badgujar, Mohan

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  13. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  14. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  15. Nuclear Fusion Drives Present-Day Accelerated Cosmic Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, Leong

    2010-09-30

    The widely accepted model of our cosmos is that it began from a Big Bang event some 13.7 billion years ago from a single point source. From a twin universe perspective, the standard stellar model of nuclear fusion can account for the Dark Energy needed to explain the mechanism for our present-day accelerated expansion. The same theories can also be used to account for the rapid inflationary expansion at the earliest time of creation, and predict the future cosmic expansion rate.

  16. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  17. Stateline Expansion Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stateline Expansion Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Stateline Expansion Wind Farm Facility Stateline Expansion Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind...

  18. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  19. Microbial solubilization of coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.A.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Stewart, D.L.; Thomas, B.L.; McCulloch, M.; Wilson, B.W.; Bean, R.M.

    1988-11-01

    Microbial solubilization of coal may serve as a first step in a process to convert low-rank coals or coal-derived products to other fuels or products. For solubilization of coal to be an economically viable technology, a mechanistic understanding of the process is essential. Leonardite, a highly oxidized, low-rank coal, has been solubilized by the intact microorganism, cell-free filtrate, and cell-free enzyme of /ital Coriolus versicolor/. A spectrophotometric conversion assay was developed to quantify the amount of biosolubilized coal. In addition, a bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6, was solubilized by a species of /ital Penicillium/, but only after the coal had been preoxidized in air. Model compounds containing coal-related functionalities have been incubated with the leonardite-degrading fungus, its cell-free filtrate, and purified enzyme. The amount of degradation was determined by gas chromatography and the degradation products were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have also separated the cell-free filtrate of /ital C. versicolor/ into a <10,000 MW and >10,000 MW fraction by ultrafiltration techniques. Most of the coal biosolubilization activity is contained in the <10,000 MW fraction while the model compound degradation occurs in the >10,000 MW fraction. The >10,000 MW fraction appears to contain an enzyme with laccase-like activity. 10 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Cryogenic expansion machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pallaver, Carl B.; Morgan, Michael W.

    1978-01-01

    A cryogenic expansion engine includes intake and exhaust poppet valves each controlled by a cam having adjustable dwell, the valve seats for the valves being threaded inserts in the valve block. Each cam includes a cam base and a ring-shaped cam insert disposed at an exterior corner of the cam base, the cam base and cam insert being generally circular but including an enlarged cam dwell, the circumferential configuration of the cam base and cam dwell being identical, the cam insert being rotatable with respect to the cam base. GI CONTRACTUAL ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the UNITED STATES ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION.

  1. Technology choice in a least-cost expansion analysis framework: Implications for state regulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guziel, K.A.; South, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    It is inevitable that new power plants will need to be constructed in the near future; however, it is unclear which technologies will be selected for these new plants. In a study for the US Department of Energy, the impacts of fuel prices, length of the planning period, and the characteristics of the generating system were examined for their influence on technology choice in 10 representative power pools. It was determined that natural gas combined-cycle technology was generally preferred for base-load and intermediate/cycling capacity when gas prices are low and the planning period is short (10 years). Integrated coal gasification combined-cycle plants were selected to serve most base-load requirements under other conditions. One aspect often overlooked in making a least-cost technology choice is system reliability: nonoptimal technology choices call be made if alternative expansion plans do not have the same level of reliability when discounted system costs are compared. Utilities have become capital averse due to a multitude of regulatory, market, and supply issues. Utilities are looking at natural gas technologies, since they offer rapid construction/deployment, low capital investment, and higher availability than coal-fired technologies. Of concern to state regulators is how to evaluate a least-cost plan. Key parameters studied were based on the following: (1) What is the impact of alternative gas projections on technology choice (2) What influence does the planning horizon (10 versus 30 years) have on technology choice (3) How important are existing system characteristics (e.g., mix of technologies, operating costs, load shape) on technology choice This paper summarizes the analysis framework and presents results for two power pools: Power Pool 1, the American Electric Power (AEP) service territory, and Power Pool 16, with all the utilities in Florida. 7 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  2. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an

  3. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  4. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  5. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio ...

  6. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Data For: 2001 Next Release Date: October 2003 U. S. Coal-Producing Districts...

  7. Coal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assuming no additional constraints on CO2 emissions, coal remains the largest source of electricity generation in the AEO2011 Reference case because of continued reliance on...

  8. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  9. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The use of coals with sub- optimal characteristics carries with it penalties in operating efficiency, maintenance cost, and system reliability. Such penalties range from the...

  10. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    California (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total...

  11. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  12. British coal privatization procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The form in which British Coal is to be privatized has finally been announced. Offers are to be invited for the operating underground and opencast mines which will be grouped into five regionally based companies. Additionally, offers will be invited for a number of collieries which are currently under care and maintenance. The five Regional Coal Companies to be formed are Central North, which will comprise the assets in the Yorkshire and Durham coalfields, including the five collieries in the Selby Complex; Central South, which will contain the assets located in the Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and Warwickshire coalfields; North East, which has four opencast sites, Scotland, which has nine operating open-cast sites and a single underground mine, Longannet; and South Wales with its nine operating opencast sites. Tower colliery, the last underground mine in South Wales, was finally put on care and maintenance on April 20, 1994. Details of the five Regional Coal Companies are given. A new public sector body, the Coal Authority will be set up to which all British Coal's title to unworked coal and coal mines will be transferred. All the relevant property rights and liabilities of British Coal will be transferred into the Regional Coal Companies prior to their sun.

  13. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  14. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  15. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... stitutions * InternationalCoal Technology Export C&PS ... * Systems Integration * Plant Designs Central Power ... Boiler System - Indirect Fired Cycles - Pressurized ...

  16. WCI Case for Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... technology: It has been calculated that if the thermal efficiency of existing coal-fired power plant worldwide were brought up to current German levels of efficiency, the ...

  17. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  18. Coal-to-Liquids Process Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive Aspen Plus model has been developed to rigorously model coal-to-liquids processes. This portion was developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. The model is built in a modular fashion to allow rapid reconfiguration for evaluation of process options. Aspen Plus is the framework in which the model is developed. The coal-to-liquids simulation package is an assemble of Aspen Hierarchy Blocks representing subsections of the plant. Each of these Blocks are considered individual components of the Copyright, which may be extracted and licensed as individual components, but which may be combined with one or more other components, to model general coal-conversion processes, including the following plant operations: (1) coal handling and preparation, (2) coal pyrolysis, combustion, or gasification, (3) syngas conditioning and cleanup, (4) sulfur recovery using Claus-SCOT unit operations, (5) Fischer-Tropsch liquid fuels synthesis, (6) hydrocracking of high molecular weight paraffin, (7) hydrotreating of low molecular weight paraffin and olefins, (8) gas separations, and (9) power generation representing integrated combined cycle technology.

  19. Coal-to-Liquids Process Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive Aspen Plus model has been developed to rigorously model coal-to-liquids processes. This portion was developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. The model is built in a modular fashion to allow rapid reconfiguration for evaluation of process options. Aspen Plus is the framework in which the model is developed. The coal-to-liquids simulation package is an assemble of Aspen Hierarchy Blocks representing subsections of the plant. Each of these Blocks are consideredmore » individual components of the Copyright, which may be extracted and licensed as individual components, but which may be combined with one or more other components, to model general coal-conversion processes, including the following plant operations: (1) coal handling and preparation, (2) coal pyrolysis, combustion, or gasification, (3) syngas conditioning and cleanup, (4) sulfur recovery using Claus-SCOT unit operations, (5) Fischer-Tropsch liquid fuels synthesis, (6) hydrocracking of high molecular weight paraffin, (7) hydrotreating of low molecular weight paraffin and olefins, (8) gas separations, and (9) power generation representing integrated combined cycle technology.« less

  20. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  1. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  2. Coal production, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-05

    Coal Production 1987 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. The 1987 coal production and related data presented in this report were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1987. This survey originated at the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior. In 1977, the responsibility for taking the survey was transferred to the EIA under the Department of Energy Organization Act (P.L. 95-91). The data cover 3667 of the 4770 US coal mining operations active in 1987. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 77 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1987. This issue is the 12th annual report published by EIA and continues the series formerly included as a chapter in the Minerals Yearbook published by the Bureau of Mines. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1988. This is the eighth annual summary on minable coal, pursuant to Section 801 of Public Law 95-620. 18 figs., 105 tabs.

  3. Coal resources of Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, E.R.; Bostick, N.H.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Johnson, E.A.; Harrison, C.D.; Huber, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The rugged, mountainous country of Kyrgyzstan contains about one-half of the known coal resources of central Asia (a geographic and economic region that also includes Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan). Coal of Jurassic age is present in eight regions in Kyrgyzstan in at least 64 different named localities. Significant coal occurrences of about the same age are present in the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, China, and Russia. Separation of the coal-bearing rocks into individual deposits results more than earth movements before and during formation of the present-day mountains and basins of the country than from deposition in separate basins.Separation was further abetted by deep erosion and removal of the coal-bearing rocks from many areas, followed by covering of the remaining coal-bearing rocks by sands and gravels of Cenozoic age. The total resources of coal in Kyrgyzstan have been reported as about 30 billion tons. In some of the reported localities, the coal resources are known and adequately explored. In other parts of the republic, the coal resources are inadequately understood or largely unexplored. The resource and reserve inventory of Kyrgyzstan is at best incomplete; for some purposes, such as short-term local and long-range national planning, it may be inadequate. Less than 8% of the total estimated resources are categorized as recoverable reserves, and the amount that is economically recoverable is unknown. The coal is largely of subbituminous and high-volatile C bituminous rank, most has low and medium ash and sulfur contents, and coals of higher rank (some with coking qualities) are present in one region. It is recommended that appropriate analyses and tests be made during planning for utilization.

  4. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  5. Coal. [Great Plains Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The status of various research projects related to coal is considered: gasification (approximately 30 processes) and in-situ gasification. Methanol production, retrofitting internal combustion engines to stratified charge engines, methanation (Conoco), direct reduction of iron ores, water resources, etc. Approximately 200 specific projects related to coal are considered with respect to present status. (LTN)

  6. Dry piston coal feeder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  7. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, Wendell H.; Oblad, Alex G.; Shabtai, Joseph S.

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  8. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  9. Sustainable Coal Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Coal is a vital energy resource, not only for the United States, but also for many developed and developing economies around the world. Finding ways to use coal cleanly and more efficiently at lower costs is a major R&D challenge, and an ongoing focus of activities by the DOE's Office of Fossil Energy.

  10. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  11. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  12. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchener, A.J.

    2005-07-01

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  14. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  15. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  16. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  17. FERC approves Northwest pipeline expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    Northwest Pipeline Co., Salt Lake City, Utah, received a final permit from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for a $373.4 million main gas line expansion. This paper reports that it plans to begin construction of the 443 MMcfd expansion in mid-July after obtaining further federal, state, and local permits. The expanded system is to be fully operational by second quarter 1993. When the expansion is complete, total Northwest system mileage will be 3,936 miles and system capacity about 2.49 bcfd.

  18. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  19. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  20. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  1. Chapter 4 - Coal

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Chapter 4 Coal Overview In the International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) Reference case, coal remains the second-largest energy source worldwide- behind petroleum and other liquids-until 2030. From 2030 through 2040, it is the third-largest energy source, behind both liquid fuels and natural gas. World coal consumption increases from 2012 to 2040 at an average rate of 0.6%/year, from 153 quadrillion Btu in 2012 to 169

  2. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Charles H.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  3. Underground gasification of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  4. Clocking the Early Universe's Expansion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clocking the Early Universe's Expansion Calculations Performed at NERSC Help Scientists Close in on the Nature of Dark Energy April 17, 2014 Margie Wylie, mwylie@lbl.gov, +1 510 ...

  5. Coal transportation. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic and engineering aspects of coal transportation by truck, rail, water, and pipeline. Cost comparisons of the various transportation modes and factors affecting future expansion of the transportation systems are discussed. The use of computer simulations to predict transport performance, and the pretreatment of coal for transportation are briefly considered. (Contains a minimum of 51 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. DOE - Fossil Energy: Coal Mining and Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mining Fossil Energy Study Guides Coal Mining and Transportation Coal Miners - One type of mining, called "longwall mining", uses a rotating blade to shear coal away from the ...

  7. Puda Coal Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Puda Coal Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Puda Coal, Inc Place: Taiyuan, Shaanxi Province, China Product: Specializes in coal preparation by applying a water jig washing...

  8. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (April 2016) Archived Editions: Coal ...

  9. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  10. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  11. Delineating coal market regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, B.D.; Pyrdol, J.J.

    1986-04-01

    This study addresses the delineation of US coal market regions and their evolution since the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Dichotomizing into compliance (low sulfur) and high sulfur coal deliveries, market regions are generated for 1973, 1977, and 1983. Focus is restricted to steam coal shipments to electric utilities, which currently account for over 80% of the total domestic market. A two-stage method is used. First, cluster analyses are performed on the origin-destination shipments data to generate baseline regions. This is followed by multiple regression analyses on CIF delivered price data for 1983. Sensitivity analysis on the configuration of the regions is also conducted, and some thoughts on the behavior of coal markets conclude the paper. 37 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Proximate analysis of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, C.J.; Rais, E.A.

    2009-02-15

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content are determined for each sample and comparisons are made. Proximate analysis is performed on a coal sample from a local electric utility. From the weight percent sulfur found in the coal (determined by a separate procedure the Eschka method) and the ash content, students calculate the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions and ash produced annually by a large coal-fired electric power plant.

  13. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  14. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  15. Coal Research FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    According to IEA, removing CCS from the list of options ... and storage (CCS) with coal-fired power generation at commercial ... new fossil-fueled power plants by increasing overall ...

  16. Clean Coal Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

  17. Effects of preoxidation on the swelling and softening of bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maloney, D. J.; Jenkins, R. G.; Walker, Jr., P. L.

    1980-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of a DuPont 942-TMA (Thermomechanical Analyzer) dilatometer system for the characterization of the swelling and softening properties of caking coals. The results of this investigation demonstrate the utility of this dilatometer system. Several parameters clearly defined with this unit are characteristic of the plastic transitions occurring upon carbonization. These include softening, dilation and resolidification temperature and volume contraction, expansion and total dilation values. The transition parameters measured with the 942-TMA unit are influenced significantly by coal particle size, dilatometer load, and heating rate. All transition temperatures exhibit marked increases with increasing heating rate. Softening temperatures decrease with increasing load and particle size. Dilation temperatures are essentially independent of dilatometer load effects and resolidification temperatures are independent of load and particle size over the range of conditions used in this study. Volume contraction and expansion values show an increase with decreasing coal particle size. Volume expansion values also exhibit strong heating rate and load dependencies. The results point up the great difficulty involved in obtaining truly fresh unoxidized coal samples. Storage of fine coal particles for extended periods of time in atmospheres with even slight oxygen concentrations show signs of weathering. Exposure of an HVA coal to dry air at ambient temperature has much less effect on subsequent swelling and softening properties than does exposure to moist air.

  18. American coal imports 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Kolojeski

    2007-09-15

    As 2007 ends, the US coal industry passes two major milestones - the ending of the Synfuel tax break, affecting over 100M st annually, and the imposition of tighter and much more expensive safety measures, particularly in deep mines. Both of these issues, arriving at a time of wretched steam coal price levels, promise to result in a major shake up in the Central Appalachian mining sector. The report utilizes a microeconomic regional approach to determine whether either of these two schools of thought have any validity. Transport, infrastructure, competing fuels and regional issues are examined in detail and this forecasts estimates coal demand and imports on a region by region basis for the years 2010 and 2015. Some of the major highlights of the forecast are: Import growth will be driven by steam coal demand in the eastern and southern US; Transport will continue to be the key driver - we believe that inland rail rates will deter imports from being railed far inland and that the great majority of imports will be delivered directly by vessel, barge or truck to end users; Colombian coal will be the overwhelmingly dominant supply source and possesses a costs structure to enable it to compete with US-produced coal in any market conditions; Most of the growth will come from existing power plants - increasing capacity utilization at existing import facilities and other plants making investments to add imports to the supply portfolio - the growth is not dependent upon a lot of new coal fired capacity being built. Contents of the report are: Key US market dynamics; International supply dynamics; Structure of the US coal import market; and Geographic analysis.

  19. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  20. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  1. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  2. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  3. Coal repository. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The Coal Repository Project was initiated in 1980 by the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to provide a centralized system for the collection of well characterized coal samples, and distribution to organizations involved in the chemical beneficiation of coal and related research. TRW Energy Development Group, together with its subcontractor Commercial Testing and Engineering Company, established the Coal Repository at the TRW Capistrano Chemical Facility, which is the location of the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuel and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP). Twenty tons each of three coals (Illinois No. 6, Kentucky No. 11 (West), and Pittsburgh No. 8 (from an Ohio mine)) were collected, characterized, and stored under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ten tons of each coal are 3/8-inch x 0, five tons of each are 14-mesh x 0, and five tons of each are 100-mesh x 0. Although TRW was within budget and on schedule, Department of Energy funding priorities in this area were altered such that the project was terminated prior to completion of the original scope of work. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Coal-fueled diesels for modular power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, A.K.; Smith, W.C.

    1993-11-01

    Interest in coal-fueled heat engines revived after the sharp increase in the prices of natural gas and petroleum in the 1970`s. Based on the success of micronized coal water slurry combustion tests in an engine in the 1980`s, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy. initiated several programs for the development of advanced coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine engines for use in cogeneration, small utilities, industrial applications and transportation. Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have been developing technology since 1985, under the sponsor of METC, to enable coal water slurry (CWS) to be utilized in large bore, medium-speed diesel engines. Modular power generation applications in the 10--100 MW size (each plant typically using from two to eight engines) are the target applications for the late 1990`s and beyond when, according to the US DOE and other projections, oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate much more rapidly compared to the price of coal. As part of this program over 7.50 hours of prototype engine operation has been achieved on coal water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder full scale engine with Integrated Emissions Control System in 1993. In this paper, the authors described the project cost of the CWS fuel used, the heat rate of the engine operating on CWS, the projected maintenance cost for various engine components, and the demonstrated low emissions characteristics of the coal diesel system.

  5. Economics of coal fines utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hathi, V.; McHale, E.; Ramezan, M.; Winslow, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the twentieth century, coal has become the major fuel for electric power generation in the U.S. and most of the nonpetroleum-producing countries of the world. In 1998, the world coal-fired capacity for electric power generation was about 815 GW, consuming large quantities of coals of all ranks. Today, coal provides a third of the world`s energy requirements. In fact, coal use for power generation has grown steadily since the oil embargo in 1973 and has seen an even faster rate of growth in recent years. It has been reported that the global demand for new coal will increase by more than 1500 million tons by the year 2000. However, this increased production of coal has its drawbacks, including the concomitant production of coal waste. Reported estimates indicate that billions of tons of coal waste have already been disposed of in waste impoundments throughout the U.S. Further, in the U.S. today, about 20-25 % of each ton of mined coal is discarded by preparation plants as gob and plant tailings. It appears that the most economical near-term approach to coal waste recovery is to utilize the waste coal fines currently discarded with the refuse stream, rather than attempt to recover coal from waste impoundments that require careful prior evaluation and site preparation. A hypothetical circuit was designed to examine the economics of recovery and utilization of waste coal fines. The circuit recovers products from 100 tons per hour (tph) of coal waste feed recovering 70 tph of fine coal that can be used in coal-fired boilers. The present analysis indicates that the coal waste recovery is feasible and economical. In addition, significant environmental benefits can be expected.

  6. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  7. DOE - Fossil Energy: Introduction to Coal Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal COAL is our most abundant fossil fuel. The United States has more coal than the rest of the world has oil. There is still enough coal ...

  8. DOE - Fossil Energy: Clean Coal Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2-Clean Coal Technology An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada ...

  9. STEO November 2012 - coal supplies

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to

  10. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  11. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  12. Relativistic effects on plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad

    2014-07-15

    The expansion of electron-ion plasma is studied through a fully relativistic multi-fluids plasma model which includes thermal pressure, ambipolar electrostatic potential, and internal energy conversion. Numerical investigation, based on quasi-neutral assumption, is performed for three different regimes: nonrelativistic, weakly relativistic, and relativistic. Ions' front in weakly relativistic regime exhibits spiky structure associated with a break-down of quasi-neutrality at the expanding front. In the relativistic regime, ion velocity is found to reach a saturation limit which occurs at earlier stages of the expansion. This limit is enhanced by higher electron velocity.

  13. Coal production, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons).

  14. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  15. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  16. 2008 Coal Age buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  17. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  18. NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquid Fuels Market Module Model inputs for coal plants 3 * Existing coal plants - plant specific ... FF - Cost to convert to natural gas-fired steam plant - Cost to implement heat ...

  19. U.S. Coal Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation costs to electric power sector International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption Environment Imports & exports Industry characteristics Prices Production Projections Recurring Reserves Stocks All

  20. NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewable Analysis Laura Martin June 14, 2016 Washington, DC 2 EMM Structure EFD ECP EFP ELD Laura Martin Washington, DC, June 14, 2016 Electricity Load and Demand Submodule Liquid Fuels Market Module Model inputs for coal plants 3 * Existing coal plants - plant specific inputs - Fixed and variable operating and maintenance costs, annual capital additions - Retrofit costs (capital and O&M) - FGD, DSI, SCR, SNCR, CCS, FF -

  1. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  2. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  3. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  4. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Morgan C.; Schindler, Harvey D.

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  5. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  6. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs faq-header-big.jpg BASICS Q: How are gasoline and diesel fuel made from coal? A: Gasoline and diesel fuels can be produced from coal in two distinct processes: Indirect Liquefaction and Direct Liquefaction. In Indirect Liquefaction, coal is first gasified to produce synthesis gas (syngas for short), which is a mixture containing primarily hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases. The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a commercial process that can be used

  7. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  8. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  9. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  10. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  11. EIS-0073: Solvent Refined Coal-I Demonstration Project, Daviess County, Kentucky

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts associated with construction and operation of a 6,000-tons-per-stream-day-capacity coal liquefaction facility in Newman, Kentucky, and the potential impacts of a future expansion of the proposed facility to an approximately 30,000 tons per stream day capacity.

  12. Pretreatment of coal during transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Glenn E.; Neilson, Harry B.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.

    1977-04-19

    Many available coals are "caking coals" which possess the undesirable characteristic of fusing into a solid mass when heated through their plastic temperature range (about 400.degree. C.) which temperature range is involved in many common treatment processes such as gasification, hydrogenation, carbonization and the like. Unless the caking properties are first destroyed, the coal cannot be satisfactorily used in such processes. A process is disclosed herein for decaking finely divided coal during its transport to the treating zone by propelling the coal entrained in an oyxgen-containing gas through a heated transport pipe whereby the separate transport and decaking steps of the prior art are combined into a single step.

  13. Coal combustion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C.S.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development related to coal combustion being performed for the Fossil Energy Program under the direction of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The key activity involves the application of chaos theory for the diagnosis and control of fossil energy processes.

  14. Catalytic coal hydroliquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal in a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of hydrogen and a co-catalyst combination of iron and a Group VI or Group VIII non-ferrous metal or compounds of the catalysts.

  15. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  16. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal. The IBM PC version contains two auxiliary programs, DATAPREP and FORLIST. DATAPREP is an interactive preprocessor for creating and editing COALPREP input data. FORLIST converts carriage-control characters in FORTRAN output data to ASCII line-feed (X''0A'') characters.« less

  17. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal.« less

  18. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. ); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. ); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. ); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. )

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  19. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143...

  20. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  1. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  2. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  3. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maa, Peter S.

    1978-01-01

    A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

  4. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  5. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  7. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  8. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  9. Appalachian recapitalization: United Coal comes full circle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    The article recounts the recent history of the United Coal Co. which exited from the coal business between 1992 and 1997 and has recently returned. More coal reserves have been added by its four companies Sapphire Coal, Carter Roag Coal, Pocahontas Coal and Wellmore, bringing the grand total to 222.6 Mtons. United Coal's developments and investment strategy are discussed. The company headquarters are in Bristol, Va., USA. 1 tab., 7 photos.

  10. Annual Energy Outlook 2015 1st Coal Working Group

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 st Coal Working Group Coal and Uranium Analysis Team July 30, 2014 | Washington, D.C. WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES. DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS AEO2015 MODELING ASSUMPTIONS AND INPUTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE. Changes in release cycles for EIA's AEO and IEO 2 * To focus more resources on rapidly changing energy markets and how they might evolve over the next few years, the U.S. Energy Information Administration is revising the schedule and approach for production of the

  11. Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems.

  12. The 1/Nc Expansion in Baryons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jose L. Goity, Chandana Jayalath, Norberto N. Scoccola

    2010-08-01

    The 1/N_c expansion in baryons is discussed with two applications, namely baryon masses and partial decay widths. These applications provide the basic insights on the utility of the expansion.

  13. Summary of coal export project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Through the international coal project and related activities, SSEB has called attention to the problems and potential of the US coal industry. The program has provided an excellent format for frank discussions on the problems facing US coal exports. Every effort must be made to promote coal and its role in the southern economy. Coal is enjoying its best years in the domestic market. While the export market is holding its own, there is increased competition in the world market from Australia, Columbia, China and, to a lesser extent, Russia. This is coming at a time when the US has enacted legislation and plans are underway to deepen ports. In addition there is concern that increased US coal and electricity imports are having a negative impact on coal production. These limiting factors suggest the US will remain the swing supplier of coal on the world market in the near future. This presents a challenge to the US coal and related industry to maintain the present market and seek new markets as well as devote research to new ways to use coal more cleanly and efficiently.

  14. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  15. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.

    1977-05-24

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

  16. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  17. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  18. Coal-Producing Region

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change Alabama 2,446 2,298 4,022 2,446 4,022 -39.2 Alaska 310 328 265 310 265 16.7 Arizona 1,335 1,376 1,755 1,335 1,755 -23.9 Arkansas 11 18 21 11 21 -48.0 Colorado 2,482 3,258 5,263 2,482 5,263 -52.8 Illinois 11,312 11,886 16,779 11,312 16,779 -32.6 Indiana 7,224 7,264 9,463 7,224 9,463 -23.7 Kansas 27 55 53 27 53

  19. Coal mine subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahall, N.J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts.

  20. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-31

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  1. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  2. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COAL & POWER SYSTEMS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY GREENER, SOONER... THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION .......... i-1 STRATEGIC PLAN ........ 1-1 PROGRAM PLANS Vision 21 .......................... 2-1 Central Power Systems ...... 3-1 Distributed Generation ..... 4-1 Fuels ................................ 5-1 Carbon Sequestration ....... 6-1 Advanced Research ........... 7-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM

  3. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    The coal liquefaction process disclosed uses three stages. The first stage is a liquefaction. The second and third stages are hydrogenation stages at different temperatures and in parallel or in series. One stage is within 650.degree.-795.degree. F. and optimizes solvent production. The other stage is within 800.degree.-840.degree. F. and optimizes the C.sub.5 -850.degree. F. product.

  4. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-12-15

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  5. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  6. Environmental development plan: coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Environmental Development plan (EDP) examines environmental concerns that are being evaluated for the technologies in DOE's Coal Liquefaction Program. It identifies the actions that are planned or underway to resolve these concerns while the technologies are being developed. Research is scheduled on the evaluation and mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This EDP updates the FY 1977 Coal Liquefaction Program EDP. Chapter II describes the DOE Coal Liquefaction Program and focuses on the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), H-Coal, and Exxon donor solvent (EDS) processes because of their relatively advanced R and D stages. The major unresolved environmental concerns associated with the coal liquefaction subactivities and projects are summarized. The concerns were identified in the 1977 EDP's and research was scheduled to lead to the resolution of the concerns. Much of this research is currently underway. The status of ongoing and planned research is shown in Table 4-1.

  7. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  8. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  9. Clean Coal Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of harmful pollutants from coal, including mercury, sulfur and coal tars. References: Clean Coal Technologies1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it....

  10. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  12. Volatile coal prices reflect supply, demand uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2004-12-15

    Coal mine owners and investors say that supply and demand are now finally in balance. But coal consumers find that both spot tonnage and new contract coal come at a much higher price.

  13. Clean Coal Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    plant efficiencies and reduce both the energy and capital costs of CO2 capture and storage from new, advanced coal ... NETL Clean Coal Research Tracking New Coal-fired Power ...

  14. Coal Production 1990. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-12

    This report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, and reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1991. This is the 11th annual summary on minable coal, pursuant to Section 801 of Public Law 95-620, the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978. 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  15. Coal production 1984. [USA; 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Coal Production 1984 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (PL 93-275) as amended. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, and the 1983 coal preparation and shipments data presented in Appendix C, were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1984. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 76.3% of all US coal mining operations in 1984. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1984.

  16. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  17. On-Site Coal Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Research Advanced Energy Systems Advanced Energy Systems research conceives, analyzes, and develops energy technologies that can minimize the environmental impact of fossil ...

  18. Weekly Coal Production by State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse gas data, voluntary report- ing, electric power plant emissions. Highlights ... Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation ...

  19. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K.; Kovacic, Larry

    1993-01-01

    A glass composition for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na.sub.2 O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K.sub.2 O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B.sub.2 O.sub.3, has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210.times.10-7/.degree.C. and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2.times.10.sup.- 7 and 2.times.10.sup.-9 g/cm.sup.2 -min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  20. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  1. EA-1997: Construction Landfill Expansion, Pantex Plant, Amarillo...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7: Construction Landfill Expansion, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas EA-1997: Construction Landfill Expansion, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas SUMMARY Construction Landfill Expansion,...

  2. Stetson Wind Expansion Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stetson Wind Expansion Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Stetson Wind Expansion Wind Farm Facility Stetson Wind Expansion Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale...

  3. Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Gasification Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically through the process of coal gasification with carbon capture, utilization, and storage. DOE anticipates that coal gasification for hydrogen production with carbon capture, utilization, and storage could be deployed in the mid-term time frame. How Does It Work? Chemically, coal is a complex and highly

  4. Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Quarterly Coal Distribution Report Release Date: August 17, 2016 | Next Release Date: December 22, 2016 | full report The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of transportation, and consuming sector. All quarterly data are preliminary and will be superseded by the release of the corresponding "Annual Coal Distribution Report." Highlights for the fourth quarter 2015: Total

  5. American Clean Coal Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    American Clean Coal Fuels Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAmericanCleanCoalFuels&oldid768408" Categories: Organizations Energy Generation Organizations...

  6. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... organic base catalysts for arene hydrogenation and the hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  7. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... organic base catalysts for arene hydrogenation and the hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  8. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... Task 2, organic base-catalyzed arene hydrogenation and hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  9. Jamestown Oxy Coal Alliance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxy Coal Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jamestown Oxy-Coal Alliance Place: New York Product: The Jamestown Alliance has been formed to develop a CCS demonstration...

  10. FMI NewCoal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    developer focused on upgrading low rank coals to improve combustion efficiency and reduce production of greenhouse emissions for coal fired utility and industrial power generation...

  11. FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity from Innovative DOE-Supported Clean Coal Project An innovative clean coal technology project in Texas will supply electricity to the largest municipally owned...

  12. SciTech Connect: "clean coal"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clean coal" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "clean coal" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  13. EIA - Weekly U.S. Coal Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rounding. Bituminous and Lignite Total includes bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite, and Anthracite Total includes Pennsylvania anthracite. The States in...

  14. EIA - Weekly U.S. Coal Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation costs to electric power sector International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections ...

  15. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation costs to electric power sector International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections ...

  16. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquid Tr anspor tation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and ... technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid fuels that are deployable by ...

  17. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Includes Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean ... Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers CCPI-1 Wisconsin ...

  18. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  19. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  20. Coal Age buyers guide 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-15

    The buyers guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  1. Coal Age buyers guide 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  2. Coal Age buyers guide 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-15

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  3. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  4. 2009 coal preparation buyer's guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 926 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 26th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 28-30 April - May 2009, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  5. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharucha, N.

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  6. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

  7. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  8. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    2015-07-14

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, the electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.

  9. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  10. Expansion Capital Partners LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Product: Venture capital firm that invests in expansion-stage, clean technology enterprises Year Founded: 2001 Phone Number: (415) 788-8802 Website: www.expansioncapital.com...

  11. Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Infrastructure Security...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Year-in-Review: 2010 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability U.S. ...

  12. Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis to minimize associated mortality, and facilitate timely countermeasures A novel pathogen biomarker-based assay for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis and validated it in a blinded clinical study. Current diagnosis of active tuberculosis is inadequate, especially with HIV co-infection in endemic populations Detection of a suite of pathogen biomarkers using novel strategies Rapid, early

  13. Electricity Capacity Expansion Modeling, Analysis, and Visualization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and includes more sectors than ReEDS. For example, it includes modeling of the natural gas and coal supply markets, and a model of electricity load. The ReEDS model...

  14. Coal Technology '80. Volume 5. Synthetic fuels from coal. Volume 6. Industrial/utility applications for coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The 3rd international coal utilization exhibition and conference Coal Technology '80 was held at the Astrohall, Houston, Texas, November 18-20, 1980. Volume 5 deals with coal gasification and coal liquefaction. Volume 6 deals with fluidized-bed combustion of coal, cogeneration and combined-cycle power plants, coal-fuel oil mixtures (COM), chemical feedstocks via coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Thirty-six papers have been entered individually into EDB and seven also into ERA; three had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  15. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  16. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  17. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, William A.; Healy, Francis E.; Sapienza, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  18. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  19. An Empirical Viscosity Model for Coal Slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Cooley, Scott K.; Sundaram, S. K.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Edmondson, Autumn B.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.

    2008-10-25

    Slags of low viscosity readily penetrate the refractory lining in slagging gasifiers, causing rapid and severe corrosion called spalling. In addition, a low-viscosity slag that flows down the gasifier wall forms a relatively thin layer of slag on the refractory surface, allowing the corrosive gases in the gasifier to participate in the chemical reactions between the refractory and the slag. In contrast, a slag viscosity of <25 Pa•s at 1400°C is necessary to minimize the possibility of plugging the slag tap. There is a need to predict and optimize slag viscosity so slagging gasifiers can operate continuously at temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1650°C. The approach adopted in this work was to statistically design and prepare simulated slags, measure the viscosity as a function of temperature, and develop a model to predict slag viscosity based on slag composition and temperature. Statistical design software was used to select compositions from a candidate set of all possible vertices that will optimally represent the composition space for 10 main components. A total of 21 slag compositions were generated, including 5 actual coal slag compositions. The Arrhenius equation was applied to measured viscosity versus temperature data of tested slags, and the Arrhenius coefficients (A and B in ln(vis) = A + B/T) were expressed as linear functions of the slag composition. The viscosity model was validated using 1) data splitting approach, and 2) viscosity/temperature data of selected slag compositions from the literature that were formulated and melted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The capability of the model to predict the viscosity of coal slags was compared with the model developed by Browning et al. because this model can predict the viscosity of slags from coal ash better than the most commonly used empirical models found in the literature.

  20. Mechanism of instantaneous coal outbursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, P.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.X.

    2009-10-15

    Thousands of mine workers die every year from mining accidents, and instantaneous coal outbursts in underground coal mines are one of the major killers. Various models for these outbursts have been proposed, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of coal outbursts is similar to magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions; i.e., it is caused by high gas pressure inside coal but low ambient pressure on it, breaking coal into pieces and releasing the high-pressure gas in a shock wave. Hence, coal outbursts may be regarded as another type of gas-driven eruption, in addition to explosive volcanic, lake, and possible ocean eruptions. We verify the hypothesis by experiments using a shock-tube apparatus. Knowing the mechanism of coal outbursts is the first step in developing prediction and mitigation measures. The new concept of gas-driven solid eruption is also important to a better understanding of salt-gas outbursts, rock-gas outbursts, and mud volcano eruptions.

  1. Coal production, 1986. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-28

    Coal Production 1986 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Aministration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. The 1986 coal production and related data presented in this report were obtained from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1986. This survey originated at the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior. This report also includes updated data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on both January 1, 1986 and January 1, 1987. This is the seventh annual summry on minable coal, pursuant to Sec. 801 of Public Law 95-620. 18 figs., 105 tabs.

  2. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  3. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium. Annual report and selected publications, 1 July 1992--30 June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Dockter, B.A.; Eylands, K.E.; Hassett, D.J.; O`Leary, E.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced cars), formerly the Western Fly Ash Research, Development, and Data Center (WFARDDC), has continued fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research focused on promoting environmentally safe, economical use of coal combustion fly ash. The research tasks selected for the year included: (1) Coal Ash Properties Database Maintenance and Expansion, (2) Investigation of the High-Volume Use of Fly Ash for Flowable Backfill Applications, (3) Investigation of Hydrated Mineralogical Phases in Coal Combustion By-Products, (4) Comparison of Department of Transportation Specifications for Coal Ash Utilization, (5) Comparative Leaching Study of Coal Combustion By-Products and Competing Construction Materials, (6) Application of CCSEM for Coal Ash Characterization, (7) Determination of Types and Causes of Efflorescence in Regional Concrete Products, and (8) Sulfate Resistance of Fly Ash Concrete: A Literature Review and Evaluation of Research Priorities. The assembly of a database of information on coal fly ash has been a focus area for CARRC since its beginning in 1985. This year, CARRC members received an updated run time version of the Coal Ash Properties Database (CAPD) on computer disk for their use. The new, user-friendly database management format was developed over the year to facilitate the use of CAPD by members as well as CARRC researchers. It is anticipated that this direct access to CAPD by members as well as CARRC researchers. It is anticipated that this direct access to CAPD by members will be beneficial to each company`s utilization efforts, to CARRC, and to the coal ash industry in general. Many additions and improvements were made to CAPD during the year, and a three-year plan for computer database and modeling related to coal ash utilization was developed to guide both the database effort and the research effort.

  5. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

  6. Assessing Coal Unit Retirement Risk

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ventures Analysis 1901 N. Moore St. Arlington, VA 22209 (703) 276 8900 A S S E S S I N G C O A L U N I T R E T I R E M E N T R I S K Tom Hewson Principal June 14, 2016 Presentation for the US Energy Information Administration Workshop Coal Fleet Aging 1 COAL CAPACITY CHALLENGES E N E R G Y V E N T U R E S A N A L Y S I S , I N C .  Environmental Regulatory Risk-- Compliance often requires coal units to make large capital investment in additional retrofit control measures and/or increase their

  7. STEO December 2012 - coal demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    coal demand seen below 1 billion tons in 2012 for fourth year in a row Coal consumption by U.S. power plants to generate electricity is expected to fall below 1 billion tons in 2012 for the fourth year in a row. Domestic coal consumption is on track to total 829 million tons this year. That's the lowest level since 1992, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new monthly energy forecast. Utilities and power plant operators are choosing to burn more lower-priced natural gas

  8. Interest in coal chemistry intensifies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggin, J.

    1982-08-09

    Research on coal structure has increased greatly in recent years as the future role of coal as a source of gaseous and liquid fuels, as well as chemicals, becomes more apparent. This paper reviews in some detail work being carried out in the US, particularly in the laboratories of Mobil and Exxon, and in the universities. New ideas on the chemical and physical structure of coal are put forward, and a proposal for a new classification system based on the fundamental properties of the vitrinite macerals is introduced.

  9. Coal-fired MHD test progress at the Component Development and Integration Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, A.T.; Filius, K.D.; Micheletti, D.A.; Cashell, P.V.

    1993-12-31

    The Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) is a Department of Energy test facility operated by MSE, Inc. MSE personnel are responsible for integrated testing of topping cycle components for the national coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) development program. Initial facility checkout and baseline data generation testing at the CDIF used a 50-MW{sub t}, oil-fired combustor (with ash injection to simulate coal slag carryover) coupled to the 1A{sub 1} supersonic workhorse channel. In the fall of 1984, a 50-MW{sub t}, pressurized, slag rejecting coal-fired workhorse combustor replaced the oil-fired combustor in the test train. In the spring of 1989, a coal-fired precombustor was added to the test hardware, and current controls were installed in the spring of 1990. In the fall of 1990, the slag rejector was installed. In the spring of 1992, a 50-MW{sub t} pressurized, slag rejecting coal-fired prototypical combustor replaced the workhorse combustor in the test train. A 1A{sub 4} supersonic prototypical channel replaced the 1A{sub 1} workhorse channel in the fall of 1993. This prototypical hardware is slated to be used for the proof-of-concept (POC) testing. Improved facility systems targeting longer duration testing and more reliable operation will be discussed, including the air emissions control and monitoring hardware, oxygen and nitrogen expansion, coal and seed system upgrades, A-Bay modifications, and new solid suspension injection equipment.

  10. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  11. Expansion techniques for collisionless stellar dynamical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiron, Yohai; Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Spurzem, Rainer

    2014-09-10

    We present graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of two fast force calculation methods based on series expansions of the Poisson equation. One method is the self-consistent field (SCF) method, which is a Fourier-like expansion of the density field in some basis set; the other method is the multipole expansion (MEX) method, which is a Taylor-like expansion of the Green's function. MEX, which has been advocated in the past, has not gained as much popularity as SCF. Both are particle-field methods and optimized for collisionless galactic dynamics, but while SCF is a 'pure' expansion, MEX is an expansion in just the angular part; thus, MEX is capable of capturing radial structure easily, while SCF needs a large number of radial terms. We show that despite the expansion bias, these methods are more accurate than direct techniques for the same number of particles. The performance of our GPU code, which we call ETICS, is profiled and compared to a CPU implementation. On the tested GPU hardware, a full force calculation for one million particles took ∼0.1 s (depending on expansion cutoff), making simulations with as many as 10{sup 8} particles fast for a comparatively small number of nodes.

  12. Multipole expansion method for supernova neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Huaiyu; Shalgar, Shashank, E-mail: duan@unm.edu, E-mail: shashankshalgar@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate a multipole expansion method to calculate collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae using the neutrino bulb model. We show that it is much more efficient to solve multi-angle neutrino oscillations in multipole basis than in angle basis. The multipole expansion method also provides interesting insights into multi-angle calculations that were accomplished previously in angle basis.

  13. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  14. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  15. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

  16. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Institutional: Form EIA-3, "Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report, Manufacturing and TransformationProcessing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal...

  17. Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-exporting State. This Final 2008 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the Preliminary...

  18. Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-exporting State. This Final 2008 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the Preliminary...

  19. Optimized Pump Systems Save Coal Preparation Plant Money and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peabody Holding Company completed a project to improve the performance of a coal slurry pumping system at its Randolph Coal Preparation plant. Changes to the coal washing process ...

  20. Southern Coal finds value in the met market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-11-15

    The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  1. DOE/EIA-M060(2007) Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  2. Coal Market Module of the Energy Modeling System Model Documentation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  3. Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System Model...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  4. Effectiveness factors for hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massoth, F.E.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-03-29

    The aim of this project is to develop a methodology to predict, from a knowledge of feed and catalyst properties, effectiveness factors for catalytic hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to account for restrictive diffusion, which has not hitherto been done from a fundamental approach under reaction conditions. The research entails a study of hydrodenitrogenation of model compounds and coal-derived liquids using three NiMo/alumina catalysts of different pore size to develop, for restrictive diffusion, a relationship that can be used for estimating reliable effectiveness factors. The research program includes: Task A - measurement of pertinent properties of the catalysts and of several coal liquids; Task B - determination of effective diffusivities and turtuosities of the catalysts; Task C - development of restrictive diffusion correlations from data on model N-compound reactions; Task D - testing of correlations with coal-liquid cuts and whole coal-liquid feed. Results are presented and discussed from Tasks B and D. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Effectiveness factors for hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massoth, F.E.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this research project is to develop a methodology to predict, from a knowledge of feed and catalyst properties, effectiveness factors for catalytic hydroprocessing of coal and coal liquids. To achieve this aim, it is necessary to account for restrictive diffusion, which has not hitherto been done from a fundamental approach under reaction conditions. The research proposed here entails a study of hydrodenitrogenation of model compounds and coal-derived liquids using three NiMo/alumina catalysts of different pore size to develop, for restrictive diffusion, a relationship that can be used for estimating reliable effectiveness factors. The program is divided into four parts: measurements of pertinent properties of the catalysts and of a coal liquid and its derived boiling-point cuts; determination of effective diffusivities and tortuosities of the catalysts; development of restrictive diffusion correlations from data on model N-compounds at reaction conditions; and testing of correlations with coal-liquid cuts and whole coal-liquid feed, modifying correlations as necessary.

  6. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

  7. Two stage liquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuworth, Martin B.

    1981-01-01

    A two stage coal liquefaction process and apparatus comprising hydrogen donor solvent extracting, solvent deashing, and catalytic hydrocracking. Preferrably, the catalytic hydrocracking is performed in an ebullating bed hydrocracker.

  8. Coal Data Publication Revision Policy

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    impact: WHAT happens next to the database and in our coal reports: Respondent provides data that are clearly incorrect or revised data for any period in the current reporting year. ...

  9. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  10. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  11. Which route to coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nene, R.G.

    1981-11-01

    Two main methods for producing liquid fuels from coal are currently undergoing intensive evaluation. One, direct liquefaction (e.g., SRC-II, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal) produces liquid fuels directly from coal; the other, indirect liquefaction (e.g., Lurgi gasifier followed by Fischer-Tropsch, and Shell-Koppers gasifier followed by methanol synthesis and Mobil's MTG process) first gasifies coal and then converts the gaseous material into liquid products. This paper compares both routes basing its assessment on yields, thermal efficiencies, elemental balances, investment, complexity, and state of development. It is shown that direct liquefaction is more efficient and produces more product per investment dollar. Higher efficiency for direct liquefaction is verified bY stoichiometric and thermodynamic analysis. All approaches require about the same capital investment per unit of feed. Indirect liquefaction can be either more or less complex than direct liquefaction, depending upon the process. Direct liquefaction is least developed. 8 refs.

  12. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  13. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  14. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  15. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  16. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  17. Upgrading coal plant damper drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hood, N.R.; Simmons, K.

    2009-11-15

    The replacement of damper drives on two coal-fired units at the James H. Miller Jr. electric generating plant by Intelligent Contrac electric rotary actuators is discussed. 2 figs.

  18. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.; Eddings, E.; Lighty, J.; Ring, T.; Smith, P.; Thornock, J.; Y Jia, W. Morris; Pedel, J.; Rezeai, D.; Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Kelly, K.

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  19. Opportunity for America: Mexico`s coal future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loose, V.W.

    1993-09-01

    This study examines the history, current status and future prospects for increased coal use in Mexico. Environmental implications of the power-generation capacity expansion plans are examined in general terms. Mexican environmental law and regulations are briefly reviewed along with the new sense of urgency in the cleanup of existing environmental problems and avoidance of new problems as clearly mandated in recent Mexican government policy initiatives. It is expected that new capital facilities will need to incorporate the latest in process and technology to comply with existing environmental regulation. Technology developments which address these issues are identified. What opportunities have new initiatives caused by the recent diversification of Mexico`s energy economy offered US firms? This report looks at the potential future use of coal in the Mexican energy economy, examining this issue with an eye toward identifying markets that might be available to US coal producers and the best way to approach them. Market opportunities are identified by examining new developments in the Mexican economy generally and the energy economy particularly. These developments are examined in light of the current situation and the history which brought Mexico to its present status.

  20. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  1. Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy

    1982-11-16

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  2. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  3. Coal liquefaction and gasification technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangold, E.C.; Muradaz, M.A.; Ouellette, R.P.; Farah, O.G.; Cheremisinoff, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of selected coal liquefaction and gasification processes developed with support from the United States are reviewed. The Exxon Donor Solvent, H-Coal, SRC-I, SRC-II, Mobile Gasoline Synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, and Zinc Halide Hydrocracking liquefaction processes and the Slagging Lurgi, Texaco, Combustion Engineering, COGAS, and Shell-Koppers gasification processes are covered. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 chapters.

  4. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, Robert J.; Shadbolt, Edward A.

    1983-01-01

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

  5. Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis: production and combustion-test evaluation of product coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalvinskas, J.; Daly, D.

    1982-04-30

    Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on PSOC 276, Pittsburgh Coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, Pittsburgh No. 8 from Greene County, PA, Illinois No. 6 from Jackson County, Illinois and Eagle No. 5 from Moffat County, Colorado were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals (PSOC 276, Pittsburgh Coal from Harrison County, Ohio and 282, Illinois No. 6 Coal from Jefferson County, Illinois) and one subbituminous coal (PSOC 230, Rosebud Coal fom Rosebud County, Montana) were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29 to 69%, reductions in volatiles (12 to 37%) and hydrogen (6 to 31%). Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56 to 86%), reductions in volatiles (77 to 84%) and hydrogen (56 to 64%). The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State plane flame furance to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Planning India's long-term energy shipment infrastructures for electricity and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian H. Bowen; Devendra Canchi; Vishal Agarwal Lalit; Paul V. Precke; F.T. Sparrow; Marty W. Irwin

    2010-01-15

    The Purdue Long-Term Electricity Trading and Capacity Expansion Planning Model simultaneously optimizes both the expansion of transmission and generation capacity. Most commercial electricity system planning software is limited to only transmission planning. An application of the model to India's national power grid, for 2008-2028, indicates substantial transmission expansion is the cost-effective means of meeting the needs of the nation's growing economy. An electricity demand growth rate of 4% over the 20-year planning horizon requires more than a 50% increase in the Government's forecasted transmission capacity expansion, and 8% demand growth requires more than a six-fold increase in the planned transmission capacity expansion. The model minimizes the long-term expansion costs (operational and capital) for the nation's five existing regional power grids and suggests the need for large increases in load-carrying capability between them. Changes in coal policy affect both the location of new thermal power plants and the optimal pattern inter-regional transmission expansions. 15 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Understanding coal quality and its relationship to power plant performance and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennison, K.D.; Stallard, G.S.

    1995-12-01

    The availability of reliable, reasonably priced energy is a necessary cornerstone for established and emerging economies. In addition to addressing coal quality issues strictly at a plant level, it is now prudent to consider long-term performance and economics of particular fuel sources to be selected in the light of system economics and reliability. In order to evaluate coal quality issues in a more comprehensive manner, it is important to develop both an approach and a set of tools which can support the various phases of the planning/analysis processes. The processes must consider the following: (1) Cost/availability of other potential coal supplies, including {open_quotes}raw{close_quotes} domestic sources, {open_quotes}cleaned {close_quotes} domestic sources, and other internationally marketed coals. (2) Power plant performance issues as function of plant design and fuel properties. (3) System expansion plans, candidate technologies, and associated capital and operating costs. (4) Projected load demand, for system and for individual units within the system. (5) Legislative issues such as environmental pressures, power purchase agreements, etc. which could alter the solution. (6) Economics of potential plans/strategies based on overall cost-effectiveness of the utility system, not just individual units. (7) Anticipated unit configuration, including addition of environmental control equipment or other repowering options. The Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM{trademark}) is a PC-based computer program capable of predicting coal-related cost and performance impacts at electric power generating sites. The CQIM was developed for EPRI by Black & Veatch and represents over a decade of effort geared toward developing an extensible state-of-the-art coal quality assessment tool. This paper will introduce CQIM, its capabilities, and its application to Eastern European coal quality assessment needs.

  8. Photothermal method for in situ microanalysis of the chemical composition of coal samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amer, N.M.

    1983-10-25

    Successive minute regions along a scan path on a coal sample are individually analyzed, at a series of different depths if desired, to determine chemical composition including the locations, sizes and distributions of different maceral inclusions. A sequence of infrared light pulses of progressively changing wavelengths is directed into each minute region and a probe light beam is directed along the sample surface adjacent the region. Infrared wavelengths at which strong absorption occurs in the region are identified by detecting the resulting deflections of the probe beam caused by thermally induced index of refraction changes in the air or other medium adjacent the region. The detected peak absorption wavelengths are correlated with known characteristic peak absorption wavelengths of specific coal constituents to identify the composition of each such minute region of the sample. The method enables rapid, convenient and non-destructive analyses of coal specimens to facilitate mining, processing and utilization of coals. 2 figures.

  9. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion.

  10. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1999-08-24

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion. 3 figs.

  11. Coal Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High School Coal Study Guide - High School Coal Study Guide - High School (658.82 KB) More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Fossil Energy Today - First Quarter, 2011

  12. DOE - Fossil Energy: The Cleanest Coal Technology - A Real Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5-Cleanest Coal Technology An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal The Cleanest Coal Technology - a Real Gas Don't think of coal as a solid black rock. Think of it as a mass of atoms. ...

  13. Records Dispostion-Coal Distribution Data | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Records Dispostion-Coal Distribution Data Records Dispostion-Coal Distribution Data This file contains data on the distribution of U.S. coal by coal-producing district of origin, ...

  14. Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

  15. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  16. Coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A coal slagging gasifier and method of operating such gasifier are improved by providing an improved slag removal orifice. The orifice is located centrally within the hearth of a gasifier of the type in which hot burner gases are directed up through the orifice to retain the slag in molten condition on the hearth and in which the slag is periodically discharged through the slag removal orifice. The slag removal orifice is formed as a substantially vertical passageway through the removable slag tap member which comprises a solid cast mass of high thermal conductivity metal having an integrally formed metal tube for circulating liquid coolant through the cast mass. The upper tundish surface of the slag tap member slopes downwardly and inwardly and merges with the slag removal orifice. The coolant tube is capable of retaining its shape without any appreciable distortion during the casting of the surrounding metal mass, extends through the cast mass, and forms a coolant conduit adjacent to the tundish surface and to the surface of the orifice passageway and spaced from these surfaces a distance of 0.25 to 5 inches. The ends of the tube project out from the mass provide a coolant inlet and outlet. In operation, coolant is circulated through the tube such that the surfaces of the cast mass in direct contact with slag and burner gases are maintained at a temperature of from 50/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C.

  17. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  18. Low expansion superalloy with improved toughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, D.F.; Stein, L.I.; Hwang, I.S.

    1995-06-20

    A high strength, low coefficient of thermal expansion superalloy exhibiting improved toughness over a broad temperature range down to about 4 K is disclosed. The composition is adapted for use with wrought superconducting sheathing.

  19. Low expansion superalloy with improved toughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Darrell F.; Stein, Larry I.; Hwang, Il S.

    1995-01-01

    A high strength, low coefficient of thermal expansion superalloy exhibiting improved toughness over a broad temperature range down to about 4.degree. K. The composition is adapted for use with wrought superconducting sheathing.

  20. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  1. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios | Department of Energy Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel

  2. Photothermal method of determining calorific properties of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amer, N.M.

    1983-05-16

    Predetermined amounts of heat are generated within a coal sample by directing pump light pulses of predetermined energy content into a small surface region of the sample. A beam of probe light is directed along the sample surface and deflection of the probe beam from thermally induced changes of index of refraction in the fluid medium adjacent the heated region are detected. Deflection amplitude and the phase lag of the deflection, relative to the initiating pump light pulse, are indicative of the calorific value and the porosity of the sample. The method provides rapid, accurate and nondestructive analysis of the heat producing capabilities of coal samples. In the preferred form, sequences of pump light pulses of increasing durations are directed into the sample at each of a series of minute regions situated along a raster scan path enabling detailed analysis of variations of thermal properties at different areas of the sample and at different depths.

  3. Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

  4. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  5. Pulverized coal injection at Hoogovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paramanathan, B.K.; Toxopeus, H.L

    1994-12-31

    The Armco/Babcock and Wilcox-type Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) System, installed at Hoogovens Ijmuiden in 1982/83, consists of two pulverizing lines, each of 30 t/h capacity. Due to the increased demand for pulverized fuel to the Blast Furnaces (Nos. 6 and 7), the PCI system has been revised extensively such that the grinding capacity has been increased, thereby achieving a higher average injection rate to both Blast Furnaces of some 140 kg/THM. The use of soft and dry coals, coupled to modifications to the System, has resulted in an annual consumption of pulverized coal of more than 750,000 tons, some 80% more than that envisaged initially. The installation operates very successfully, downtime having been minimal over the years. Several trials, at high rates of coal injection, have been carried out in the past. The most recent trials, performed over a period of nine months in 1992, showed that smooth and stable Blast Furnace operation was possible even with very high rates of pulverized coal injection (more than 200 kg/THM).

  6. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  7. Repowering with clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freier, M.D.; Buchanan, T.L.; DeLallo, M.L.; Goldstein, H.N.

    1996-02-01

    Repowering with clean coal technology can offer significant advantages, including lower heat rates and production costs, environmental compliance, incremental capacity increases, and life extension of existing facilities. Significant savings of capital costs can result by refurbishing and reusing existing sites and infrastructure relative to a greenfield siting approach. This paper summarizes some key results of a study performed by Parsons Power Group, Inc., under a contract with DOE/METC, which investigates many of the promising advanced power generation technologies in a repowering application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical and economic results of applying each of a menu of Clean Coal Technologies in a repowering of a hypothetical representative fossil fueled power station. Pittsburgh No. 8 coal is used as the fuel for most of the cases evaluated herein, as well as serving as the fuel for the original unrepowered station. The steam turbine-generator, condenser, and circulating water system are refurbished and reused in this study, as is most of the existing site infrastructure such as transmission lines, railroad, coal yard and coal handling equipment, etc. The technologies evaluated in this study consisted of an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor, several varieties of pressurized fluid bed combustors, several types of gasifiers, a refueling with a process derived fuel, and, for reference, a natural gas fired combustion turbine-combined cycle.

  8. Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

    2006-08-01

    Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

  9. National Coal Council Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    But let me return specifically to the issue of coal, where I think it is important to discuss the term, "clean coal." It is a term that is used often in the lexicon of the industry ...

  10. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  11. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  12. Clean Coal Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Coal Ltd Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: W1F 8QE Product: London-based company which specialises in underground coal gasification project management and project...

  13. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Michael C.

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  14. Solar at the cost of coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cost of coal 1 Domestic shale gas 2 US shale gas enables solar g SunShot: towards 1 Watt SunShot: towards 1 Watt Silicon PV can reach coal parity p y *LCOE calculated ...

  15. U.S. monthly coal production increases

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    monthly coal production increases U.S. coal production in July totaled 88.9 million short tons, the highest level since August 2012, according to preliminary data from the U.S. ...

  16. Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants (data update 12132010) January 14, 2011 b National ... generation additions in the U.S. and coal-fired power plant activity in China. ...

  17. Natural gas beats coal in power generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    is expected to exceed the output from coal-fired power plants this year and in 2017. In ... have made coal a less competitive generating fuel for many U.S. power plant operators.

  18. Coal Ash Contaminants in Wetlands | SREL Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal-fired facilities have been in operation on the SRS since the early 1950s. After ... The D-Area coal plant operated until early 2012, when it was replaced by a biofuels ...

  19. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Expansion Process Flow Diagram

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Development & Expansion > Development and Expansion Process Figure About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates ...

  20. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2011

  1. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2012

  2. Year-in-Review: 2012 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (July 2013) Year-in-Review: 2012 Energy Infrastructure Events and Expansions (July 2013) The Year-in-Review (YIR): 2012 Energy...

  3. High Efficiency Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Application...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Applications High Efficiency Full Expansion (FEx) Engine for Automotive Applications Large increases in engine thermal efficiency result ...

  4. EA-2041: Cameron LNG Expansion Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    41: Cameron LNG Expansion Project EA-2041: Cameron LNG Expansion Project Summary The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that ...

  5. EIS-0498: Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects; Calcasieu...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8: Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects; Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana EIS-0498: Magnolia LNG and Lake Charles Expansion Projects; Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana Summary The ...

  6. Quarterly Coal Report - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Coal Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting and mapping) Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation costs to electric power sector International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption Environment Imports & exports Industry characteristics Prices Production Projections Recurring Reserves Stocks All

  7. Annual Coal Report - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Coal Report Release Date: March 23, 2016 | Next Release Date: December 18, 2016 | full report Previous Reports (pdf) Data year: 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 see all Go The Annual Coal Report (ACR) provides annual data on U.S. coal production, number of mines, productive capacity, recoverable reserves, employment, productivity, consumption, stocks, and prices. All data for 2014 and prior years are final. Highlights for 2014: In 2014, U.S. coal production

  8. National Coal celebrates its fifth anniversary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-06-15

    The growth and activities of the National Coal Corp since its formation in 2003 are described. 5 photos.

  9. Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umansky, R.Z.; Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

  10. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  12. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  13. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  14. Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Balsavich, John

    1991-01-01

    A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

  15. Coal reserves are plentiful but unevenly distributed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeremic, M.L.

    1981-07-01

    There is plenty of coal in Canada. The estimated coal resources are more than 360,000,000,000 tons with most of this coal located in the western provinces. The estimated minable coal reserves are more than 16,000,000,000 tons and the recoverable coal is more than 6,000,000,000 tons. The latter figure reflects the lack of current development in many coalfields. Very recent and current exploration for coal as well as for oil and gas has indicated coal resources in addition to those already estimated. Incremental additions to coal resources can be expected in northern and eastern Canada. In the latter region, more than 85 percent of the total coal resources are beneath the ocean. The main coal deposits in western Canada are very far from the large industrial markets of Ontario and Quebec. They are closer, yet still quite distant, from export ports on the Pacific Ocean. Current efforts to improve coal transportation are expected to decrease the disadvantages of the unfavorable location of the western coalfields. This will increase the coal reserves in the region as further exploration will surely follow.

  16. Coal mine directory: United States and Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    The directory gives a state-by-state listing of all US and Canadian coal producers. It contains contact information as well as the type of mine, production statistics, coal composition, transportation methods etc. A statistical section provides general information about the US coal industry, preparation plants, and longwall mining operations.

  17. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, K.J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

    1988-05-31

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  19. Selective flotation of inorganic sulfides from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Kenneth J.; Wen, Wu-Wey

    1989-01-01

    Pyritic sulfur is removed from coal or other carbonaceous material through the use of humic acid as a coal flotation depressant. Following the removal of coarse pyrite, the carbonaceous material is blended with humic acid, a pyrite flotation collector and a frothing agent within a flotation cell to selectively float pyritic sulfur leaving clean coal as an underflow.

  20. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  1. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals. Volume 2, High-G solid-bowl centrifuge: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehoe, D.

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  2. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  3. Effects of restraint on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouzabata, Hassina; Multon, Stephane; Sellier, Alain; Houari, Hacene

    2012-07-15

    Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) is a chemical reaction that causes expansion in civil engineering structures. The safety level of such damaged structures has to be reassessed. To do this, the mechanical conditions acting on DEF expansions have to be analysed and, in particular, the variation of strength with expansion and the effect of restraint on the DEF expansion. This paper highlights several points: DEF expansion is isotropic in stress-free conditions, compressive stresses decrease DEF expansion in the direction subjected to restraint and lead to cracks parallel to the restraint, and expansion measured in the stress-free direction of restrained specimens is not modified. Thus restraint causes a decrease of the volumetric expansion and DEF expansion under restraint is anisotropic. Moreover, the paper examines the correlation between DEF expansion and concrete damage, providing data that can be used for the quantification of the effect of stresses on DEF induced expansion.

  4. Radionuclides in Western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, D.T.; Styron, C.E.; Casella, V.R.

    1983-09-23

    The increase in domestic energy production coupled with the switch from oil and natural gas to coal as a boiler-fuel source have prompted various federal agencies to assess the potential environmental and health risks associated with coal-fired power plants. Because it has been suggested that Western coals contain more uranium than Eastern coals, particular concern has been expressed about radioactive emissions from the increasing number of power plants that burn low-sulfur Western coal. As a result, the radionuclides in coal program was established to analyze low-sulfur coal reserves in Western coal fields for radioactivity. Samples from seams of obvious commercial value were taken from 19 operating mines that represented 65% of Western coal production. Although the present study did not delve deeply into underlying causative factors, the following general conclusions were reached. Commercially exploited Western coals do not show any alarming pattern of radionuclide content and probably have lower radioactivity levels than Eastern coals. The materials that were present appeared to be in secular equilibrium in coal, and a detailed dose assessment failed to show a significant hazard associated with the combustion of Western coal. Flue gas desulfurization technology apparently has no significant impact on radionuclide availability, nor does it pose any significant radiologic health risks. This study has also shown that Western coals are not more radioactive than most soils and that most solid combustion products have emanation powers <1%, which greatly reduce dose estimates from this pathway. In summary, the current use of mined, Western coals in fossil-fueled power plants does not present any significant radiological hazard.

  5. Desulfurization of coal: enhanced selectivity using phase transfer catalysts. Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.

    1996-12-31

    Due to environmental problems related to the combustion of high sulfur Illinois coal, there continues to be interest in the development in viable pre-combustion desulfurization processes. Recent studies by the authors have obtained very good sulfur removals but the reagents that are used are too expensive. Use of cheaper reagents leads to a loss of desired coal properties. This study investigated the application phase transfer catalysts to the selective oxidation of sulfur in coal using air and oxygen as oxidants. The phase transfer catalyst is expected to function as a selectivity moderator by permitting the use of milder reaction conditions that otherwise necessary. This would enhance the sulfur selectivity and help retain the heating value of the coal. The use of certain coal combustion wastes for desulfurization, and the application of cerium (IV) catalyzed air oxidation for selective sulfur oxidation are also being studied. If successful, this project could lead to the rapid development of a commercially viable desulfurization process. This would significantly improve the marketability of Illinois coal.

  6. An Integrated Approach to Coal Gasifier Testing, Modeling, and Process Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, S. K.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Matyas, Josef; Williford, Ralph E.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Korolev, Vladimir N.

    2009-10-01

    Gasification is an important method of converting coal into clean burning fuels and high-value industrial chemicals. However, gasifier reliability can be severely limited by rapid degradation of the refractory lining in hot-wall gasifiers. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is performing multidisciplinary research to provide the experimental data and the engineering models needed to control gasifier operation for extended refractory life. Our experimental program includes prediction of slag viscosity using empirical viscosity models encompassing US coals, characterization of selected slag-refractory interaction including transport of slag/refractory components at the slag-refractory interface, and measurement of slag penetration into refractories as a function of time and temperature. The experimental data is used in slag flow, slag penetration, and refractory damage models to predict the operating temperature limits for increased refractory life. A simplified entrained flow gasifier model is also being developed to simulate one-dimensional axial flow with average axial velocity, coal devolatilization, and combustion kinetics. Combining the slag flow, refractory degradation, and gasifier models will provide a powerful tool to predict the coal and oxidant feed rates and control the gasifier operation to balance coal conversion efficiency with increased refractory life. A research scale gasifier has also been constructed at PNNL to provide syngas for coal conversion and carbon sequestration research, and also valuable datasets on operating conditions for validating the modeling results.

  7. Fundamental studies in production of C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] hydrocarbons from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.

    1993-03-01

    The following conclusions can be drawn from the result obtained in this kinetic study of single stage coal gasification to hydrocarbon (HC) gases high in C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] hydrocarbons. It was observed that the direct conversion of coal to HC gases involves two steps. The first step is thermal cleavage of the coal structure to produce liquids with small amounts of gases and coke. The second step is conversion of liquids to gases. Coal to liquids occurs very rapidly and was completed within 10 minutes. Liquids to gases is the rate-determining step of the overall process. The conversion of liquids to gases was observed to follow first order kinetics. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by isothermal approximation gave an apparent activation energy of approximately 23 kcal/mol. The first order kinetics treatment of the data by a more rigorous non-isothermal method gave an activation energy of 26 kcal/mol. The quantity of HC gases produced directly from coal reached a constant value of about l0% of the dmmf coal at a reaction time of 10 miutes. Most of the HC gases were produced from the liquids. The study of model compounds shows that conversion of liquids to HC gases.proceeds through a carbonium ion mechanism, and this accounts for the production of C[sub 2]-C[sub 4] gases. Liquid to gases occurs by a catalytic hydrocracking reaction.

  8. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  9. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  10. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  11. Coal Data: A reference. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-26

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  12. Process for selective grinding of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  13. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, Charles S.; Lackey, Mack E.; Sy, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  14. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soncini, Ryan M; Means, Nicholas C; Weiland, Nathan T

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  15. APEX user`s guide - (Argonne production, expansion, and exchange model for electrical systems), version 3.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Veselka, T.D.; Guziel, K.A.; Blodgett, D.W.; Hamilton, S.; Kavicky, J.A.; Koritarov, V.S.; North, M.J.; Novickas, A.A.; Paprockas, K.R.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes operating procedures and background documentation for the Argonne Production, Expansion, and Exchange Model for Electrical Systems (APEX). This modeling system was developed to provide the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Energy, Office of Coal and Electricity with in-house capabilities for addressing policy options that affect electrical utilities. To meet this objective, Argonne National Laboratory developed a menu-driven programming package that enables the user to develop and conduct simulations of production costs, system reliability, spot market network flows, and optimal system capacity expansion. The APEX system consists of three basic simulation components, supported by various databases and data management software. The components include (1) the investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems (ICARUS) model, (2) the Spot Market Network (SMN) model, and (3) the Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model. The ICARUS model provides generating-unit-level production-cost and reliability simulations with explicit recognition of planned and unplanned outages. The SMN model addresses optimal network flows with recognition of marginal costs, wheeling charges, and transmission constraints. The PACE model determines long-term (e.g., longer than 10 years) capacity expansion schedules on the basis of candidate expansion technologies and load growth estimates. In addition, the Automated Data Assembly Package (ADAP) and case management features simplify user-input requirements. The ADAP, ICARUS, and SMN modules are described in detail. The PACE module is expected to be addressed in a future publication.

  16. Loop expansion in a functional space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroger, H.; Labelle, P.

    1989-07-15

    As an alternative to the loop expansion of the effective potential, wesuggest a functional expansion of the generating functional for an/ital n/-point Euclidean Green's function. The formulation of the scheme isindependent of the space-time dimension of the model. The scheme yieldsstandard perturbation theory in the regime of a small coupling constant andallows to extract information on the regime of strong coupling. As an explicitexample we consider the scalar /Phi//sup 4/ model and computecontributions up to the four-loop level.

  17. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  18. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  19. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.

    1986-10-14

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  20. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  1. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  2. Two-stage coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farcasiu, M.; Mitchell, T.O.; Whitehurst, D.D.

    1982-08-31

    Two-stage coal liquefaction is improved by separating a light fraction from the first (dissolving) stage effluent, hydrogenating that fraction and reblending the hydrogenated light fraction with the material passed from the first stage to the second stage reactor operating at higher temperature than the first stage.

  3. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy’s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (1986-1993) laid the foundation for effective technologies now in use that have helped significantly lower emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and airborne particulates (PM10).

  4. Coal: America's energy future. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-03-15

    Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the National Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring the USA's domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume I are: Coal-to-Liquids to Produce 2.6 MMbbl/d; Coal-to-Natural Gas to Produce 4.0 Tcf Per Year; Coal-to-Clean Electricity; Coal to Produce Ethanol; Coal-to-Hydrogen; Enhanced Oil and Gas (Coalbed Methane); Recovery as Carbon Management Strategies; Delineate U.S. Coal Reserves and Transportation Constraints as Part of an Effort to Maximize U.S. Coal Production; and Penn State Study, 'Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments'.

  5. Mechanical properties of reconstituted Australian black coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasinge, D.; Ranjith, P.G.; Choi, S.K.; Kodikara, J.; Arthur, M.; Li, H.

    2009-07-15

    Coal is usually highly heterogeneous. Great variation in properties can exist among samples obtained even at close proximity within the same seam or within the same core sample. This makes it difficult to establish a correlation between uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and point load index for coal. To overcome this problem, a method for making reconstituted samples for laboratory tests was developed. Samples were made by compacting particles of crushed coal mixed with cement and water. These samples were allowed to cure for four days. UCS and point load tests were performed to measure the geomechanical properties of the reconstituted coal. After four days curing, the average UCS was found to be approximately 4 MPa. This technical note outlines some experimental results and correlations that were developed to predict the mechanical properties of the reconstituted black coal samples. By reconstituting the samples from crushed coal, it is hoped that the samples will retain the important mechanical and physicochemical properties of coal, including the swelling, fluid transport, and gas sorption properties of coal. The aim is to be able to produce samples that are homogeneous with properties that are highly reproducible, and the reconstituted coal samples can be used for a number of research areas related to coal, including the long-term safe storage of CO{sub 2} in coal seams.

  6. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  7. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  8. Directory of coal production ownership, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, B.

    1981-10-01

    Ownership patterns in the coal industry are highly complex. Many producers are diversified into other lines of activity. The pattern and extent of this diversification has varied through time. In the past, steel and nonferrous metals companies had major coal industry involvement. This is still true today. However, other types of enterprises have entered the industry de novo or through merger. Those of greatest significance in recent times have involved petroleum and particularly public utility companies. This report attempts to identify, as accurately as possible, production ownership patterns in the coal industry. The audience for this Directory is anyone who is interested in accurately tracing the ownership of coal companies to parent companies, or who is concerned about the structure of ownership in the US coal industry. This audience includes coal industry specialists, coal industry policy analysts, economists, financial analysts, and members of the investment community.

  9. Materials challenges in advanced coal conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powem, C.A.; Morreale, B.D.

    2008-04-15

    Coal is a critical component in the international energy portfolio, used extensively for electricity generation. Coal is also readily converted to liquid fuels and/or hydrogen for the transportation industry. However, energy extracted from coal comes at a large environmental price: coal combustion can produce large quantities of ash and CO{sub 2}, as well as other pollutants. Advanced technologies can increase the efficiencies and decrease the emissions associated with burning coal and provide an opportunity for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. However, these advanced technologies increase the severity of plant operating conditions and thus require improved materials that can stand up to the harsh operating environments. The materials challenges offered by advanced coal conversion technologies must be solved in order to make burning coal an economically and environmentally sound choice for producing energy.

  10. Method of operating a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaskowski, Henry J.

    1979-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier which comprises the steps of firing coal at two levels in a combustion zone with near stoichiometric air, removing molten ash from the combustion zone, conveying combustion products upwardly from the combustion zone through a reduction zone, injecting additional coal into the combustion products in the reduction zone and gasifying at least a portion of the coal to form low BTU gas, conveying the gas to a point of use, including also reducing gasifier output by modifying the ratio of air to coal supplied to the upper level of the combustion zone so that the ratio becomes increasingly substoichiometric thereby extending the gasification of coal from the reduction zone into the upper level of the combustion zone, and maintaining the lower level of coal in the combustion zone at near stoichiometric conditions so as to provide sufficient heat to maintain effective slagging conditions.

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2014 (million short tons) Continuous 1 Conventional and Other 2 Longwall 3 Total Coal-Producing State Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average Recovery Percentage Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines Average

  12. Notices Rapides Parish Rapides Parish Library, 411 Washington...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Notices Rapides Parish Rapides Parish Library, 411 Washington St., Alexandria, 15001005 ... (NPS), has made available for public review and comment the Draft Environmental ...

  13. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  14. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winschel, R.A.; Brandes, S.D.

    1998-05-01

    The report presents the findings of work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22 -95PC95050, Task 3 - Flow Sheet Development. A novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated in a program being conducted by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Parameters were established for a low-cost, low-severity first-stage reaction system. A hydride ion reagent system was used to effect high coal conversions of Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal. An integrated first-stage and filtration step was successfully demonstrated and used to produce product filtrates with extremely low solids contents. High filtration rates previously measured off-line in Task 2 studies were obtained in the integrated system. Resid conversions of first-stage products in the second stage were found to be consistently greater than for conventional two-stage liquefaction resids. In Task 5, elementally balanced material balance data were derived from experimental results and an integrated liquefaction system balance was completed. The economic analysis indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies. However, several approaches to reduce costs for the conceptual commercial plant were recommended. These approaches will be investigated in the next task (Task 4) of the program.

  15. Desulfurization of coal: Enhanced selectivity using phase transfer catalysts. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    Due to environmental problems related to the combustion of high sulfur Illinois coal, there continues to be interest in the development of viable pre-combustion desulfurization processes. Recent studies by the authors have obtained very good sulfur removals but the reagents that are used are too expensive. Use of cheaper reagents leads to a loss of desired coal properties. This study investigates the application of phase transfer catalysts to the selective oxidation of sulfur in coal using air and oxygen as oxidants. The phase transfer catalyst is expected to function as a selectivity moderator by permitting the use of milder reaction conditions than otherwise necessary. This would enhance the sulfur selectivity and help retain the heating value of the coal. The use of certain coal combustion wastes for desulfurization, and the application of cerium (IV) catalyzed air oxidations for selective sulfur oxidation are also being studied. If successful this project could lead to the rapid development of a commercially viable desulfurization process. This would significantly improve the marketability of Illinois coal. During this quarter aliquots of the IBC-101 coal have been ground to various particle sizes in an attempt to find the optimum physical pretreatment for mineral, especially pyrite, removal. Analysis of these various aliquots shows them to be representative of the original coal. In addition, preliminary desulfurization reactions using fly ash and scrubber sludges have been performed on an unoxidized IBC-101 sample. Results will be available next quarter. Also, SEM-EDAX analysis of the fly ash indicates that it contains oxides that have shown activity in base desulfurization reactions.

  16. Geotechnical characterization of several coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, M.; Feng, A.; Deschamps, R.

    1996-11-01

    The generation of coal combustion by-products (CCBPs) by utility companies and private industries is increasing and the trend is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. A large roadway embankment is currently under construction using several CCBPs as structural fill. The project site is located on the Purdue University campus in West Lafayette, Indiana. A paved road will be constructed on the crest of this embankment to extend Russell Street, providing convenient access to the southern expansion of Purdue University`s campus. The embankment is approximately 700 feet in length, with a maximum crest height of about 40 feet. The crest will be about 50 feet wide and a maximum base width of 250 feet. A comprehensive geotechnical laboratory testing and field monitoring program is being implemented to evaluate the physical and mechanical characteristics of various CCBPs and to predict the performance of the embankment during and after construction. Preliminary geotechnical laboratory testing results are presented in this paper.

  17. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bang, Woosuk; Albright, Brian James; Bradley, Paul Andrew; Vold, Erik Lehman; Boettger, Jonathan Carl; Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-12

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly withmore » temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. In conclusion, these simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.« less

  18. Natural Gas Pipeline and System Expansions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    This special report examines recent expansions to the North American natural gas pipeline network and the nature and type of proposed pipeline projects announced or approved for construction during the next several years in the United States. It includes those projects in Canada and Mexico that tie in with U.S. markets or projects.

  19. Resonant state expansion of the resolvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, T.; Lind, P. )

    1993-02-01

    An analytic method of generating resonant state expansions from the standard completeness relation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is described and shown to reproduce the generalized completeness relations, earlier derived, involving resonant states. The method is then applied to the expansion of the resolvent (the complete Green's function), the symmetry properties of which [ital seem] to be destroyed if a conventional application of the completeness relations is made. These forms of expansions have a continuum term which contains symmetry-restoring contributions and can therefore never vanish identically, nor can it be neglected. The symmetry-conserving form of the expansion has a set of discrete terms which are identical in form to those of the Mittag-Leffler series for the resolvent. In addition, it contains a continuum contribution which in some cases vanishes identically, but in general does not. We illustrate these findings with numerical applictions in which the potential (a square well) is chosen so as to permit analytic evaluation of practically all functions and quantities involved.

  20. Climate Science: Tropical Expansion by Ocean Swing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    The tropical belt has become wider over the past decades, but climate models fall short of capturing the full rate of the expansion. The latest analysis of the climate simulations suggests that a long-term swing of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is the main missing cause.

  1. OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL D EGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL D EGAS BLU EGU T CR EEK WH ITE OAK CREEK COAL DEGAS BEAVERT ON BLU FF FAYETTE W SN EAD S CREEK SPLU NGE PAR HAM N MUSGR OVE CR EEK MCCRAC KEN MOU NTAIN DAVIS C HAPEL BAC ON BLOOMING GROVE MT Z ION FAIRVIEW JASPER BLOWHORN CREEK MAPLE BRAN CH KEN NEDY COAL F IRE CR EEK MCGEE LAKE SILOAM MILLPOR T FERNBANK DAVIS C HAPEL NE DETROIT E BEANS F

  2. Realistic Financial Planning and Rapid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Realistic Financial Planning and Rapid Modification to Project Execution are Essential ... Ignition Facility Title: Realistic Financial Planning and Rapid Modification to ...

  3. 216-B-3 expansion ponds closure plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the activities for clean closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) of the 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds. The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds are operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 216-B-3 Expansion Ponds consists of a series of three earthen, unlined, interconnected ponds that receive waste water from various 200 East Area operating facilities. The 3A, 3B, and 3C ponds are referred to as Expansion Ponds because they expanded the capability of the B Pond System. Waste water (primarily cooling water, steam condensate, and sanitary water) from various 200 East Area facilities is discharged to the Bypass pipe (Project X-009). Water discharged to the Bypass pipe flows directly into the 216-B-3C Pond. The ponds were operated in a cascade mode, where the Main Pond overflowed into the 3A Pond and the 3A Pond overflowed into the 3C Pond. The 3B Pond has not received waste water since May 1985; however, when in operation, the 3B Pond received overflow from the 3A Pond. In the past, waste water discharges to the Expansion Ponds had the potential to have contained mixed waste (radioactive waste and dangerous waste). The radioactive portion of mixed waste has been interpreted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to be regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954; the dangerous waste portion of mixed waste is regulated under RCRA.

  4. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-26

    In the second quarter of 1993, the United States produced 235 million short tons of coal. This brought the total for the first half of 1993 to 477 million short tons, a decrease of 4 percent (21 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first half of 1992. The decrease was due to a 26-million-short-ton decline in production east of the Mississippi River, which was partially offset by a 5-million-short-ton increase in coal production west of the Mississippi River. Compared with the first 6 months of 1992, all States east of the Mississippi River had lower coal production levels, led by West Virginia and Illinois, which produced 9 million short tons and 7 million short tons less coal, respectively. The principal reasons for the drop in coal output for the first 6 months of 1993 compared to a year earlier were: a decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets, particularly the steam coal markets; a draw-down of electric utility coal stocks to meet the increase in demand for coal-fired electricity generation; and a lower producer/distributor stock build-up. Distribution of US coal in the first half of 1993 was 15 million short tons lower than in the first half of 1992, with 13 million short tons less distributed to overseas markets and 2 million short tons less distributed to domestic markets.

  5. 1983 annual outlook for US coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paull, M.K.

    1983-11-01

    This report highlights projections and discusses them in relation to coal's future domestic uses; the report also examines factors affecting coal's future growth. Coal was the primary source of energy in the United States from the mid-1800's until after World War II. After that war, coal lost most of its markets to oil and natural gas. In the 1960's, coal development was also hampered by environmental and mine safety concerns, and by the emergence of nuclear power. The 1973-74 oil embargo, however, demonstrated that the United States could no longer depend on imported oil to fuel its energy growth. Through 1990, coal is projected to meet an increasing share of total US energy demand. The projections for the 1985 to 1990 time period show an increased growth in coal consumption, particularly in the electric utility sector where new coal-fired power plants are coming on line. The projected growth in coal production, however, is subject to a series of potential constraints and/or obstacles that must be overcome. These potential constraints and obstacles are described after the history of coal supply and demand is reviewed and future projections are discussed.

  6. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.

  7. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  8. Clean Coal Technology - From Research to Reality | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Technology - From Research to Reality Clean Coal Technology - From Research to Reality Clean Coal Technology: From Research to Reality (940.28 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact Sheet: Clean Coal Technology Ushers In New Era in Energy Fact Sheet: Clean Coal Technology Ushers In New Era in Energy

  9. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-12-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  10. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  11. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  13. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, R.W.

    1982-09-20

    A rapidly refuelable dual cell of an electrochemical type is described wherein a single anode cooperates with two cathodes and wherein the anode has a fixed position and the cathodes are urged toward opposite faces of the anodes at constant and uniform force. The associated cathodes are automatically retractable to permit the consumed anode remains to be removed from the housing and a new anode inserted between the two cathodes.

  14. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, Richard W. (Santa Clara, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A rapidly refuelable dual cell of an electrochemical type wherein a single anode cooperates with two cathodes and wherein the anode has a fixed position and the cathodes are urged toward opposite faces of the anodes at constant and uniform force. The associated cathodes are automatically retractable to permit the consumed anode remains to be removed from the housing and a new anode inserted between the two cathodes.

  15. Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii

    2009-07-01

    The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

  16. Beluga coal gasification feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber

    2006-07-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

  17. The NOXSO clean coal project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  18. PNNL Coal Gasifier Transportation Logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.

    2011-04-13

    This report provides Pacific Northwest National laboratory (PNNL) craftspeople with the necessary information and suggested configurations to transport PNNL’s coal gasifier from its current location at the InEnTec facility in Richland, Washington, to PNNL’s Laboratory Support Warehouse (LSW) for short-term storage. A method of securing the gasifier equipment is provided that complies with the tie-down requirements of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Cargo Securement Rules.

  19. HINDERED DIFFUSION OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore T. Tsotsis; Muhammad Sahimi; Ian A. Webster

    1996-01-01

    It was the purpose of the project described here to carry out careful and detailed investigations of petroleum and coal asphaltene transport through model porous systems under a broad range of temperature conditions. The experimental studies were to be coupled with detailed, in-depth statistical and molecular dynamics models intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the overall transport mechanisms and a more accurate concept of the asphaltene structure. The following discussion describes some of our accomplishments.

  20. Method for extracting caking coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, M.J.; Huges, R.D.

    1985-03-05

    Caking coals can be solvent extracted in high yields without agglomeration by a first stage extraction of 380/sup 0/ C. to 420/sup 0/ C. and at a pressure above the critical pressure of the solvent, followed by a second stage at a temperature above the critical temperature of the solvent in the range 440/sup 0/ C. to 490/sup 0/ C. Conveniently, the extraction is done by a cocurrent flow, using a hydrogen donor solvent.

  1. Catalyst for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huibers, Derk T. A.; Kang, Chia-Chen C.

    1984-01-01

    An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

  2. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  3. Clean coal technology programs: program update 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2006 is to provide an updated status of the DOE commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCTs). These demonstrations are performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII) and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2006 provides 1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation's energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation's most abundant energy resource - coal; 2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and 3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, with fact sheets for demonstration projects that are active, recently completed, withdrawn or ended, including status as of June 30 2006. 4 apps.

  4. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  5. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  6. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  7. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, D.R.

    1987-07-07

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

  8. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelland, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A process and apparatus for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS.sub.2 to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe.sub.1-x S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H.sub.2 S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents.

  9. Investigation of coal structure. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishioka, Masaharu

    1994-03-01

    A better understanding of coal structure is the first step toward more effective utilization of the most abundant hydrocarbon resource. Detailed characterization of coal structure is very difficult, even with today`s highly developed analytical techniques. This is primarily due to the amorphous nature of these high-molecular-weight mixtures. Coal has a polymeric character and has been popularly represented as a three-dimensional cross-linked network. There is, however, little or no information which positively verifies this model. The principal objective of this research was to further investigate the physical structure of coal and to determine the extent to which coal molecules may be covalently cross-linked and/or physically associated. Two common characterization methods, swellability and extractability, were used. A technique modifying the conventional swelling procedure was established to better determine network or associated model conformation. A new method for evaluating coal swelling involving laser scattering has also been developed. The charge-transfer interaction is relatively strong in high-volatile bituminous coal. Soaking in the presence of electron donors and acceptors proved effective for solubilizing the coal, but temperatures in excess of 200 C were required. More than 70 wt% of the coal was readily extracted with pyridine after soaking. Associative/dissociative equilibria of coal molecules were observed during soaking. From these results, the associated model has gained credibility over the network model as the representative structure of coal. Significant portions of coal molecules are unquestionably physically associated, but the overall extent is not known at this time.

  10. University Coal Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    University Coal Research University Coal Research Universities frequently win Fossil Energy research competitions or join with private companies to submit successful research proposals. Today approximately 16 percent of the Office of Fossil Energy's annual R&D funding goes to academic institutions. The University Coal Research Program Universities have traditionally fared well in the Energy Department's open competitions for federal research grants and contracts. In 1979, however, the

  11. Washington delivers for the coal industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-08-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 sets the course for better use of America's largest natural resource. Approximately $62 billion were authorised for coal related projects and nearly $2.9 million directed at coal projects in the tax portion of the bill. The article summarises some key points of the bill that affect the coal mining, processing and utilization sectors. The background for the article was provided courtesy of the National Mining Association. 4 tabs.

  12. coal contacts | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coal contacts Strategic Center for Coal Director: Sean Plasynski 412-386-4867 Senior Management & Technical Advisor: Gregory Kawalkin 412-386-6135 Senior Management & Technical Advisor: Dan Driscoll 304-285-4717 Program Analyst: Kathleen Wolf 412-386-4693 Supervisory Administrative Specialist: Ken Mechling 412-386-7249 Office of Coal and Power Research and Development Director: John Wimer 304-285-4124 Deputy Director: Robert Romanosky 304-285-4721 Technology Manager, Fuel Cells: Shailesh

  13. Railroads and shippers clash over coal dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-11-15

    In an effort to reduce coal spillage from railcars, mines in the Powder River Basin (PRB) now load coal with a loaf profile but, reportedly, beginning in 2008, Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) will announce guidelines requiring all PRB coal loads to be sprayed with a chemical surfactant. If this does not fix the problem, greater measures will be taken. At the time of going to press, the details of how this would be implemented and regulated were unresolved. 1 photo.

  14. Recovery of minerals from US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    Projections show that domestic coal will serve for the majority of energy supplies during the next decades. Thorough chemical cleaning of this coal can be accomplished in long residence time, slurry transport systems to produce high-quality fuel product. Concurrently, mineral recovery from coals will supplement existing ores. This paper describes this concept and given preliminary engineering considerations for mineral recovery during transport operations.

  15. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Burl E.; Henry, Raymond M.; Trivett, Gordon S.; Albaugh, Edgar W.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  16. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  17. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  18. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  19. Hydrogen from Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal to Liquids » Hydrogen from Coal Hydrogen from Coal Technicians make adjustments to equipment in the hydrogen membrane testing unit at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory. NETL researchers in the Research Innovation Center are testing different types of materials that might be used to separate hydrogen from other gases. Photo courtesy of NETL. Technicians make adjustments to equipment in the hydrogen membrane testing unit at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory. NETL

  20. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low rank coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1991-01-01

    significant achievements were: (1) Coal decarboxylation was achieved by batch bioreactor systems using adapted anaerobic microbial consortium. (2) Two new isolates with coal decarboxylation potential were obtained from adapted microbial consortia. (3) CHN and TG anaysis of anaerobically biotreated coals have shown an increase in the H/C ratio and evolution rate of volatile carbon which could be a better feedstock for the liquefaction process.

  1. Derivative expansion of the effective action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheyette, O.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes some methods for calculating derivative terms in the one loop effective action for a quantum field theory. The functional approach and background field method are first used to derive the general form of the one loop determinant. Then the determinant is expanded in powers of derivatives of the background fields. The form of this expansion is described for the simple case of an interacting scalar field, and then for the more complicated problem of a non-abelian gauge field. Finally, the expansion is applied to the task of calculating Higgs mass dependent effects in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model, and all terms which grow with the Higgs mass M/sub H/ are found in the one loop approximation. The result of this calculation is used to find the dependence of the gauge boson mass ratio rho on M/sub H/, and also to estimate the size of corrections to W and Z scattering theorems.

  2. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  3. Low thermal expansion seal ring support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewis, David W.; Glezer, Boris

    2000-01-01

    Today, the trend is to increase the temperature of operation of gas turbine engines. To cool the components with compressor discharge air, robs air which could otherwise be used for combustion and creates a less efficient gas turbine engine. The present low thermal expansion sealing ring support system reduces the quantity of cooling air required while maintaining life and longevity of the components. Additionally, the low thermal expansion sealing ring reduces the clearance "C","C'" demanded between the interface between the sealing surface and the tip of the plurality of turbine blades. The sealing ring is supported by a plurality of support members in a manner in which the sealing ring and the plurality of support members independently expand and contract relative to each other and to other gas turbine engine components.

  4. Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C.; Mei, Viung C.

    2002-10-22

    A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

  5. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  6. Pole EXpansion and Selected Inversion (PEXSI)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-03-01

    The Pole EXpansion and Selected Inversion method (PEXSI) is a fast method for evaluating certain selected elements of a matrix function. PEXSI is highly scalable on distributed memory parallel machines. For sparse matrices, the PEXSI method can be more efficient than the widely used diagonalization method for evaluating matrix functions, especially when a relatively large number of eigenpairs are needed to be computed in the diagonalization methond

  7. International Experts on Clean Coal, Carbon Capture Technologies to Meet at Pittsburgh Coal Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The role of fossil fuels in the global energy portfolio, reducing the environmental impacts of coal-based energy systems, and recent advances in clean coal technology are just some of the subjects that will be discussed at the 2012 International Pittsburgh Coal Conference to be held October 15-18 at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh, Pa.

  8. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  9. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Bed for Burning Coal?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-Bed for Burning Coal An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with ...

  10. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Brief Overview of Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview Fossil Energy Study Guides Coal - General Info America has more coal than any other fossil fuel resource. The United States also has more coal reserves than any other ...

  11. UK Coal Peel Energy JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coal Peel Energy JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: UK Coal & Peel Energy JV Place: United Kingdom Sector: Wind energy Product: JV to develop wind projects. References: UK Coal &...

  12. New Computer Codes Unlock the Secrets of Cleaner Burning Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cleaner Coal through Gasification In a traditional coal-fired power plant, coal undergoes combustion in a boiler to turn water into steam. This steam pressure then drives turbine ...

  13. EIA - Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Origin State Glossary Home > Coal> Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State Release Date: January 2006 Next Release Date: 2006...

  14. EM Transfers Coal to Fuel Economic Development | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transfers Coal to Fuel Economic Development EM Transfers Coal to Fuel Economic Development May 16, 2016 - 12:15pm Addthis A front loader dumps a bucket of coal into the first of ...

  15. The Market for Coal Based Electric Power Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Market for New Coal Power Plant Technology 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Coal-Fired Plant Capacity (GW) EIA Projected Coal ...

  16. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid ... It was found that the rhodium catalyst works well under biphase conditions rather than ...

  17. FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Coal News FE Clean Coal News RSS June 3, 2016 U.S., Saudi Arabia Announce International Collaboration on Supercritical CO2 Tech Development The U. S. and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have announced the intention to establish an international consortium to promote the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles. December 2, 2015 DOE Selects Projects To Enhance Its Research into Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal

  18. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation costs to electric power ... domestic distribution, while industrial plants excluding coke received 4.8%, coke plants ...

  19. Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants. ... that can help utilities cut sulfur, nitrogen and mercury pollutants from power plants. ...

  20. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  1. Continuing consolidation in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaalaas, T.

    2006-08-15

    Extensive consolidation has occurred in the coal industry over the past decade. The greatest degree of consolidation has occurred in Northern Appalachia, the Illinois Basin, and the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin (PRB), which are the coal supply regions where most observers expect the greatest growth in coal production over the next decade. In addition to reducing the number of alternative suppliers, high level of concentration also tend to result in higher prices, more volatile spot markets, and lower levels of reliability. Therefore, coal-fired generators purchasing in these regions need to respond proactively and strategically to these market trends. 2 figs.

  2. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  3. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  4. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  5. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    This report presents detailed quarterly data for March 1996 and historical data for 1988 through 1995 on coal production, distribution, imports and exports, prices, consumption, and stocks.

  6. Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 8, 2010 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Systems Analyses and Planning Erik Shuster 2 Tracking New Coal-Fired Power Plants This report is intended to...

  7. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  8. Status of DOE's Clean Coal Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Statement by Dr. S. Julio Friedmann, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal, before the House Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations.

  9. Preparation of Clay Brick Using Coal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Jung W.; Jung, Jin H.; Kim, Jae M.; Lee, Sung M.; Kim, Hyung T.

    2004-03-31

    A great deal of coal waste produced during the development of a mine was accumulated around the mine, which caused many problems such as traffic, acid mine drainage and damage of forest and scenery. Carbon in the coal waste helps calcination of the brick even at low temperature. Considering the reuse of natural waste and energy saving, clay brick was prepared using coal waste under various conditions, including particle size, amount of coal waste mixed, calcination temperature and pressing pressure. The specimens were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG-DTA and interpreted in terms of water absorption and compressive strength.

  10. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coal liquids can be hydrogenated catalyzed by Catalyst 2 include monocyclic aromatic ... PROGRESS REPORT; ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS; EXPERIMENTAL DATA Word Cloud More Like ...

  11. Integrated two-stage coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronfenbrenner, James C.; Skinner, Ronald W.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved two-stage process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal.

  12. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  13. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  14. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  15. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Administration (EIA) Analysis & Projections ‹ See all Coal Reports U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2010 Year in Review Release Date: June 1, 2011 | Next Release Date: Periodically | full report Exports and Imports Exports Total U.S. coal exports for 2010 increased by 38.3 percent to 81.7 million short tons (Figure 8). Figure Data This increase was largely due to two factors. First, heavy rains and flooding in Australia, Indonesia, and Colombia reduced world coal supply and

  16. China's coal market: is peak demand insight?

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a slight recovery by 2020. * Coal-fired generation will continue to be squeezed by non-fossil generation resources. * Renewable, nuclear, and gas plant additions will remain ...

  17. Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Department of Energy conducted a joint program with industry and State agencies to demonstrate the best of these new technologies at scales large enough for companies to make commercial decisions. More than 20 of the technologies

  18. Frequency dependent thermal expansion in binary viscoelasticcomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, James G.

    2007-12-01

    The effective thermal expansion coefficient beta* of abinary viscoelastic composite is shown to be frequency dependent even ifthe thermal expansion coefficients beta A and beta B of both constituentsare themselves frequency independent. Exact calculations for binaryviscoelastic systems show that beta* is related to constituent valuesbeta A, beta B, volume fractions, and bulk moduli KA, KB, as well as tothe overall bulk modulus K* of the composite system. Then, beta* isdetermined for isotropic systems by first bounding (or measuring) K* andtherefore beta*. For anisotropic systems with hexagonal symmetry, theprincipal values of the thermal expansion beta*perp and beta*para can bedetermined exactly when the constituents form a layered system. In allthe examples studied, it is shown explicitly that the eigenvectors of thethermoviscoelastic system possess non-negative dissipation -- despite thecomplicated analytical behavior of the frequency dependent thermalexpansivities themselves. Methods presented have a variety ofapplications from fluid-fluid mixtures to fluid-solid suspensions, andfrom fluid-saturated porous media to viscoelastic solid-solidcomposites.

  19. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (April 2016) Archived Editions: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 2 (Jan 2016) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 1 (Oct 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 1, Issue 4 (July 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol.

  20. On rapid plasma rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helander, P.

    2007-10-15

    The conditions under which rapid plasma rotation may occur in a general three-dimensional magnetic field with flux surfaces, such as that of a stellarator, are investigated. Rotation velocities comparable to the ion thermal speed are found to be attainable only in magnetic fields whose strength B depends on the arc length l along the field in approximately the same way for all field lines on each flux surface {psi}, i.e., B{approx_equal}f({psi},l). Moreover, it is shown that the rotation must be in the direction of the vector {nabla}{psi}x{nabla}B.