National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rank sulfur dioxide

  1. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  2. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1996-01-01

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h.sup.-1. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications.

  3. Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, Phillip G.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    1979-01-01

    Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

  4. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  5. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the

  6. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  7. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard; Steinberg, Meyer

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  8. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  9. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  10. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  11. Utilizing the market to control sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeher, C.F. III

    1995-12-01

    Environmental policy in the United States is evolving; command and control approaches are being slowly replaced with market-based incentives. Market-based regulation is favorable because it provides the regulated community with flexibility in choosing between pollution control options. A recent application of a market-based approach is Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This paper evaluates the advantages of utilizing market-based incentives to control sulfur dioxide emissions. The evaluation embodies an extensive methodology, which provides an overview of the policy governing air quality, discusses pollution control philosophies and analyzes their associated advantages and limitations. Further, it describes the development and operation of a market for emissions trading, impediments to the market, and recommends strategies to improve the market. The evaluation concludes by analyzing the results of five empirical simulations demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of employing market-based incentives versus command-and-control regulation for controlling sulfur dioxide emissions. The results of the evaluation indicate that regulatory barriers and market impediments have inhibited allowance trading. However, many of these obstacles have been or are being eliminated through Federal and state regulations, and through enhancement of the market. Results also demonstrate that sulfur dioxide allowance trading can obtain identical levels of environmental protection as command-and-control approaches while realizing cost savings to government and industry.

  12. Sulfur dioxide capture in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Buckley, T.J. . Center for Chemical Technology)

    1990-06-01

    Chlorine and sulfur mass balance studies have been carried out in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal in the NIST multikilogram capacity batch combustor. The catalytic effect of manganese dioxide on the trapping of sulfur dioxide by lime was examined. Under our conditions, only 4% of the chlorine was trapped in the ash and no effect of manganese dioxide was observed. Between 42 and 14% of the total sulfur was trapped in the ash, depending upon the lime concentration. The effect of manganese dioxide on sulfur capture was not detectable. The temperature of the ash was estimated to be near 1200{degrees}C, which was in agreement with that calculated from sulfur dioxide capture thermodynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Letter from Commonwealth to Mirant Potomac River Concerning Serious Violations of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Sulfur Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Docket No. EO-05-01: Letter from Commonwealth of Virginia to Mirant Potomac River concerning Serious Violations of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Sulfur Dioxide.

  15. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  16. Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shale, Correll C.; Cross, William G.

    1976-08-24

    A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

  17. Natural sulfur flux from the Gulf of Mexico: dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valin, C.C.; Luria, M.; Wellman, D.L.; Gunter, R.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric measurements of natural sulfur compounds were performed over the northern Gulf of Mexico during the late summer months of 1984. Air samples were collected with an instrumented aircraft at elevations of 30-3500 m, during both day and night. Most air samples were representative of the clean maritime atmosphere, although some were from continental contaminated air during periods of offshore flow at the coastline. In all samples, carbonyl sulfide concentrations were within the range of 400-500 pptv. Conversely, the dimethyl sulfide concentrations showed significant variability: during clean atmospheric conditions the average of all measurements was 27 pptv, whereas under polluted conditions the average was 7 pptv. Measureable quantities of dimethyl sulfide (>5 pptv) were not observed above the boundary layer. The average sulfur dioxide concentration measured in the marine (clean) atmosphere was 215 pptv, which is consistent with the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide being its major source.

  18. Development of a new FGD process that converts sulfur dioxide to salable ammonium phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji-lu Chen

    1993-12-31

    Rich mineral resources have enabled Chinese coal output and energy consumption to rank second and third in the world, respectively. In 1992, up to 70 percent of the country`s electric power was generated by the combustion of some 300 million tons of coal. Although the average sulfur content level in Chinese coals is only about 0.8 percent, the share of high- sulfur coals with 2 percent or more sulfur content is as high as 18 percent. As a result, air pollution accompanied by acid rain now occurs over most of the country, especially in southwestern China. Currently, the area comprising Guangdong, Guangxi, the Sichuan Basin, and the greater part of Gueizhou, where the sulfur content in coal is between 2 and 7 percent and the average pH values of rain water are between 4 and 5 per annum, has become one of the three biggest acid rain-affected areas in the world. In 1992, the national installed coal-fired electricity generation capacity exceeded 100,000 MWe. By the year 2000, it is expected to reach as much as 200,000 MWe, according to a new scheduled program. Environmental pollution caused by large-scale coal combustion is a very important issue that needs to be considered in the implementation of the program. To ensure that the effects of coal-fired power generation on the environment can be properly controlled in the near future, TPRI (Thermal Power Research Institute), the sole thermal power engineering research institution within the Ministry of Electric Power Industry (MOEPI), has conducted a long-term research program to develop sulfur emission control technologies suitable to the special conditions prevalent in China since the early 1970s. The details are summarized. The objective of this chapter is to describe the fundamental concept and major pilot test results and present an economic evaluation of a new process combining flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and ammonium phosphate fertilizer production.

  19. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, G.L.; Davis, D.D.; Beltz, N.; Bandy, A.R.; Ferek, R.J.; Thornton, D.C. [NASA, Langely Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)]|[Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)]|[J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of `potential` uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  20. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, A.R.; Thornton, D.C.; Driedger, A.R. III [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

  1. Regional versus global? -- Will strategies for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions from electric utilities increase carbon dioxide emissions?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, J.C.; Dolsak, N.

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal are expected to reduce their SO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions may result in increased CO{sub 2} emissions. Thereby decrease of regional pollution may cause increase of global pollution. Environmental, political, moral, and economic consequences of the two types of pollution differ significantly. Midwestern electric utilities, USA, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal, are analyzed in the paper. However, the same problem is relevant for some European coal fueled power plants. Strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions, employed by Midwestern electric utilities to comply with the clean Air Act amendments (CAAA) of 1990 and their possible affects on CO{sub 2} emissions, are presented. The paper focuses on two general strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions. First is coal-switching or blending with a low-sulfur coal. Second is construction and use of flue-gas desulfurization devices (scrubbers). A combination of both strategies is also a viable option. Switching to low-sulfur coal may result in larger CO{sub 2} emissions because that coal has different characteristics and has to be transported much greater distances. Scrubbers require significant amounts of energy for their operation which requires burning more coal. This increases the level of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  2. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  3. Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

  4. On the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide by carbon monoxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst: A study by XPS and TPR/MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, N.T.; Fang, M. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center

    1998-10-25

    Both the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reaction, coupled with mass spectrometry (TPR/MS), are used to study the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst. It was found that the lattice sulfur of the oxysulfide is released and reacts with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide when the oxysulfide is heated. The oxysulfide is postulated to form sulfur vacancies at a temperature lower than that for the formation of carbonyl sulfide and atomic sulfur is released in the process. The atomic sulfur can either enter the gas phase and leave the oxysulfide catalyst or react with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide.

  5. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2010-01-23

    It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

  6. The last decade of global anthropogenic sulfur dioxide: 2000-2011 emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimont, Z.; Smith, Steven J.; Cofala, Janusz

    2013-01-09

    Evolution of global and regional anthropogenic SO2 emissions in the last decade has been estimated through a bottom-up calculation for recent years. After a strong increase in emissions that peaked about 2006, we estimate a declining trend continuing until 2011. However, there is a strong spatial variability with North America and Europe continuing to reduce emissions with an increasing role of Asia and international shipping. China remains a key contributor but the introduction of stricter emission limits followed by an ambitious program of installing flue gas desulfurization on power plants resulted in significant decline in emissions from energy sector and stabilization of Chinese SO2 emissions. Comparable mitigation strategies are not yet present in several other Asian countries and industrial sectors in general, while emissions from international shipping are expected to start declining soon following agreed reduction of sulfur content of fuel oil. Estimated trends in global SO2 emissions are within the range of RCP projections and uncertainty calculated for the year 2005.

  7. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H.

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  8. Communication: Theoretical prediction of the importance of the {sup 3}B{sub 2} state in the dynamics of sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lvque, Camille; CNRS, LCPMR, UMR 7614, Paris Cedex 05; Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universitt Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg ; Taeb, Richard; CNRS, LCPMR, UMR 7614, Paris Cedex 05 ; Kppel, Horst

    2014-03-07

    Even though the sulfur dioxide molecule has been extensively studied over the last decades, its photo-excitation dynamics is still unclear, due to its complexity, combining conical intersections, and spin-orbit coupling between a manifold of states. We present a comprehensive ab initio study of the intersystem crossing of the molecule in the low energy domain, based on a wave-packet propagation on the manifold of the lowest singlet and triplet states. Furthermore, spin-orbit couplings are evaluated on a geometry-dependent grid, and diabatized along with the different conical intersections. Our results show for the first time the primordial role of the triplet {sup 3}B{sub 2} state and furthermore predict novel interference patterns due to the different intersystem crossing channels induced by the spin-orbit couplings and the shapes of the different potential energy surfaces. These give new insight into the coupled singlet-triplet dynamics of SO{sub 2}.

  9. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  10. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-11-04

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  11. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  12. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton

    2007-08-15

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

    2011-07-31

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  14. Method of detecting sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spicer, Leonard D.; Bennett, Dennis W.; Davis, Jon F.

    1985-01-01

    (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH, whereby any SO.sub.2 present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO.sub.2 in the original gas sample. The solid product [NH.sub.4][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy.

  15. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  16. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  17. Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

    2014-04-29

    A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

  18. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  19. Microsoft Word - Updated Air Dispersion Modeling Table _sulfur...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DIVINE STRAKE AIR DISPERSION MODELING RESULTS for SULFUR DIOXIDE The attached table is ... within the Nevada Ambient Air Quality Standards at the boundary of the Nevada Test Site. ...

  20. Sulfur control in ion-conducting membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Richards, Robin Edward; Brengel, David Douglas; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2003-08-05

    A method for controlling the sulfur dioxide partial pressure in a pressurized, heated, oxygen-containing gas mixture which is contacted with an ion-conducting metallic oxide membrane which permeates oxygen ions. The sulfur dioxide partial pressure in the oxygen-depleted non-permeate gas from the membrane module is maintained below a critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure, p.sub.SO2 *, to protect the membrane material from reacting with sulfur dioxide and reducing the oxygen flux of the membrane. Each ion-conducting metallic oxide material has a characteristic critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure which is useful in determining the required level of sulfur removal from the feed gas and/or from the fuel gas used in a direct-fired feed gas heater.

  1. Separation of sulfur isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeWitt, Robert; Jepson, Bernhart E.; Schwind, Roger A.

    1976-06-22

    Sulfur isotopes are continuously separated and enriched using a closed loop reflux system wherein sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or the like to form sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO.sub.3). Heavier sulfur isotopes are preferentially attracted to the NaHSO.sub.3, and subsequently reacted with sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) forming sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO.sub.4) and SO.sub.2 gas which contains increased concentrations of the heavier sulfur isotopes. This heavy isotope enriched SO.sub.2 gas is subsequently separated and the NaHSO.sub.4 is reacted with NaOH to form sodium sulfate (Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4) which is subsequently decomposed in an electrodialysis unit to form the NaOH and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 components which are used in the aforesaid reactions thereby effecting sulfur isotope separation and enrichment without objectionable loss of feed materials.

  2. Chemical and physical characterization of western low-rank-coal waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Carol May

    1981-03-01

    Evaluations of disposal requirements for solid wastes from power stations burning low-rank western coals is the primary objective of this program. Solid wastes to be characterized include: fly ashes, sludges from wet scrubbers, solids from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) processes and solids from dry scrubbing systems. Fly ashes and sludges to be studied will be obtained primarily from systems using alkaline fly ashes as significant sources of alkalinity for sulfur dioxide removal. Fluidized bed combustion wastes will include those produced by burning North Dakota lignite and Texas lignite. Dry scrubbing wastes will include those from spray drying systems and dry injection systems. Spray dryer wastes will be from a system using sodium carbonate as the scrubbing reagent. Dry injection wastes will come from systems using nahcolite and trona as sorbents. Spray dryer wastes, dry injection wastes, and FBC wastes will be supplied by the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Sludges and other samples will be collected at power stations using fly ash to supply alkalinity to wet scrubbers for sulfur dioxide removal. Sludges will be subjected to commercial fixation processes. Coal, fly ashes, treated and untreated sludges, scrubber liquor, FBC wastes, and dry scrubbing wastes will be subjected to a variety of chemical and physical tests. Results of these tests will be used to evaluate disposal requirements for wastes frm the systems studied.

  3. H. R. 4177: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose an excise tax on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from utility plants. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, March 5, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The tax imposed would begin in 1991 in the amount of 15 cents per pound of sulfur dioxide released and 10 cents per pound nitrogen oxide, and would increase so that the tax in 1997 and thereafter would be 45 cents per pound of sulfur dioxide and 30 cents per pound of nitrogen oxide released. An inflation adjustment is provided for years after 1997. The tax is imposed on emissions which exceed the exemption level for each pollutant, and these levels are specified herein as pounds exempted per million Btu's of fuel burned. No tax is imposed on units less than 75 megawatts, or units providing less than one-third of the electricity produced to a utility power distribution system for sale.

  4. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured ... However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. BNL has written an interface ...

  5. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

    1995-01-24

    A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

  6. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert; Pickard, Paul S.; Parma, Jr., Edward J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Gelbard, Fred; Lenard, Roger X.

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  7. Reordering MPI Ranks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reordering MPI Ranks Reordering MPI Ranks Introduction When a parallel program runs, MPI tasks are assigned to compute cores. Since compute nodes (which each contain 24 cores) are located across different positions on the 3D torus network, communication time between tasks will vary depending not only on node placement, but also the placement of each task within the allocated nodes. This study explores the performance of applications when the placement of MPI tasks is changed across nodes

  8. Presidential Rank Award Winners | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Presidential Rank Award Winners

  9. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  10. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  11. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, Kenneth G.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  12. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  13. Fuel-rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of a refactory-lined, natural gas furnace to study the fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel-rich sulfur species hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were monitored in a nearly continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equiped with a flame photometric detector and an automatic system that sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel-rich zone, 25% excess air was added, and the ultimate fuel-lean capture was simultaneously measured using a continuous sulfur dioxide monitor. Under fuel-rich conditions, high levels of sulfur capture were obtained, and calcium utilization increased with sulfur concentration. The ultimate lean capture was found to be weakly dependent on sulfur concentration and independent of the sulfur capture level obtained in the fuel-rich zone.

  14. U.S. States - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Rankings Additional State Rankings Consumption Total Energy per Capita Prices Natural Gas Electricity Environment Carbon Dioxide Emissions Expenditures Total Energy per Capita Production Total Energy Crude Oil Natural Gas Coal Electricity More State Ranking Tables › Notes & Sources Consumption Total Energy per Capita: EIA, State Energy Data System, Total Consumption Per Capita Expenditures Total Energy per Capita: EIA, State Energy Data System, Total Expenditures Per Capita Production

  15. Uses of lunar sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Sulfur dioxide gas detection with Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Y/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ solid electrolyte by a solid reference electrode method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imanaka, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Adachi, G.; Shiokawa, J.

    1987-03-01

    The electromotive force (EMF) measurement for a Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/Li/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Y/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ solid electrolyte was performed both with NiSO/sub 4/-NiO and CoSO/sub 4/-Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ solid reference SO/sub 2/ electrodes. The measured EMF coincided well with the calculated EMF for a sulfur dioxide gas concentration from 30 ppm to 1% at 973 K. Good agreement between the measured and calculated EMF was also obtained for the SO/sub 2/ gas content from 100 ppm to 1%, at 923 K with the NiSO/sub 4/-NiO electrode.

  17. Ranking and Sequencing Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-13

    This database application (commonly called the Supermodel) provides a repository for managing critical facility/project information, allows the user to subjectively an objectively assess key criteria , quantify project risks, develop ROM cost estimates, determine facility/project end states, ultimately performing risk-based modeling to rank facilities/project based on risk, sequencing project schedules and provides an optimized recommended sequencing/scheduling of these projects which maximize the S&M cost savings to perform closure projects which benefit all stakeholders.

  18. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable ...

  19. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  20. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  1. METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

    2009-06-22

    HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

  2. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  3. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electrodes (Patent) | SciTech Connect sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the

  4. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    wong, bunsen

    2014-11-20

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  5. Process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal sulfide sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E.; Gal, Eli

    1995-01-01

    A process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal-sulfur compound. Spent metal-sulfur compound is regenerated to re-usable metal oxide by moving a bed of spent metal-sulfur compound progressively through a single regeneration vessel having a first and second regeneration stage and a third cooling and purging stage. The regeneration is carried out and elemental sulfur is generated in the first stage by introducing a first gas of sulfur dioxide which contains oxygen at a concentration less than the stoichiometric amount required for complete oxidation of the spent metal-sulfur compound. A second gas containing sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen at a concentration sufficient for complete oxidation of the partially spent metal-sulfur compound, is introduced into the second regeneration stage. Gaseous sulfur formed in the first regeneration stage is removed prior to introducing the second gas into the second regeneration stage. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the third cooling and purging stage. Except for the gaseous sulfur removed from the first stage, the combined gases derived from the regeneration stages which are generally rich in sulfur dioxide and lean in oxygen, are removed from the regenerator as an off-gas and recycled as the first and second gas into the regenerator. Oxygen concentration is controlled by adding air, oxygen-enriched air or pure oxygen to the recycled off-gas.

  6. plutonium dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plutonium dioxide - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  7. Sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hise, R.E.; Cook, W.J.

    1991-06-04

    This paper describes a method for recovering sulfur from a process feed stream mixture of gases comprising sulfur-containing compounds including hydrogen sulfide using the Claus reaction to convert sulfur-containing compounds to elemental sulfur and crystallization to separate sulfur-containing compounds from a tail gas of the Claus reaction for further processing as a recycle stream. It comprises: providing a Claus feed stream containing a stoichiometric excess of hydrogen sulfide, the Claus feed stream including the process feed stream and the recycles stream; introducing the Claus feed stream and an oxidizing agent into a sulfur recovery unit for converting sulfur-containing compounds in the Claus feed stream to elemental sulfur; withdrawing the tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit; separating water from the tail gas to producing a dehydrated tail gas; separating sulfur-containing compounds including carbonyl sulfide from the dehydrated tail gas as an excluded material by crystallization and withdrawing an excluded material-enriched output from the crystallization to produce the recycle stream; and combining the recycle stream with the process feed stream to produce the Claus feed stream.

  8. The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

  9. SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEACHING OF URANIUM CONTAINING MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.

    1958-12-01

    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  10. Bacterial Sulfur Storage Globules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by I. J. Pickering and G. N. George Sulfur is essential for all life, but it plays a particularly central role in the metabolism of many anaerobic microorganisms. Prominent among these are the sulfide-oxidizing bacteria that oxidize sulfide (S2-) to sulfate (SO42-). Many of these organisms can store elemental sulfur (S0) in "globules" for use when food is in short supply (Fig. 1). The chemical nature of the sulfur in these globules has been an enigma since they were first described as

  11. Biogenic sulfur source strengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.; Bamesberger, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Conclusions are presented from a 4-yr field measurement study of biogenic sulfur gas emissions from soils, and some water and vegetated surfaces, at 35 locales in the eastern and southeastern United States. More than one soil order was examined whenever possible to increase the data base obtained from the 11 major soil orders comprising the study area. Data analysis and emission model development were based upon an (80 x 80)-km/sup 2/ grid system. The measured sulfur fluxes, adjusted for the annual mean temperature for each sampling locale, weigted by the percentage of each soil order within each grid, and averaged for each of the east-west grid tiers from 47/sup 0/N to 25/sup 0/N latitude, showed an exponential north-to-south increase in total sulfur gas flux. Our model predits an additional increase of nearly 25-fold in sulfur flux between 25/sup 0/N and the equator.

  12. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Liu, Wei

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  13. Device and method for detecting sulfur dioxide at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, David L.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2011-11-01

    The present invention relates to a method for selectively detecting and/or measuring gaseous SO.sub.2 at a temperature of at least 500.degree. C., the method involving: (i) providing a SO.sub.2-detecting device including an oxygen ion-conducting substrate having on its surface at least three electrodes comprising a first, second, and third electrode; (ii) driving a starting current of specified magnitude and temporal variation between the first and second electrodes; (iii) contacting the SO.sub.2-detecting device with the SO.sub.2-containing sample while maintaining the magnitude and any temporal variation of the starting current, wherein said SO.sub.2-containing sample causes a change in the electrical conductance of said device; and (iv) detecting the change in electrical conductance of the device based on measuring an electrical property related to or indicative of the conductance of the device between the first and third electrodes, or between the second and third electrodes, and detecting SO.sub.2 in the SO.sub.2-containing sample based on the measured change in electrical conductance.

  14. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  15. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent containing calcium oxide (CaO) and at least one refractory dopant having a Tammann temperature greater than about 530.degree. C., wherein the refractory dopant enhances resistance to sintering, thereby conserving performance of the sorbent at temperatures of at

  16. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  17. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Agnew, Stephen F.; Christensen, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  18. Low-rank coal research, Task 5.1. Topical report, April 1986--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This document is a topical progress report for Low-Rank Coal Research performed April 1986 - December 1992. Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research is described for Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains, and Hot-Gas Cleanup. Advanced Research and Technology Development was conducted on Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Combustion Research is described for Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Fuels (completed 10/31/90), Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals (completed 12/31/90), Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications (completed 10/31/90), Nitrous Oxide Emission, and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion. Liquefaction Research in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction is discussed. Gasification Research was conducted in Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coals and in Sulfur Forms in Coal.

  19. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  20. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KALB, P.

    2001-08-22

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris.

  1. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  2. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  3. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE-OXYGEN ICES: TOWARD THE FORMATION OF SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})-oxygen (O{sub 2}) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and/or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.

  4. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H.; Stegen, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  5. Nuclear Facility Risk Ranking | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Facility Risk Ranking Nuclear Facility Risk Ranking Nuclear Facility Risk Ranking The CNS has purview of over ninety EM nuclear facilities across the DOE complex. To ensure that limited resources are applied in a risk-informed and balanced approach, the CNS performed a methodical assessment of the EM nuclear facilities. This risk-informed approach provides a data-driven foundation on which to construct a balanced set of operating plans and staff assignments. 2015 Risk Analysis Methodology.jpg

  6. On Boolean matrices with full factor rank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shitov, Ya

    2013-11-30

    It is demonstrated that every (0,1)-matrix of size nm having Boolean rank n contains acolumn with at least ?n/2?1 zero entries. This bound is shown to be asymptotically optimal. As acorollary, it is established that the size of afull-rank Boolean matrix is bounded from above by afunction of its tropical and determinantal ranks. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  7. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

    2014-07-08

    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Utilization Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 6th Carbon Dioxide Utilization Summit will be held in Newark, New Jersey, from Feb. 24–26, 2016. The conference will look at the benefits and challenges of carbon dioxide utilization. Advanced Algal Systems Program Manager Alison Goss Eng and Technology Manager Devinn Lambert will be in attendance. Dr. Goss Eng will be chairing a round table on Fuels and Chemicals during the Carbon Dioxide Utilization: From R&D to Commercialization discussion session.

  9. Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance ...

  10. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefohn, A.S.; Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B.; Brimblecombe, P.

    1996-07-19

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  11. Evaluation of Sulfur in Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-04-01

    This project will define the options and costs at different scales of technology that can be used to remove sulfur from syngas.

  12. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  13. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Jozewicz, Wojciech

    1989-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accorda The government may own certain rights in the present invention pursuant to EPA Cooperative Agreement CR 81-1531.

  14. Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, Othar K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for dissolving plutonium dioxide comprises adding silver ions to a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution to significantly speed up dissolution of difficultly soluble plutonium dioxide.

  15. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  16. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  17. An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    globally distributed sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in the deep sea carry bacterial genes for the oxidation of elemental sulfur. Although such observations are common in...

  18. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  19. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2015-04-07

    A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing the graphene layers with a first solution comprising sulfur and carbon disulfide, evaporating the carbon disulfide to yield a solid nanocomposite, and grinding the solid nanocomposite to yield the graphene-sulfur nanocomposite. Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter of less than 50 nm.

  20. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  1. Low-sulfur coal usage alters transportation strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, H.

    1995-07-01

    As electricity production has grown, so has the amount of coal burned by US utilities. In order to comply with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), many utilities have changed from high-sulfur coal to lower-sulfur coal to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. The primary mode of transporting coal to utilities remains the railroad, and coal represents the largest freight tonnage shipped - two out of every five tons. Since coal is so important to the railroads, it is logical that as utilities have changed their coal-buying strategies, the railroads` strategies have also changed. The increased demand for Western coal has caused rail lines some capacity problems which they are attempting to meet head-on by buying new railcars and locomotives and expanding track capacities. The new railcars typically have aluminum bodies to reduce empty weight, enabling them to carry larger loads of coal. Train locomotives are also undergoing upgrade changes. Most new locomotives have as motors to drive the wheels which deliver more motive power (traction) to the wheel trucks. In fact the motors are up to 30% more efficient at getting the traction to the trucks. Trackage is also being expanded to alleviate serious congestion on the tracks when moving Western coal.

  2. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  3. METHOD OF SINTERING URANIUM DIOXIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, C.M.; Stavrolakis, J.A.

    1963-04-30

    This patent relates to a method of sintering uranium dioxide. Uranium dioxide bodies are heated to above 1200 nif- C in hydrogen, sintered in steam, and then cooled in hydrogen. (AEC)

  4. Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Facility Martinez Sulfuric Acid...

  5. Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur ...

  6. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rechargeable-lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be ...

  7. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  8. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  9. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  10. Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, William E.

    1992-01-01

    A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

  11. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-05-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objective for this reporting period was to perform pressure transient testing to determine permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. To perform permeability testing of the Wilcox coal, we worked with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation in selecting the well and intervals to test and in designing the pressure transient test. Anadarko agreed to allow us to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well (Well APCT2). This well is located in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that we earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2} emissions. A service company, Pinnacle Technologies Inc. (Pinnacle) was contracted to conduct the tests in the field. Intervals tested were 2 coal beds with thicknesses of 3 and 7 feet, respectively, at approximately 4,100 ft depth in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in east-central Texas. Analyses of pressure transient test data indicate that average values for coalbed methane reservoir permeability in the tested coals are between 1.9 and 4.2 mD. These values are in the lower end of the range of permeability used in the preliminary simulation modeling. These new coal fracture permeability data from the APCT2 well, along with the acquired gas compositional analyses and sorption capacities of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}, complete the reservoir description phase of the project. During this quarter we also continued work on reservoir and economic modeling to evaluate performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery.

  12. Process for reducing sulfur in coal char

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gasior, Stanley J.; Forney, Albert J.; Haynes, William P.; Kenny, Richard F.

    1976-07-20

    Coal is gasified in the presence of a small but effective amount of alkaline earth oxide, hydroxide or carbonate to yield a char fraction depleted in sulfur. Gases produced during the reaction are enriched in sulfur compounds and the alkaline earth compound remains in the char fraction as an alkaline earth oxide. The char is suitable for fuel use, as in a power plant, and during combustion of the char the alkaline earth oxide reacts with at least a portion of the sulfur oxides produced from the residual sulfur contained in the char to further lower the sulfur content of the combustion gases.

  13. Biogenic sulfur emissions in the SURE region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of biogenic sulfur emissions from the northeastern United States - defined as the EPRI Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) study area. Initial laboratory efforts developed and validated a portable sulfur sampling system and a sensitive, gas chromatographic analytical detection system. Twenty-one separate sites were visited in 1977 to obtain a representative sulfur emission sampling of soil orders, suborders, and wetlands. The procedure determined the quantity of sulfur added to sulfur-free sweep air by the soil flux as the clean air was blown through the dynamic enclosure set over the selected sampling area. This study represents the first systematic sampling for biogenic sulfur over such a wide range of soils and such a large land area. The major impacts upon the measured sulfur flux were found to include soil orders, temperature, sunlight intensity, tidal effects along coastal areas. A mathematical model was developed for biogenic sulfur emissions which related these field variables to the mean seasonal and annual ambient temperatures regimes for each SURE grid and the percentage of each soil order within each grid. This model showed that at least 53,500 metric tons (MT) of biogenic sulfur are emitted from the SURE land surfaces and approximately 10,000 MT are emitted from the oceanic fraction of the SURE grids. This equates to a land sulfur flux of nearly 0.02 gram of sulfur per square meter per yr, or about 0.6% of the reported anthropogenic emissions withn the SURE study area. Based upon these data and the summertime Bermuda high clockwise circulation of maritime air across Florida and the Gulf Coast states northward through the SURE area, the total land biogenic sulfur emission contribution to the SURE area atmospheric sulfur burden might approach 1 to 2.5% of the anthropogenic.

  14. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  15. Reduction mechanism of sulfur in lithium-sulfur battery: From elemental sulfur to polysulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xuran; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jiankun; Qu, Deyu; Qu, Deyang

    2015-10-30

    In this study, the polysulfide ions formed during the first reduction wave of sulfur in Li–S battery were determined through both in-situ and ex-situ derivatization of polysulfides. By comparing the cyclic voltammetric results with and without the derivatization reagent (methyl triflate) as well as the in-situ and ex-situ derivatization results under potentiostatic condition, in-situ derivatization was found to be more appropriate than its ex-situ counterpart, since subsequent fast chemical reactions between the polysulfides and sulfur may occur during the timeframe of ex-situ procedures. It was found that the major polysulfide ions formed at the first reduction wave of elemental sulfurmore » were the S42– and S52– species, while the widely accepted reduction products of S82– and S62– for the first reduction wave were in low abundance.« less

  16. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lithium-sulfur battery electrodes (Patent) | SciTech Connect Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes A method of preparing a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite for a cathode in a rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery comprising thermally expanding graphite oxide to yield graphene layers, mixing

  17. Reduction mechanism of sulfur in lithium-sulfur battery: From elemental sulfur to polysulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xuran; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jiankun; Qu, Deyu; Qu, Deyang

    2015-10-30

    In this study, the polysulfide ions formed during the first reduction wave of sulfur in Li–S battery were determined through both in-situ and ex-situ derivatization of polysulfides. By comparing the cyclic voltammetric results with and without the derivatization reagent (methyl triflate) as well as the in-situ and ex-situ derivatization results under potentiostatic condition, in-situ derivatization was found to be more appropriate than its ex-situ counterpart, since subsequent fast chemical reactions between the polysulfides and sulfur may occur during the timeframe of ex-situ procedures. It was found that the major polysulfide ions formed at the first reduction wave of elemental sulfur were the S42– and S52– species, while the widely accepted reduction products of S82– and S62– for the first reduction wave were in low abundance.

  18. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock...

  19. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  20. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  1. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  2. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L.; Ackerman, John P.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  3. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Batteries | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es105_liang_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells

  4. EM’s Huizenga Receives Presidential Rank Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – EM Senior Advisor Dave Huizenga recently received the nation’s highest civil service recognition, the Presidential Rank of Distinguished Executive award.

  5. Proceedings of the sixteenth biennial low-rank fuels symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Low-rank coals represent a major energy resource for the world. The Low-Rank Fuels Symposium, building on the traditions established by the Lignite Symposium, focuses on the key opportunities for this resource. This conference offers a forum for leaders from industry, government, and academia to gather to share current information on the opportunities represented by low-rank coals. In the United States and throughout the world, the utility industry is the primary user of low-rank coals. As such, current experiences and future opportunities for new technologies in this industry were the primary focuses of the symposium.

  6. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main tasks for this reporting period were to correlate well logs and refine coal property maps, evaluate methane content and gas composition of Wilcox Group coals, and initiate discussions concerning collection of additional, essential data with Anadarko. To assess the volume of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered and volume of methane that can be produced in the vicinity of the proposed Sam Seymour sequestration site, we used approximately 200 additional wells logs from Anadarko Petroleum Corp. to correlate and map coal properties of the 3 coal-bearing intervals of Wilcox group. Among the maps we are making are maps of the number of coal beds, number of coal beds greater than 5 ft thick, and cumulative coal thickness for each coal interval. This stratigraphic analysis validates the presence of abundant coal for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of Sam Seymour power plant. A typical wellbore in this region may penetrate 20 to 40 coal beds with cumulative coal thickness between 80 and 110 ft. Gas desorption analyses of approximately 75 coal samples from the 3 Wilcox coal intervals indicate that average methane content of Wilcox coals in this area ranges between 216 and 276 scf/t, basinward of the freshwater boundary indicated on a regional hydrologic map. Vitrinite reflectance data indicate that Wilcox coals are thermally immature for gas generation in this area. Minor amounts of biogenic gas may be present, basinward of the freshwater line, but we infer that most of the Wilcox coalbed gas in the deep coal beds is migrated thermogenic gas. Analysis based on limited data suggest that sites for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed gas recovery should be located basinward of the Wilcox freshwater contour, where methane content is high and the freshwater aquifer can be avoided.

  7. Sulfurization behavior of cerium doped uranium oxides by CS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Kato, Shintaro; Kirishima, Akira; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2007-07-01

    For the recovery of nuclear materials from the spent nuclear fuel, the sulfide process has been proposed and the voloxidation of spent fuel and selective sulfurization rare-earth elements has been proposed. In this paper, cerium was used as a stand-in of plutonium and sulfurization behavior of cerium doped uranium dioxide by CS{sub 2} was studied. UO{sub 2} was oxidized to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in air, while the Ce doped UO{sub 2} solid solution was formed in the presence of CeO{sub 2} by the heat treatment in air. The effect of heating time, temperature and the ratio of uranium to cerium on the formation of solid solution was analyzed. The results were also compared with those of thermodynamic consideration. (authors)

  8. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y

    2015-05-05

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  9. Stabilized sulfur binding using activated fillers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D.; Vagin, Vyacheslav P.; Vagin, Sergey P.

    2015-07-21

    A method of making a stable, sulfur binding composite comprising impregnating a solid aggregate with an organic modifier comprising unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least one double or triple covalent bond between adjacent carbon atoms to create a modifier-impregnated aggregate; heating and drying the modifier-impregnated aggregate to activate the surface of the modifier-impregnated aggregate for reaction with sulfur.

  10. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  11. United States - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas: EIA, Natural Gas Monthly, Natural Gas Prices Electricity: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, Residential ElectricityPrices Environment Carbon Dioxide Emissions: State CO2 ...

  12. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus process also allow for use of the methane/H{sub 2}S separation unit as a Claus tail gas treating unit by recycling the CNG Claus tail gas stream. This allows for virtually 100 percent sulfur recovery efficiency (virtually zero SO{sub 2} emissions) by recycling the sulfur laden tail gas to extinction. The use of the tail gas recycle scheme also deemphasizes the conventional requirement in Claus units to have high unit conversion efficiency and thereby make the operation much less affected by process upsets and feed gas composition changes. The development of these technologies has been ongoing for many years and both the CFZ and the TPC processes have been demonstrated at large pilot plant scales. On the other hand, prior to this project, the CNG Claus process had not been proven at any scale. Therefore, the primary objective of this portion of the program was to design, build and operate a pilot scale CNG Claus unit and demonstrate the required fundamental reaction chemistry and also demonstrate the viability of a reasonably sized working unit.

  13. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  14. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  15. Chemical comminution and deashing of low-rank coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quigley, David R.

    1992-12-01

    A method of chemically comminuting a low-rank coal while at the same time increasing the heating value of the coal. A strong alkali solution is added to a low-rank coal to solubilize the carbonaceous portion of the coal, leaving behind the noncarbonaceous mineral matter portion. The solubilized coal is precipitated from solution by a multivalent cation, preferably calcium.

  16. Method of removing sulfur emissions from a fluidized-bed combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, Gerhard John; Jonke, Albert A.; Snyder, Robert B.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxides are impregnated within refractory support material such as alumina and introduced into a fluidized-bed process for the combustion of coal. Sulfur dioxide produced during combustion reacts with the metal oxide to form metal sulfates within the porous support material. The support material is removed from the process and the metal sulfate regenerated to metal oxide by chemical reduction. Suitable pore sizes are originally developed within the support material by heat-treating to accommodate both the sulfation and regeneration while still maintaining good particle strength.

  17. METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

  18. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  19. Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 Q1 Baseload CSP Generation Integrated with Sulfur-Based Thermochemical Heat Storage - FY13 ...

  20. Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G.; Mohan, Thyagarajan; Angelici, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

  1. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  2. Scientists Probe Lithium-Sulfur Batteries in Real Time - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2012, Videos Scientists Probe Lithium-Sulfur Batteries in Real Time Lithium-sulfur batteries are a promising technology that could some day power electric vehicles. Scientists ...

  3. Understanding Lithium-Sulfur Batteries at the Molecular Level...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 17, 2015, Accomplishments Understanding Lithium-Sulfur Batteries at the Molecular Level Conceived some 40 years ago, the lithium-sulfur battery can store, in theory, ...

  4. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  5. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Batteries | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es105_liang_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes

  6. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  7. Definition of Non-Conventional Sulfur Utilization in Western Kazakhstan for Sulfur Concrete (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, Paul

    2007-05-31

    Battelle received a contract from Agip-KCO, on behalf a consortium of international oil and gas companies with exploration rights in the North Caspian Sea, Kazakhstan. The objective of the work was to identify and help develop new techniques for sulfur concrete products from waste, by-product sulfur that will be generated in large quantitites as drilling operations begin in the near future. BNL has significant expertise in the development and use of sulfur concrete products and has direct experience collaborating with the Russian and Kazakh partners that participated. Feasibility testing was successfully conducted for a new process to produce cost-effective sulfur polymer cement that has broad commerical applications.

  8. The south Karelia air pollution study: Effects of low-level expsoure to malodorous sulfur compounds on symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partti-Pellinen, K.; Marttila, O.; Vilkka, V.; Jaakkola, J.J. |

    1996-07-01

    Exposure to very low levels of ambient-air malodorous sulfur compounds and their effect on eye irritation, respiratory-tract symptoms, and central nervous system symptoms in adults were assessed. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire (response rate = 77%) was distributed during March and April 1992 to adults (n = 336) who lived in a neighborhood that contained a pulp mill and in a nonpolluted reference community (n = 380). In the exposed community, the measured annual mean concentrations of total reduced sulfur compounds and sulfur dioxide measured in two stations were 2 to 3 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. In the reference community, the annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide was 1 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The residents of the community near the pulp mill reported an excess of cough, respiratory infections, and headache during the previous 4 wk, as well as during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for headache was increased significantly in the exposed community, compared with the reference area: the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 1.83 (95% confidence interval [95% Cl] = 1.06-3.15) during the previous 4 wk and 1.70 (95% Cl = 1.05-2.73) during the preceding 12 mo. The relative risk for cough was also increased during the preceding 12 mo (aOR = 1.64, 95% Cl = 1.01-2.64). These results indicated that adverse health effects of malodorous sulfur compounds occur at lower concentrations than reported previously. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Spray drying for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhudy, R.

    1988-09-01

    Recent pilot plant tests indicate that spray drying, now used to control SO/sub 2/ emissions from low-sulfur coal, can also be effective for high-sulfur coal. Spray drying coupled with baghouse particulate removal is the most effective configuration tested to date, removing over 90% of SO/sub 2/ while easily meeting New Source Performance Standards for particulate emissions. 2 figures, 1 table.

  10. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, Tetsuo; Squires, Thomas G.; Venier, Clifford G.

    1985-02-05

    A process for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  11. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  12. NREL Ranks Leading Utility Green Power Programs - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Ranks Leading Utility Green Power Programs Pricing programs give consumers clean power choices April 3, 2007 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) today released its annual ranking of leading utility green power programs. Under these voluntary programs, consumers can choose to help support additional electricity production from renewable resources such as solar and wind. More than 600 utilities across the United States offer these programs. Using

  13. Hanford Treatment Facility Achieves First Gold Ranking for Sustainable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design in EM Complex: New groundwater treatment facility will be Hanford's largest, greenest pump-and-treat system | Department of Energy Treatment Facility Achieves First Gold Ranking for Sustainable Design in EM Complex: New groundwater treatment facility will be Hanford's largest, greenest pump-and-treat system Hanford Treatment Facility Achieves First Gold Ranking for Sustainable Design in EM Complex: New groundwater treatment facility will be Hanford's largest, greenest pump-and-treat

  14. SEPARATING PROTOACTINIUM WITH MANGANESE DIOXIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-04-22

    The preparation of U/sup 235/ and an improved method for isolating Pa/ sup 233/ from foreign products present in neutronirradiated thorium is described. The method comprises forming a solution of neutron-irradiated thorium together with a manganous salt, then adding potassium permanganate to precipitate the manganese as manganese dioxide whereby protoactinium is carried down with the nnanganese dioxide dissolving the precipitate, adding a soluble zirconium salt, and adding phosphate ion to precipitate zirconium phosphate whereby protoactinium is then carried down with the zirconium phosphate to effect a further concentration.

  15. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. there were two main objectives for this reporting period. first, they wanted to collect wilcox coal samples from depths similar to those of probable sequestration sites, with the objective of determining accurate parameters for reservoir model description and for reservoir simulation. The second objective was to pursue opportunities for determining permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling reservoir performance during CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. In mid-summer, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation agreed to allow the authors to collect Wilcox Group coal samples from a well that was to be drilled to the Austin Chalk, which is several thousand feet below the Wilcox. In addition, they agreed to allow them to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well. Both wells are in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that they earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2}. They negotiated contracts for sidewall core collection and core analyses, and they began discussions with a service company to perform permeability testing. To collect sidewall core samples of the Wilcox coals, they made structure and isopach maps and cross sections to select coal beds and to determine their depths for coring. On September 29, 10 sidewall core samples were obtained from 3 coal beds of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group. The samples were desorbed in 4 sidewall core canisters. Desorbed gas samples were sent to a laboratory for gas compositional analyses, and the coal samples were sent to another laboratory to measure CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. All analyses should be finished by the end of December. A preliminary report shows methane content values for the desorbed coal samples ranged between 330 and 388 scf/t., on ''as received'' basis. Residual gas content of the coals was not included in the analyses, which results in an approximate 5-10% underestimation of in-situ gas content. Coal maps indicate that total coal thickness is 40-70 ft in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of the Sam K. Seymour power plant. A conservative estimate indicates that methane in place for a well on 160-acre spacing is approximately 3.5 Bcf in Lower Calvert Bluff coal beds. When they receive sorption isotherm data from the laboratory, they will determine the amount of CO{sub 2} that it may be possible to sequester in Wilcox coals. In December, when the final laboratory and field test data are available, they will complete the reservoir model and begin to simulate CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced CH{sub 4} production.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration The amount of carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless...

  17. An experimental investigation of the mass-transfer mechanisms in sulfur dioxide absorption in lime solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markussen, J.M.

    1991-04-01

    The experiments were performed at gas temperatures from 24 to 114C using a wetted-wall column apparatus with SO{sub 2} concentrations ranging from 1800 to 7350 ppM, calcium concentrations of 2.82 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 1. 25 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} gmol/cm{sup 3}, and column heights of 14 to 29 cm. Inlet SO{sub 2} content had a significant effect on rate of SO{sub 2} absorption, with the average absorption flux increasing with increasing SO{sub 2} gas concentration. Increasing gas temperature did not significantly affect the rate of SO{sub 2} absorption. Presence of lime in solution enhanced the average SO{sub 2} absorption flux and appeared to maintain the SO{sub 2} absorption capacity of the liquid, thereby negating the effect of decreasing SO{sub 2} solubility in water with increasing temperature. Slight increases in both the system`s gas-phase resistances and enhancement factors were observed with increasing gas temperature. Under the conditions studied, the mass-transfer resistance in the SO{sub 2}-lime solution system was predominantly liquid-phase controlled, with observed gas-phase resistances ranging up to 42% of total. Comparison to literature shows that the system mass-transfer mechanism can be dominated by either the gas-phase resistance or the liquid-phase resistance, depending upon the gas-liquid contact times. Thus, results support the need to incorporate both gas- and liquid-phase mass-transfer resistances when modeling the absorption of SO{sub 2} in lime solutions and lime slurries, such as that occurring in the constant rate drying stage of the spray drying flue gas desulfurization process.

  18. An experimental investigation of the mass-transfer mechanisms in sulfur dioxide absorption in lime solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markussen, J.M.

    1991-04-01

    The experiments were performed at gas temperatures from 24 to 114C using a wetted-wall column apparatus with SO[sub 2] concentrations ranging from 1800 to 7350 ppM, calcium concentrations of 2.82 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] to 1. 25 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] gmol/cm[sup 3], and column heights of 14 to 29 cm. Inlet SO[sub 2] content had a significant effect on rate of SO[sub 2] absorption, with the average absorption flux increasing with increasing SO[sub 2] gas concentration. Increasing gas temperature did not significantly affect the rate of SO[sub 2] absorption. Presence of lime in solution enhanced the average SO[sub 2] absorption flux and appeared to maintain the SO[sub 2] absorption capacity of the liquid, thereby negating the effect of decreasing SO[sub 2] solubility in water with increasing temperature. Slight increases in both the system's gas-phase resistances and enhancement factors were observed with increasing gas temperature. Under the conditions studied, the mass-transfer resistance in the SO[sub 2]-lime solution system was predominantly liquid-phase controlled, with observed gas-phase resistances ranging up to 42% of total. Comparison to literature shows that the system mass-transfer mechanism can be dominated by either the gas-phase resistance or the liquid-phase resistance, depending upon the gas-liquid contact times. Thus, results support the need to incorporate both gas- and liquid-phase mass-transfer resistances when modeling the absorption of SO[sub 2] in lime solutions and lime slurries, such as that occurring in the constant rate drying stage of the spray drying flue gas desulfurization process.

  19. Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy In 2008, CH2M HILL performed a solar site analysis of the HP Pavilion facility for the City of San José under the Department of Energy's Solar America Showcase program. Based on weight loading requirements of the facility's roof, CH2M HILL recommended a building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) product that consists of thin-film, flexible photovoltaic modules that can be thermally welded to rolls of roofing membrane. The City of San José has requested information from the Tiger Team

  20. Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies.

  1. DOE SC ARM TR 180 Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (UTC) Figure 6. Zero and span check stability over 1 month. ... Instrument is permanently installed in the AOS systems. ... Connection of the 110 VAC power line to the appropriate ...

  2. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the bubble reactor is maintained at 2 for all the reaction experiment runs.

  3. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia.

  4. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  5. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damon, D.A.; Siwajek, L.A.; Klint, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of CO{sub 2}, and any amount of H{sub 2}S. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% CO{sub 2} for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any amount of H{sub 2}S. The process is well suited for handling a variety of trace contaminants usually associated with low quality natural gas and Claus sulfur recovery. The integrated process can produce high pressure carbon dioxide at purities required by end use markets, including food grade CO{sub 2}. The ability to economically co-produce high pressure CO{sub 2} as a commodity with significant revenue potential frees process economic viability from total reliance on pipeline gas, and extends the range of process applicability to low quality gases with relatively low methane content. Gases with high acid gas content and high CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S ratios can be economically processed by the CFZ/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes. The large energy requirements for regeneration make chemical solvent processing prohibitive. The cost of Selexol physical solvent processing of the LaBarge gas is significantly greater than the CNG/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes.

  6. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery: Task 2. Topical report, September 30, 1992--August 29, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, W.J.; Neyman, M.; Brown, W.; Klint, B.W.; Kuehn, L.; O`Connell, J.; Paskall, H.; Dale, P.

    1993-08-01

    The primary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to present conceptual designs developed to treat a large portion of proven domestic natural gas reserves which are low quality. The conceptual designs separate hydrogen sulfide and large amounts of carbon dioxide (>20%) from methane, convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur, produce a substantial portion of the carbon dioxide as EOR or food grade CO{sub 2}, and vent residual CO{sub 2} virtually free of contaminating sulfur containing compounds. A secondary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to review existing gas treatment technology and identify existing commercial technologies currently used to treat large volumes of low quality natural gas with high acid content. Section II of this report defines low quality gas and describes the motivation for seeking technology to develop low quality gas reserves. The target low quality gas to be treated with the proposed technology is identified, and barriers to the production of this gas are reviewed. Section III provides a description of the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFG)-CNG technologies, their features, and perceived advantages. The three conceptual process designs prepared under Task 2 are presented in Section IV along with the design basis and process economics. Section V presents an overview of existing gas treatment technologies, organized into acid gas removal technology and sulfur recovery technology.

  7. FISCAL YEAR 2006 REPORT ON ELECTROLYZER COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D; Daryl Coleman, D; Amy Ekechukwu, A

    2006-08-03

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small volumetric footprint that is crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate different membrane and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid, sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole membranes. Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by concentration of the sulfuric acid. Various cell configurations were examined with respect to the deposition of electrocatalyst and use of conductive carbon materials such as carbon cloth and carbon paper. Findings from these evaluations and the results of the membrane and electrocatalyst testing, we prepared three different membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for electrolyzer testing. The first MEA consisted of a Nafion{reg_sign} membrane with platinum electrocatalyst deposited on carbon cloths, which were heat pressed onto the membrane, an assembly identical to those used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The second MEA also used a Nafion membrane with the electrocatalysts deposited directly onto the membrane. The third MEA proved similar to the second but utilized a PBI membrane in place of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane. Tailor of the membrane and catalysts properties for the SDE system was concluded as a required step for the technology to move forward. It was also recommended the evaluation of the tested and new developed materials at conditions closer to the SDE operating conditions and for longer period of time.

  8. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric; Pan, Huilin; Lv, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Z. D.; Liaw, Bor Y.; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-01-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  9. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric; Pan, Huilin; Lv, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Z. D.; Liaw, Bor Y.; Yu, Xiqian; et al

    2015-01-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-Smore » cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.« less

  10. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric D.; Pan, Huilin; Lu, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Zhiqun; Liaw, Bor Yann; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2014-12-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge process follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driven each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new insights to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  11. Electrostatic self-assembly of graphene oxide wrapped sulfur particles for lithium–sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Haiwei; Huang, Ying Zong, Meng; Ding, Xiao; Ding, Juan; Sun, Xu

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Researched graphene oxide wrapped sulfur particles for lithium–sulfur batteries. • New approach for core–shell GO/S composites by electrostatic self-assembly method. • Both core–shell structure and the GO support help to retard the diffusion of polysulfides during the electrochemical cycling process of GO/S cathode. - Abstract: A novel graphene oxide (GO)/sulfur (S) composite is developed by electrostatic self-assembly method. Remarkably, the core–shell structure of the composite and the GO support helps to retard the diffusion of polysulfides during the electrochemical cycling process. The GO/sulfur cathode presents enhanced cycling ability. Specific discharge capacities up to 494.7 mAh g{sup −1} over 200 cycles at 0.1 C is achieved with enhanced columbic efficiency around 95%, representing a good cathode material for lithium–sulfur batteries.

  12. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Vehicle Technologies ...

  13. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Protection of Li Anodes ...

  14. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) Panel Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Holbrook

    2007-07-01

    Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) is a systematic way of gathering information from experts on a specific subject and ranking the importance of the information. NRC, in collaboration with DOE and the working group, conducted the PIRT exercises to identify safety-relevant phenomena for NGNP, and to assess and rank the importance and knowledge base for each phenomenon. The overall objective was to provide NRC with an expert assessment of the safety-relevant NGNP phenomena, and an overall assessment of R and D needs for NGNP licensing. The PIRT process was applied to five major topical areas relevant to NGNP safety and licensing: (1) thermofluids and accident analysis (including neutronics), (2) fission product transport, (3) high temperature materials, (4) graphite, and (5) process heat for hydrogen cogeneration.

  15. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  16. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  17. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  18. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, Perry E.

    1981-01-01

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

  19. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  20. EPA Diesel Rule and the Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-08

    The VT program collaborated with industry stakeholders and the EPA (in an effort initiated in 1998 called Diesel Emission Control – Sulfur Effects study, otherwise known as DECSE) to quantify the effects of fuel sulfur on emission control technologies.

  1. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based ...

  2. Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using Sulfur K XANES and FeS Ratios. Authors: Sutton, S.R. ; Ross, D.K. ; Rao, M.N. ; Nyquist, L.E. 1 ...

  3. Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

  4. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  5. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    2000-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  6. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  7. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    1999-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  8. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Chang, John C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  9. Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur Cells -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur Cells Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication LBNL Commercial Analysis Report (1,062 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A Berkeley Lab team headed by Yuegang Zhang and Elton Cairns has developed

  10. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  11. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  12. Method of Making Uranium Dioxide Bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, H. A.; McClusky, J. K.

    1973-09-25

    Sintered uranium dioxide bodies having controlled density are produced from U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and carbon by varying the mole ratio of carbon to U.sub.3 O.sub.8 in the mixture, which is compressed and sintered in a neutral or slightly oxidizing atmosphere to form dense slightly hyperstoichiometric uranium dioxide bodies. If the bodies are to be used as nuclear reactor fuel, they are subsequently heated in a hydrogen atmosphere to achieve stoichiometry. This method can also be used to produce fuel elements of uranium dioxide -- plutonium dioxide having controlled density.

  13. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  14. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The National Renewable ... a single concept for detailed prototype design and construction for on-sun testing. ...

  15. Tailoring Pore Size of Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Confi ning Sulfur in LithiumSulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Weidong; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Quiglin; Abruna, Hector D.; He, Yang; Wang, Jiangwei; Mao, Scott X.; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-08-19

    Three types of nitrogen-doped hollow carbon spheres with different pore sized porous shells are prepared to investigate the performance of sulfur confinement. The reason that why no sulfur is observed in previous research is determined and it is successfully demonstrated that the sulfur/polysulfide will overflow the porous carbon during the lithiation process.

  16. Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sulfur K XANES and Fe/S Ratios. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using Sulfur K XANES and Fe/S Ratios. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Identification of Martian Regolith Sulfur Components In Shergottites Using Sulfur K XANES and Fe/S Ratios. Authors: Sutton, S.R. ; Ross, D.K. ; Rao, M.N. ; Nyquist, L.E. [1] ; ESCG Jacobs) [2] ; UC) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (NASA-JSC) [NASA-JSC ( Publication Date: 2014-02-26

  17. Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allebach, Jan P.; Ochoa, Ellen; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed.

  18. Optical ranked-order filtering using threshold decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allebach, J.P.; Ochoa, E.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1987-10-09

    A hybrid optical/electronic system performs median filtering and related ranked-order operations using threshold decomposition to encode the image. Threshold decomposition transforms the nonlinear neighborhood ranking operation into a linear space-invariant filtering step followed by a point-to-point threshold comparison step. Spatial multiplexing allows parallel processing of all the threshold components as well as recombination by a second linear, space-invariant filtering step. An incoherent optical correlation system performs the linear filtering, using a magneto-optic spatial light modulator as the input device and a computer-generated hologram in the filter plane. Thresholding is done electronically. By adjusting the value of the threshold, the same architecture is used to perform median, minimum, and maximum filtering of images. A totally optical system is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  19. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.; Potas, Todd A.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Musich, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-decrepitating, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  20. Gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maas, D.J.; Smith, F.J.

    1986-06-01

    Five low-rank coals from the western United States were cleaned in a bench-scale heavy media separation procedures followed by acid leaching and hydrothermal processing. The objective of these cleaning steps was to determine the amenability of preparing gas turbine quality fuel from low-rank coal. The best candidate for scale-up was determined to be a Wyoming subbituminous coal from the eagle Butte mine. Two hundred thirty kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water fuel were prepared in pilot-scale equipment to determine process parameters and fuel characteristics. After establishing operating conditions, two thousand kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water and powdered coal fuel were produced for testing in a pilot-scale gas turbine combustor. An economic analysis was completed for a commercial-scale plant designed to produce clean gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal using the most promising process steps identified form the bench- and pilot-scale studies. 21 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration product and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.; Potas, T.A.; DeWall, R.A.; Musich, M.A.

    1992-11-10

    A selectively-sized, raw, low-rank coal is processed to produce a low ash and relative water-free agglomerate with an enhanced heating value and a hardness sufficient to produce a non-degradable, shippable fuel. The low-rank coal is treated, under high shear conditions, in the first stage to cause ash reduction and subsequent surface modification which is necessary to facilitate agglomerate formation. In the second stage the treated low-rank coal is contacted with bridging and binding oils under low shear conditions to produce agglomerates of selected size. The bridging and binding oils may be coal or petroleum derived. The process incorporates a thermal deoiling step whereby the bridging oil may be completely or partially recovered from the agglomerate; whereas, partial recovery of the bridging oil functions to leave as an agglomerate binder, the heavy constituents of the bridging oil. The recovered oil is suitable for recycling to the agglomeration step or can serve as a value-added product.

  2. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon ...

  3. NUCLEAR HYDROGEN AND CAPTURED CARBON DIOXIDE FOR ALTERNATIVE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: NUCLEAR HYDROGEN AND CAPTURED CARBON DIOXIDE FOR ALTERNATIVE LIQUID FUELS. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NUCLEAR HYDROGEN AND CAPTURED CARBON DIOXIDE ...

  4. Nuclear Hydrogen and Captured Carbon Dioxide for Alternative...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Nuclear Hydrogen and Captured Carbon Dioxide for Alternative Liquid Fuels. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Hydrogen and Captured Carbon Dioxide for ...

  5. Power-law and exponential rank distributions: A panoramic Gibbsian perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-04-15

    Rank distributions are collections of positive sizes ordered either increasingly or decreasingly. Many decreasing rank distributions, formed by the collective collaboration of human actions, follow an inverse power-law relation between ranks and sizes. This remarkable empirical fact is termed Zipf’s law, and one of its quintessential manifestations is the demography of human settlements — which exhibits a harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. In this paper we present a comprehensive statistical-physics analysis of rank distributions, establish that power-law and exponential rank distributions stand out as optimal in various entropy-based senses, and unveil the special role of the harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. Our results extend the contemporary entropy-maximization view of Zipf’s law to a broader, panoramic, Gibbsian perspective of increasing and decreasing power-law and exponential rank distributions — of which Zipf’s law is one out of four pillars.

  6. BETO Ranks High in Biofuels Digest's Top 125 in the Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ranks High in Biofuels Digest's Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy BETO Ranks High in Biofuels Digest's Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy February 6, 2015 - 4:18pm Addthis ...

  7. Thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Chasanov, M.G.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide reliable and consistent data on the thermophysical properties of reactor materials for reactor safety studies, this revision is prepared for the thermodynamic properties of the uranium dioxide portion of the fuel property section of the report Properties for LMFBR Safety Analysis. Since the original report was issued in 1976, there has been international agreement on a vapor pressure equation for the total pressure over UO/sub 2/, new methods have been suggested for the calculation of enthalpy and heat capacity, and a phase change at 2670 K has been proposed. In this report, an electronic term is used in place of the Frenkel defect term in the enthalpy and heat capacity equation and the phase transition is accepted.

  8. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  9. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  10. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Corbeels, Roger J.; Kokturk, Uygur

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  11. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

  12. Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Dah Y. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

  13. Sulfur Resistant Electrodes for Zirconia Oxygen Sensors - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Sulfur Resistant Electrodes for Zirconia Oxygen Sensors Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryTerbium-Yttrium-zirconium oxide (Tb-YSZ) is high-temperature, sulfur-resistant material for manufacture of electrodes for oxygen (O2) sensors. The Tb-YSZ sensor is resistant to sulfur and other acidic compounds present in exhaust gases and offers increased lifetime, stability, and accuracy over O2 sensors on the market

  14. Factors which affect the transportation of low rank coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leilich, R.

    1998-12-31

    The good news is that rail transportation costs have dropped by approximately 50 percent in real terms since the passage of the 1980 Stagger`s Rail Act. It has opened up and expanded the markets for each coal producer. The bad news is that rail transportation costs have dropped by approximately 50 percent and opened up and expanded the market for each coal producer`s competitors. At one time, many coal producers had the fortune of limited competition because high transportation costs kept others out of some of their markets. The flip side, of course, is that it also kept them out of other markets. The lowering of transportation rates has increased competition among coal producers. In the author`s opinion, the opportunity to serve new markets has not made up for competitively induced price reductions in the selling price of coal. He believes that many coal producers were better off when coal transportation costs were high for everyone. At least it limited the encroachment of coal competitors. Of course, using a half full, half empty glass analogy, one could argue that high transportation costs limited encroachment on competitors. Aside from the competitive aspects, not all producers benefit equally from a uniform reduction in transportation ton-mile costs. A reduction in transportation costs across the board on a per ton-mile basis favors producers of high Btu coal which ship long distance. Producers of low rank coal receive distinctly less benefit, upsetting competitive relationships. He illustrates this with an example of a low rank producer whose principal competitor is 300 miles to the west. He assumes four combinations of high and low cost coal and high and low cost transportation, plus two destinations 200 and 500 miles away from the low rank producer.

  15. Traps identification in Copper-Indium-Gallium-Sulfur-Selenide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Traps identification in Copper-Indium-Gallium-Sulfur-Selenide Solar Cells Completed with Various Buffer Layers by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy Citation ...

  16. Lithium/Sulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search LithiumSulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous ... which was used in lithiumsulfur batteries that were tested in ...

  17. Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Following the Transient Reactions in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Using an In Situ Nuclear ... cell electrochemical reactions in Li-S batteries using a microbattery design Interphase ...

  18. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narain, Nand K.; Ruether, John A.; Smith, Dennis N.

    1988-01-01

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

  19. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

    1987-10-07

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

  20. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  1. Nonflame, source-induced sulfur fluorescence detector for sulfur-containing compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gage, D.R.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-12-01

    Results of some preliminary investigations of the fluorescence spectra of S/sub 2/ and the non-flame production of S/sub 2/ from sulfur-containing molecules are reported. Passage of the gas to be analyzed through a catalyst-oven containing a plug of NiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst containing 10 wt% NiO/sub 2/ and heated to 400/sup 0/C resulted in conversion of H/sub 2/S to S/sub 2/ and elemental sulfur. The S/sub 2/ was detected by measurement of its fluorescence bands at 260 and 310nm, and elemental sulfur condensed on the cool parts of the apparatus. However, determination of sulfur-content of gas mixtures with the apparatus described herein were not as repeatable as desired, and the work is being continued on various facets of the non-flame system with work being directed toward the evaluation of different catalysts, catalyst temperature, design of a smaller detector geometry utilizing a pulsed-light excitation source, a windowless cell, and optical filters instead of monochromators to select the S/sub 2/ excitation and emission wavelengths. (BLM)

  2. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Commercial sector emissions declined by 6.5 percent in 2009. Lighting accounts for a ... The transportation sector has led all U.S. end-use sectors in emissions of carbon dioxide ...

  3. Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The world’s first successful large-scale production of a polypropylene carbonate polymer using waste carbon dioxide as a key raw material has resulted from a projected funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  5. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  6. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  7. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

    2006-08-31

    Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals < 3,500 ft deep are part of a biogenic coalbed gas system. They have low gas content and are part of a freshwater aquifer. In contrast, Wilcox coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0.59 Bcf of CO{sub 2} with an ECBM recovery of 0.68 to 1.20 Bcf. Economic modeling of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery indicates predominantly negative economic indicators for the reservoir depths (4,000 to 6,200 ft) and well spacings investigated, using natural gas prices ranging from $2 to $12 per Mscf and CO{sub 2} credits based on carbon market prices ranging from $0.05 to $1.58 per Mscf CO{sub 2} ($1.00 to $30.00 per ton CO{sub 2}). Injection of flue gas (87% N{sub 2} - 13% CO{sub 2}) results in better economic performance than injection of 100% CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} sequestration potential and methane resources in low-rank coals of the Lower Calvert Bluff formation in East-Central Texas are significant. The potential CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of the coals ranges between 27.2 and 49.2 Tcf (1.57 and 2.69 billion tons), with a mean value of 38 Tcf (2.2 billion tons), assuming a 72.4% injection efficiency. Estimates of recoverable methane resources range between 6.3 and 13.6 Tcf, with a mean of 9.8 Tcf, assuming a 71.3% recovery factor. Moderate increases in gas prices and/or carbon credits could generate attractive economic conditions that, combined with the close proximity of many CO{sub 2} point sources near unmineable coalbeds, could enable commercial CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Texas low-rank coals. Additional studies are needed to characterize Wilcox regional methane coalbed gas systems and their boundaries, and to assess potential of other low-rank coal beds. Results from this study may be transferable to other low-rank coal formations and regions.

  8. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as feedstock in precast concrete production is studied. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium compounds in concrete, producing solid calcium carbonates in binding matrix. Two typical precast products are examined for their capacity to store carbon dioxide during

  9. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

  10. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

  11. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Fact 824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to ...

  12. Sodium sulfur container with chromium/chromium oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A.; Higley, Lin R.

    1981-01-01

    A coating of chromium/chromium oxide is disclosed for coating the surfaces of electrically conducting components of a sodium sulfur battery. This chromium/chromium oxide coating is placed on the surfaces of the electrically conducting components of the battery which are in contact with molten polysulfide and sulfur reactants during battery operation.

  13. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda; Janiak, Jerzy S.; Turak, Ali A.; Ignasiak, Boleslaw L.

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  14. Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Promoted Chemical Adsorption of Sulfur and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fabrication of High-Areal-Capacity Sulfur Cathode with Exceptional Cycling Stability for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Promoted Chemical Adsorption of Sulfur and Fabrication of High-Areal-Capacity Sulfur Cathode with Exceptional Cycling Stability for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Promoted Chemical Adsorption of Sulfur and Fabrication of High-Areal-Capacity

  15. Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeJonghe, L.C.; Visco, S.J.; Mailhe, C.C.; Armand, M.B.

    1988-03-31

    A novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200/degree/C or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S)/sub y/)n wherein y = 1 to 6; n = 2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprises one or more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon. 4 figs.

  16. Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dejonghe, Lutgard C.; Visco, Steven J.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; Armand, Michel B.

    1989-01-01

    An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

  17. Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.; Gore, B.F.; Overcast, T.D.; Rankin, W.R.; Schreiber, R.E.; Tawil, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets.

  18. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate ... Title: Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and ...

  19. Respiratory effects of two-hour exposure with intermittent exercise to ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide alone and in combination in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagawa, J.

    1983-01-01

    Seven adult male healthy volunteer subjects were exposed to 0.15 ppm each of O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ alone and in combination, with intermittent light exercise for two hours. Three of the 7 subjects developed cough during deep inspiration and one subject had chest pain during exposure to O/sub 3/ alone. Among the various indices of pulmonary function tests, specific airway conductane (G/sub aw//V/sub tg/) was the most sensitive index to examine the changes produced by the exposure to O/sub 3/ and other pollutants. Significant decrease of G/sub aw//V/sub tg/ in comparison with control measurements was observed in 6 of 7 subjects during exposure to O/sub 3/ alone, and in all subjects during exposures to the mixture of O/sub 3/ and other pollutants. However, no significant enhancement of effect was observed in the mixture of O/sub 3/ and other pollutants, although a slightly greater decrease of airway resistance/volume of thoracic gas (G/sub aw//V/sub tg/) was observed for the mixture of O/sub 3/ and other pollutants than for O/sub 3/ alone.

  20. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  1. BETO Ranks High in Biofuels Digest's Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ranks High in Biofuels Digest's Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy BETO Ranks High in Biofuels Digest's Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy February 6, 2015 - 4:18pm Addthis Biofuels Digest recently released its "Top 125 in the Advanced Bioeconomy," ranking Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Director Dr. Jonathan Male, Deputy Director Dr. Valerie Reed, Technology Manager Dr. Joyce Yang, and Lead Analyst Zia Haq at number 20. Other Energy Department leaders

  2. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

  3. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Polyakov, Oleg 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from...

  4. BETO Director Ranks #6 in Biofuels Digest's Top 100 People in the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Bioeconomy | Department of Energy Director Ranks #6 in Biofuels Digest's Top 100 People in the Advanced Bioeconomy BETO Director Ranks #6 in Biofuels Digest's Top 100 People in the Advanced Bioeconomy February 4, 2016 - 3:24pm Addthis Biofuels Digest has released its 2016 ranking of the "Top 100 People in the Advanced Bioeconomy," and Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Director Dr. Jonathan Male is ranked high in the list at number six. Sharing this prestigious spot with

  5. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Tumas, William; Powell, Kimberly R.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Romack, Timothy J.; McClain, James B.; Birnbaum, Eva R.

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  6. Effects of sulfur loading on the corrosion behaviors of metal lithium anode in lithium–sulfur batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Yamiao; Duan, Xiaobo; Li, Yanbing; Huang, Liwu; Zhu, Ding; Chen, Yungui

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The effects of sulfur loading on the corrosion behaviors were investigated systematically. • The corrosion became severer with increasing sulfur loading or cycle times. • The corrosion films are porous and loose and cannot prevent further reaction between lithium and polysulfides. - Abstract: The corrosion behaviors in rechargeable lithium–sulfur batteries come from the reactions between polysulfides and metal lithium anode, and they are significantly influenced by the sulfur loading. While there are limited papers reported on the effects of sulfur loading on the corrosion behaviors. In this paper, the effects have been investigated systematically. The corrosion films consisted of insulating lithium ion conductors are loose and porous, so that the corrosive reactions cannot be hindered. The thickness of the corrosion layers, consequently, increased along with increasing sulfur loading or cycle times. For instance, the thickness of corrosion layers after 50 cycles was 98 μm in the cell with 5 mg sulfur while it reached up to 518 μm when the loading increased to 15 mg. The continuous deposition of corrosion products gave rise to low active materials utilization and poor cycling performance.

  7. Crystal structure and compressibility of lead dioxide up to 140...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal structure and compressibility of lead dioxide up to 140 GPa Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal structure and compressibility of lead dioxide up to 140 GPa ...

  8. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aim to demonstrate a multi-megawatt power cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the working fluid. The use of carbon dioxide instead of steam allows higher...

  9. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as feedstock in precast concrete production is studied. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium compounds in concrete, producing solid calcium carbonates in binding matrix. Two typical precast products are examined

  10. Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide to Good Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal power holds enormous opportunities to provide affordable, clean energy that avoids greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2).

  11. Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2004-06-01

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  12. Lithium / Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle Life and High Specific Energy Lawrence Berkeley ... Song, M-K., Zhang, Y., Cairns, E.J., "A long-life, high-rate lithiumsulfur cell: a ...

  13. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  15. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  16. Method of detecting sulfur dioxide. [DOE patent application; 1,1,1-trimethyl-N-sulfinyl silanamine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spicer, L.D.; Bennett, D.W.; Davis, J.F.

    1981-06-12

    (CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/NH with SO/sub 2/. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/O and a new solid compound (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/). Both (C/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiNSO and (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/) have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO/sub 2/ pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/NH, whereby any SO/sub 2/ present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO/sub 2/ in the original gas sample. The solid product (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/) may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy.

  17. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2011-10-15

    Since 2006, China has set goals of reducing energy intensity, emissions, and pollutants in multiple guidelines and in the Five Year Plans. Various strategies and measures have then been taken to improve the energy efficiency in all sectors and to reduce pollutants. Since controlling energy, CO{sub 2} emissions, and pollutants falls under the jurisdiction of different government agencies in China, many strategies are being implemented to fulfill only one of these objectives. Co-controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutant emissions. The targets could be met in a more cost effective manner if the integrated measures can be identified and prioritized. This report provides analysis and insights regarding how these targets could be met via co-control measures focusing on both CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions in the cement, iron &steel, and power sectors to 2030 in China. An integrated national energy and emission model was developed in order to establish a baseline scenario that was used to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and expected actions. In addition, CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios and SO{sub 2} control scenarios were also established to evaluate the impact of each of the measures and the combined effects. In the power sector, although the end of pipe SO{sub 2} control technology such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has the largest reduction potential for SO{sub 2} emissions, other CO{sub 2} control options have important co-benefits in reducing SO{sub 2} emissions of 52.6 Mt of SO{sub 2} accumulatively. Coal efficiency improvements along with hydropower, renewable and nuclear capacity expansion will result in more than half of the SO{sub 2} emission reductions as the SO{sub 2} control technology through 2016. In comparison, the reduction from carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is much less and has negative SO{sub 2} reductions potential. The expanded biomass generation scenario does not have significant potential for reducing SO{sub 2} emissions, because of its limited availability. For the cement sector, the optimal co-control strategy includes accelerated adoption of energy efficiency measures, decreased use of clinker in cement production, increased use of alternative fuels, and fuel-switching to biomass. If desired, additional SO{sub 2} mitigation could be realized by more fully adopting SO{sub 2} abatement mitigation technology measures. The optimal co-control scenario results in annual SO{sub 2} emissions reductions in 2030 of 0.16 Mt SO{sub 2} and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reductions of 76 Mt CO{sub 2}. For the iron and steel sector, the optimal co-control strategy includes accelerated adoption of energy efficiency measures, increased share of electric arc furnace steel production, and reduced use of coal and increased use of natural gas in steel production. The strategy also assumes full implementation of sinter waste gas recycling and wet desulfurization. This strategy results in annual SO{sub 2} emissions reductions in 2030 of 1.3 Mt SO{sub 2} and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reductions of 173 Mt CO{sub 2}.

  18. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  19. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batey, John E.; McDonald, Roger

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  20. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2003-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term DOE efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 60-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a PFA differential fixed-bed micro reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.01-0.047 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, moisture concentrations, reaction pressures on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 61-89 v% hydrogen, 2,300-9,200-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-4,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 2.6-13.7 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 100-110 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 28-127 psia. The following results were obtained based on experimental data generated from the differential reactor system, and their interpretations, (1) Concentration of moisture and concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the moisture range of 2.5-13.6 v% moisture at 140 C and 120-123 psia. (2) Concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the temperature range of 135-145 C at 5-v% moisture and 112-123 psia. However, reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} appear to decrease slightly with increased reaction temperatures over the temperature range of 135-145 C at 5-v% moisture and 112-123 psia. (3) Concentrations of both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} appear to affect slightly reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} over the pressure range of 28-123 psia at 5-v% moisture and 140 C. However, reaction rates of H{sub 2}S with SO{sub 2} increase significantly with increased reaction pressures over the pressure range of 28-123 psia at 5-v% moisture and 140 C.

  1. Prevalence of persistent cough and phlegm in young adults in relation to long-term ambient sulfur oxide exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, R.S.; Calafiore, D.C.; Hasselblad, V.

    1985-01-01

    In early 1976, a survey of persistent co gh and plegma (PCP) prevalence was conducted in 5623 young adults in four Utah communities. Over the previous five years, community specific mean sulfur dioxide levels had been 11, 18, 36, and 115 ug/mT. Corresponding mean suspended sulfate levels had been 5, 7, 8, and 14 g/mT No intercommunity exposure gradient of total suspended particulates or suspended nitrates was observed. In mothers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was 4.2% in the high-exposure community and about 2.0% in all other communities. In smoking mothers, PCP prevalence was 21.8% in the high-exposure community and about 15.0% elsewhere. In fathers, PCP prevalence among non-smokers was about 8.0% in the high-exposure community and averaged about 3.0% elsewhere. In smoking fathers, PCP prevalence was less strongly associated with sulfur oxide exposure. PCP prevalence rates estimated in a categorical logistic regression model were qualitatively consistent with the prevalences presented above.

  2. In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into MDCK Cells In situ Observation of Sulfur in Living Mammalian Cells: Uptake of Taurine into MDCK Cells Sulfur is essential for life. It plays important roles in the amino acids methionine and cysteine, and has a structural function in disulfide bonds. As a component of iron-sulfur clusters it takes part in electron and sulfur transfer reactions.1 Glutathione, a sulfur-containing tripeptide, is an important part of biological antioxidant systems.2 Another example for the biological

  3. The South Karelia Air Pollution Study. The effects of malodorous sulfur compounds from pulp mills on respiratory and other symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaakkola, J.J.; Vilkka, V.; Marttila, O.; Jaeppinen, P.H.; Haahtela, T. )

    1990-12-01

    The paper mills in South Karelia, the southeast part of Finland, are responsible for releasing a substantial amount of malodorous sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and methyl sulfides ((CH3)2S and (CH3)2S2), into ambient air. In the most polluted residential area the annual mean concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are estimated to be 8 and 2 to 5 micrograms/m3 and the highest daily average concentration 100 and 50 micrograms/m3. The annual mean and highest daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) are very low. We studied the effects of malodorous sulfur compounds on eye, nasal and respiratory symptoms, and headache in adults. A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire was distributed in February 1987 and responded to by 488 adults living in a severely (n = 198), a moderately (n = 204), and a nonpolluted community (n = 86). This included questions about occurrence of the symptoms of interest during the previous 4 wk and 12 months and individual, behavioral, and other environmental determinants of the symptoms. The response rate was 83%. The odds ratios (OR) for symptoms experienced often or constantly in severely versus nonpolluted and moderately versus nonpolluted communities were estimated in logistic regression analysis controlling potential confounders. The odds ratios for eye (moderate exposure OR 11.70, Cl95% 2.33 to 58.65; severe exposure OR 11.78, Cl95% 2.35 to 59.09) and nasal symptoms (OR 2.01, Cl95% 0.97 to 4.15; OR 2.19, Cl95% 1.06 to 4.55) and cough (OR 1.89, Cl95% 0.61 to 5.86; OR 3.06, Cl95% 1.02 to 9.29) during the previous 12 months were increased, with a dose-response pattern.

  4. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12

    This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

  5. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key partsa positive and negative electrode and an electrolytethat exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a batterys chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  6. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important reduction in air pollutants that contribute directly to acid rain and other adverse impacts in the United States. When all air emissions are included, low sulfur content home heating oil and utility gas are virtually equal in their environmental impacts.

  7. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smirniotis, Panagiotis G.; Lu, Hong

    2012-02-14

    A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent containing calcium oxide (CaO) and at least one refractory dopant having a Tammann temperature greater than about 530.degree. C., wherein the refractory dopant enhances resistance to sintering, thereby conserving performance of the sorbent at temperatures of at least about 530.degree. C. Also provided are doped CaO sorbents for the capture of carbon dioxide in the presence of SO.sub.2.

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - SWDRegional 5-Yr MIL and Ranking Process_20150616_revised.pptx [Read-Only]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5-year Plan and MIL The Risk Factors Miles P. Waldron, P.E. Senior Hydropower Program Manager CESWD-PDO 15 June 2015 BUILDING STRONG ® Ranking Criteria for Capitalized Work in Plants (Ranking Worksheet) Hydropower Relative Risk Index (1-5)- Primary Ranking *Condition Index *Consequence Rating Criteria *Hydropower Relative Risk Values Availability Risk Public Safety and Health Environmental Concerns Legal Concerns Impact to Other Business Lines Formulate a Condition Index Rank- 1=High Risk; 5=

  9. Extraction of furfural with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamse, T.; Marr, R.; Froeschl, F.; Siebenhofer, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to separate furfural from aqueous waste has been investigated. Recovery of furfural and acetic acid from aqueous effluents of a paper mill has successfully been applied on an industrial scale since 1981. The process is based on the extraction of furfural and acetic acid by the solvent trooctylphosphineoxide (TOPO). Common extraction of both substances may cause the formation of resin residues. Improvement was expected by selective extraction of furfural with chlorinated hydrocarbons, but ecological reasons stopped further development of this project. The current investigation is centered in the evaluation of extraction of furfural by supercritical carbon dioxide. The influence of temperature and pressure on the extraction properties has been worked out. The investigation has considered the multi-component system furfural-acetic acid-water-carbon dioxide. Solubility of furfural in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide has been measured, and equilibrium data for the ternary system furfural-water-CO{sub 2} as well as for the quaternary system furfural-acetic acid-water-CO{sub 2} have been determined. A high-pressure extraction column has been used for evaluation of mass transfer rates.

  10. Insight into Sulfur Reactions in Li–S Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Rui; Belharouak, Ilias; Zhang, Xiaofeng; chamoun, rita; Yu, Cun; Ren, Yang; Nie, Anmin; Reza, Shahbazian-Yassar; Lu, Jun; Li, James C.M.; Amine, Khalil

    2014-12-09

    Understanding and controlling the sulfur reduction species (Li2Sx, 1 ≤ x ≤ 8) under realistic battery conditions are essential for the development of advanced practical Li–S cells that can reach their full theoretical capacity. However, it has been a great challenge to probe the sulfur reduction intermediates and products because of the lack of methods. This work employed various ex situ and in situ methods to study the mechanism of the Li–S redox reactions and the properties of Li2Sx and Li2S. Synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction analysis used to characterize dry powder deposits from lithium polysulfide solution suggests that the new crystallite phase may be lithium polysulfides. The formation of Li2S crystallites with a polyhedral structure was observed in cells with both the conventional (LiTFSI) electrolyte and polysulfide-based electrolyte. In addition, an in situ transmission electron microscopy experiment observed that the lithium diffusion to sulfur during discharge preferentially occurred at the sulfur surface and formed a solid Li2S crust. This may be the reason for the capacity fade in Li–S cells (as also suggested by EIS experiment in Supporting Information). The results can be a guide for future studies and control of the sulfur species and meanwhile a baseline for approaching the theoretical capacity of the Li–S battery.

  11. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  12. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  13. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha; Meyer, Howard S.; Lynn, Scott; Leppin, Dennis; Wangerow, James R.

    2012-08-14

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  14. Transporting carbon dioxide recovered from fossil-energy cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doctor, R. D.; Molburg, J. C.; Brockmeier, J. F.

    2000-07-24

    Transportation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for enhanced oil recovery is a mature technology, with operating experience dating from the mid-1980s. Because of this maturity, recent sequestration studies for the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory have been able to incorporate transportation into overall energy-cycle economics with reasonable certainty. For these studies, two different coal-fueled plants are considered; the first collects CO{sub 2} from a 456-MW integrated coal gasification combined-cycle plant, while the second employs a 353-MW pulverized-coal boiler plant retrofitted for flue-gas recycling (Doctor et al. 1999; MacDonald and Palkes 1999). The pulverized-coal plant fires a mixture of coal in a 33% O{sub 2} atmosphere, the bulk of the inert gas being made up to CO{sub 2} to the greatest extent practical. If one power plant with one pipe feeds one sequestration reservoir, projected costs for a 500-km delivery pipeline are problematic, because when supplying one reservoir both plant availability issues and useful pipeline life heavily influence capital recovery costs. The transportation system proposed here refines the sequestration scheme into a network of three distinctive pipelines: (1) 80-km collection pipelines for a 330-MW pulverized-coal power plant with 100% CO{sub 2} recovery; (2) a main CO{sub 2} transportation trunk of 320 km that aggregates the CO{sub 2} from four such plants; and (3) an 80-km distribution network. A 25-year life is assumed for the first two segments, but only half that for the distribution to the reservoir. Projected costs for a 500-km delivery pipeline, assuming an infrastructure, are $7.82/tonne ($17.22/10{sup 3} Nm{sub 3} CO{sub 2} or $0.49/10{sup 3} scf CO{sub 2}), a savings of nearly 60% with respect to base-case estimates with no infrastructure. These costs are consistent only with conditioned CO{sub 2} having low oxygen and sulfur content; they do not include CO{sub 2} recovery, drying, and compression.

  15. BETO Director Ranks #6 in Biofuels Digest's Top 100 People in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Other Energy Department leaders recognized by Biofuels Digest include U.S. Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz, who ranked 37, and BETO Senior Executive Advisor Dr. Harry Baumes ...

  16. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    Papers in the quarterly technical progress report for the period April-June, 1984, of the Low-Rank Coal Research project have been entered individually into EDB and ERA (17 items). (LTN)

  17. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co-current downflow reactor system for adsorption of CO{sub 2} and a steam-heated, hollow-screw conveyor system for regeneration of the sorbent and release of a concentrated CO{sub 2} gas stream. An economic analysis of this process (based on the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's [DOE/NETL's] 'Carbon Capture and Sequestration Systems Analysis Guidelines') was carried out. RTI's economic analyses indicate that installation of the Dry Carbonate Process in a 500 MW{sub e} (nominal) power plant could achieve 90% CO{sub 2} removal with an incremental capital cost of about $69 million and an increase in the cost of electricity (COE) of about 1.95 cents per kWh. This represents an increase of roughly 35.4% in the estimated COE - which compares very favorable versus MEA's COE increase of 58%. Both the incremental capital cost and the incremental COE were projected to be less than the comparable costs for an equally efficient CO{sub 2} removal system based on monoethanolamine (MEA).

  18. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State's Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in

  19. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State's Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly

  20. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  1. Method for removing sulfur oxides from a hot gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W.P.; Hurst, T.B.

    1984-06-05

    An improved method for removing sulfur oxides from a hot gas by introducing the gas into a first compartment of a spray drying reactor chamber for settleable particulate removal, by then directing the gas to a second compartment of the reactor chamber wherein the gas is contacted with an atomized alkali slurry for sulfur oxide removal by formation of a dry mixture of sulfite and sulfate compounds, by removing a portion of the dry mixture from the gas in the second compartment and by passing the gas from the second compartment to a dry particle collection zone for removal of substantially all of the remaining gas entrained dry mixture.

  2. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L.; Gorski, Anthony J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  3. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  4. Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holladay, David W.; Haag, Gary L.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to barium carbonate. The method has several important advantages: it can be conducted effectively at ambient temperature; it provides a very rapid reaction rate over a wide range of carbon dioxide concentrations; it provides high decontamination factors; and it has a high capacity for carbon dioxide. The invention is especially well suited for the removal of radioactive carbon dioxide from off-gases generated by nuclear-fuel reprocessing facilities and nuclear power plants.

  5. Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation uelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) has developed a novel system concept for separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane (ECM). The salient feature of the ECM is its capability to produce electric

  6. A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Membrane Technology (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and URS Corporation, is developing a novel Combined Electric Power and Carbon-Dioxide Separation (CEPACS)

  7. Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 Rebecca Raber, rraber@haverford.edu, +1 610 896 1038 gtoc.jpg Carbon dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon polymer, PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon

  8. Fast, Efficient Isothermal Redox to Split Water or Carbon Dioxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast, Efficient Isothermal Redox to Split Water or Carbon Dioxide using Solar Energy ... the hercynite cycle allows faster, more efficient cycling and less wear on the equipment ...

  9. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Shao, Yixin 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental Processes Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental...

  10. Imaging Wellbore Cement Degradation by Carbon Dioxide under Geologic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Imaging Wellbore Cement Degradation by Carbon Dioxide under Geologic Sequestration Conditions Using X-ray Computed Microtomography Citation Details In-Document ...

  11. High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Brayton Energy's supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO 2 ) solar receiver has the potential to significantly improve reliability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs of CSP systems. ...

  12. Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Innovative Concepts for Beneficial Reuse of Carbon Dioxide Funding for 12 projects to test innovative concepts for the beneficial use of carbon dioxide (CO2) was announced by the U.S. Department of Energy. The awards are part of $1.4 billion in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) for projects that will capture carbon dioxide from industrial sources. These 12 projects will engage in a first phase

  13. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of ...

  14. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration in Developing Countries: Analysis of Key Policy Issues and Barriers...

  15. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  16. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of ...

  17. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014 November 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 November 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014 1 November 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014 2 November 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014 3 November 2015 U.S.

  18. High Performance Composite Membranes for Separation of Carbon Dioxide from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome High Performance Composite Membranes for Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Methane

  19. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel CO2 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions AgencyCompany...

  20. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Other Biogenic Sources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources AgencyCompany...

  1. Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon...

  2. Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks Gutierrez, Marte 54 ENVIRONMENTAL...

  3. Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology would allow power plants and the chemical and cement...

  4. CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool Focus Area: Geothermal Power Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Website: www.netl.doe.gov...

  5. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 5: Graphite PIRTs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchell, Timothy D; Bratton, Rob; Marsden, Barry; Srinivasan, Makuteswara; Penfield, Scott; Mitchell, Mark; Windes, Will

    2008-03-01

    Here we report the outcome of the application of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) process to the issue of nuclear-grade graphite for the moderator and structural components of a next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), considering both routine (normal operation) and postulated accident conditions for the NGNP. The NGNP is assumed to be a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), either a gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GTMHR) version [a prismatic-core modular reactor (PMR)] or a pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) version [a pebble bed reactor (PBR)] design, with either a direct- or indirect-cycle gas turbine (Brayton cycle) system for electric power production, and an indirect-cycle component for hydrogen production. NGNP design options with a high-pressure steam generator (Rankine cycle) in the primary loop are not considered in this PIRT. This graphite PIRT was conducted in parallel with four other NRC PIRT activities, taking advantage of the relationships and overlaps in subject matter. The graphite PIRT panel identified numerous phenomena, five of which were ranked high importance-low knowledge. A further nine were ranked with high importance and medium knowledge rank. Two phenomena were ranked with medium importance and low knowledge, and a further 14 were ranked medium importance and medium knowledge rank. The last 12 phenomena were ranked with low importance and high knowledge rank (or similar combinations suggesting they have low priority). The ranking/scoring rationale for the reported graphite phenomena is discussed. Much has been learned about the behavior of graphite in reactor environments in the 60-plus years since the first graphite rectors went into service. The extensive list of references in the Bibliography is plainly testament to this fact. Our current knowledge base is well developed. Although data are lacking for the specific grades being considered for Generation IV (Gen IV) concepts, such as the NGNP, it is fully expected that the behavior of these graphites will conform to the recognized trends for near isotropic nuclear graphite. Thus, much of the data needed is confirmatory in nature. Theories that can explain graphite behavior have been postulated and, in many cases, shown to represent experimental data well. However, these theories need to be tested against data for the new graphites and extended to higher neutron doses and temperatures pertinent to the new Gen IV reactor concepts. It is anticipated that current and planned future graphite irradiation experiments will provide the data needed to validate many of the currently accepted models, as well as providing the needed data for design confirmation.

  7. Fitting the Lithium-Sulfur Battery with a New Membrane - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 22, 2015, Accomplishments Fitting the Lithium-Sulfur Battery with a New Membrane The lithium-sulfur battery has higher energy storage capacity and lower cost than lithium ...

  8. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G.

    2012-03-06

    A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  9. Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite SCR System Sulfur Effect and Performance Recovery of a DOC + CSF + Cu-Zeolite SCR System effect and performance ...

  10. Solvent Tuning of Properties of Iron-Sulfur Clusters in Proteins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Proteins Figure 1. Schematic repre-sentation of the common active-site iron-sulfur cluster structural motif. Proteins containing Fe4S4 iron-sulfur clusters are ubiquitous in...

  11. Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 25_wang_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cathodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells

  12. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  13. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  14. Capture of carbon dioxide by hybrid sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasachar, Srivats

    2014-09-23

    A composition, process and system for capturing carbon dioxide from a combustion gas stream. The composition has a particulate porous support medium that has a high volume of pores, an alkaline component distributed within the pores and on the surface of the support medium, and water adsorbed on the alkaline component, wherein the proportion of water in the composition is between about 5% and about 35% by weight of the composition. The process and system contemplates contacting the sorbent and the flowing gas stream together at a temperature and for a time such that some water remains adsorbed in the alkaline component when the contact of the sorbent with the flowing gas ceases.

  15. Chromium modified nickel-iron aluminide useful in sulfur bearing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cathcart, John V.; Liu, Chain T.

    1989-06-13

    An improved nickel-iron aluminide containing chromium and molybdenum additions to improve resistance to sulfur attack.

  16. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  17. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  18. Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

    1989-07-01

    Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

  19. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  20. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  1. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  2. Doped carbon-sulfur species nanocomposite cathode for Li--S batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Donghai; Xu, Tianren; Song, Jiangxuan

    2015-12-29

    We report a heteroatom-doped carbon framework that acts both as conductive network and polysulfide immobilizer for lithium-sulfur cathodes. The doped carbon forms chemical bonding with elemental sulfur and/or sulfur compound. This can significantly inhibit the diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte, leading to high capacity retention and high coulombic efficiency.

  3. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  4. A crossover design study to evaluate the effectiveness of appliance inspection and servicing for lowering indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colome, S.D. ); Billick, I.H. ); Baker, P.E.; Beals, S.A.; Rubio, S.A.; Cunningham, S.J. ); Wilson, A.L. )

    1988-01-01

    Some researchers have suggested that natural gas appliances are significant contributors to indoor air pollution. Indoor unvented combustion appliances, such as gas-fired ranges, unvented space heaters, and portable kerosene space heaters, have been associated with a wide variety of pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), formaldehyde (HCHO), and respirable particles. Previous indoor air quality studies have demonstrated that indoor NO{sub 2} concentrations often exceed outdoor ambient levels when gas- burning appliances are used. Cooking with gas has been the focus of many of these studies, although other unvented appliances, such as space-heaters, have also been associated with elevated NO{sub 2} concentrations. Some epidemiologic studies of exposure to NO{sub 2} in homes with gas ranges have indicated a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illness. However, other studies contradicted these findings and failed to show any significant effects associated with gas cooking.

  5. Effects of ambient sulfur oxides and suspended particles on respiratory health of preadolescent children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.; Dockery, D.W.; Spengler, J.D.; Stram, D.O.; Speizer, F.E.

    1986-05-01

    Reported here are the results from an ongoing study of outdoor air pollution and respiratory health of children living in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States. The study enrolled 10,106 white preadolescent children between 1974 and 1977 in 3 successive annual visits to each city. Each child received a spirometric examination, and a parent completed a standard questionnaire. Of this cohort, 8,380 children were seen for a second examination 1 yr later. An air pollution monitoring program was begun in each community at about the time of the first examination. For this report, measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP), the sulfate fraction of TSP (TSO/sub 4/), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations at study-affiliated outdoor stations were combined with measurements at other public and private monitoring sites to create a record of TSP, TSO/sub 4/, and SO/sub 2/ concentrations in each of 9 air pollution regions during the 1-yr period preceding each examination and, for TSP, during each child's lifetime up to the time of testing. Across the 6 cities, frequency of cough was significantly associated with the average of 24-h mean concentrations of all 3 air pollutants during the year preceding the health examination (p less than 0.01). Rates of bronchitis and a composite measure of lower respiratory illness were significantly associated with average particulate concentrations (p less than 0.05). In analyses restricted to lifetime residents, these outcomes were significantly associated with measures of lifetime mean TSP concentration. Within the cities, however, temporal and spatial variation in air pollutant concentrations and illness and symptom rates were not positively associated.

  6. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James; Lewis, Larry Neil; O'Brien, Michael Joseph; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Kniajanski, Sergei; Lam, Tunchiao Hubert; Lee, Julia Lam; Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona

    2011-10-04

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  7. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  8. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons of carbon dioxide per person" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  9. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " ,"million metric tons of carbon dioxide",,,,,"shares" "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total",,"Coal","Petrol...

  10. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportat...

  11. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2011)" "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011" "State",2000,2001,2002,...

  12. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  13. Synthesis and development of processes for the recovery of sulfur from acid gases. Part 1, Development of a high-temperature process for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas using limestone -- thermodynamic and kinetic considerations; Part 2, Development of a zero-emissions process for recovery of sulfur from acid gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towler, G.P.; Lynn, S.

    1993-05-01

    Limestone can be used more effectively as a sorbent for H{sub 2}S in high-temperature gas-cleaning applications if it is prevented from undergoing calcination. Sorption of H{sub 2}S by limestone is impeded by sintering of the product CaS layer. Sintering of CaS is catalyzed by CO{sub 2}, but is not affected by N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. The kinetics of CaS sintering was determined for the temperature range 750--900{degrees}C. When hydrogen sulfide is heated above 600{degrees}C in the presence of carbon dioxide elemental sulfur is formed. The rate-limiting step of elemental sulfur formation is thermal decomposition of H{sub 2}S. Part of the hydrogen thereby produced reacts with CO{sub 2}, forming CO via the water-gas-shift reaction. The equilibrium of H{sub 2}S decomposition is therefore shifted to favor the formation of elemental sulfur. The main byproduct is COS, formed by a reaction between CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S that is analogous to the water-gas-shift reaction. Smaller amounts of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} also form. Molybdenum disulfide is a strong catalyst for H{sub 2}S decomposition in the presence of CO{sub 2}. A process for recovery of sulfur from H{sub 2}S using this chemistry is as follows: Hydrogen sulfide is heated in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of CO{sub 2} and a suitable catalyst. The primary products of the overall reaction are S{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture to roughly 600{degrees}C prevents loss Of S{sub 2} during cooling. Carbonyl sulfide is removed from the product gas by hydrolysis back to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. Unreacted CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H{sub 2} and CO, which recovers the hydrogen value from the H{sub 2}S. This process is economically favorable compared to the existing sulfur-recovery technology and allows emissions of sulfur-containing gases to be controlled to very low levels.

  14. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  15. Jefferson Lab research into the pentaquark is ranked among the top science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stories of 2003 | Jefferson Lab research into the pentaquark is ranked among the top science stories of 2003 Jefferson Lab research into the pentaquark is ranked among the top science stories of 2003 December 24, 2003 Twice during the last month the discovery of the pentaquark has been named among the top science stories for 2003. Researchers working at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab, located in Newport News, Va., are among those to identify some of the most convincing evidence yet

  16. Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. ); Ruether, J.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

  17. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  18. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; Leibowitz, L.

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. On melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.

  19. Carbon dioxide research plan. A summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivelpiece, Alvin W.; Koomanoff, F. A.; Suomi, Verner E.

    1983-11-01

    The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of relevant research, and to coordinate this research with that of others. As part of its responsibilities, the Department of Energy has prepared a research plan. The plan documented in this Summary delineated the logic, objectives, organization, background and current status of the research activities. The Summary Plan is based on research subplans in four specific areas: global carbon cycle, climate effects, vegetative response and indirect effects. These subplans have emanated from a series of national and international workshops, conferences, and from technical reports. The plans have been peer reviewed by experts in the relevant scientific fields. Their execution is being coordinated between the responsible federal and international government agencies and the involved scientific community.

  20. Molten uranium dioxide structure and dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Benmore, C. J.; Weber, J. K.R.; Williamson, M. A.; Tamalonis, A.; Hebden, A.; Wiencek, T.; Alderman, O. L.G.; Guthrie, M.; et al

    2014-11-21

    Uranium dioxide (UO2) is the major nuclear fuel component of fission power reactors. A key concern during severe accidents is the melting and leakage of radioactive UO2 as it corrodes through its zirconium cladding and steel containment. Yet, the very high temperatures (>3140 kelvin) and chemical reactivity of molten UO2 have prevented structural studies. In this work, we combine laser heating, sample levitation, and synchrotron x-rays to obtain pair distribution function measurements of hot solid and molten UO2. The hot solid shows a substantial increase in oxygen disorder around the lambda transition (2670 K) but negligible U-O coordination change. Onmore » melting, the average U-O coordination drops from 8 to 6.7 ± 0.5. Molecular dynamics models refined to this structure predict higher U-U mobility than 8-coordinated melts.« less

  1. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolle , Jack J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  2. Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Lusk, Mark (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO; Thoen, Paul (Littleton, CO) [Littleton, CO

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

  3. MINIMIZING NET CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL/BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Todd Lang

    2001-06-25

    Solid fuels vary significantly with respect to the amount of CO{sub 2} directly produced per unit heating value. Elemental carbon is notably worse than other solid fuels in this regard, and since carbon (char) is an intermediate product of the combustion of almost all solid fuels, there is an opportunity to reduce specific CO{sub 2} emissions by reconfiguring processes to avoid char combustion wholly or in part. The primary goal of this one-year Innovative Concepts project is to make a fundamental thermodynamic assessment of three modes of solid fuel use: (1) combustion, (2) carbonization, and (3) oxidative pyrolysis, for a wide range of coal and alternative solid fuels. This period a large set of thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the potential of the three processes. The results show that the net carbon dioxide emissions and the relative ranking of the different processes depends greatly on the particular baseline fossil fuel being displaced by the new technology. As an example, in a baseline natural gas environment, it is thermodynamically more advantageous to carbonize biomass than to combust it, and even more advantageous to oxidatively pyrolyze the biomass.

  4. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  5. Glass surface deactivants for sulfur-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Gluck, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    In gas chromatographic technique for measuring reduced sulfur-containing gases in biogenic air fluxes, the major problem seemed to be the irreversible adsorption of the polar sulfur compounds on the glass surfaces of the cryogenic sampling traps. This article discusses the comparative degrees of Pyrex glass surface passivation for over 25 chemical deactivants and their related pretreatment procedures. Since H/sub 2/S was discovered to be the sulfur compound with a consistently lower recovery efficiency than COS, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH, CS/sub 2/ or CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, the percent recovery for H/sub 2/S was employed as the indicator of effectiveness for the various deactivation treatments. Tables are presented summarizing the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for chlorosilane deactivants and for the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for different pyrex surface pretreatments with an octadecyltrialkoxysilane deactivation. The general conclusion of this investigation is that the relative degree of passivation for glass surfaces by present deactivation techniques is dependent on the types of analyzed compounds and the nature of the glass surface.

  6. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P.; Lynn, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  7. Method for preparing a sodium/sulfur cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Steven A.

    1978-01-01

    A method for preparing a sodium/sulfur cell comprising (A) inserting a solid sodium slug, adapted to be connected to an external circuit, into the anodic reaction zone of a cell subassembly maintained within an inert atmosphere, said cell subassembly comprising a cell container and a tubular cation-permeable barrier disposed within said container such that a first reaction zone is located within cation-permeable barrier and a second reaction zone is located between the outer surface of said cation-permeable barrier and the inner surface of said container, one of said reaction zones being said anodic reaction zone and the other of said reaction zone being a cathodic reaction zone containing a precast composite cathodic reactant comprising a sulfur impregnated porous conductive material connected to said cation permeable barrier and adapted to be connected to said external circuit; and (B) providing closure means for said subassembly and sealing the same to said subassembly at a temperature less than about 100.degree. C. The method of the invention overcomes deficiencies of the prior art methods by allowing preparation of a sodium/sulfur cell without the use of molten reactants and the fill spouts which are required when the cell is filled with molten reactants.

  8. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  9. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and themore » electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.« less

  10. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore » the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  11. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  12. High-rate reactive sputter deposition of zirconium dioxide (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: High-rate reactive sputter deposition of zirconium dioxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-rate reactive sputter deposition of zirconium dioxide Using an improved reactive sputter deposition technique, zirconium dioxide is deposited on cooled and uncooled substrates at low, medium, and high rates of 51.7, 95.4, and 152.4 nm/min, respectively. The films are deposited by sputtering a Zr target in an oxygen--argon plasma. The Zr target

  13. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

  14. Task 27 -- Alaskan low-rank coal-water fuel demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    Development of coal-water-fuel (CWF) technology has to-date been predicated on the use of high-rank bituminous coal only, and until now the high inherent moisture content of low-rank coal has precluded its use for CWF production. The unique feature of the Alaskan project is the integration of hot-water-drying (HWD) into CWF technology as a beneficiation process. Hot-water-drying is an EERC developed technology unavailable to the competition that allows the range of CWF feedstock to be extended to low-rank coals. The primary objective of the Alaskan Project, is to promote interest in the CWF marketplace by demonstrating the commercial viability of low-rank coal-water-fuel (LRCWF). While commercialization plans cannot be finalized until the implementation and results of the Alaskan LRCWF Project are known and evaluated, this report has been prepared to specifically address issues concerning business objectives for the project, and outline a market development plan for meeting those objectives.

  15. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  16. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  17. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  18. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  19. Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2015-08-04

    We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positivemore » semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.« less

  20. Low-rank matrix decomposition and spatio-temporal sparse recovery for STAP radar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, Satyabrata

    2015-08-04

    We develop space-time adaptive processing (STAP) methods by leveraging the advantages of sparse signal processing techniques in order to detect a slowly-moving target. We observe that the inherent sparse characteristics of a STAP problem can be formulated as the low-rankness of clutter covariance matrix when compared to the total adaptive degrees-of-freedom, and also as the sparse interference spectrum on the spatio-temporal domain. By exploiting these sparse properties, we propose two approaches for estimating the interference covariance matrix. In the first approach, we consider a constrained matrix rank minimization problem (RMP) to decompose the sample covariance matrix into a low-rank positive semidefinite and a diagonal matrix. The solution of RMP is obtained by applying the trace minimization technique and the singular value decomposition with matrix shrinkage operator. Our second approach deals with the atomic norm minimization problem to recover the clutter response-vector that has a sparse support on the spatio-temporal plane. We use convex relaxation based standard sparse-recovery techniques to find the solutions. With extensive numerical examples, we demonstrate the performances of proposed STAP approaches with respect to both the ideal and practical scenarios, involving Doppler-ambiguous clutter ridges, spatial and temporal decorrelation effects. As a result, the low-rank matrix decomposition based solution requires secondary measurements as many as twice the clutter rank to attain a near-ideal STAP performance; whereas the spatio-temporal sparsity based approach needs a considerably small number of secondary data.

  1. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention � Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term �globule� refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 μm range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 μm or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 μm (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety of conditions that are suitable for permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide. A variety of mixtures of water, CO{sub 2} and particles may also provide suitable emulsions capable of PS. In addition, it is necessary to test the robustness of PSE formation as composition changes to be certain that emulsions of appropriate size and stability form under conditions that might vary during actual large scale EOR and sequestration operations. The goal was to lay the groundwork for an apparatus and formulation that would produce homogenous microemulsions of CO{sub 2}-in-water capable of readily mixing with the waters of deep saline aquifers and allow a safer and more permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide. In addition, as a beneficial use, we hoped to produce homogenous microemulsions of water-in-CO{sub 2} capable of readily mixing with pure liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2} for use in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). However, true homogeneous microemulsions have proven very difficult to produce and efforts have not yielded either a formulation or a mixing strategy that gives emulsions that do not settle out or that can be diluted with the continuous phase in varying proportions. Other mixtures of water, CO{sub 2} and particles, that are not technically homogeneous microemulsions, may also provide suitable emulsions capable of PS and EOR. For example, a homogeneous emulsion that is not a microemulsion might also provide all of the necessary characteristics desired. These characteristics would include easy formation, stability over time, appropriate size and the potential for mineralization under conditions that would be encountered under actual large scale sequestration operations. This report also describes work with surrogate systems in order to test conditions.

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

  3. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung; Ruud, James Anthony; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Willson, Patrick Daniel; Gao, Yan

    2011-03-01

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  4. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  5. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

  6. Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

  7. Carbon dioxide capture-related gas adsorption and separation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon dioxide capture-related gas adsorption and separation in metal-organic frameworks Previous Next List Jian-Rong Li, Yuguang Ma, M. Colin McCarthy, Julian Sculley, Jiamei Yu,...

  8. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013 October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2014 U.S. Energy...

  9. Carbon Dioxide Capture: Prospects for New Materials | Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Dioxide Capture: Prospects for New Materials Previous Next List D. M. D'Alessandro, B. Smit, and J. R. Long, Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit. 49 (35), 6058 (2010) DOI: 10.1002...

  10. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley...

  11. Carbon Dioxide Capture in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Dioxide Capture in Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Kenji Sumida , David L. Rogow , Jarad A. Mason , Thomas M. McDonald , Eric D. Bloch , Zoey R. Herm , Tae-Hyun...

  12. Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus; Yanagihara, Naohisa; Dyke, James T.; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    1991-09-03

    The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

  13. Copper clusters capture and convert carbon dioxide to make fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The benefit of enhanced binding is that the new catalyst requires lower pressure and less energy to produce the same amount of methanol. Carbon dioxide emissions are an ongoing...

  14. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid The Laboratory team used a combination of experiments and modeling for the investigation. June 25, 2015 Simulation of a selection of the particle trajectories toward the well. Simulation of a selection of the particle trajectories toward the well. Communications Office (505) 667-7000 The Laboratory research is part of an ongoing project to make the necessary measurements and develop

  15. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | DOEPatents Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus Title: Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) DOE Patents. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. Disclosed is a method for measuring

  16. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As

  17. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Determination of Contact Angles. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Abstract not provided. Authors: Tenney, Craig M ; Cygan, Randall T. Publication Date: 2013-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106710 Report Number(s):

  18. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral Authors: Tenney, Craig M ; Cygan, Randall T Publication Date: 2014-02-04 OSTI Identifier: 1161868 DOE Contract Number: SC0001114 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Environmental Science & Technology; Journal Volume: 48; Related Information: CFSES

  19. NUCLEAR HYDROGEN AND CAPTURED CARBON DIOXIDE FOR ALTERNATIVE LIQUID FUELS.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: NUCLEAR HYDROGEN AND CAPTURED CARBON DIOXIDE FOR ALTERNATIVE LIQUID FUELS. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NUCLEAR HYDROGEN AND CAPTURED CARBON DIOXIDE FOR ALTERNATIVE LIQUID FUELS. Abstract not provided. Authors: Middleton, Bobby ; Kazimi, Mujid ; Leung, MinWah Publication Date: 2008-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1145909 Report Number(s): SAND2008-1979J 518805 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article

  20. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), aim to demonstrate a multi-megawatt power cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the working fluid. The use of carbon dioxide instead of steam allows higher power-cycle efficiency and cycle components that are more compact.

  1. Nuclear Hydrogen and Captured Carbon Dioxide for Alternative Liquid Fuels.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Nuclear Hydrogen and Captured Carbon Dioxide for Alternative Liquid Fuels. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Hydrogen and Captured Carbon Dioxide for Alternative Liquid Fuels. Abstract not provided. Authors: Middleton, Bobby ; Kazimi, Mujid Publication Date: 2007-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1147847 Report Number(s): SAND2007-3553C 522735 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: ANS

  2. First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Earth's Surface First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's Surface First Direct Observation of Carbon Dioxide's Increasing Greenhouse Effect at Earth's Surface Researchers Link Rising CO₂ Levels from Fossil Fuels to Radiative Forcing February 25, 2015 Contact: Dan Krotz, dakrotz@lbl.gov, 510-486-4019 ARM Alaska Caption: The scientists used incredibly precise spectroscopic instruments at two sites operated by the Department of Energy's

  3. New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground February 5, 2013 - 12:05pm Addthis The Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas, is funded by the Energy Department through the 2009 Recovery Act. It is managed by the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. | Photo credit Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities.

  4. Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The limitation to reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the expense of stripping carbon dioxide from other combustion gases. Without a cost-effective means of accomplishing this, hydrocarbon resources cannot be used freely. A few power plants currently remove

  5. Porous Framework Electrocatalysts Are Key to Carbon Dioxide Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Porous Framework Electrocatalysts Are Key to Carbon Dioxide Conversion Porous Framework Electrocatalysts Are Key to Carbon Dioxide Conversion Print Friday, 19 February 2016 13:11 The burning of fossil fuels and the consequent rising levels of atmospheric CO-2 has led to a number of negative environmental consequences, including global warming and ocean acidification. Converting CO2 to fuels or chemical feedstock, ideally through the use of renewable energy, can simultaneously reduce atmospheric

  6. "(Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Source: International Energy Outlook 2010" "Report #: DOE/EIA-0484(2010)" "application/vnd.ms-excel" "U.S. history values from this report" "U.S. projections from AEO2011, early release" "Table 4. World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions and shares by region, 1990-2035",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Additional data for analysis" "(Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide)"

  7. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2014-11-04

    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  8. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  9. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Alabama) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 31,953 8 Electric utilities 23,050 8 IPP & CHP 8,903 11 Net generation (megawatthours) 149,340,447 6 Electric utilities 112,340,555 3 IPP & CHP 36,999,892 10 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 152,225 8 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 61,909 13 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 67,635 10 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.0 19 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.8 38

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Arkansas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,754 30 Electric utilities 11,526 23 IPP & CHP 3,227 29 Net generation (megawatthours) 61,592,137 24 Electric utilities 48,752,895 18 IPP & CHP 12,839,241 28 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 89,528 15 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 47,048 20 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 37,289 23 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.9 9 Nitrogen oxide

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Washington) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,949 10 Electric utilities 27,376 5 IPP & CHP 3,573 26 Net generation (megawatthours) 116,334,363 11 Electric utilities 102,294,256 5 IPP & CHP 14,040,107 24 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 13,716 36 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 18,316 40 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 12,427 398 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 44

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (West Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,276 25 Electric utilities 11,981 21 IPP & CHP 4,295 21 Net generation (megawatthours) 81,059,577 19 Electric utilities 63,331,833 15 IPP & CHP 17,727,743 17 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 102,406 12 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 72,995 11 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 73,606 9 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.5 14

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Wisconsin) Item Value Rank Primary Energy Source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 17,166 23 Electric utilities 14,377 18 IPP & CHP 2,788 32 Net generation (megawatthours) 61,064,796 25 Electric utilities 47,301,782 20 IPP & CHP 13,763,014 26 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 81,239 17 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 39,597 27 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 43,750 19 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 12 Nitrogen

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Wyoming) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,458 37 Electric utilities 7,233 32 IPP & CHP 1,225 43 Net generation (megawatthours) 49,696,183 32 Electric utilities 45,068,982 23 IPP & CHP 4,627,201 41 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 45,704 24 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 49,638 18 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 47,337 17 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 22 Nitrogen Oxide

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Arizona Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Arizona) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 28,249 13 Electric utilities 21,311 11 IPP & CHP 6,938 17 Net generation (megawatthours) 112,257,187 13 Electric utilities 94,847,135 8 IPP & CHP 17,410,053 19 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 22,597 32 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 56,726 17 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 53,684 16 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 41 Nitrogen oxide

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    California Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (California) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 74,646 2 Electric utilities 28,201 4 IPP & CHP 46,446 2 Net generation (megawatthours) 198,807,622 5 Electric utilities 71,037,135 14 IPP & CHP 127,770,487 4 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,102 46 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 98,348 5 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 57,223 14 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 49

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Colorado Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Colorado) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,933 29 Electric utilities 10,204 28 IPP & CHP 4,729 18 Net generation (megawatthours) 53,847,386 30 Electric utilities 43,239,615 26 IPP & CHP 10,607,771 30 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 28,453 30 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 44,349 24 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 38,474 22 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Nitrogen

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Connecticut Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Connecticut) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,832 35 Electric utilities 161 45 IPP & CHP 8,671 12 Net generation (megawatthours) 33,676,980 38 Electric utilities 54,693 45 IPP & CHP 33,622,288 11 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 1,897 47 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 8,910 45 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,959 41 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 46 Nitrogen oxide

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Delaware Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Delaware) Item Value U.S. rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 3,086 46 Electric utilities 102 46 IPP & CHP 2,984 31 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,703,584 47 Electric utilities 49,050 46 IPP & CHP 7,654,534 35 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 824 48 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 2,836 48 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 4,276 43 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 45 Nitrogen oxide

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    District of Columbia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (District of Columbia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 9 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 9 51 Net generation (megawatthours) 67,612 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 67,612 51 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 0 51 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 147 51 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 48 50 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 51 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 4.3 3

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Florida Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Florida) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 59,440 3 Electric utilities 51,775 1 IPP & CHP 7,665 15 Net generation (megawatthours) 230,015,937 2 Electric utilities 211,970,587 1 IPP & CHP 18,045,350 15 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 126,600 10 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 91,356 6 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 111,549 2 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 30 Nitrogen

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Georgia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Georgia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 38,250 7 Electric utilities 28,873 3 IPP & CHP 9,377 10 Net generation (megawatthours) 125,837,224 10 Electric utilities 109,523,336 4 IPP & CHP 16,313,888 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 105,998 11 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 58,144 14 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 62,516 12 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.7 24 Nitrogen oxide

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Hawaii Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Hawaii) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Petroleum Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,672 47 Electric utilities 1,732 40 IPP & CHP 939 45 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,204,158 46 Electric utilities 5,517,389 39 IPP & CHP 4,686,769 40 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 21,670 33 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 26,928 31 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,313 42 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.2 4 Nitrogen oxide

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Illinois Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Illinois) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 44,727 4 Electric utilities 5,263 35 IPP & CHP 39,464 4 Net generation (megawatthours) 202,143,878 4 Electric utilities 10,457,398 36 IPP & CHP 191,686,480 3 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 187,536 6 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 58,076 15 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 96,624 6 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 20 Nitrogen

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Indiana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Indiana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 27,499 14 Electric utilities 23,319 7 IPP & CHP 4,180 23 Net generation (megawatthours) 115,395,392 12 Electric utilities 100,983,285 6 IPP & CHP 14,412,107 22 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 332,396 3 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 133,412 3 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 103,391 3 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.8 1 Nitrogen oxide

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Iowa Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Iowa) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,507 24 Electric utilities 12,655 20 IPP & CHP 3,852 25 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,853,282 28 Electric utilities 43,021,954 27 IPP & CHP 13,831,328 25 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 74,422 19 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 41,793 25 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 39,312 21 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.6 13 Nitrogen oxide

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Kansas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Kansas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,227 31 Electric utilities 11,468 24 IPP & CHP 2,759 33 Net generation (megawatthours) 49,728,363 31 Electric utilities 39,669,629 29 IPP & CHP 10,058,734 31 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 31,550 29 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 29,014 29 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 31,794 29 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 29 Nitrogen oxide

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Kentucky Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Kentucky) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 20,878 21 Electric utilities 19,473 15 IPP & CHP 1,405 40 Net generation (megawatthours) 90,896,435 17 Electric utilities 90,133,403 10 IPP & CHP 763,032 49 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 204,873 5 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 89,253 7 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 85,795 7 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.5 3 Nitrogen oxide

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Louisiana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Louisiana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,657 15 Electric utilities 18,120 16 IPP & CHP 8,537 13 Net generation (megawatthours) 104,229,402 15 Electric utilities 58,518,271 17 IPP & CHP 45,711,131 8 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 96,240 14 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 83,112 8 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 57,137 15 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 21

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maine Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Maine) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,470 43 Electric utilities 10 49 IPP & CHP 4,460 20 Net generation (megawatthours) 13,248,710 44 Electric utilities 523 49 IPP & CHP 13,248,187 27 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 10,990 38 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 8,622 46 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,298 46 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.7 25 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh)

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maryland Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Maryland) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 12,264 33 Electric utilities 85 47 IPP & CHP 12,179 8 Net generation (megawatthours) 37,833,652 35 Electric utilities 20,260 47 IPP & CHP 37,813,392 9 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 41,370 26 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,626 35 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 20,414 34 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 18 Nitrogen oxide

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Massachusetts) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 13,128 32 Electric utilities 971 42 IPP & CHP 12,157 9 Net generation (megawatthours) 31,118,591 40 Electric utilities 679,986 43 IPP & CHP 30,438,606 12 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 6,748 41 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 13,831 43 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 12,231 39 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 40

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Michigan Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Michigan) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,435 12 Electric utilities 22,260 9 IPP & CHP 8,175 14 Net generation (megawatthours) 106,816,991 14 Electric utilities 84,075,322 12 IPP & CHP 22,741,669 13 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 173,521 7 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 77,950 9 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 64,062 11 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 7 Nitrogen oxide

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Minnesota Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Minnesota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,621 28 Electric utilities 11,557 22 IPP & CHP 4,064 24 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,998,330 27 Electric utilities 45,963,271 22 IPP & CHP 11,035,059 29 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 39,272 27 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 38,373 28 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 32,399 28 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.4 27 Nitrogen

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Mississippi Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Mississippi) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,090 26 Electric utilities 13,494 19 IPP & CHP 2,597 34 Net generation (megawatthours) 55,127,092 29 Electric utilities 47,084,382 21 IPP & CHP 8,042,710 34 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 101,093 13 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 23,993 32 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 24,037 33 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.7 5

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Missouri Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Missouri) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,790 19 Electric utilities 20,538 13 IPP & CHP 1,252 42 Net generation (megawatthours) 87,834,468 18 Electric utilities 85,271,253 11 IPP & CHP 2,563,215 46 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 149,842 9 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 77,749 10 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 75,735 8 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 6 Nitrogen oxide

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Montana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Montana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,330 41 Electric utilities 3,209 38 IPP & CHP 3,121 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 30,257,616 41 Electric utilities 12,329,411 35 IPP & CHP 17,928,205 16 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 14,426 34 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,538 36 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 17,678 36 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 34 Nitrogen oxide

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Nebraska Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Nebraska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,732 36 Electric utilities 7,913 30 IPP & CHP 819 46 Net generation (megawatthours) 39,431,291 34 Electric utilities 36,560,960 30 IPP & CHP 2,870,331 45 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 63,994 22 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 27,045 30 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 26,348 31 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 8 Nitrogen oxide

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Nevada Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Nevada) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 10,485 34 Electric utilities 8,480 29 IPP & CHP 2,006 35 Net generation (megawatthours) 36,000,537 37 Electric utilities 27,758,728 33 IPP & CHP 8,241,809 33 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 10,229 40 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 18,606 39 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 16,222 37 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 38 Nitrogen

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Hampshire Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Hampshire) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,413 44 Electric utilities 1,121 41 IPP & CHP 3,292 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 19,778,520 42 Electric utilities 2,266,903 41 IPP & CHP 17,511,617 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,733 44 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 5,057 47 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,447 46 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 45 Nitrogen

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jersey Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New Jersey) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 19,399 22 Electric utilities 544 43 IPP & CHP 18,852 7 Net generation (megawatthours) 68,051,086 23 Electric utilities -117,003 50 IPP & CHP 68,168,089 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,369 44 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 15,615 41 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 17,905 35 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 47 Nitrogen oxide

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Mexico Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New Mexico) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,072 39 Electric utilities 6,094 33 IPP & CHP 1,978 37 Net generation (megawatthours) 32,306,210 39 Electric utilities 26,422,867 34 IPP & CHP 5,883,343 38 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 12,064 37 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 46,192 22 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 24,712 32 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.7 37 Nitrogen

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    York Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New York) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 40,404 6 Electric utilities 10,989 27 IPP & CHP 29,416 5 Net generation (megawatthours) 137,122,202 7 Electric utilities 34,082 31 IPP & CHP 103,039,347 5 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 31,878 28 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 46,971 21 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,240 26 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 39 Nitrogen oxide

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,048 12 Electric utilities 26,706 6 IPP & CHP 3,342 29 Net generation (megawatthours) 125,936,293 9 Electric utilities 116,317,050 2 IPP & CHP 9,619,243 31 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 71,293 20 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 62,397 12 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 56,940 14 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Nitrogen

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,566 40 Electric utilities 5,292 34 IPP & CHP 1,274 41 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,021,673 39 Electric utilities 31,044,374 32 IPP & CHP 3,977,299 42 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 56,854 23 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 48,454 22 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 30,274 28 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 11 Nitrogen oxide

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Ohio Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Ohio) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 31,507 9 Electric utilities 11,134 26 IPP & CHP 20,372 6 Net generation (megawatthours) 134,476,405 8 Electric utilities 43,290,512 25 IPP & CHP 91,185,893 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 355,108 1 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 105,688 4 Carbon dioxide (thousand metrictons) 98,650 5 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.3 2 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh)

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Oklahoma) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 24,048 17 Electric utilities 17,045 17 IPP & CHP 7,003 16 Net generation (megawatthours) 70,155,504 22 Electric utilities 48,096,026 19 IPP & CHP 22,059,478 14 Emissions Sulfur dioxide 78,556 18 Nitrogen oxide 44,874 23 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 43,994 18 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 17 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 26

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Pennsylvania) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 42,723 5 Electric utilities 39 48 IPP & CHP 42,685 3 Net generation (megawatthours) 221,058,365 3 Electric utilities 90,994 44 IPP & CHP 220,967,371 2 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 297,598 4 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 141,486 2 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 101,361 4 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 11 Nitrogen oxide

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Rhode Island Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Rhode Island) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,810 49 Electric utilities 8 50 IPP & CHP 1,803 38 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,281,748 49 Electric utilities 10,670 48 IPP & CHP 6,271,078 36 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 100 49 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 1,224 49 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 2,566 48 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 48 Nitrogen oxide

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (South Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 22,824 18 Electric utilities 20,836 12 IPP & CHP 1,988 36 Net generation (megawatthours) 97,158,465 16 Electric utilities 93,547,004 9 IPP & CHP 3,611,461 43 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 43,659 25 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 21,592 34 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,083 27 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 35

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Tennessee Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Tennessee) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 20,998 20 Electric utilities 20,490 14 IPP & CHP 508 47 Net generation (megawatthours) 79,506,886 20 Electric utilities 76,986,629 13 IPP & CHP 2,520,257 47 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 89,357 16 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 23,913 33 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 41,405 20 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 16 Nitrogen oxide

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Texas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Texas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 112,914 1 Electric utilities 29,113 2 IPP & CHP 83,800 1 Net generation (megawatthours) 437,629,668 1 Electric utilities 94,974,953 7 IPP & CHP 342,654,715 1 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 349,245 2 Nitrogen Oxide short tons) 229,580 1 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 254,488 1 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 26 Nitrogen Oxide

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vermont Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Vermont) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 650 50 Electric utilities 337 44 IPP & CHP 313 49 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,031,394 48 Electric utilities 868,079 42 IPP & CHP 6,163,315 37 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 71 50 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 737 50 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 14 51 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 50 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 51

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Virginia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,292 16 Electric utilities 22,062 10 IPP & CHP 4,231 22 Net generation (megawatthours) 77,137,438 21 Electric utilities 62,966,914 16 IPP & CHP 14,170,524 23 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 68,550 20 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 40,656 26 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,295 25 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 23 Nitrogen

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    West Virginia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (West Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,276 25 Electric utilities 11,981 21 IPP & CHP 4,295 21 Net generation (megawatthours) 81,059,577 19 Electric utilities 63,331,833 15 IPP & CHP 17,727,743 17 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 102,406 12 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 72,995 11 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 73,606 9 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.5 14

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Wisconsin) Item Value Rank Primary Energy Source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 17,166 23 Electric utilities 14,377 18 IPP & CHP 2,788 32 Net generation (megawatthours) 61,064,796 25 Electric utilities 47,301,782 20 IPP & CHP 13,763,014 26 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 81,239 17 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 39,597 27 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 43,750 19 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 12 Nitrogen

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wyoming Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Wyoming) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,458 37 Electric utilities 7,233 32 IPP & CHP 1,225 43 Net generation (megawatthours) 49,696,183 32 Electric utilities 45,068,982 23 IPP & CHP 4,627,201 41 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 45,704 24 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 49,638 18 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 47,337 17 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 22 Nitrogen Oxide

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Alaska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,464 48 Electric utilities 2,313 39 IPP & CHP 151 50 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,042,830 50 Electric utilities 5,509,991 40 IPP & CHP 532,839 50 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 4,129 43 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 19,281 38 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,558 44 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.4 28 Nitrogen oxide

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Arizona) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 28,249 13 Electric utilities 21,311 11 IPP & CHP 6,938 17 Net generation (megawatthours) 112,257,187 13 Electric utilities 94,847,135 8 IPP & CHP 17,410,053 19 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 22,597 32 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 56,726 17 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 53,684 16 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 41 Nitrogen oxide

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (California) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 74,646 2 Electric utilities 28,201 4 IPP & CHP 46,446 2 Net generation (megawatthours) 198,807,622 5 Electric utilities 71,037,135 14 IPP & CHP 127,770,487 4 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,102 46 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 98,348 5 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 57,223 14 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 49

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Colorado) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,933 29 Electric utilities 10,204 28 IPP & CHP 4,729 18 Net generation (megawatthours) 53,847,386 30 Electric utilities 43,239,615 26 IPP & CHP 10,607,771 30 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 28,453 30 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 44,349 24 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 38,474 22 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Nitrogen

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Connecticut) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,832 35 Electric utilities 161 45 IPP & CHP 8,671 12 Net generation (megawatthours) 33,676,980 38 Electric utilities 54,693 45 IPP & CHP 33,622,288 11 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 1,897 47 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 8,910 45 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,959 41 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 46 Nitrogen oxide

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Delaware Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Delaware) Item Value U.S. rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 3,086 46 Electric utilities 102 46 IPP & CHP 2,984 31 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,703,584 47 Electric utilities 49,050 46 IPP & CHP 7,654,534 35 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 824 48 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 2,836 48 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 4,276 43 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 45 Nitrogen oxide

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (District of Columbia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 9 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 9 51 Net generation (megawatthours) 67,612 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 67,612 51 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 0 51 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 147 51 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 48 50 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 51 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 4.3 3

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Florida) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 59,440 3 Electric utilities 51,775 1 IPP & CHP 7,665 15 Net generation (megawatthours) 230,015,937 2 Electric utilities 211,970,587 1 IPP & CHP 18,045,350 15 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 126,600 10 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 91,356 6 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 111,549 2 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 30 Nitrogen

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Georgia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 38,250 7 Electric utilities 28,873 3 IPP & CHP 9,377 10 Net generation (megawatthours) 125,837,224 10 Electric utilities 109,523,336 4 IPP & CHP 16,313,888 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 105,998 11 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 58,144 14 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 62,516 12 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.7 24 Nitrogen oxide

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Hawaii) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Petroleum Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,672 47 Electric utilities 1,732 40 IPP & CHP 939 45 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,204,158 46 Electric utilities 5,517,389 39 IPP & CHP 4,686,769 40 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 21,670 33 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 26,928 31 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,313 42 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.2 4 Nitrogen oxide

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Idaho) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,944 42 Electric utilities 3,413 37 IPP & CHP 1,531 39 Net generation (megawatthours) 15,184,417 43 Electric utilities 9,628,016 37 IPP & CHP 5,556,400 39 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 5,777 42 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,301 37 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 1,492 49 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.8 36 Nitrogen oxide

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Illinois) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 44,727 4 Electric utilities 5,263 35 IPP & CHP 39,464 4 Net generation (megawatthours) 202,143,878 4 Electric utilities 10,457,398 36 IPP & CHP 191,686,480 3 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 187,536 6 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 58,076 15 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 96,624 6 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 20 Nitrogen

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Indiana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 27,499 14 Electric utilities 23,319 7 IPP & CHP 4,180 23 Net generation (megawatthours) 115,395,392 12 Electric utilities 100,983,285 6 IPP & CHP 14,412,107 22 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 332,396 3 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 133,412 3 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 103,391 3 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.8 1 Nitrogen oxide

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Iowa) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,507 24 Electric utilities 12,655 20 IPP & CHP 3,852 25 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,853,282 28 Electric utilities 43,021,954 27 IPP & CHP 13,831,328 25 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 74,422 19 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 41,793 25 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 39,312 21 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.6 13 Nitrogen oxide

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Kansas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,227 31 Electric utilities 11,468 24 IPP & CHP 2,759 33 Net generation (megawatthours) 49,728,363 31 Electric utilities 39,669,629 29 IPP & CHP 10,058,734 31 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 31,550 29 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 29,014 29 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 31,794 29 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 29 Nitrogen oxide

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Kentucky) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 20,878 21 Electric utilities 19,473 15 IPP & CHP 1,405 40 Net generation (megawatthours) 90,896,435 17 Electric utilities 90,133,403 10 IPP & CHP 763,032 49 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 204,873 5 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 89,253 7 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 85,795 7 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.5 3 Nitrogen oxide

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Louisiana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,657 15 Electric utilities 18,120 16 IPP & CHP 8,537 13 Net generation (megawatthours) 104,229,402 15 Electric utilities 58,518,271 17 IPP & CHP 45,711,131 8 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 96,240 14 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 83,112 8 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 57,137 15 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 21

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Maine) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,470 43 Electric utilities 10 49 IPP & CHP 4,460 20 Net generation (megawatthours) 13,248,710 44 Electric utilities 523 49 IPP & CHP 13,248,187 27 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 10,990 38 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 8,622 46 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,298 46 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.7 25 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh)

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Maryland) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 12,264 33 Electric utilities 85 47 IPP & CHP 12,179 8 Net generation (megawatthours) 37,833,652 35 Electric utilities 20,260 47 IPP & CHP 37,813,392 9 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 41,370 26 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,626 35 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 20,414 34 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 18 Nitrogen oxide

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Massachusetts) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 13,128 32 Electric utilities 971 42 IPP & CHP 12,157 9 Net generation (megawatthours) 31,118,591 40 Electric utilities 679,986 43 IPP & CHP 30,438,606 12 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 6,748 41 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 13,831 43 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 12,231 39 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 40

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Michigan) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,435 12 Electric utilities 22,260 9 IPP & CHP 8,175 14 Net generation (megawatthours) 106,816,991 14 Electric utilities 84,075,322 12 IPP & CHP 22,741,669 13 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 173,521 7 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 77,950 9 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 64,062 11 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 7 Nitrogen oxide

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Minnesota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,621 28 Electric utilities 11,557 22 IPP & CHP 4,064 24 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,998,330 27 Electric utilities 45,963,271 22 IPP & CHP 11,035,059 29 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 39,272 27 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 38,373 28 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 32,399 28 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.4 27 Nitrogen

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Mississippi) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,090 26 Electric utilities 13,494 19 IPP & CHP 2,597 34 Net generation (megawatthours) 55,127,092 29 Electric utilities 47,084,382 21 IPP & CHP 8,042,710 34 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 101,093 13 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 23,993 32 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 24,037 33 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.7 5

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Missouri) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,790 19 Electric utilities 20,538 13 IPP & CHP 1,252 42 Net generation (megawatthours) 87,834,468 18 Electric utilities 85,271,253 11 IPP & CHP 2,563,215 46 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 149,842 9 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 77,749 10 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 75,735 8 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 6 Nitrogen oxide

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Montana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,330 41 Electric utilities 3,209 38 IPP & CHP 3,121 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 30,257,616 41 Electric utilities 12,329,411 35 IPP & CHP 17,928,205 16 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 14,426 34 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,538 36 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 17,678 36 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 34 Nitrogen oxide

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Nebraska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,732 36 Electric utilities 7,913 30 IPP & CHP 819 46 Net generation (megawatthours) 39,431,291 34 Electric utilities 36,560,960 30 IPP & CHP 2,870,331 45 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 63,994 22 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 27,045 30 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 26,348 31 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 8 Nitrogen oxide

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Nevada) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 10,485 34 Electric utilities 8,480 29 IPP & CHP 2,006 35 Net generation (megawatthours) 36,000,537 37 Electric utilities 27,758,728 33 IPP & CHP 8,241,809 33 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 10,229 40 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 18,606 39 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 16,222 37 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 38 Nitrogen

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Hampshire) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,413 44 Electric utilities 1,121 41 IPP & CHP 3,292 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 19,778,520 42 Electric utilities 2,266,903 41 IPP & CHP 17,511,617 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,733 44 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 5,057 47 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,447 46 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 45 Nitrogen

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New Jersey) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 19,399 22 Electric utilities 544 43 IPP & CHP 18,852 7 Net generation (megawatthours) 68,051,086 23 Electric utilities -117,003 50 IPP & CHP 68,168,089 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,369 44 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 15,615 41 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 17,905 35 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 47 Nitrogen oxide

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New Mexico) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,072 39 Electric utilities 6,094 33 IPP & CHP 1,978 37 Net generation (megawatthours) 32,306,210 39 Electric utilities 26,422,867 34 IPP & CHP 5,883,343 38 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 12,064 37 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 46,192 22 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 24,712 32 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.7 37 Nitrogen

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New York) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 40,404 6 Electric utilities 10,989 27 IPP & CHP 29,416 5 Net generation (megawatthours) 137,122,202 7 Electric utilities 34,082 31 IPP & CHP 103,039,347 5 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 31,878 28 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 46,971 21 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,240 26 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 39 Nitrogen oxide

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,048 12 Electric utilities 26,706 6 IPP & CHP 3,342 29 Net generation (megawatthours) 125,936,293 9 Electric utilities 116,317,050 2 IPP & CHP 9,619,243 31 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 71,293 20 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 62,397 12 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 56,940 14 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Nitrogen

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,566 40 Electric utilities 5,292 34 IPP & CHP 1,274 41 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,021,673 39 Electric utilities 31,044,374 32 IPP & CHP 3,977,299 42 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 56,854 23 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 48,454 22 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 30,274 28 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 11 Nitrogen oxide

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Ohio) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 31,507 9 Electric utilities 11,134 26 IPP & CHP 20,372 6 Net generation (megawatthours) 134,476,405 8 Electric utilities 43,290,512 25 IPP & CHP 91,185,893 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 355,108 1 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 105,688 4 Carbon dioxide (thousand metrictons) 98,650 5 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.3 2 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh)

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Oklahoma) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 24,048 17 Electric utilities 17,045 17 IPP & CHP 7,003 16 Net generation (megawatthours) 70,155,504 22 Electric utilities 48,096,026 19 IPP & CHP 22,059,478 14 Emissions Sulfur dioxide 78,556 18 Nitrogen oxide 44,874 23 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 43,994 18 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 17 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 26

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Oregon) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,884 27 Electric utilities 11,175 25 IPP & CHP 4,709 19 Net generation (megawatthours) 60,119,907 26 Electric utilities 44,565,239 24 IPP & CHP 15,554,668 21 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 10,595 39 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 14,313 42 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 8,334 40 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 42 Nitrogen

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Pennsylvania) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 42,723 5 Electric utilities 39 48 IPP & CHP 42,685 3 Net generation (megawatthours) 221,058,365 3 Electric utilities 90,994 44 IPP & CHP 220,967,371 2 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 297,598 4 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 141,486 2 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 101,361 4 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 11 Nitrogen oxide

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Rhode Island) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,810 49 Electric utilities 8 50 IPP & CHP 1,803 38 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,281,748 49 Electric utilities 10,670 48 IPP & CHP 6,271,078 36 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 100 49 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 1,224 49 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 2,566 48 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 48 Nitrogen oxide

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (South Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 22,824 18 Electric utilities 20,836 12 IPP & CHP 1,988 36 Net generation (megawatthours) 97,158,465 16 Electric utilities 93,547,004 9 IPP & CHP 3,611,461 43 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 43,659 25 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 21,592 34 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,083 27 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 35

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    South Dakota Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (South Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 3,948 45 Electric utilities 3,450 36 IPP & CHP 499 48 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,995,240 45 Electric utilities 9,344,872 38 IPP & CHP 1,650,368 48 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 13,852 35 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 10,638 44 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,093 47 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.5 15

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Tennessee) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 20,998 20 Electric utilities 20,490 14 IPP & CHP 508 47 Net generation (megawatthours) 79,506,886 20 Electric utilities 76,986,629 13 IPP & CHP 2,520,257 47 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 89,357 16 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 23,913 33 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 41,405 20 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 16 Nitrogen oxide

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Texas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 112,914 1 Electric utilities 29,113 2 IPP & CHP 83,800 1 Net generation (megawatthours) 437,629,668 1 Electric utilities 94,974,953 7 IPP & CHP 342,654,715 1 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 349,245 2 Nitrogen Oxide short tons) 229,580 1 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 254,488 1 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 26 Nitrogen Oxide

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Utah) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,325 38 Electric utilities 7,296 31 IPP & CHP 1,029 44 Net generation (megawatthours) 43,784,526 33 Electric utilities 40,741,425 28 IPP & CHP 3,043,101 44 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 23,646 31 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 57,944 16 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 35,179 24 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 31 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh)

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Vermont) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 650 50 Electric utilities 337 44 IPP & CHP 313 49 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,031,394 48 Electric utilities 868,079 42 IPP & CHP 6,163,315 37 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 71 50 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 737 50 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 14 51 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 50 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 51

  3. Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Christensen, Del Scot

    2009-12-15

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. Sulfur may be introduced into one or more wellbores located inside a perimeter of a treatment area in the formation having a permeability of at least 0.1 darcy. At least some of the sulfur is allowed to move towards portions of the formation cooler than the melting point of sulfur to solidify the sulfur in the formation to form the barrier.

  4. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  5. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  6. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Content, Sales Type, and PAD District 242 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type,...

  7. Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology...

  8. Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.

  9. Status of Heavy Vehicle Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Test Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Sverdrup

    1999-06-07

    DECSE test program is well under way to providing data on effects of sulfur levels in diesel fuel on performance of emission control technologies.

  10. A Long-Life, High-Rate Lithium/Sulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Life, High-Rate LithiumSulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach to Enhancing Cell Performance Min-Kyu Song, , Yuegang Zhang,* ,, and Elton J. Cairns* ,, The...

  11. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I.

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  12. A solvent system to provide selective removal of sulfur compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, R.L.; Bacon, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Energy costs and SRU inefficiencies resulting from utilization of low strength MEA technology induced a large refinery to convert to MDEA. One of the seven product streams being treated required extremely low carbonyl sulfide in the treated product. This required careful consideration in making the decision to convert. However, the conclusions were that the advantages outweighed the disadvantages. When the initial converted operations verified a need to improve the carbonyl sulfide removal, GAS/SPEC Tech Service produced an innovative solution which allowed for efficient operation at acceptable COS specification, lower energy utilization, reduced solvent losses, and improved sulfur recovery unit operation.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 1: Main Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, Sydney J

    2008-03-01

    A phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process was conducted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) design. This design (in the conceptual stage) is a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) that generates both electricity and process heat for hydrogen production. Expert panels identified safety-relevant phenomena, ranked their importance, and assessed the knowledge levels in the areas of accidents and thermal fluids, fission-product transport and dose, high-temperature materials, graphite, and process heat for hydrogen production. This main report summarizes and documents the process and scope of the reviews, noting the major activities and conclusions. The identified phenomena, analyses, rationales, and associated ratings of the phenomena, plus a summary of each panel's findings, are presented. Individual panel reports for these areas are provided as attached volumes to this main report and provide considerably more detail about each panel's deliberations as well as a more complete listing of the phenomena that were evaluated.

  14. On the third cohomology of algebraic groups of rank two in positive characteristic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzhumadil'daev, A S; Ibraev, Sh Sh

    2014-03-31

    We evaluate the third cohomology of simple simply connected algebraic groups of rank 2 over an algebraically closed field of positive characteristic with coefficients in simple modules. It is assumed that the characteristic p of the field is greater than3 for SL{sub 3}, greater than5 for Sp{sub 4}, and greater than11 forG{sub 2}. It follows from the main result that the dimensions of the cohomology spaces do not exceed the rank of the algebraic group in question. To prove the main results we study the properties of the first-quadrant Lyndon-Hochschild-Serre spectral sequence with respect to an infinitesimal subgroup, namely, the Frobenius kernel of the given algebraic group. Bibliography: 49 titles.

  15. Process for clean-burning fuel from low-rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Sethi, Vijay (Laramie, WY); Brecher, Lee E. (Laramie, WY)

    1994-01-01

    A process for upgrading and stabilizing low-rank coal involving the sequential processing of the coal through three fluidized beds; first a dryer, then a pyrolyzer, and finally a cooler. The fluidizing gas for the cooler is the exit gas from the pyrolyzer with the addition of water for cooling. Overhead gas from pyrolyzing is likely burned to furnish the energy for the process. The product coal exits with a tar-like pitch sealant to enhance its safety during storage.

  16. Irreversible inhibition of RANK expression as a possible mechanism for IL-3 inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khapli, Shruti M.; Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Gupta, Navita; Yogesha, S.D.; Pote, Satish T.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} IL-3 inhibits receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. {yields} IL-3 inhibits RANKL-induced JNK activation. {yields} IL-3 down-regulates expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. {yields} IL-3 down-regulates RANK expression posttranscriptionally and irreversibly. {yields} IL-3 inhibits in vivo RANK expression. -- Abstract: IL-3, a cytokine secreted by activated T lymphocytes, stimulates the proliferation, differentiation and survival of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of inhibitory action of IL-3 on osteoclast differentiation. We show here that IL-3 significantly inhibits receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK) ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). IL-3 down-regulates expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) transcription factors. In addition, IL-3 down-regulates RANK expression posttranscriptionally in both purified osteoclast precursors and whole bone marrow cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of IL-3 on RANK expression was irreversible. Interestingly, IL-3 inhibits in vivo RANK expression in mice. Thus, we provide the first evidence that IL-3 irreversibly inhibits RANK expression that results in inhibition of important signaling molecules induced by RANKL.

  17. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish; Bai, Chuansheng

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN DEEP AQUIFER MEDIA - PHASE II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta; Bruce Sass; Jennifer Ickes

    2000-11-28

    In 1998 Battelle was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under a Novel Concepts project grant to continue Phase II research on the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep saline formations. The focus of this investigation is to conduct detailed laboratory experiments to examine factors that may affect chemical sequestration of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations. Reactions between sandstone and other geologic media from potential host reservoirs, brine solutions, and CO{sub 2} are being investigated under high-pressure conditions. Some experiments also include sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) gases to evaluate the potential for co-injection of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} related gases in the deep formations. In addition, an assessment of engineering and economic aspects is being conducted. This current Technical Progress Report describes the status of the project as of September 2000. The major activities undertaken during the quarter included several experiments conducted to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, time, and brine composition on rock samples from potential host reservoirs. Samples (both powder and slab) were taken from the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a potential CO{sub 2} host formation in the Ohio, the Eau Claire Shale, and Rome Dolomite samples that form the caprock for Mt. Simon Sandstone. Also, a sample with high calcium plagioclase content from Frio Formation in Texas was used. In addition, mineral samples for relatively pure Anorthite and glauconite were experimented on with and without the presence of additional clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. The experiments were run for one to two months at pressures similar to deep reservoirs and temperatures set at 50 C or 150 C. Several enhancements were made to the experimental equipment to allow for mixing of reactants and to improve sample collection methods. The resulting fluids (gases and liquids) as well as the rock samples were characterized to evaluate the geochemical changes over the experimental period. Preliminary results from the analysis are presented in the report. More detailed interpretation of the results will be presented in the technical report at the end of Phase II.

  19. Production of low sulfur binder pitich from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. Previously, flash thermocracking (FTC) was used to successfully upgrade the properties of mild gasification pitch, yielding a suitable blending stock for use as a binder in the production of carbon electrodes for the aluminum industry. However, in pitches from high-sulfur (4%) Illinois coal, the pitch sulfur content (2%) was still higher than preferred. In this project two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with FTC: (1) the use of a moderate-sulfur (1.2%) Illinois coal as mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids from high-sulfur coal prior to FTC. In Case 1, the liquids are being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor, followed by distillation to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, biodesulfurization with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous IGTS8 biocatalyst is being performed on crude pitch obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT MILDGAS PRU in 1990. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are being conducted in a continuous FTC reactor constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. This quarter, mild gasification of IBC-109 coal was completed, producing 450 g of coal liquids, which were then distilled to recover 329 g of Case 1 crude pitch. Next month, the pitch will be subjected to FTC treatment and evaluated. Biodesulfurization experiments were performed on Case 2 pitch dispersed in l-undecanol, resulting in sulfur reductions of 15.1 to 21.4%. This was marginally lower than the 24.8% desulfurization obtained in l-dodecanol, but separation of pitch from the dispersant was facilitated by the greater volatility of l-undecanol.

  20. Adsorbed sulfur-gas methods for both near-surface exploration and downhole logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Barinaga, C.J.; Dolenc, M.R.; Farwell, G.H.

    1986-08-01

    The use of sulfur-containing gases in petroleum exploration is supported by (1) the idea that sulfur may play a role in petroleum genesis, (2) the corresponding existence of sulfur-containing compounds in petroleum and the potential for vertical migration of the low-molecular-weight sulfur species from these reservoirs, (3) the production of H/sub 2/S by anaerobic microorganism populations that develop in the subsurface areas overlying petroleum reservoirs due to the concomitant supply of hydrocarbon nutrients, (4) the recent discovery of near-surface accumulations of pyrite and marcasite as the source of induction potential anomalies over certain fields, and (5) the strong adsorptive affinities of sulfur gases to solid surfaces, which enhance both the concentration and localization of such sulfur-expressed anomalies. During the past 3 years, numerous near-surface soil samples and well cuttings from the Utah-Wyoming Overthrust belt have been analyzed for adsorbed sulfur-gas content by two novel analytical techniques: thermal desorption/metal foil collection/flash desorption/sulfur-selective detection (TD/MFC/FD/SSD) and thermal desorption/cryogenic preconcentration/high-resolution-gas chromatography/optimized-flame photometry (TD/CP/HRGC/OFP).