Sample records for range simple combustion

  1. A simple analytical model to study and control azimuthal instabilities in annular combustion chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A simple analytical model to study and control azimuthal instabilities in annular combustion analytical method to compute the azimuthal modes appearing in annular combustion chambers and help analyzing exper- imental, acoustic and LES (Large Eddy Simulation) data obtained in these combustion chambers

  2. Parametric examination of the destruction of availability due to combustion for a range of conditions and fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chavannavar, Praveen Shivshankar

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive second law analysis of combustion for a range of conditions and fuels was completed. Constant pressure, constant volume and constant temperature combustion processes were examined. The parameters studied ...

  3. Wide-Range Robust Control of Combustion Instability BOE-SHONG HONG, ASOK RAY, and VIGOR YANG*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Asok

    time V Volume of combustion chamber Un Control input of nth mode vg Velocity of gas phase z AxialWide-Range Robust Control of Combustion Instability BOE-SHONG HONG, ASOK RAY, and VIGOR YANG This paper presents the concept and design of a two-layer robust control system for suppression of combustion

  4. A Numerical Study of a Simple Stochastic/Deterministic Model of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Fluctuations in Spark Ignition Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Litak; M. Wendeker; M. Krupa; J. Czarnigowski

    2004-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a simple, fuel-air, model of combustion in a spark ignition (si) engine with indirect injection. In our two fluid model, variations of fuel mass burned in cycle sequences appear due to stochastic fluctuations of a fuel feed amount. We have shown that a small amplitude of these fluctuations affects considerably the stability of a combustion process strongly depending on the quality of air-fuel mixture. The largest influence was found in the limit of a lean combustion. The possible effect of nonlinearities in the combustion process has been also discussed.

  5. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  6. HTP kinetics studies on isolated elementary combustion reactions over wide temperature ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontijn, A.; Adusei, G.Y.; Hranisavlevic, J.; Bajaj, P.N. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this project are to provide accurate data on the temperature dependence of the kinetics of elementary combustion reactions, (i) for use by combustion modelers, and (ii) to gain a better fundamental understanding of, and hence predictive ability for, the chemistry involved. Experimental measurements are made mainly by using the pseudo-static HTP (high-temperature photochemistry) technique. While continuing rate coefficient measurements, further aspects of kinetics research are being explored. Thus, starting from the data obtained, a method for predicting the temperature dependence of rate coefficients of oxygen-atom olefin experiment and confirms the underlying mechanistic assumptions. Mechanistic information of another sort, i.e. by product analysis, has recently become accessible with the inauguration of our heated flow tube mass spectrometer facility; early results are reported here. HTP experiments designed to lead to measurements of product channels by resonance fluorescence have started.

  7. Study of spin polarized nuclear matter and finite nuclei with finite range simple effective interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behera, B; Routray, T R; Centelles, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of spin polarized pure neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter are studied using the finite range simple effective interaction, upon its parametrization revisited. Out of the total twelve parameters involved, we now determine ten of them from nuclear matter, against the nine parameters in our earlier calculation, as required in order to have predictions in both spin polarized nuclear matter and finite nuclei in unique manner being free from uncertainty found using the earlier parametrization. The information on the effective mass splitting in polarized neutron matter of the microscopic calculations is used to constrain the one more parameter, that was earlier determined from finite nucleus, and in doing so the quality of the description of finite nuclei is not compromised. The interaction with the new set of parameters is used to study the possibilities of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic transitions in completely polarized symmetric nuclear matter. Emphasis is given to analyze the resul...

  8. Study of spin polarized nuclear matter and finite nuclei with finite range simple effective interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Behera; X. Viñas; T. R. Routray; M. Centelles

    2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of spin polarized pure neutron matter and symmetric nuclear matter are studied using the finite range simple effective interaction, upon its parametrization revisited. Out of the total twelve parameters involved, we now determine ten of them from nuclear matter, against the nine parameters in our earlier calculation, as required in order to have predictions in both spin polarized nuclear matter and finite nuclei in unique manner being free from uncertainty found using the earlier parametrization. The information on the effective mass splitting in polarized neutron matter of the microscopic calculations is used to constrain the one more parameter, that was earlier determined from finite nucleus, and in doing so the quality of the description of finite nuclei is not compromised. The interaction with the new set of parameters is used to study the possibilities of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic transitions in completely polarized symmetric nuclear matter. Emphasis is given to analyze the results analytically, as far as possible, to elucidate the role of the interaction parameters involved in the predictions.

  9. Parametric examination of the destruction of availability due to combustion for a range of conditions and fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chavannavar, Praveen Shivshankar

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of temperature for reactant pressure of 500 kPa and #1; = 1.0, constant pressure combustion................ 19 2 Percentage availability destroyed as a function of reactant temperature for constant pressure combustion of iso-octane, reactant pressure of 500 k... combustion ................................................... 23 6 Percentage availability destroyed for lean equivalence ratios, constant pressure combustion of iso-octane at 500 kPa .......................................................... 24 7...

  10. A simple theory of cloud spreading at ranges from 1-2000 km

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, F.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examples support the conclusion that cloud or plume spreading in the troposphere proceeds rapidly and rather steadily for times on the order of a day or two and to distances of several hundreds of kilometers. Subsequently, possibly after a transition to the asymptotic rate of relative diffusion, the cloud begins to develop a streaky structure under the influence of the large-scale, enstrophy-cascade range of motions. The GASP spectra indicate that the transition between these two modes of spreading begins at several hundred kilometers ad is well developed by about 1000 km, in terms of spectral wavelength. The cloud streaks and patches elongate rapidly, evidently at the exponential rate, but spread laterally more slowly, at a rate that represents the effects of the conservation of cloud area under large-scale deformation and the lateral diffusion at the asymptotic rate. Although this relative diffusion occurs at a comparatively slow rate, it is very effective in reducing cloud concentrations in combination with the rapid, large-scale cloud stretching by the 2-D, enstrophy-cascade range eddies. The LANL heavy-methane cloud data indicate that the net result is very rapid decay of cloud concentration, apparently at an exponential rate.

  11. A Simple HCCI Engine Model for Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killingsworth, N; Aceves, S; Flowers, D; Krstic, M

    2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is an attractive technology because of its high efficiency and low emissions. However, HCCI lacks a direct combustion trigger making control of combustion timing challenging, especially during transients. To aid in HCCI engine control we present a simple model of the HCCI combustion process valid over a range of intake pressures, intake temperatures, equivalence ratios, and engine speeds. The model provides an estimate of the combustion timing on a cycle-by-cycle basis. An ignition threshold, which is a function of the in-cylinder motored temperature and pressure is used to predict start of combustion. This model allows the synthesis of nonlinear control laws, which can be utilized for control of an HCCI engine during transients.

  12. Hybrid lean premixing catalytic combustion system for gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Critchley, Ian L.

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method of combusting a hydrocarbon fuel is disclosed. The system combines the accuracy and controllability of an air staging system with the ultra-low emissions achieved by catalytic combustion systems without the need for a pre-heater. The result is a system and method that is mechanically simple and offers ultra-low emissions over a wide range of power levels, fuel properties and ambient operating conditions.

  13. Natural Gas Variability In California: Environmental Impacts And Device Performance Combustion Modeling of Pollutant Emissions From a Residential Cooking Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonse, S. R.; Singer, B. C.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a larger study of liquefied natural gas impacts on device performance and pollutant emissions for existing equipment in California, this report describes a cmoputer modeling study of a partially premixed flame issueing from a single cooktop burner port. The model consisted of a reactive computational fluid dynamics three-dimensional spatial grid and a 71-species chemical mechanism with propane combustion capability. Simulations were conducted with a simplified fuel mixture containing methane, ethane, and propane in proportions that yield properties similar to fuels distributed throughout much of California now and in recent years (baseline fuel), as well as with two variations of simulated liquefied natural gas blends. A variety of simulations were conducted with baseline fuel to explore the effect of several key parameters on pollutant formation and other flame characteristics. Simulations started with fuel and air issuing through the burner port, igniting, and continuing until the flame was steady with time. Conditions at this point were analyzed to understand fuel, secondary air and reaction product flows, regions of pollutant formation, and exhaust concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and formaldehyde. A sensitivity study was conducted, varying the inflow parameters of this baseline gs about real-world operating conditions. Flame properties responded as expected from reactive flow theory. In the simulation, carbon monoxide levels were influenced more by the mixture's inflow velocity than by the gas-to-air ratio in the mixture issuing from the inflow port. Additional simulations were executed at two inflow conditions - high heat release and medium heat release - to examine the impact of replacing the baseline gas with two mixtures representative of liquefied natural gas. Flame properties and pollutant generation rates were very similar among the three fuel mixtures.

  14. Effects of EGR, water/N2/CO2 injection and oxygen enrichment on the availability destroyed due to combustion for a range of conditions and fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sivadas, Hari Shanker

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    combustion of iso octane.................................................................................................... 24 3 Percentage availability destroyed for different ?Cooled? EGR fractions as a function of reactant temperature for constant... volume combustion of iso octane, reactant pressure of 500 kPa......................................................... 24 4 Product temperature for different ?Cooled? EGR fractions as a function of reactant temperature for constant pressure combustion...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERIOR SORBENTS FOR SEPARATION OF CO2 FROM FLUE GAS AT A WIDE TEMPERATURE RANGE DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

    2005-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    For this part of the project the studies focused on the development of novel sorbents for reducing the carbon dioxide emissions at high temperatures. Our studies focused on cesium doped CaO sorbents with respect to other major flue gas compounds in a wide temperature range. The thermo-gravimetric analysis of sorbents with loadings of CaO doped on 20 wt% cesium demonstrated high CO{sub 2} sorption uptakes (up to 66 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent). It is remarkable to note that zero adsorption affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and NO at temperatures as high as 600 C was observed. For water vapor and nitrogen oxide we observed a positive effect for CO{sub 2} adsorption. In the presence of steam, the CO{sub 2} adsorption increased to the highest adsorption capacity of 77 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent. In the presence of nitrogen oxide, the final CO{sub 2} uptake remained same, but the rate of adsorption was higher at the initial stages (10%) than the case where no nitrogen oxide was fed.

  16. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature Range During Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In chapter 1, the studies focused on the development of novel sorbents for reducing the carbon dioxide emissions at high temperatures. Our studies focused on cesium doped CaO sorbents with respect to other major flue gas compounds in a wide temperature range. The thermo-gravimetric analysis of sorbents with loadings of CaO doped on 20 wt% cesium demonstrated high CO{sub 2} sorption uptakes (up to 66 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent). It is remarkable to note that zero adsorption affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and NO at temperatures as high as 600 C was observed. For water vapor and nitrogen oxide we observed a positive effect for CO{sub 2} adsorption. In the presence of steam, the CO{sub 2} adsorption increased to the highest adsorption capacity of 77 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent. In the presence of nitrogen oxide, the final CO{sub 2} uptake remained same, but the rate of adsorption was higher at the initial stages (10%) than the case where no nitrogen oxide was fed. In chapter 2, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, CaO, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, and Ca(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O were used as precursors for synthesis of CaO sorbents on this work. The sorbents prepared from calcium acetate (CaAc{sub 2}-CaO) resulted in the best uptake characteristics for CO{sub 2}. It possessed higher BET surface area and higher pore volume than the other sorbents. According to SEM images, this sorbent shows 'fluffy' structure, which probably contributes to its high surface area and pore volume. When temperatures were between 550 and 800 C, this sorbent could be carbonated almost completely. Moreover, the carbonation progressed dominantly at the initial short period. Under numerous adsorption-desorption cycles, the CaAc{sub 2}-CaO demonstrated the best reversibility, even under the existence of 10 vol % water vapor. In a 27 cyclic running, the sorbent sustained fairly high carbonation conversion of 62%. Pore size distributions indicate that their pore volume decreased when experimental cycles went on. Silica was doped on the CaAc{sub 2}-CaO in various weight percentages, but the resultant sorbent did not exhibit better performance under cyclic operation than those without dopant. In chapter 3, the Calcium-based carbon dioxide sorbents were made in the gas phase by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and compared to the ones made by standard high temperature calcination (HTC) of selected calcium precursors. The FSP-made sorbents were solid nanostructured particles having twice as large specific surface area (40-60 m{sup 2}/g) as the HTC-made sorbents (i.e. from calcium acetate monohydrate). All FSP-made sorbents showed high capacity for CO{sub 2} uptake at high temperatures (773-1073 K) while the HTC-made ones from calcium acetate monohydrate (CaAc{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O) demonstrated the best performance for CO{sub 2} uptake among all HTC-made sorbents. At carbonation temperatures less than 773 K, FSP-made sorbents demonstrated better performance for CO{sub 2} uptake than all HTC-made sorbents. Above that, both FSP-made, and HTC-made sorbents from CaAc{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O exhibited comparable carbonation rates and maximum conversion. In multiple carbonation/decarbonation cycles, FSP-made sorbents demonstrated stable, reversible and high CO{sub 2} uptake capacity sustaining maximum molar conversion at about 50% even after 60 such cycles indicating their potential for CO{sub 2} uptake. In chapter 4 we investigated the performance of CaO sorbents with dopant by flame spray pyrolysis at higher temperature. The results show that the sorbent with zirconia gave best performance among sorbents having different dopants. The one having Zr to Ca of 3:10 by molar gave stable performance. The calcium conversion around 64% conversion during 102-cycle operations at 973 K. When carbonation was performance at 823 K, the Zr/Ca sorbent (3:10) exhibited stable performance of 56% by calcium molar conversion, or 27% by sorbent weight, both of which are less than those at 973 K as expected. In chapter 5 we investigated the perfor

  17. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMeeking, Gavin R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions from laboratory combustion of wildland fuels:range transport of combustion-derived aerosols, Science,from the laboratory combustion of wildland fuels: Particle

  18. Development of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marriott, Craig; Gonzalez, Manual; Russell, Durrett

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes activities related to the revised STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated June 2010 for the Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion engine Designs for Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Engines (COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-05NT42415) project. In both the spark- (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) development activities covered in this program, the goal was to develop potential production-viable internal combustion engine system technologies that both reduce fuel consumption and simultaneously met exhaust emission targets. To be production-viable, engine technologies were also evaluated to determine if they would meet customer expectations of refinement in terms of noise, vibration, performance, driveability, etc. in addition to having an attractive business case and value. Prior to this activity, only proprietary theoretical / laboratory knowledge existed on the combustion technologies explored The research reported here expands and develops this knowledge to determine series-production viability. Significant SI and CI engine development occurred during this program within General Motors, LLC over more than five years. In the SI program, several engines were designed and developed that used both a relatively simple multi-lift valve train system and a Fully Flexible Valve Actuation (FFVA) system to enable a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Many technical challenges, which were unknown at the start of this program, were identified and systematically resolved through analysis, test and development. This report documents the challenges and solutions for each SOPO deliverable. As a result of the project activities, the production viability of the developed clean combustion technologies has been determined. At this time, HCCI combustion for SI engines is not considered production-viable for several reasons. HCCI combustion is excessively sensitive to control variables such as internal dilution level and charge temperature. As a result, HCCI combustion has limited robustness when variables exceed the required narrow ranges determined in this program. HCCI combustion is also not available for the entire range of production engine speeds and loads, (i.e., the dynamic range is limited). Thus, regular SI combustion must be employed for a majority of the full dynamic range of the engine. This degrades the potential fuel economy impact of HCCI combustion. Currently-available combustion control actuators for the simple valve train system engine do not have the authority for continuous air - fuel or torque control for managing the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI and thus, require further refinement to meet customer refinement expectations. HCCI combustion control sensors require further development to enable robust long-term HCCI combustion control. Finally, the added technologies required to effectively manage HCCI combustion such as electric cam phasers, central direct fuel injection, cylinder pressure sensing, high-flow exhaust gas recirculation system, etc. add excessive on-engine cost and complexity that erodes the production-viability business

  19. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CombustionCombustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coupled Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . Burning

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechnologiesCombustion Combustion The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) is an internationally recognized center of excellence for combustion science and technology whose...

  1. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Topics covered in this presentation include: the continued importance of coal; related materials challenges; combining oxy-combustion & A-USC steam; and casting large superalloy turbine components.

  2. Combustion Group Group members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    Combustion Group Group members: Thierry Poinsot, Emilien Courtine, Luc Vervisch, Benjamin Farcy § New combustion and energy-conversion concepts #12;Introduction Combustion research thrusts Combustion Dynamics and Flame-Stabilization Research objectives § Obtain fundamental understanding of combustion

  3. Combustion & Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, W.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ? Combustion of fossil fuels for ? Electricity ? Industrial processes ? Vehicle propulsion ? Cooking and heat ? Other ? Munitions ? Fireworks ? Light ? Cigarettes, hookahs? FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH FFCOMBUSTION: THE THREAT ? SCALE (think health... for public health and strategies to reduce GHG ? Reduce CO2 emissions by 50% by 2030 ? Reduction in PM2.5 deaths greatly offset costs in all models FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH FFCOMBUSTION: PM EXPOSURE ? Combustion is source of most concern ? Health...

  4. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas. To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization issues of fabrication and reliability, availability and maintenance. The program that has s

  5. Experimental Investigation of Spark-Ignited Combustion with High-Octane Biofuels and EGR. 1. Engine Load Range and Downsize Downspeed Opportunity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in midlevel alcohol gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine was used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions with = 1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. Higher octane number biofuel blends exhibited increased stoichiometric torque capability at this compression ratio, where the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg (indicated mean effective pressure gross) at = 1. EGR provided thermodynamic advantages and was a key enabler for increasing engine efficiency for all fuel types. However, with E30, EGR was less useful for knock mitigation than gasoline or IB24. Torque densities with E30 with 15% EGR at = 1 operation were similar or better than a modern EURO IV calibration turbo-diesel engine. The results of the present study suggest that it could be possible to implement a 40% downsize + downspeed configuration (1.2 L engine) into a representative midsize sedan. For example, for a midsize sedan at a 65 miles/h cruise, an estimated fuel consumption of 43.9 miles per gallon (MPG) (engine out 102 g-CO2/km) could be achieved with similar reserve power to a 2.0 L engine with 87AKI (38.6 MPG, engine out 135 g-CO2/km). Data suggest that, with midlevel alcohol gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol gasoline blends and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  6. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical Measurement of Combustion Products by Zeeman Atomicand T. Hadeishi • . . • . • . • • . • Combustion Sources offrom Pulverized Coal Combustion J. Pennucci, R. Greif, F.

  7. Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Combustion To develop a more thorough understanding of combustion, scientists and engineers must be able to analyze the interaction of many different chemical species at...

  8. Combustion Group Group members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    Combustion Group Group members: Thierry Poinsot, Emilien Courtine, Luc Vervisch, Benjamin Farcy 2014 #12;Combustion Group Combustion Physics and Modeling Pollutants, Emissions, and Soot Formation Thermoacoustics and Combustion Dynamics Research focus § Examine mechanisms responsible for flame stabilization

  9. On the ChapmanJouguet Limit for a Combustion Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the Chapman­Jouguet Limit for a Combustion Model Bernard Hanouzet \\Lambda , Roberto Natalini y and Alberto Tesei z Abstract We study the limiting behaviour of solutions to a simple model for combustion detonations and deflagrations with respect to the reaction rate. Key words and phrases: combustion

  10. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  11. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  12. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

  13. Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  14. Regenerative combustion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  15. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  16. Simulation of lean premixed turbulent combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    turbulent methane combustion. Proc. Combust. Inst. , 29:in premixed turbulent combustion. Proc. Combust. Inst. ,for zero Mach number combustion. Combust. Sci. Technol. ,

  17. Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR is important for increasing fuel efficiency and implementing advanced low-emission combustion modes such as homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR. We also explain why it might be helpful to deliberately stratify the fuel in the pre-spark gas mixture. It might be possible to extend the simple approach used in this model to other chemical reaction systems with spatial inhomogeneity.

  18. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    XBL 803-181) product combustion gas mixtures is in samplethrough reaction in the post-combustion gases. The selectiveaddition to the post-combustion gases have been investigated

  19. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gases of light fuel oil combustion as a function of severalsystem suitable for the combustion of light oils are underoil, shale, and biomass in these devices poses a dilemma. Much of the scientific understanding of combustion

  20. Advanced Combustion and Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and predictive tools for fuel property effects on combustion and engine efficiency optimization (Fuels & Lubricants Technologies) * Lack of modeling capability for combustion and...

  1. Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Combustion Research Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research Sebastian A. Kaiser (PI) Sandia National Laboratories Christopher M. White University of New Hampshire Sponsor: DoE...

  2. Bifurcations of flame filaments in chaotically mixed combustion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gottwald, Georg A.

    Bifurcations of flame filaments in chaotically mixed combustion reactions Shakti N. Menon and Georg ranging fields. Be- sides in the case of combustion, where mixing-induced bifurcations may lead mixing has a significant effect on combustion processes and in particular on flame filamental structures

  3. HCCl Combustion: Analysis and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Dibble, R; Au, M; Girard, J

    2001-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work. On analysis, we have developed two powerful tools: a single zone model and a multi-zone model. The single zone model has proven very successful in predicting start of combustion and providing reasonable estimates for peak cylinder pressure, indicated efficiency and NOX emissions. This model is being applied to develop detailed engine performance maps and control strategies, and to analyze the problem of engine startability. The multi-zone model is capable of very accurate predictions of the combustion process, including HC and CO emissions. The multi-zone model has applicability to the optimization of combustion chamber geometry and operating conditions to achieve controlled combustion at high efficiency and low emissions. On experimental work, we have done a thorough evaluation of operating conditions in a 4-cylinder Volkswagen TDI engine. The engine has been operated over a wide range of conditions by adjusting the intake temperature and the fuel flow rate. Satisfactory operation has been obtained over a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder-to-cylinder variations play an important role in limiting maximum power, and should be controlled to achieve satisfactory performance.

  4. HCCI Combustion: Analysis and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvador M. Aceves; Daniel L. Flowers; Joel Martinez-Frias; J. Ray Smith; Robert Dibble; Michael Au; James Girard

    2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work. On analysis, we have developed two powerful tools: a single zone model and a multi-zone model. The single zone model has proven very successful in predicting start of combustion and providing reasonable estimates for peak cylinder pressure, indicated efficiency and NOX emissions. This model is being applied to develop detailed engine performance maps and control strategies, and to analyze the problem of engine startability. The multi-zone model is capable of very accurate predictions of the combustion process, including HC and CO emissions. The multi-zone model h as applicability to the optimization of combustion chamber geometry and operating conditions to achieve controlled combustion at high efficiency and low emissions. On experimental work, we have done a thorough evaluation of operating conditions in a 4-cylinder Volkswagen TDI engine. The engine has been operated over a wide range of conditions by adjusting the intake temperature and the fuel flow rate. Satisfactory operation has been obtained over a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder-to-cylinder variations play an important role in limiting maximum power, and should be controlled to achieve satisfactory performance.

  5. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  6. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of each position within the Combustion Byproducts Recyclcing Consortium.

  7. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington D.C. ace15daw.pdf More Documents & Publications Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes Stretch Efficiency for Combustion...

  9. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    duty Diesel Combustion Research Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Paul Miles Sandia National Laboratories Light-Duty Combustion Modeling Rolf Reitz University of Wisconsin...

  10. Engine Combustion Network Experimental Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maintained by the Engine Combustion Department of Sandia National Laboratories, data currently available on the website includes reacting and non-reacting sprays in a constant-volume chamber at conditions typical of diesel combustion. The data are useful for model development and validation because of the well-defined boundary conditions and the wide range of conditions employed. A search utility displays data based on experimental conditions such as ambient temperature, ambient density, injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel, etc. Experiment-related visualizations are also available. The search utility for experimental data is located at http://public.ca.sandia.gov/ecn/cvdata/frameset.html (Specialized Interface)

  11. The Role of Comprehensive Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms in Combustion Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M

    2008-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developments by the authors in the field of comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for hydrocarbon fuels are reviewed. Examples are given of how these mechanisms provide fundamental chemical insights into a range of combustion applications. Practical combustion consists primarily of chemical heat release from reactions between a fuel and an oxidizer, and computer simulations of practical combustion systems have become an essential tool of combustion research (Westbrook et al., 2005). At the heart of most combustion simulations, the chemical kinetic submodel frequently is the most detailed, complex and computationally costly part of a system model. Historically, the chemical submodel equations are solved using time-implicit numerical algorithms, due to the extreme stiffness of the coupled rate equations, with a computational cost that varies roughly with the cube of the number of chemical species in the model. While early mechanisms (c. 1980) for apparently simple fuels such as methane (Warnatz, 1980) or methanol (Westbrook and Dryer, 1979) included perhaps 25 species, current detailed mechanisms for much larger, more complex fuels such as hexadecane (Fournet et al., 2001; Ristori et al., 2001; Westbrook et al., 2008) or methyl ester methyl decanoate (Herbinet et al., 2008) have as many as 2000 or even 3000 species. Rapid growth in capabilities of modern computers has been an essential feature in this rapid growth in the size and complexity of chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms.

  12. Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, N.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a critical role in combustion processes just as chemicalparameters are essential for combustion modeling; molecularwith Application to Combustion. Transport Theor Stat 2003;

  13. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  14. Advanced Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Advanced Combustion Combustion engines drive a large percentage of our nation's transportation vehicles and power generation and manufacturing facilities. Today's...

  15. Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel Methodology Engineering University of Notre Dame University of Notre Dame #12;Outline: Overview of combustion synthesis Reaction system Combustion front analaysis Theoretical model results Conclusions Acknowledgements #12

  16. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF SOME PRACTICAL METHODS FOR ESTIMATING HEATS OF COMBUSTION IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    99-42 AN ANALYSIS OF SOME PRACTICAL METHODS FOR ESTIMATING HEATS OF COMBUSTION IN FIRE SAFETY (*) Factory Mutual Research Corporation, Norwood, Ma, USA ABSTRACT The theoretical (net) heat of combustion of the heats of combustion, that is to say when at most a simple datasheet processor is the only tool required

  18. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crittenden, W.

    1987-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improved rotary internal combustion engine comprising: (a) a combustion chamber which is generally circular in cross-section and which has a ring-like peripheral wall; (b) a driven shaft member journaled for rotation and disposed to pass eccentrically through the combustion chamber; (c) a compression chamber which is generally circular in cross-section positioned with a ring-like wall is adjacent to and spatially offset with the combustion chamber such that the driven shaft passes centrally therethrough; and (d) a circular combustion rotor fixed concentrically to the shaft member for rotation eccentrically within the combustion chamber. The combustion rotor is positioned such that the space between the periphery of the rotor and the periphery of the combustion chamber results in a crescent shape.

  19. Maintain Combustion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, R. J.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is consumed, and wasted, in liberal amounts in the combustion processes which supply heat energy to boilers and process heaters. Close attention to combustion systems can be extremely beneficial: Optimum air to fuel ratios, i.e., maintaining...

  20. Consider Compressed Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, R. H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sharing systems employing gas turbines. Incentives for compressed combustion have been explored and are presented in this discussion....

  1. Turbulent Combustion Luc Vervisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kern, Michel

    ;19 "Perfect" combustion modes: Fuel + Oxidizer () Products Engines, gas turbines... Laboratory experiment1 Turbulent Combustion Modeling Luc Vervisch INSA de Rouen, IUF, CORIA-CNRS Quelques problèmes rencontrés en chimie numérique : Hydrologie - Combustion - Atmosphère 16 décembre, INRIA Rocquencourt #12

  2. LANCELOT simple,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 5, 2007 ... available algorithmic options. ..... Users should keep in mind that more elaborate algorithmic options are ... All real LANCELOT simple should.

  3. DNS of inhomogeneous reactants premixed combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Kian Min

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    ]. DNS of combustion is often done in either two-dimensions with reduced chemistry [30, 35, 36, 42, 43, 49, 57, 64, 83] or three-dimensions with simple chemistry [21, 24, 53, 60, 66, 72, 99, 111, 122]. With the availability of high performance computing...

  4. Combustion of Cattle Manure in a Fluidized Bed Combustor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annamalai, K.; Colaluca, M. A.; Ibrahim, M. Y.; Sweeten, J. M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air and at bed temperatures ranging from 600°C (1112°F) to 800°C (1472°F). Experimental data revealed that the gasification efficiencies ranged from 90 to 98 percent, while the combustion efficiencies varied from 45 to 85 percent....

  5. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  6. Low NOx combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  7. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion New Polarized-Depolarized Measurement Capability Extends Use of RamanRayleigh Methods to More Flame Types On April 23, 2014, in Capabilities, CRF, Energy, Facilities,...

  9. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: combustion simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combustion simulation Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models On March 3, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Energy,...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: advanced combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combustion Sandia and General Motors: Advancing Clean Combustion Engines with Predictive Simulation Tools On February 14, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Partnership, Transportation Energy...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Engine Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models On March 3, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Energy, Facilities, News,...

  13. Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Methane Flame Simulations Run 6x Faster on NERSC's Hopper Supercomputer November 25,...

  14. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Wednesday, 22 October 2014 11:43 Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process...

  15. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  16. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . .Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lewis, B. and von Elbe, G. Combustion, Flames and Explosions

  17. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  18. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  19. Computation of azimuthal combustion instabilities in an helicopter combustion chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    Computation of azimuthal combustion instabilities in an helicopter combustion chamber C. Sensiau to compute azimuthal combustion instabilities is presented. It requires a thermoacoustic model using a n - formulation for the coupling between acoutics and combustion. The parameters n and are computed from a LES

  20. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  1. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  2. Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Norbert

    Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion N. Peters Institut f¨ur Technische Mechanik RWTH Aachen Turbulent Combustion: Introduction and Overview 1 1.1 Moment Methods in Modeling Turbulence with Combustion and Velocity Scales . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4 Regimes in Premixed Turbulent Combustion

  3. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally, the transient demonstration was performed in Phase IV. The project demonstrated the achievement of meeting US10 emissions without NOx aftertreatment. The successful execution of the project has served to highlight the effectiveness of closely matched combustion predictive tools to engine testing. It has further served to highlight the importance of key technologies and future areas of research and development. In this regard, recommendations are made towards further improvements in the areas of engine hardware, fuel injection systems, controls and fuels.

  4. Project Sponsors: UCI Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    of a Commercial Microturbine Generator". 8th U. S. National Combustion Meeting. · R. Hack and V. McDonell. (2008 Microturbine Generator." Journal of Eng. Gas Turb. & Power 130 (1). OVERVIEW Fluid dynamics and chemical

  5. Maintain Combustion Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, R. J.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the lowest excess air possible, for example, can produce big savings. Maintaining combustion equipment - from fuel preparation equipment through burners and controls in optimum operating condition also can save large amounts of energy, and keep a plant...

  6. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  7. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  8. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants from Indoor Combustion Sources: I. Field Measure-Characteristics in Two Stage Combustion, paper presented atInternational) on Combustion, August, 1974, Tokyo, Japan. 8

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine research and...

  10. The Combustion Institute 5001 Baum Boulevard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    as applied to fuel cells and fuel processing, and combustion control including artificial neural networks. Fundamentals of micro-combustors, mesoscale combustion modeling and diagnostics, catalytic combustion

  11. Low-Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Automotive Diesel Combustion Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Paul Miles Sandia National Laboratories Light-Duty Combustion Modeling Rolf Reitz University of Wisconsin June 8,...

  12. Internal combustion engine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, C.W.

    1987-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine system comprising: an engine body including a main combustion engine for transmitting the power generated by explosion pressure to a pumping piston and a power transmission apparatus for transmitting to a power crank shaft power that is increased by the ratio of the cross-sectional area of a combustion chamber piston to a power piston. The stroke distance of the combustion chamber piston is equal to that of the power piston; a swash plate-type stirling engine coupled to an exhaust gas outlet of the main combustion engine to be driven by exhaust heat therefrom; a one-stage screw-type compressor coupled by a driving shaft to the swash plate-type stirling engine, thereby generating a great amount of compressed air; a turbo-charger mounted adjacent to a gas outlet of the stirling engine to force a supply of fresh air into the combustion chamber of the main combustion engine; a booster being mounted between a compressed air source and the power transmission apparatus to amplify the air pressure derived from the compressed air source and then provide the amplified air pressure to the power transmission apparatus by operation of a cam in accordance with the rotation of the first crankshaft; compressed air sources being mounted between the compressor and the booster for storing a great amount of compressed air from the compressor; and an accumulator in communication with the power transmission apparatus through a fluid oil pipe, thereby maintaining constant control of the oil pressure in the power transmission apparatus.

  13. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heaps, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Steffler, Eric D (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  14. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  15. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Quentin A. (P.O. Box 6477, San Antonio, TX 78209); Mecredy, Henry E. (1630-C W. 6th, Austin, TX 78703); O'Neal, Glenn B. (6503 Wagner Way, San Antonio, TX 78256)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  17. Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Technologies for Increased Thermal Efficiency Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased Thermal Efficiency Investigation of fuel effects on...

  18. Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion Regimes (Agreement 10037) Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion Regimes (Agreement 10037)...

  19. Transonic Combustion ? - Injection Strategy Development for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy Development for Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy...

  20. Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies 2005...

  1. Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling &...

  2. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  3. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  4. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Wilson, John S. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  5. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallett, William L.H.

    Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

  6. Cycle-to-Cycle Fluctuations of Burned Fuel Mass in Spark Ignition Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wendeker; G. Litak; M. Krupa

    2003-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a simple, fuel-air, model of combustion in spark ignition (si) engine with indirect injection. In our two fluid model, variations of fuel mass burned in cycle sequences appear due to stochastic fluctuations of a fuel feed amount. We have shown that a small amplitude of these fluctuations affects considerably the stability of a combustion process strongly depending on the quality of air-fulel mixture. The largest influence was found in the limit of a lean combustion. The possible effect of nonlinearities in the combustion process were also discussed.

  7. Combustion Models in Finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Tannous; A. Fessant

    2001-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion reaction kinetics models are used for the description of a special class of bursty Financial Time Series. The small number of parameters they depend upon enable financial analysts to predict the time as well as the magnitude of the jump of the value of the portfolio. Several Financial Time Series are analysed within this framework and applications are given.

  8. Combustion of black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, W.T.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improvement in the combustion of black liquor in an existing Tomlison recovery boiler unit in which black liquor is sprayed into a furnace in which it is successively dried, pyrolyzed and converted to a bed of solid carbonaceous residue, using a primary air stream and a secondary air stream and the residue is subsequently converted to a smelt. The improvement comprises: the addition of between an effective amount up to 5% oxygen by volume to the primary air stream directed at the bed of solid carbonaceous residue, the amount of oxygen added being sufficient to increase the adiabatic flame temperature, the combustion rate of the solid carbonaceous material, the rate of pyrolysis, the temperature in the lower portion of the furnace, the the drying rate of black liquor droplets, and to decrease the temperature of the gases entering the heat transfer surfaces in the upper portion of the furnace and the rate of deposit formation on the surfaces and wherein the amount of black liquor combusted is increased as compared with the amount combusted in the same furnace operated without the addition of oxygen to the primary air.

  9. Combined Cycle Combustion Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combined Cycle Combustion Turbines Steven Simmons February 27 2014 1 #12;CCCT Today's Discussion 1 Meeting Pricing of 4 advanced units using information from Gas Turbine World Other cost estimates from E E3 EIA Gas Turbine World California Energy Commission Date 2010 Oct 2012, Dec 2013 Apr 2013 2013 Apr

  10. Fragments, Combustion and Earthquakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Sotolongo-Costa; Antonio Posadas

    2005-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to show the advantages of introducing a geometric viewpoint and a non extensive formulation in the description of apparently unrelated phenomena: combustion and earthquakes. Here, it is shown how the introduction of a fragmentation analysis based on that formulation leads to find a common point for description of these phenomena

  11. Combustion fume structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flagan, R.C.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research program is on elucidating the fundamental processes that determine the particle size distribution, composition, and agglomerate structures of coal ash fumes. The ultimate objective of this work is the development and validation of a model for the dynamics of combustion fumes, describing both the evolution of the particle size distribution and the particle morphology. The study employs model systems to address the fundamental questions and to provide rigorous validation of the models to be developed. This first phase of the project has been devoted to the development of a detailed experimental strategy that will allow agglomerates with a broad range of fractal dimensions to be studied in the laboratory. (VC)

  12. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

  13. Combustion turbine emissions issues for air permit applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macak, J.J. III; Schott, G.A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Projects Division

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Power generation from combustion turbines continues to be a significant new energy source. These power projects may be either simple-cycle peaking units or combined-cycle applications in which exhaust heat is recovered to generate steam for export (cogeneration facility) and power generation (steam turbine generator). While combustion turbines represent one of the cleanest forms of power generation, regulatory agencies have identified them as significant sources of air pollution. Both new sources and existing combustion turbine installations are receiving increasing attention at federal, state, and local levels. Before construction can begin on a new combustion turbine facility, an air permit authorizing construction must first be obtained. The air permitting process is generally the ``critical path`` permit, often taking in excess of two years to receive the final approval. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 also impact existing units due to the non-attainment provisions of the Act and the Title 5 nationwide operating permit program. Careful consideration of combustion turbine operational characteristics and air pollutant emissions will expedite air permitting. This paper addresses specific issues related to combustion turbine emissions and the air permitting process. Guidelines for addressing many considerations are provided in order to secure an air permit that allows maximum flexibility in plant operation.

  14. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Presentation from the U.S....

  15. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Applied low temperature combustion to the Navistar...

  16. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  17. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  18. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

  19. Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion Processes in a DI Diesel Engine Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion...

  20. Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Summary of advanced combustion research at Cummins...

  1. COMBUSTION RESEARCH PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines," Paper 750890,clean burning internal combustion engines. Another importantthat occur in an internal combustion engine. Our goal is the

  2. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental study of biogas combustion characteristics andthe operation range of a biogas HCCI engine for powerOperating Conditions in a Biogas Fueled HCCI Engine for

  3. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D. (Rochester Hills, MI); Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  4. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of diesel combustion flame by means of streak camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagase, K.; Funatsu, K.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Band spectra in ultraviolet and visible ranges contain information on the state of combustion flame. Measurement of those spectra in diesel combustion flame, however, has been regarded as impossible because of the obstruction of bright flame and soot. The phenomena of diesel combustion, therefore, have not been analyzed clearly from the viewpoint of chemical reaction. The authors inserted an optical fiber into the diesel combustion chamber to detect the flame. The combustion flame was recorded by a special spectroscopic apparatus, named Streak camera, and the recorded image was subjected to spectroscopic analysis. The result of the experiments confirmed the existence of band spectra emitted from CH and OH radicals in the ultraviolet and visible ranges. The recorded data made clear the progress of chemical reactions and the formation of intermediate products during the diesel combustion process.

  6. IR-laser initiated combustion -- A step toward complete combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laghai, A.; Nabavi, S.H.; Servati, H.B.; Syed, F.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new global environmental regulations for reducing the engine emissions from both moving and stationary sources, as well as improvement in fuel economy are the major motifs to obtain a perfect combustion process and exhaust aftertreatment methods. Infrared (IR)-Laser initiated combustion provides a very high initial temperature, which produces propagation of a turbulent thermopressure pulse that results in a fast burning and improved combustion. The role of IR is to maximize the heat generation efficiency.

  7. Simultaneous combustion of waste plastics with coal for pulverized coal injection application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sushil Gupta; Veena Sahajwalla; Jacob Wood [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development, School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A bench-scale study was conducted to investigate the effect of simultaneous cofiring of waste plastic with coal on the combustion behavior of coals for PCI (pulverized coal injection) application in a blast furnace. Two Australian coals, premixed with low- and high-density polyethylene, were combusted in a drop tube furnace at 1473 K under a range of combustion conditions. In all the tested conditions, most of the coal blends including up to 30% plastic indicated similar or marginally higher combustion efficiency compared to those of the constituent coals even though plastics were not completely combusted. In a size range up to 600 {mu}m, the combustion efficiency of coal and polyethylene blends was found be independent of the particle size of plastic used. Both linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) are shown to display similar influence on the combustion efficiency of coal blends. The effect of plastic appeared to display greater improvement on the combustion efficiency of low volatile coal compared to that of a high volatile coal blend. The study further suggested that the effect of oxygen levels of the injected air in improving the combustion efficiency of a coal-plastic blend could be more effective under fuel rich conditions. The study demonstrates that waste plastic can be successfully coinjected with PCI without having any adverse effect on the combustion efficiency particularly under the tested conditions. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Understanding the dynamics of spark-assisted HCCI combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL; Glewen, William J [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spark assist appears to offer considerable potential for increasing the speed and load range over which homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is possible in gasoline engines. Numerous experimental studies of the transition between conventional spark-ignited (SI) propagating-flame combustion and HCCI combustion in gasoline engines with spark assist have demonstrated a high degree of deterministic coupling between successive combustion events. Analysis of this coupling suggests that the transition between SI and HCCI can be described as a sequence of bifurcations in a low-dimensional dynamic map. In this paper we describe methods for utilizing the deterministic relationship between cycles to extract global kinetic rate parameters that can be used to discriminate multiple distinct combustion states and develop a more quantitative understanding of the SI-HCCI transition. We demonstrate the application of these methods for indolene-containing fuels and point out an apparent HCCI mode switching not previously reported. Our results have specific implications for developing dynamic combustion models and feedback control strategies that utilize spark-assist to expand the operating range of HCCI combustion.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: combustion science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models On March 3, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: combustion intermediates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intermediates Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models On March 3, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Energy, Facilities,...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: combustion modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    modeling Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models On March 3, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Energy, Facilities, News,...

  12. Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient Clean Combustion February 27, 2008 Tim Frazier Research & Technology 2008 Semi-Mega Merit Review Agenda Project Goals and Objectives Project Partners Technical...

  13. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process that transforms gas-phase molecules into solid particles like soot and...

  14. Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Clean Combustion 2008 Semi-Mega Merit Review Donald Stanton Research & Technology February 26 th , 2008 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or...

  15. Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Position in Direct Numerical Simulations of Low-Dimensional Reacting Flows The Combustion EFRC seeks outstanding applicants for the position of post-doctoral research...

  16. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on boiler combustion efficiency provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. Numerical Modeling of HCCI Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Numerical Modeling of HCCI Combustion Salvador M. Aceves, Daniel L. Flowers, J. Ray Smith, Joel Martinez-Frias, Francisco Espinosa-Loza, Tim Ross, Bruce Buchholz, Nick...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: combustion chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and gas utilities, and other industries that employ combustion models. A paper...

  19. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    however, in combustion processes using crude oil, coal andcombustion processes increases with nitrogen content of the fuel, TABLE 1 Typical Nitrogen Content of Fuels Reference Fuel Crude Oil

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diesel Combustion Caterpillar, Sandia CRADA Opens Door to Multiple Research Projects On April 17, 2013, in Capabilities, Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Materials...

  1. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Bradley T. Zigler National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15 May 2012 Project ID FT002 This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

  2. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (5.1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (5.2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification; (5.3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratoryscale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability; and (5.4) the identification of kinetic data for copper-based oxygen carriers as well as the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material. Subtask 5.1 focused on the development of kinetic expressions for the Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process and validating them with reported literature data. The kinetic expressions were incorporated into a process model for determination of reactor size and oxygen carrier circulation for the CLOU process using ASPEN PLUS. An ASPEN PLUS process model was also developed using literature data for the CLC process employing an iron-based oxygen carrier, and the results of the process model have been utilized to perform a relative economic comparison. In Subtask 5.2, the investigators studied the trade-off between modeling approaches and available simulations tools. They quantified uncertainty in the high-performance computing (HPC) simulation tools for CLC bed applications. Furthermore, they performed a sensitivity analysis for velocity, height and polydispersity and compared results against literature data for experimental studies of CLC beds with no reaction. Finally, they present an optimization space using simple non-reactive configurations. In Subtask 5.3, through a series of experimental studies, behavior of a variety of oxygen carriers with different loadings and manufacturing techniques was evaluated under both oxidizing and reducing conditions. The influences of temperature, degree of carrier conversion and thermodynamic driving force resulting from the difference between equilibrium and system O{sub 2} partial pressures were evaluated through several experimental campaigns, and generalized models accounting for these influences were developed to describe oxidation and oxygen release. Conversion of three solid fuels with widely ranging reactivities was studied in a small fluidized bed system, and all but the least reactive fuel (petcoke) were rapidly converted by oxygen liberated from the CLOU carrier. Attrition propensity of a variety of carriers was also studied, and the carriers produced by freeze granulation or impregnation of preformed substrates displayed the lowest rates of attrition. Subtask 5.4 focused on gathering kinetic data for a copper-based oxygen carrier to assist with modeling of a functioning chemical looping reactor. The kinetics team was also responsible for the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material.

  3. Diagnostics for the Combustion Science Workbench

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grcar, J.F.; Day, M.S.; Bell, J.B.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005) 10006–10011. 5 th US Combustion Meeting – Paper # D09and D. A. Gousis. Combustion and Flame, 117 (1999) 685–4] I. Glassman. Combustion. Academic Press, third edition,

  4. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    x A Emission Characteristics in Two Stage Combustion. PaperInternational) on Combustion, Tokyo (August, 1974). Chang,fll , J I ___F J "J LBL-S9lS COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  6. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  7. Analysis of forward combustion underground coal gasification models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fausett, L.K.; Fausett, D.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey has been made of forward combustion gasification models that are available in the public domain. The six models obtained for study have been mathematically analyzed to determine their conceptual completeness and computational complexity. The models range in scope of generality from a simple constrained mass balance model to a two-dimensional unsteady-state model. The computer code for each model has been implemented on the University of Wyoming CDC CYBER 730/760 computer system. Computed analyses with each of the programs are compared using data (taken primarily from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Data Base) corresponding to six representative DOE sponsored field experiments at Hanna, Hoe Creek, Rawlins, and Pricetown. Four of the field tests were air injection experiments and two were oxygen/steam injection experiments. This study provides a direct comparison of input data requirements and computer resource requirements of the six computer codes. It furnishes an indication of the applicability of each model to the various operating conditions in the different field tests. Computational capabilities and limitations of each model are discussed in detail. 20 references, 47 figures, 13 tables.

  8. Lagrangian Simulation of Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed F. Ghoniem

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Lagrangian approach for the simulation of reactive flows has been developed during the course of this project, and has been applied to a number of significant and challenging problems including the transverse jet simulations. An efficient strategy for parallel domain decomposition has also been developed to enable the implementation of the approach on massively parallel architecture. Since 2005, we focused our efforts on the development of a semi-Lagrangian treatment of diffusion, and fast and accurate Lagrangian simulation tools for multiphysics problems including combustion.

  9. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P. (Windsor, CT); Matthews, Francis T. (Poquonock, CT)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  10. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-Phase Combustion .41 Gas-Phase combustionfor traditional gas- phase combustion modeling are presented

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: control early combustion stages

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control early combustion stages Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models On March 3, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF,...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: direct measurement of combustion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    direct measurement of combustion intermediate Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models On March 3, 2015, in Computational Modeling &...

  13. Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Premix charge, compression ignition combustion system optimization Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  14. Advanced Computational Methods for Turbulence and Combustion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Computational Methods for Turbulence and Combustion Advanced Computational Methods for Turbulence and Combustion Bell.png Key Challenges: Development and application of...

  15. H2 ICE Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H2 ICE Combustion Share Description Hydrogen combustion inside a direct injection H2 engine Topic Energy Energy efficiency Vehicles Hydrogen & fuel cells Credit S. Ciatti This...

  16. TURBULENT FRBRNNING MVK130 Turbulent Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TURBULENT FÖRBRÄNNING MVK130 Turbulent Combustion Poäng: 3.0 Betygskala: TH Valfri för: M4 to combustion, McGraw-Hill 1996. #12;

  17. Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use of Low Heat Rejection Concepts Thermodynamic Advantages of Low Temperature Combustion Engines Including the Use...

  18. Improved Solvers for Advanced Engine Combustion Simulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document:  ace076_mcnenly_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Advanced Combustion; Combustion and Emissions ControlPresenter: Matthew McNenlyPresenting Organization: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ...

  19. H2 Internal Combustion Engine Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    H 2 Internal Combustion Engine Research* H Internal Combustion Engine Research 2 Thomas Wallner Argonne National Laboratory 2008 DOE Merit Review Bethesda, Maryland February 25 th...

  20. Hydrogen engine and combustion control process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Michael R. (Coral Gables, FL); Swain, Matthew N. (Miami, FL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen engine with controlled combustion comprises suction means connected to the crankcase reducing or precluding flow of lubricating oil or associated gases into the combustion chamber.

  1. Improved Solvers for Advanced Engine Combustion Simulation |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Improved Solvers for Advanced Engine Combustion Simulation Improved Solvers for Advanced Engine Combustion Simulation 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  2. Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using...

  3. Progress of the Engine Combustion Network

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Progress of the Engine Combustion Network Engine Combustion Network Lyle M. Pickett Sandia National Laboratories Sponsor: DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies Program Manager:...

  4. Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - UW-ERC 1 "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Profs. Rolf Reitz, D. Foster, J....

  5. Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: predictive engine spray combustion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predictive engine spray combustion modeling Sandia Expands an International Collaboration and Web Database on Engine Fuel Spray Combustion Research On November 13, 2012, in CRF,...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: spray combustion model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spray combustion model Sandia Expands an International Collaboration and Web Database on Engine Fuel Spray Combustion Research On November 13, 2012, in CRF, Energy, Energy...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Combustion Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Behavior On June 13, 2014, in Turbulent Combustion Laboratory The Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) provides a well-controlled, lab-scale environment for testing...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Combustion Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    amount of excess air or recirculated exhaust gas that is compressed in the combustion chamber until it autoignites. The resulting combustion is a flameless and...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Silver Combustion Medal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silver Combustion Medal Two CRF Papers Named "Distinguished" for 34th International Symposium on Combustion On October 22, 2013, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF,...

  11. Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

  12. Evaluation of alternate-fuels performance in an external combustion system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battista, R.A.; Connelly, M.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the economic attractiveness of many alternate fuels increases relative to gasoline, the viability of any future automotive power plant may soon depend on the ease with which these alternate fuels can be utilized. It is generally assumed that external-combustion engines are more tolerant of alternate fuels than internal-combustion engines. This study attempted to verify that assumption. The purpose of the Alternate-Fuels Performance Evaluation Program was to evaluate and compare the impact of burning six different liquids fuels in an external-combustion system. Testing was conducted in the automotive Stirling engine (ASE) combustion performance rig, which duplicates the external heat system (EHS) of a Stirling engine. The program expanded the range of fuels evaluated over previous studies conducted at Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI). The specific objective was to determine the optimal combustion stoichiometry considering the performance parameters of combustion efficiency, temperature profile, exhaust emissions, and burner wall temperature. 14 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Formation of fuel NO[sub x] during black-liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, K.M. (Weyerhaeuser Paper Co., Tacoma, WA (United States)); Lien, S.J. (Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel NOx and thermal NOx were measured in combustion gases from black liquors in two laboratory furnaces. Combustion at 950 C in air (8% O[sub 2]) produced NOx concentrations of 40-80ppm. Combustion at 950 C in synthetic air containing no nitrogen (21% 0[sub 2] in Ar) produced the same result, demonstrating that all of the NOx produced during combustion at 950 C was fuel NOx. Formation of fuel NOx increased moderately with increasing temperature in the range of 800-1,000 C, but temperature sensitivity of fuel NOx was much less than that of thermal NOx. The results imply that the major source of NOx in recovery furnace emissions is the fuel NOx in recovery furnace formed by conversion of liquor-bound nitrogen during combustion. This is consistent with thermal NOx theory, which postulates that black-liquor combustion temperatures are too low to generate significant amounts of thermal NOx.

  14. Multi-phase Combustion and Transport Processes Under the Influence of Acoustic Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wegener, Jeffrey Lewis

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .on Fuel Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . Shear-Coaxial

  15. Droplet Combustion and Non-Reactive Shear-Coaxial Jets with Transverse Acoustic Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teshome, Sophonias

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Related Works in Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . .of Acoustics on Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . .Fuel Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  16. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  17. Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 28152820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moses, Elisha

    2815 Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion/The Combustion Institute, 1998/pp. 2815­2820 FINGERING INSTABILITY IN SOLID FUEL COMBUSTION: THE CHARACTERISTIC SCALES OF THE DEVELOPED STATE ORY ZIK, Israel We present new results on the fingering instability in solid fuel combustion. The instability

  18. Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Corporation is developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant technology that will enable this type of plant to operate with net plant efficiencies in the range of 43 to 46 percent (based on the higher heating value of the coal), with a reduction in the cost of electricity of at least 20 percent. A three-phase program is under way. Its scope encompasses the conceptual design of a commercial plant through the process of gathering needed experimental test data to obtain design parameters.

  19. Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Corporation is developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plant technology that will enable this type of plant to operate with net plant efficiencies in the range of 43 to 46 percent (based on the higher heating value of the coal), with a reduction in the cost of electricity of at least 20 percent. A three-phase program is under way. Its scope encompasses the conceptual design of a commercial plant through the process of gathering needed experimental test data to obtain design parameters.

  20. Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    portfolio: - long term, high risk approaches for reducing thermodynamic losses in combustion Fuel Efficiency 40-42% Losses 58-60% Fuel Efficiency 50-60% Losses 40-50% Today's...

  1. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lacon, IL)

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  2. Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    11/17/2014 1 Generating Resources Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Utility Scale Solar PV Steven doing recently around two key supply-side resource technologies 1. Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine #12;11/17/2014 4 Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine Background Primary Components Gas-fired combustion

  3. COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS Arvind Varma, Alexander S. Gasless Combustion SynthesisFrom Elements B. Combustion Synthesis in Gas-Solid Systems C. Products of Thermite-vpe SHS D. Commercial Aspects IV. Theoretical Considerations A. Combustion Wave Propagation Theory

  4. COMBUSTION ISSUES AND APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL MICROTHRUSTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Vigor

    1 COMBUSTION ISSUES AND APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL MICROTHRUSTERS Richard A. Yetter, Vigor Yang, Ming and the effects of downsizing on combustion performance. In particular, combustion of liquid nitromethane in a thruster combustion chamber with a volume of 108 mm3 and diameter of 5 mm was experimentally investigated

  5. Residential Wood Residential wood combustion (RWC) is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential Wood Combustion Residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because PM2.5. Furthermore, other combustion- related sources of OA in Europe may need to be reassessed. Will it affect global OA emission estimates? Combustion of biofuels is globally one of the major OA sources

  6. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  7. Optimizing Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Consortium 2008 DOE Merit Review - UW-ERC 1 Optimizing Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Profs. Rolf Reitz, P. Farrell, D. Foster, J. Ghandhi, C. Rutland, S. Sanders Engine...

  8. Predictive modeling of combustion processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Sandeep, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in improving the efficiency and lowering the emissions from operating combustors, e.g. internal combustion (IC) engines and gas turbines. Different fuels, additives etc. are ...

  9. Combustion Science for Cleaner Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Musahid

    2014-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Musahid Ahmed discusses how he and his team use the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to study combustion chemistry at our '8 Big Ideas' Science at the Theater event on October 8th, 2014, in Oakland, California.

  10. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous challenges to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, meet stringent emissions regulations, provide customer value, and improve safety. The HECC program successfully reduced engine fuel consumption and greenhouse gases while providing greater customer valve. The US EPA 2010 emissions standard poses a significant challenge for developing clean diesel powertrains that meet the DoE Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for fuel efficiency improvement while remaining affordable. Along with exhaust emissions, an emphasis on heavy duty vehicle fuel efficiency is being driven by increased energy costs as well as the potential regulation of greenhouse gases. An important element of the success of meeting emissions while significantly improving efficiency is leveraging Cummins component technologies such as fuel injection equipment, aftertreatment, turbomahcinery, electronic controls, and combustion systems. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 55% peak brake thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The first step in developing high efficiency clean products has been supported by the DoE co-sponsored HECC program. The objectives of the HECC program are: (1) To design and develop advanced diesel engine architectures capable of achieving US EPA 2010 emission regulations while improving the brake thermal efficiency by 10% compared to the baseline (a state of the art 2007 production diesel engine). (2) To design and develop components and subsystems (fuel systems, air handling, controls, etc) to enable construction and development of multi-cylinder engines. (3) To perform an assessment of the commercial viability of the newly developed engine technology. (4) To specify fuel properties conducive to improvements in emissions, reliability, and fuel efficiency for engines using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) technologies. To demonstrate the technology is compatible with B2

  11. Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Min-Da.

    1993-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

  12. Modelling paradigms for MILD combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minamoto, Y.; Swaminathan, N.

    2014-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    agreement because it does not include the effects of reaction zone interactions. Keywords: MILD combustion, Flameless combustion, Direct numerical simulation (DNS), Perfectly stirred reactor (PSR), presumed PDF, LES, RANS, Modelling 2 1 Introduction Moderate... ). In most RANS studies, the mean velocity and temperature fields show consistent trends with the experi- mental results. However, quantitative agreement of the calculated and measured tempera- ture values becomes unsatisfactory as the dilution level...

  13. Oxy-Combustion CO2 Control | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Oxy-Combustion Chemical Looping Combustion Program Plan Project Portfolio Project Information FAQs POSTED January 27, 2015 - Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA-...

  14. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF COMBUSTION GENERATED SOOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toossi, Reza

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    APPARATA Introduction Combustion Chamber -iv- SamplingIN A PLUME OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS Introduction . . • • . •methods," 9th Symposium on Combustion, 587 (1963). Gaydon,

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF COMBUSTION IN A TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, R.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    States Section of the Combustion Institute, Stanford, CA,Cheng, R. K. , "Catalyzed Combustion of H2/ Air Mixtures inWorkshop on Catalytic Combustion, Asheville, North Carolina,

  16. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OH. ” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute: 32(2):3171-Thermochemical Database for Combustion. ” Argonne NationalMicrowave Radiation. ” Combustion Science and Technology:

  17. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SUBMICRON PARTICULATES FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennucci, J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry of Coal during Combustion and the Emissions fromParticulates Generated by Combustion of Pulverized Coal,Particles from Coal Combustion, presented at the Eighteenth

  18. Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Cross-Cut Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Combustion Cross-Cut Research Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Cross-Cut Research Lyle M. Pickett Combustion Research Facility Sandia National Laboratories Sponsor: DOEOVT...

  19. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979. J.B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Ignition Engine with Optimal Combustion Control. ” US PatentIntroduction to Internal Combustion Engines (3rd Edition).

  20. COMBUSTION OF COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION BURNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, W.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J.M. , liThe F1uidised Combustion of Coal," Sixteenth Sm osium {International} on Combustion, August 1976 (to beof Various Polymers Under Combustion Conditions," Fourteenth

  1. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SAE Paper 750173, 1975. L. , Fifteenth Symposium Combustion,The Combustion Institute, International Pittsburgh, on 64.chemistry of products of combustion: nitrogenous The

  2. Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Multicylinder Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Fuel injection strategies to extend low temperature combustion...

  3. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation of Natural Gas HCCI Combustion: Gas Compositionfor heating the flowing gas. Combustion timing is consideredup. Exhaust gas samples were collected at varying combustion

  4. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    produced by coal and oil combustion. Stationary combustioncalculated that combustion plant coal and fuel oil couldoil and coal 8 it is anticipated production that the combustion

  5. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979. J.B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines (3rd Edition).Coefficient in the Internal Combustion Engine,” SAE Paper

  6. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. B. (1988) Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.novel microwave internal combustion engine ignition source,in the Internal Combustion Engine." SAE Technical Paper

  7. Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Combustion Air Zone (CAZ) Best Practices Webinar. Presentation More Documents & Publications...

  8. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  9. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  10. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

  11. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, H.G.; Speer, S.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes improvement in a 2-cycle, diesel cycle internal combustion engine comprising a single in-line engine block, internal wall surfaces defining at least one cylinder within the engine block, the central longitudinal axis of each cylinder being within a common plane extending longitudinally of the engine block, the axially extending internal wall surface of each cylinder being closed at one end and having at least one air intake port therethrough, a piston axially and reciprocally movable within each cylinder over a permitted stroke distance, so as to alternately cover and expose each air intake port for a finite time period; an exhaust port at the closed end of the cylinder above the piston, and a mechanically operated valve for opening and closing such exhaust port located immediately adjacent such port, a substantially rigid connecting rod pivotably connected at one end of each piston, and a crankshaft, rotatably connected to the second end of each connecting rod, such that the crankshaft is caused to rotate connecting means between the piston and the connecting rod. The improvement comprises the diameter of the cylinder is greater than the permitted stroke distance of the piston within the cylinder, and the axis of the crankshaft is parallel to and laterally offset from the common plane by a distance sufficient to form an angle alpha between the connecting rod and the axis of the cylinder, when the piston is at top-dead center, of at least about 12 degrees, such that the time during which each air intake port is exposed is increased when the direction of crankshaft rotation is opposite to the direction of the crankshaft offset from the common plane.

  12. Method and apparatus for detecting combustion instability in continuous combustion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, Kelly J.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Richards, George A.; Straub, Douglas L.

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method to sense the onset of combustion stability is presented. An electrode is positioned in a turbine combustion chamber such that the electrode is exposed to gases in the combustion chamber. A control module applies a voltage potential to the electrode and detects a combustion ionization signal and determines if there is an oscillation in the combustion ionization signal indicative of the occurrence of combustion stability or the onset of combustion instability. A second electrode held in a coplanar but spaced apart manner by an insulating member from the electrode provides a combustion ionization signal to the control module when the first electrode fails. The control module broadcasts a notice if the parameters indicate the combustion process is at the onset of combustion instability or broadcasts an alarm signal if the parameters indicate the combustion process is unstable.

  13. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ThermoChem, under contract to the Department of Energy, conducted extensive research, development and demonstration work on a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) to confirm that advanced technology can meet these performance objectives. The ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC system integrates a pulse combustor with an atmospheric bubbling-bed type fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) In this modular configuration, the pulse combustor burns the fuel fines (typically less than 30 sieve or 600 microns) and the fluidized bed combusts the coarse fuel particles. Since the ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC employs both the pulse combustor and the AFBC technologies, it can handle the full-size range of coarse and fines. The oscillating flow field in the pulse combustor provides for high interphase and intraparticle mass transfer rates. Therefore, the fuel fines essentially burn under kinetic control. Due to the reasonably high temperature (>1093 C but less than the temperature for ash fusion to prevent slagging), combustion of fuel fines is substantially complete at the exit of the pulse combustor. The additional residence time of 1 to 2 seconds in the freeboard of the PAFBC unit then ensures high carbon conversion and, in turn, high combustion efficiency. A laboratory unit was successfully designed, constructed and tested for over 600 hours to confirm that the PAFBC technology could meet the performance objectives. Subsequently, a 50,000 lb/hr PAFBC demonstration steam boiler was designed, constructed and tested at Clemson University in Clemson, South Carolina. This Final Report presents the detailed results of this extensive and successful PAFBC research, development and demonstration project.

  14. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  15. Control Strategies for HCCI Mixed-Mode Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to expand the operational range of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mixed-mode combustion for gasoline en-gines. ORNL has extensive experience in the analysis, interpretation, and control of dynamic engine phenomena, and Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain compo-nents and subsystems. The partnership of these knowledge bases was important to address criti-cal barriers associated with the realistic implementation of HCCI and enabling clean, efficient operation for the next generation of transportation engines. The foundation of this CRADA was established through the analysis of spark-assisted HCCI data from a single-cylinder research engine. This data was used to (1) establish a conceptual kinetic model to better understand and predict the development of combustion instabilities, (2) develop a low-order model framework suitable for real-time controls, and (3) provide guidance in the initial definition of engine valve strategies for achieving HCCI operation. The next phase focused on the development of a new combustion metric for real-time characterization of the combustion process. Rapid feedback on the state of the combustion process is critical to high-speed decision making for predictive control. Simultaneous to the modeling/analysis studies, Delphi was focused on the development of engine hardware and the engine management system. This included custom Delphi hardware and control systems allowing for flexible control of the valvetrain sys-tem to enable HCCI operation. The final phase of this CRADA included the demonstration of conventional and spark assisted HCCI on the multi-cylinder engine as well as the characterization of combustion instabilities, which govern the operational boundaries of this mode of combustion. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout this project. Meetings were held on a bi-weekly basis with additional reports, presentation, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial support through modeling, hardware, data exchange, and technical consultation. This CRADA was also successful at establishing important next steps to further expanding the use of an HCCI engine for improved fuel efficiency and emissions. These topics will be address in a follow-on CRADA. The objectives are: (1) Improve fundamental understanding of the development of combustion instabilities with HCCI operation through modeling and experiments; (2) Develop low-order model and feedback combustion metrics which are well suited to real-time predictive controls; and (3) Construct multi-cylinder engine system with advanced Delphi technologies and charac-terize HCCI behavior to better understand limitations and opportunities for expanded high-efficiency operation.

  16. COMBUSTION RESEARCH PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines," Paper 750890,that occur in an internal combustion engine. Our goal is theLAG process in an internal combustion engine, con- ducted at

  17. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  18. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter Emissions Characteristics...

  19. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sheppard, E.J. [Tuskeggee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  20. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, William D

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  1. Combustion Catalysts in Industry- An Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrell, G. A.; Knight, R. S.

    Combustion catalysts improve boiler efficiency by extracting more heat energy from the fuel and by reducing heat losses when operating at minimum excess air. In addition, an effective combustion catalyst may reduce the level of smoke and solid...

  2. TURBULENT FRBRNNING MVK 130 Turbulent Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TURBULENT FÖRBRÄNNING MVK 130 Turbulent Combustion Antal poäng: 3.0. Valfri för: M4. Kursansvarig program med hänsyn till de modeller som används. Litteratur S.R. Turns: An introduction to combustion, Mc

  3. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William D. Harris

    2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  4. Formation mechanisms of combustion chamber deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Christopher J. (Christopher John)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion chamber deposits are found in virtually all internal combustion engines after a few hundred hours of operation. Deposits form on cylinder, piston, and head surfaces that are in contact with fuel-air mixture ...

  5. Coal combustion products: trash or treasure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal combustion by-products can be a valuable resource to various industries. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) collects data on production and uses of coal combustion products (CCPs). 122.5 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2004. The article discusses the results of the ACCA's 2004 survey. Fly ash is predominantly used as a substitute for Portland cement; bottom ash for structural fill, embankments and paved road cases. Synthetic gypsum from the FGD process is commonly used in wallboard. Plant owners are only likely to have a buyer for a portion of their CCPs. Although sale of hot water (from Antelope Valley Station) from condensers for use in a fish farm to raise tilapia proved unviable, the Great Plains Synfuels Plant which manufactures natural gas from lignite produces a wide range of products including anhydrous ammonia, phenol, krypton, carbon dioxide (for enhanced oil recovery), tar oils and liquid nitrogen. ACCA's goal is to educate people about CCPs and how to make them into useful products, and market them, in order to reduce waste disposal and enhance revenue. The article lists members of the ACCA. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  6. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  7. Pulse atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the program is the development of a pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (PAFBC) technology to burn coal and to provide heat and steam to commercial, institutional, and small industrial applications at a reasonable price in an environmentally acceptable manner. During this reporting period, a total of eight shakedown and debugging coal combustion tests were performed in the AFBC. A start-up procedure was established, system improvements implemented, and preliminary material and heat balances made based on these tests. The pulse combustor for the AFBC system was fabricated and installed and a series of tests was conducted on the system. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  9. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  10. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  11. ME 6990 -Combustion Catalog Data: ME 6990: Combustion. Sem. 2. Class 3, Credit 3 (el.).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panchagnula, Mahesh

    ME 6990 - Combustion Catalog Data: ME 6990: Combustion. Sem. 2. Class 3, Credit 3 (el.). Physical and chemical aspects of basic combustion phenomena. Classification of flames. Measurement of laminar flame. Fuels. Atomization and evaporation of liquid fuels. Theories of ignition, stability and combustion

  12. Supersonic combustion studies using a multivariate quadrature based method for combustion modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Venkat

    Supersonic combustion studies using a multivariate quadrature based method for combustion modeling function (PDF) of thermochemical variables can be used for accurately computing the combustion source term of predictive models for supersonic combustion is a critical step in design and development of scramjet engines

  13. Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 X Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide Alexander S. Mukasyan University of Notre Dame USA 1. Introduction Combustion synthesis (CS) is an effective technique by which combustion synthesis can occur: self - propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and volume

  14. Method and device for diagnosing and controlling combustion instabilities in internal combustion engines operating in or transitioning to homogeneous charge combustion ignition mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Robert M [Knoxville, TN; Daw, Charles S [Knoxville, TN; Green, Johney B [Knoxville, TN; Edwards, Kevin D [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a method of achieving stable, optimal mixtures of HCCI and SI in practical gasoline internal combustion engines comprising the steps of: characterizing the combustion process based on combustion process measurements, determining the ratio of conventional and HCCI combustion, determining the trajectory (sequence) of states for consecutive combustion processes, and determining subsequent combustion process modifications using said information to steer the engine combustion toward desired behavior.

  15. Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Salvador Aceves, Daniel Flowers, Bill Pitz, Charlie Westbrook, Emma Silke,...

  16. FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION UNIT FOR OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Hammad; Y. Zurigat; S. Khzai; Z. Hammad; O. Mubydeem

    combustion performance using oil shale as fuel in direct burning process. It is a steel column of 18 cm

  17. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

  18. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Joel Meier (Niskayuna, NY); Mosbacher, David Matthew (Cohoes, NY); Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian (Troy, NY); Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan (Mason, OH)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  19. Fifteen Lectures on Laminar and Turbulent Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Norbert

    Fifteen Lectures on Laminar and Turbulent Combustion N. Peters RWTH Aachen Ercoftac Summer School in Combustion Systems 1 Lecture 2: Calculation of Adiabatic Flame Temperatures and Chemical Equilibria 20: Laminar Diffusion Flames: Different Flow Geometries 156 Lecture 11: Turbulent Combustion: Introduction

  20. INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE CYCLES EISG AWARDEE University://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Integral Catalytic Combustion/Fuel Reforming for Gas Turbine Cycles EISG Grant # 99

  1. Combustion joining of refractory materials: Carboncarbon composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Combustion joining of refractory materials: Carbon­carbon composites Jeremiah D.E. White Department­carbon composite is achieved by employing self-sustained, oxygen-free, high-temperature combustion reactions to a used "core" to produce a brake that meets the performance specifications. The combustion-joining (CJ

  2. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet. COMPARISON OF TIME SCALES FOR PREMIXED-GAS COMBUSTION To determine the conditions where gravity can affectUnderstanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research Paul D. Ronney Department

  3. Separation of regenerated catalyst from combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benslay, R. M.

    1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for separating regenerated catalyst from gaseous combustion products within a regenerator. The apparatus comprises a downcomer within the regenerator vessel through which the catalyst and gaseous combustion products flow. Means are provided at the lower end of the downcomer for utilizing the momentum of the catalyst particles to separate them from the gaseous combustion products.

  4. State of Industrial Fluidized Bed Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesko, J. E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is expectOO. Direct combustion of oil shale, combustion of wxxi ani municipil refuse also has been deron stratOO, either as primary fuels or as additives in units primarily firOO with coal. Combustion of liquid fuels, such as residual oils containing...

  5. Structural Analysis of Combustion Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tóth, J; Zsély, I

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using ReactionKinetics, a Mathematica based package a few dozen detailed models for combustion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methanol are investigated. Essential structural characteristics are pulled out, and similarities and differences of the mechanisms are highlighted. These investigations can be used before or parallel with usual numerical investigations, such as pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, or simulation.

  6. Combustion fume structure and dynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flagan, R.C.

    1995-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of the fundamental physical processes that govern the structures of fume particles that are produced from the vapor phase in a wide range of high temperature systems has been conducted. The key objective of this study has been to develop models of the evolution of fine particles of refractory materials that are produced from the vapor phase, with particular emphasis on those processes that govern the evolution of ash fumes produced from volatilized mineral matter during coal combustion. To accomplish this goal, the study has included investigations of a number of fundamental aspects of pyrogenous fumes: Structural characterization of agglomerate particles in terms of fractal structure parameters; the relationship between the structures of agglomerate particles and the aerodynamic drag forces they experience; coagulation kinetics of fractal-like particles; sintering of aerosol agglomerates past the early stage of neck formation and incorporating the simultaneous influences of several transport mechanisms.

  7. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  8. Combustive management of oil spills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  9. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  10. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bertrand D. (Erie, PA); Confer, Gregory L. (Erie, PA); Shen, Zujing (Erie, PA); Hapeman, Martin J. (Edinboro, PA); Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA)

    1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  11. Combustion engineering issues for solid fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Miller; David Tillman [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The book combines modeling, policy/regulation and fuel properties with cutting edge breakthroughs in solid fuel combustion for electricity generation and industrial applications. This book provides real-life experiences and tips for addressing the various technical, operational and regulatory issues that are associated with the use of fuels. Contents are: Introduction; Coal Characteristics; Characteristics of Alternative Fuels; Characteristics and Behavior of Inorganic Constituents; Fuel Blending for Combustion Management; Fuel Preparation; Conventional Firing Systems; Fluidized-Bed Firing Systems; Post-Combustion Emissions Control; Some Computer Applications for Combustion Engineering with Solid Fuels; Gasification; Policy Considerations for Combustion Engineering.

  12. Combustion diagnostic for active engine feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Jr., Johney Boyd (Knoxville, TN); Daw, Charles Stuart (Knoxville, TN); Wagner, Robert Milton (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention detects the crank angle location where combustion switches from premixed to diffusion, referred to as the transition index, and uses that location to define integration limits that measure the portions of heat released during the combustion process that occur during the premixed and diffusion phases. Those integrated premixed and diffusion values are used to develop a metric referred to as the combustion index. The combustion index is defined as the integrated diffusion contribution divided by the integrated premixed contribution. As the EGR rate is increased enough to enter the low temperature combustion regime, PM emissions decrease because more of the combustion process is occurring over the premixed portion of the heat release rate profile and the diffusion portion has been significantly reduced. This information is used to detect when the engine is or is not operating in a low temperature combustion mode and provides that feedback to an engine control algorithm.

  13. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine; (5) Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated; (6) The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing; (7) The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment; (8) The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment; (9) Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines); and (10) Key subsystems developed include - sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system. An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  14. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton, Donald W

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: 1. Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today’s state-ofthe- art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle 2. Develop & design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements. 3. Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class. 4. Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: ? A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target ? An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system ? Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle – Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx aftertreatment engine ? Emissions and efficiency targets were reached with the use of biodiesel. A variety of biofuel feedstocks (soy, rapeseed, etc.) was investigated. ? The advanced LDECC engine with low temperature combustion was compatible with commercially available biofuels as evaluated by engine performance testing and not durability testing. ? The advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system is the engine system architecture that is being further developed by the Cummins product development organization. Cost reduction and system robustness activities have been identified for future deployment. ? The new engine and aftertreatment component technologies are being developed by the Cummins Component Business units (e.g. fuel system, turbomachinery, aftertreatment, electronics, etc.) to ensure commercial viability and deployment ? Cummins has demonstrated that the technologies developed for this program are scalable across the complete light duty engine product offerings (2.8L to 6.7L engines) ? Key subsystems developed include – sequential two stage turbo, combustions system for low temperature combustion, novel SCR aftertreatment system with feedback control, and high pressure common rail fuel system An important element of the success of this project was leveraging Cummins engine component technologies. Innovation in component technology coupled with system integration is enabling Cummins to move forward with the development of high efficiency clean diesel products with a long term goal of reaching a 40% improvement in thermal efficiency for the engine plus aftertreatment system. The 40% improvement is in-line with the current light duty vehicle efficiency targets set by the 2010 DoE Vehicle Technologies MYPP and supported through co-operative projects such as the Cummins Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light- Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD) started in 2010.

  15. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions from Fuel Oil Combustion," Combustion, 21, August,K #4 Fuel Oil Bituminous Coal (Group 4) The lower combustion

  16. Method and apparatus for active control of combustion rate through modulation of heat transfer from the combustion chamber wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jr., Charles E.; Chadwell, Christopher J.

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The flame propagation rate resulting from a combustion event in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is controlled by modulation of the heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls. In one embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is mechanically modulated by a movable member that is inserted into, or withdrawn from, the combustion chamber thereby changing the shape of the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber wall surface area. In another embodiment, heat transfer from the combustion flame to the combustion chamber walls is modulated by cooling the surface of a portion of the combustion chamber wall that is in close proximity to the area of the combustion chamber where flame speed control is desired.

  17. COMBUSTION RESEARCH Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Transfer with Combustion R. Greif, H. Heperkan, J.H. Stewart . • . • • . COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY AND POLLUTANTInternational) on Combustion, The Combustion institute,

  18. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another.

  19. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

  20. Combustion Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoal Combustion Products

  1. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolker, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Lighty, J.; Veranth, J.; Helble, J.J.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Ames, M.R.; Finkelman, R.; Mamani-Paco, M.; Sterling, R.; Mroczkowsky, S.J.; Panagiotou, T.; Seames, W.

    1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environ-mental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 January 1999 to 31 March 1999. During this period, a full Program Review Meeting was held at the University of Arizona. At this meeting, the progress of each group was reviewed, plans for the following 9 month period were discussed, and action items (principally associated with the transfer of samples and reports among the various investigators) were identified.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann model for combustion and detonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Bo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Ying, Yang-Jun; Li, Hua; 10.1007/s11467-013-0286-z

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present a lattice Boltzmann model for combustion and detonation. In this model the fluid behavior is described by a finite-difference lattice Boltzmann model by Gan et al. [Physica A, 2008, 387: 1721]. The chemical reaction is described by the Lee-Tarver model [Phys. Fluids, 1980, 23: 2362]. The reaction heat is naturally coupled with the flow behavior. Due to the separation of time scales in the chemical and thermodynamic processes, a key technique for a successful simulation is to use the operator-splitting scheme. The new model is verified and validated by well-known benchmark tests. As a specific application of the new model, we studied the simple steady detonation phenomenon. To show the merit of LB model over the traditional ones, we focus on the reaction zone to study the non-equilibrium effects. It is interesting to find that, at the von Neumann peak, the system is nearly in its thermodynamic equilibrium. At the two sides of the von Neumann peak, the system deviates from its equilibri...

  3. NISTIR 6458 Characterization of the Inlet Combustion Air in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    NISTIR 6458 Characterization of the Inlet Combustion Air in NIST's Reference Spray Combustion January 2000 #12;ii Contents page Introduction 1 Reference Spray Combustion Facility 3 Numerical;1 Characterization of the Inlet Combustion Air in NIST's Reference Spray Combustion Facility: Effect of Vane Angle

  4. ME 374C Combustion Engine Processes ABET EC2000 syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yakar, Adela

    ME 374C ­ Combustion Engine Processes Page 1 ABET EC2000 syllabus ME 374C ­ Combustion Engine combustion engines, fuels, carburetion, combustion, exhaust emissions, knock, fuel injection, and factors to an appropriate major sequence in engineering. Textbook(s): Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering

  5. Sandia Combustion Research Program: Annual report, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents research results of the past year, divided thematically into some ten categories. Publications and presentations arising from this work are included in the appendix. Our highlighted accomplishment of the year is the announcement of the discovery and demonstration of the RAPRENOx process. This new mechanism for the elimination of nitrogen oxides from essentially all kinds of combustion exhausts shows promise for commercialization, and may eventually make a significant contribution to our nation's ability to control smog and acid rain. The sections of this volume describe the facility's laser and computer system, laser diagnostics of flames, combustion chemistry, reacting flows, liquid and solid propellant combustion, mathematical models of combustion, high-temperature material interfaces, studies of engine/furnace combustion, coal combustion, and the means of encouraging technology transfer. 182 refs., 170 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was carried out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

  7. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  8. Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ace066yilmaz2013o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency Light Duty Vehicles Vehicle...

  9. Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion Regimes (Agreement 10037) C. Stuart Daw, Josh A. Pihl, A. Lou Qualls, V. Kalyana Chakravarthy, Johney B. Green, Jr.,...

  10. Combustion & Fuels Waste Heat Recovery & Utilization Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion & Fuels Waste Heat Recovery & Utilization Project Project Technical Lead - Thermoelectric Analysis & Materials 27 February 2008 2008 DOE OVT Annual Merit Review 2008...

  11. KIVA Modeling to Support Diesel Combustion Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Merit Review KIVA Modeling to Support Diesel Combustion Research DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review, FY2008 David Torres Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  12. Modeling of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Modeling of high efficiency clean combustion engines Daniel Flowers Salvador Aceves Tom Piggott Daniel Flowers, Salvador Aceves, Tom Piggott,...

  13. Advanced Combustion and Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Fuels Advanced Combustion and Fuels 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Combustion Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and gas utilities, and other industries that employ combustion models. A paper...

  15. Internal Combustion Engine Energy Retention (ICEER)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ICEER Internal Combustion Engine Energy Retention PI: Jeffrey Gonder Team: Eric Wood & Sean Lopp National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 18, 2014 Project ID: VSS126 This...

  16. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Models for Advanced Engine Combustion William J. Pitz (PI) Marco Mehl, Charles K. Westbrook Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory June 17, 2014 DOE National Laboratory Advanced...

  17. Engine Valve Actuation For Combustion Enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys (Madison, WI); Rutland, Christopher J. (Madison, WI); Jhavar, Rahul (Madison, WI)

    2004-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-stroke combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  18. Engine valve actuation for combustion enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys (Madison, WI); Rutland, Christopher J. (Madison, WI); Jhavar, Rahul (Madison, WI)

    2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-strokes combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Internal Combustion Engine Division...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Internal Combustion Engine Division conference CRF Researchers Received "Best Paper" Award for Paper Presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers' (ASME) 2012 Internal...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: internal combustion engine fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    internal combustion engine fuel efficiency Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine On February 27, 2013, in CRF, Energy,...

  1. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications* L. Bromberg MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Cambridge MA 02139 * Work supported by US...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Engine Combustion Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine Combustion Network Lyle Pickett Named a Society of Automotive Engineers Fellow On October 22, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Transportation Energy...

  3. Fuels For Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuels For Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Presented by: Scott Sluder, Ron Graves, John Storey Oak Ridge National Laboratory Brad Zigler, Wendy Clark National Renewable Energy...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: extend the complete combustion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    extend the complete combustion zone Sandia Maps Multiple Paths to Cleaner, Low-Temp Diesels On October 22, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership,...

  5. 2008-01-0984 Active Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI Engine: Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-0984 Active Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI Engine: Combustion Timing M. Hillion, J according to the air path dynamics on a Diesel HCCI engine. This approach complements existing airpath Com- bustion modes (HPC), including Homogeneous Charge Com- pression Ignition (HCCI). HCCI combustion

  6. A Simple Holographic Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Mefford; Gary T. Horowitz

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple holographic model of an insulator. Unlike most previous holographic insulators, the zero temperature infrared geometry is completely nonsingular. Both the low temperature DC conductivity and the optical conductivity at zero temperature satisfy power laws with the same exponent, given by the scaling dimension of an operator in the IR. Changing a parameter in the model converts it from an insulator to a conductor with a standard Drude peak.

  7. Photodissociation Dynamics and Spectroscopy of Free Radical Combustion Intermediates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborn, David L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. L . Dryer, Progr. Energy Combustion Sei. 10,1 (1984); W.1994); S. Zabarnick, Combustion Flame 85,27 (1991); D. B.81,2514 (1977). J. Warnatz, Combustion Chemistry, ed. W. C.

  8. COMBUSTION DIAGNOSTICS BY TUNABLE ATOMIC LINE MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuellar, Enrique

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    17th Symp. (Int. ) Combustion, 867 (1979). 3. H. Koizumi, T.Meetin~OCUM£ T of the Combustion Institute, Bordeaux,N S July 20-25, 1981 AND COMBUSTION DIAGNOSTICS BY TUNABLE

  9. Physical aspects and modelling of turbulent MILD combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minamoto, Yuki

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is one of combustion technologies which can improve efficiency and reduce emissions simultaneously. This combustion type is characterised by the highly preheated reactant temperature...

  10. AN EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF HEAT TRANSFER WITH COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heperkan, Hasan A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HDyna.mics of the Exothermic Process in Combustion,n 15thSymposium (International) on Combustion, Tokyo, 1974. H, S.Methods L Glassman, Combustion, Academic Press, 1977. D. J.

  11. NUMERICAL MODELING OF TURBULENT FLOW IN A COMBUSTION TUNNEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, A.F.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1VJcDona·ld, H. (1979) Combustion r 1 iodeJ·ing in Two and1979) Practical Turbulent-Combustion Interaction Models forInternation on Combustors. Combustion The 17th Symposium

  12. An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas boilers of conventional flame always produce varying degrees of combustion products NOx and CO, which pollute the environment and waste energy. As a new way of combustion, catalytic combustion breaks the flammable limits of conventional...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine R&D subprogram...

  14. COMBUSTION RESEARCH PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applied to Turbulent Combustion Flows J. W. Daily and C.Metals from Pulverized Coal Combustion P. Sherman and F.Applied to Turbulent Combustion Flows J. W. Daily and C.

  15. Sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    -dependent, sphero-symmetric droplet combustion simulation that includes detailed gas phase chemical kineticsSub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments and detailed 2012 Abstract Combustion characteristics of isolated sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate (MB

  16. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  17. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, J.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

  18. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  19. US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap US DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap The ACEC focuses on advanced engine and...

  20. Adaptive Control to Improve Low Temperature Diesel Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control to Improve Low Temperature Diesel Engine Combustion Adaptive Control to Improve Low Temperature Diesel Engine Combustion Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  1. Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Poster presentation given at the 16th Directions in...

  2. Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities at Caterpillar Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities at Caterpillar Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  3. Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors Poster presented at the 16th Directions in...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: high-fidelity engine combustion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    engine combustion models Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models On March 3, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Energy,...

  5. asme internal combustion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conference on Fluidised Bed Combustion Fossil Fuels Websites Summary: COMBUSTION OF HIGH-PVC SOLID WASTE WITH HCl RECOVERY Loay Saeed, Antti Tohka, Ron Zevenhoven*...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for High-Efficiency Combustion...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High-Efficiency Combustion Engines Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for High-Efficiency Combustion Engines The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) is supporting work to improve...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report 2008advcombustionengine.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  8. Advanced Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Prepared for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Prepared for the Clean Air Task Force under a grant from...................................................................................... 3 2. Current Status of Post-Combustion Capture

  9. World's Largest Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project Begins...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    World's Largest Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project Begins Construction World's Largest Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project Begins Construction July 15, 2014 - 9:55am Addthis...

  10. Enabling Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperation Enabling Low Temperature Combustion Through Thermo-Chemical Recuperation Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel...

  11. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and...

  12. Non-Petroleum Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion (Agreement...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Petroleum Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion (Agreement 13425) Non-Petroleum Based Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion (Agreement 13425) Presentation from the U.S. DOE...

  13. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Compression...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Compression Ignition Engines High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Compression Ignition Engines Presentation from...

  14. Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High Efficiency While Avoiding Control Problems of HCCI Dilute Clean Diesel Combustion Achieves Low Emissions and High...

  15. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-use Engine Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-use...

  16. Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector and Adaptive PCCI Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel...

  17. Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly Reduced Emissions and Improved Fuel Efficiency Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly...

  18. HCCI and Stratified-Charge CI Engine Combustion Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charg HCCI and Stratified-Char e CI Engine ge CI Engine Combustion Research Combustion Research John E. Dec, Magnus Sjberg, and Wontae Hwang Sandia National Laboratories DOE...

  19. A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Engines A University Consortium on Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for High...

  20. 2.61 Internal Combustion Engines, Spring 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heywood, John B.

    Fundamentals of how the design and operation of internal combustion engines affect their performance, operation, fuel requirements, and environmental impact. Study of fluid flow, thermodynamics, combustion, heat transfer ...

  1. Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions Heavy-Duty Engine Combustion Optimization for High Thermal Efficiency Targeting EPA 2010 Emissions...

  2. CFD Combustion Modeling with Conditional Moment Closure using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Modeling with Conditional Moment Closure using Tabulated Chemistry CFD Combustion Modeling with Conditional Moment Closure using Tabulated Chemistry A method is...

  3. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine...

  4. Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  5. High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Design for Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at DEER 2006,...

  6. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  7. Exploring Advanced Combustion Regimes for Efficiency and Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exploring Advanced Combustion Regimes for Efficiency and Emissions Exploring Advanced Combustion Regimes for Efficiency and Emissions 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge...

  8. Use of Low Cetane Fuel to Enable Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document:  ace011_ciatti_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Advanced Combustion; Combustion and Emissions ControlPresenter: Steve CiattiPresenting Organization: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL...

  9. Code Gaps and Future Research Needs of Combustion Safety: Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Code Gaps and Future Research Needs of Combustion Safety: Building America Expert Meeting Update Code Gaps and Future Research Needs of Combustion Safety: Building America Expert...

  10. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Determine...

  11. Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry Factors Affecting HCCI Combustion Phasing for Fuels with Single- and Dual-Stage Chemistry 2004...

  12. 2014 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies 2014 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies Merit review of DOE Vehicle Technologies research...

  13. 3-D Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential, and Application Issues 3-D Combustion Simulation Strategy Status, Future Potential, and Application Issues 2004 Diesel...

  14. Demonstrating Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology Demonstrating Optimum HCCI Combustion with Advanced Control Technology Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  15. Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel Engine Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel Engine This study measured the effects of hydrogen...

  16. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine 2004 Diesel...

  17. Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel...

  18. Glow Plug Integrated Piezo-Ceramic Combustion Sensor for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glow Plug Integrated Piezo-Ceramic Combustion Sensor for Diesel Engines Glow Plug Integrated Piezo-Ceramic Combustion Sensor for Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  19. Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using CFD Simulations With Detailed Fuel Chemistry Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion...

  20. A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines (UM - lead, MIT, UCB) A University Consortium on High Pressure, Lean Combustion for Efficient and Clean IC Engines...

  1. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines...

  2. Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24,...

  3. 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies Merit review of DOE Vehicle Technologies research...

  4. 2012 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies 2012 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies Merit review of DOE Vehicle Technologies research...

  5. 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 7. Combustion Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7. Combustion Research 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 7. Combustion Research DOE Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review 2008meritreview7.pdf More Documents &...

  6. 2013 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies 2013 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion Engine Technologies Merit review of DOE Vehicle Technologies research...

  7. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Applied to Advanced Engine Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Flow Research - 8353 Combustion Chemistry - 8362 Engine Combustion - 8365 ThermalFluid Science and Engineering * Professor W. Anderson, Purdue * Professor J. -Y. Chen, UC...

  8. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Applied to Advanced Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Engine Combustion Research Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Applied to Advanced Engine Combustion Research 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  9. Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel Engine P-3 Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel Engine P-3 Gregory Lilik, Jos Martn...

  10. Heavy-Duty Low Temperature Combustion Development Activities...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    combustion Develop a fundamental understanding of low-temperature combustion process Collaborate with technology experts Optical Engine Testing with Sandia National...

  11. 2008 DOE Annual Merit Review Advanced Combustion Engines and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engines and Fuels R&DTechnology Integration Plenary Session Overview 2008 DOE Annual Merit Review Advanced Combustion Engines and Fuels R&DTechnology...

  12. Computationally Efficient Modeling of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document:  ace012_flowers_2013_o.pdfTechnology Area: Advanced Combustion; Combustion and Emissions ControlPresenter: Dan FlowersPresenting Organization: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL...

  13. active combustion control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1999-01-01 3 2008-01-0984 Active Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI Engine: Combustion Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: strategies focus on...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Internal Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4: Internal Combustion Engine Energy Retention (ICEER) Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Internal Combustion Engine Energy Retention (ICEER) Presentation given by...

  15. Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission Control Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission...

  16. AMO Fuel and Feedstock Flexibility: Fuel-Flexible Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AMO Fuel and Feedstock Flexibility: Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters AMO Fuel and Feedstock Flexibility: Fuel-Flexible Combustion...

  17. Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet Cooling Enabling High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion by Adaptive In-Situ Jet Cooling A new approach, called...

  18. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation of Natural Gas HCCI Combustion: Gas CompositionPeroxide (DTBP) Additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel BlendsCharge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines: Key Research and

  19. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters -...

  20. CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  1. alternative combustion regimes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is a Novel Materials Science Websites Summary: Systems Not suitable for nano-material synthesis Reactive Sample Volume Combustion Product Heaters Self Combustion Product:...

  2. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels Analysis...

  3. Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes - ORNL-FEERC Unregulated Emissions from High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Modes - ORNL-FEERC Poster presentation at...

  4. Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI...

  5. Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines A significant...

  6. Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector and Adaptive PCCI Syngas Enhanced High Efficiency Low Temperature Combustion for Clean Diesel Engines...

  7. Evaluation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies for Meeting Future Emissions Regulations in Light-Duty Engines Evaluation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Strategies for Meeting...

  8. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Produced From Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine P-1 Particulate Produced From Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine P-1...

  9. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  10. Sandia combustion research program: Annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, R.E.; Sanders, B.R.; Ivanetich, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than a decade ago, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Our strategy was to apply the rapidly increasing capabilities in lasers and computers to combustion science and technology. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''User Facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative--involving US universities, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions of several research projects which have been stimulated by Working Groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship Program has been instrumental in the success of some of the joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents research results of calendar year 1987, separated thematically into nine categories. Refereed journal articles appearing in print during 1987, along with selected other publications, are included at the end of Section 10. In addition to our ''traditional'' research--chemistry, reacting flow, diagnostics, engine combustion, and coal combustion--you will note continued progress in somewhat recent themes: pulse combustion, high temperature materials, and energetic materials, for example. Moreover, we have just started a small, new effort to understand combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  11. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  12. FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION UNIT FOR OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Hammad; Y. Zurigat; S. Khzai; Z. Hammad; O. Mubydeem

    A fluidized bed combustion unit has been designed and installed to study the fluidized bed combustion performance using oil shale as fuel in direct burning process. It is a steel column of 18 cm inside diameter and 130 cm height fitted with a perforated plate air distributor of 611 holes, each of 1

  13. Method and system for controlled combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A. K. (Berkeley, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling combustion in internal combustion engines of both the Diesel or Otto type, which relies on establishing fluid dynamic conditions and structures wherein fuel and air are entrained, mixed and caused to be ignited in the interior of a multiplicity of eddies, and where these structures are caused to sequentially fill the headspace of the cylinders.

  14. NETL- High-Pressure Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's High-Pressure Combustion Facility is a unique resource within the National Laboratories system. It provides the test capabilities needed to evaluate new combustion concepts for high-pressure, high-temperature hydrogen and natural gas turbines. These concepts will be critical for the next generation of ultra clean, ultra efficient power systems.

  15. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Combustion Timing of Homogeneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    to predict the start of combustion in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. Qualitative and quantitative information on the individual effects of fuel and exhaust gas recirculation on the HCCI combustion-injection gasoline HCCI engine, we find that temperature is the dominant factor in determining the start

  17. A model for premixed combustion oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a simulation based on a time dependent, nonlinear control volume analysis. The combustion is modeled as a well-stirred reactor having finite kinetics. Flow properties and species in the nozzle, combustion, and tailpipe regions are determined using a control volume formulation of the conservation equation.

  18. A hybrid 2-zone/WAVE engine combustion model for simulating combustion instabilities during dilute operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal combustion engines are operated under conditions of high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce NO x emissions and promote enhanced combustion modes such as HCCI. However, high EGR under certain conditions also promotes nonlinear feedback between cycles, leading to the development of combustion instabilities and cyclic variability. We employ a two-zone phenomenological combustion model to simulate the onset of combustion instabilities under highly dilute conditions and to illustrate the impact of these instabilities on emissions and fuel efficiency. The two-zone in-cylinder combustion model is coupled to a WAVE engine-simulation code through a Simulink interface, allowing rapid simulation of several hundred successive engine cycles with many external engine parametric effects included. We demonstrate how this hybrid model can be used to study strategies for adaptive feedback control to reduce cyclic combustion instabilities and, thus, preserve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.

  19. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  20. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  1. 2003 Laser Diagnostic in Combustion Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark G. Allen

    2004-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The GRC Laser Diagnostics in Combustion aims at bringing together scientists and engineers working in the front edge of research and development to discuss and find new ways to solve problems connected to combustion diagnostics. Laser-based techniques have proven to be very efficient tools for studying combustion processes thanks to features as non-intrusiveness in combination with high spatial and temporal resolution. Major tasks for the community are to develop and apply techniques for quantitative measurements with high precision e.g of species concentrations, temperatures, velocities and particles characteristics (size and concentration). These issues are of global interest, considering that the major part of the World's energy conversion comes from combustion sources and the influence combustion processes have on the environment and society.

  2. Second Law Analysis of Constant Temperature Diesel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Druecke, Dr. Ben [University of Wisconsin; Foster, Prof. Dave [University of Wisconsin; Klein, Prof. Sandy [University of Wisconsin; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL; Graves, Ronald L [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results from a second law analysis of a constant temperature diesel combustion process are presented and show that this process is not significantly more reversible than conventional combustion. In addition to quantifying the total availability destruction in combustion, the magnitudes of the combustion irreversibilities attributable to each irreversible subprocess (mixing, oxidation and internal heat transfer) were determined. The primary contributor to combustion irreversibilities is the thermal interaction of reacting and non-reacting species during the oxidation and internal thermal energy transfer subprocesses. Increasing combustion temperature significantly decreases availability destruction by making the oxidation and internal thermal energy transfer processes more reversible. While increasing combustion temperature decreases combustion irreversibility, it also results in an increase in exhaust temperature. A tradeoff exists between large availability destruction at low combustion temperatures and large amounts of availability discarded in the exhaust at high combustion temperatures. The optimum amount of work was found to occur for a combustion temperature of approximately 1600 K.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann model for combustion and detonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Yan; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Yangjun Ying; Hua Li

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present a lattice Boltzmann model for combustion and detonation. In this model the fluid behavior is described by a finite-difference lattice Boltzmann model by Gan et al. [Physica A, 2008, 387: 1721]. The chemical reaction is described by the Lee-Tarver model [Phys. Fluids, 1980, 23: 2362]. The reaction heat is naturally coupled with the flow behavior. Due to the separation of time scales in the chemical and thermodynamic processes, a key technique for a successful simulation is to use the operator-splitting scheme. The new model is verified and validated by well-known benchmark tests. As a specific application of the new model, we studied the simple steady detonation phenomenon. To show the merit of LB model over the traditional ones, we focus on the reaction zone to study the non-equilibrium effects. It is interesting to find that, at the von Neumann peak, the system is nearly in its thermodynamic equilibrium. At the two sides of the von Neumann peak, the system deviates from its equilibrium in opposite directions. In the front of von Neumann peak, due to the strong compression from the reaction product behind the von Neumann peak, the system experiences a sudden deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium. Behind the von Neumann peak, the release of chemical energy results in thermal expansion of the matter within the reaction zone, which drives the system to deviate the thermodynamic equilibrium in the opposite direction. From the deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium, defined in this paper, one can understand more on the macroscopic effects of the system due to the deviation from its thermodynamic equilibrium.

  4. The solution combustion synthesis of nanophosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tornga, Stephanie C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanophosphors are defined as nano-sized (1-100mn), insulating, inorganic materials that emit light under particle or electromagnetic excitation. Their unique luminescence properties provide an excellent potential for applications in radiation detection and imaging. Herein, solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is presented as a method to prepare nanophosphor powders, while X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL), photoluminescence excitation (PLE), and other techniques were used to characterize their structural and optical properties. The goal of this work is to synthesize bright, high-quality powders of nanophosphors, consolidate them into bulk materials and study their structural and optical properties using XRD, TEM, PL, and PLE. SCS is of interest because it is a robust, inexpensive, and facile technique, which yields a significant amount of a wide variety of oxide materials, in a short amount of time. Several practical nanophosphors were synthesized and investigated in this work, including simple oxides such as Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Bi, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, complex oxides such as Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}:Ce, Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn, and Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce. Results demonstrate that altering the processing parameters such as water content of the precursor solution, ignition temperature, fuel type and amount, and post-synthesis annealing can significantly improve light output, and that it is possible to optimize the luminescence output of oxyorthosilicates by reducing the amount of silica in the precursor mixture.

  5. High-temperature corrosion in advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Yanez-Herrero, M.; Fornasieri, C.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces capable of operation at much elevated temperatures than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitate development/application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. The present paper characterizes the chemistry of coal-fired combustion environments over a wide temperature range of interest in these systems and discusses preliminary experimental results on several materials with potential for application in these systems. An experimental program has been initiated to evaluate materials for advanced combustion systems. Several candidate materials have been identified for evaluation. The candidates included advanced metallic alloys, monolithic ceramics, ceramic particulate/ceramic matrix composites, ceramic fiber/ceramic matrix composites, and ceramic whisker/ceramic matrix composites. The materials examined so far included nickel-base superalloys, alumina, stabilized zirconia, different types of silicon carbide, and silicon nitride. Coupon specimens of several of the materials have been tested in an air environment at 1000, 1200, and 1400{degree}C for 168 h. In addition, specimens were exposed to sodium-sulfate-containing salts at temperatures of 1000 and 1200{degree}C for 168 h. Extensive microstructural analyses were conducted on the exposed specimens to evaluate the corrosion performance of the materials for service in air and fireside environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Additional tests are underway with several of the materials to evaluate their corrosion performance as a function of salt chemistry, alkali vapor concentration, gas chemistry, exposure temperature, and exposure time.

  6. The impact of equivalence ratio oscillations on combustion dynamics in a backward-facing step combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat Altay, H.; Speth, Raymond L.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion dynamics of propane-air flames are investigated in an atmospheric pressure, atmospheric inlet temperature, lean, premixed backward-facing step combustor. We modify the location of the fuel injector to examine the impact of equivalence ratio oscillations arriving at the flame on the combustion dynamics. Simultaneous pressure, velocity, heat-release rate and equivalence ratio measurements and high-speed video from the experiments are used to identify and characterize several distinct operating modes. When the fuel is injected far upstream from the step, the equivalence ratio arriving at the flame is steady and the combustion dynamics are controlled only by flame-vortex interactions. In this case, different dynamic regimes are observed depending on the operating parameters. When the fuel is injected close to the step, the equivalence ratio arriving at the flame exhibits oscillations. In the presence of equivalence ratio oscillations, the measured sound pressure level is significant across the entire range of lean mean equivalence ratios even if the equivalence ratio oscillations arriving at the flame are out-of-phase with the pressure oscillations. The combustion dynamics are governed primarily by the flame-vortex interactions, while the equivalence ratio oscillations have secondary effects. The equivalence ratio oscillations could generate variations in the combustion dynamics in each cycle under some operating conditions, destabilize the flame at the entire range of the lean equivalence ratios, and increase the value of the mean equivalence ratio at the lean blowout limit. (author)

  7. Spectroscopy and kinetics of combustion gases at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, R.K.; Bowman, C.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw ring dye laser absorption methods for sensitive detection of radical species and measurement of fundamental spectroscopic parameters at high temperatures; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. Species currently under investigation in the spectroscopic portion of the research include NO and CH{sub 3}; this has necessitated the continued operated at wavelengths in the range 210-230 nm. Shock tube studies of reaction kinetics currently are focussed on reactions involving CH{sub 3} radicals.

  8. A simple model to help understand water use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from a diverse range of sources, including coal, natural gas, uranium, solar energy, and geothermal of thermal power plants, this paper presents a simple, generic model to predict their water usage. 2

  9. Modeling of strain rate effects on clay in simple shear 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Byoung Chan

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    in monotonic and cyclic simple shear tests. Nevertheless, the few available experimental results cover a very limited range of loading conditions and rates. The existing literature established that the soil response display a unique relationship between shear...

  10. Chaotic Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wendeker; J. Czarnigowski; G. Litak; K. Szabelski

    2002-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyse the combustion process in a spark ignition engine using the experimental data of an internal pressure during the combustion process and show that the system can be driven to chaotic behaviour. Our conclusion is based on the observation of unperiodicity in the time series, suitable stroboscopic maps and a complex structure of a reconstructed strange attractor. This analysis can explain that in some circumstances the level of noise in spark ignition engines increases considerably due to nonlinear dynamics of a combustion process.

  11. Annual Report: Advanced Combustion (30 September 2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawk, Jeffrey [NETL] [NETL; Richards, George

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Combustion Project addresses fundamental issues of fire-side and steam-side corrosion and materials performance in oxy-fuel combustion environments and provides an integrated approach into understanding the environmental and mechanical behavior such that environmental degradation can be ameliorated and long-term microstructural stability, and thus, mechanical performance can lead to longer lasting components and extended power plant life. The technical tasks of this effort are Oxy-combustion Environment Characterization, Alloy Modeling and Life Prediction, and Alloy Manufacturing and Process Development.

  12. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section B (NIMB) Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternativeinjection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use

  13. Pulse combustion: an assessment of opportunities for increased efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a literature review on pulse combustion are discussed. Current, near-future, and potential opportunities for pulse combustion applications are summarized, and the barriers to developing and using pulse combustion technology are discussed, along with research and development needs. Also provided are the proceedings of a pulse combustion workshop held in May, 1984 in Seattle, Washington. (LEW)

  14. Coal Combustion Science quarterly progress report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a quarterly status report of the Coal Combustion Science Program that is being conducted at the Combustion, Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California. Coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 56 refs., 25 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Improved Economic Performance Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Improved Economic Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants by Model Based Combustion Control #12;#12;Improved Economic Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants by Model Based-of-the-art and challenges in the operation of MSWC plants . . . 1 1.1.1 The aims of municipal solid waste combustion

  16. Using Biofuel Tracers to Study Alternative Combustion Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L.; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dibble, Robert W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal Combustion Engines The methods described below for tracing fuel component carbon in the emissions

  17. Microwave-Assisted Ignition for Improved Internal Combustion Engine Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFilippo, Anthony Cesar

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    internal combustion engine applications. Advanced engines can achieve higher efficiencies and reduced emissions

  18. Emissions from burning tire-derived fuel (TDF): Comparison of batch combustion of tire chips and continuous combustion of tire crumb mixed with coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Carlson, J.B. [Army Natick R, Natick, MA (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This laboratory study investigated the emissions of waste automobile tire-derived fuel (TDF). This fuel was burned in two different modes, either segmented in small pieces (tire chunks) or in pulverized form (tire crumb). Tire chunks were burned in fixed beds in batch mode in a horizontal furnace. Tire crumb was burned in a continous flow mode, dispersed in air, either alone or mixed with pulverized coal, in a verical furnace. The gas flow was laminar, the gas temperature was 1000{degrees}C in all cases, and the residence times of the combustion products in the furnaces were similar. Chunks of waste tires had dimensions in the range of 3-9 {mu}m, tire crumb was size-classified to be 180-212 {mu}m and the high volatile bituminous coal, used herein, was 63-75. The fuel mass loading in the furnaces was varied. The following emissions were monitored at the exit of the furnaces: CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and particulates. Results showed that combustion of TDF in fixed beds resulted in large yields (emissions per mass of fuel burned) of CO, soot and PAHs. Such yields increased with the size of the bed. CO, soot and PAHs yields from batch combustion of fixed beds of coal were lower by more than an order of magnitude than those from fixed beds of TDF. Continuous pulverized fuel combustion of TDF (tire crumb) resulted in dramatically lower yields of CO, soot and PAHs than those from batch combustion, especially when TDF was mixed with pulverized coal. To the contrary, switching the mode of combustion of coal (from fixed beds to pulverized fuel) did not result in large differences in the aforementioned emissions. CO{sub 2}, and, especially, NO{sub x} yields from batch combustion of TDF were lower than those from coal. Emissions of NO{sub x} were somewhat lower from batch combustion than from pulverized fuel combustion of TDF and coal.

  19. The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diethyl ether (DEE) in ethanol fuel blends for a range ofbio-derived fuel components (ethanol) in emission productsHCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

  20. Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axelbaum, Richard; Xia, Fei; Gopan, Akshay; Kumfer, Benjamin

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Washington University in St. Louis and its project partners are developing a unique pressurized oxy-combustion process that aims to improve efficiency and costs by reducing the recycling of flue gas to near zero. Normally, in the absence of recycled flue gas or another inert gas, combustion of fuel and oxygen results in a dramatic increase in temperature of the combustion products and radiant energy, as compared to combustion in air. High heat flux to the boiler tubes may result in a tube surface temperatures that exceed safe operating limits. In the Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (SPOC) process, this problem is addressed by staging the delivery of fuel and by novel combustion design that allows control of heat flux. In addition, the main mode of heat transfer to the steam cycle is by radiation, as opposed to convection. Therefore, the requirement for recycling large amounts of flue gas, for temperature control or to improve convective heat transfer, is eliminated, resulting in a reduction in auxiliary loads. The following report contains a detailed summary of scientific findings and accomplishments for the period of Oct. 1, 2013 to Sept 30, 2014. Results of ASPEN process and CFD modelling activities aimed at improving the SPOC process and boiler design are presented. The effects of combustion pressure and fuel moisture on the plant efficiency are discussed. Combustor pressure is found to have only a minor impact beyond 16 bar. For fuels with moisture content greater than approx 30%, e.g. coal/water slurries, the amount of latent heat of condensation exceeds that which can be utilized in the steam cycle and plant efficiency is reduced significantly. An improved boiler design is presented that achieves a more uniform heat flux profile. In addition, a fundamental study of radiation in high-temperature, high-pressure, particle-laden flows is summarized which provides a more complete understanding of heat transfer in these unusual conditions and to allow for optimization. The results reveal that for the SPOC design, absorption and emission due to particles is the dominant factor for determining the wall heat flux. The mechanism of “radiative trapping” of energy within the high-temperature flame region and the approach to utilizing this mechanism to control wall heat flux are described. This control arises, by design, from the highly non-uniform (non-premixed) combustion characteristics within the SPOC boiler, and the resulting gradients in temperature and particle concentration. Finally, a simple method for estimating the wall heat flux in pressurized combustion systems is presented.

  1. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34 (2008) 377416 Discrete reaction waves: Gasless combustion of solid powder mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34 (2008) 377­416 Discrete reaction waves: Gasless combustion of solid powder mixtures A.S. Mukasyana,Ã, A.S. Rogachevb a Department of Chemical Abstract This review considers a specific domain in combustion science, so-called discrete combustion waves

  2. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 28, 2000/pp. 16631669 COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY OF PROPANE: A CASE STUDY OF DETAILED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hai

    1663 Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 28, 2000/pp. 1663­1669 COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY Detailed chemical reaction mechanisms describing hydrocarbon combustion chemistry are conceptually to small-hydrocarbon combustion data are secure foundations upon which to optimize the rate parameters

  3. Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. , 2010 Combustion of Heterogeneous Nanostructural Systems (Review)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. ­, 2010 Combustion of Heterogeneous submitted November 26, 2009. The current status of research in the field of combustion of heterogeneous mechanisms of combustion in such systems and prospects of their further applications are discussed. Key words

  4. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 1. F. Obert, Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution, Intext Educational Publishers, 1973

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldwasser, Shafi

    BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 1. F. Obert, Internal Combustion Engines and Air, The Internal Combustion Engine, International Textbook Company, 1961. (A basic text now out of print and somewhat dated.) 3. C.F. Taylor, The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice. Volumes I and II, M

  5. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    tools for understanding fuel-property effects on - Combustion - Engine efficiency optimization - Emissions Partners Project lead: Sandia - C.J. Mueller (PI); C.J. Polonowski...

  6. Vortex driven flame dynamics and combustion instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altay, Hurrem Murat

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion instability in premixed combustors mostly arises due to the coupling between heat release rate dynamics and system acoustics. It is crucial to understand the instability mechanisms to design reliable, high ...

  7. Active combustion control : modeling, design and implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sungbae, 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous combustion systems common in propulsion and power generation applications are susceptible to thermoacoustic instability, which occurs under lean burn conditions close to the flammability where most emissions and ...

  8. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  9. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vuk, Carl T. (Denver, IA)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  10. Coal Combustion By-Products (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of the Environment is responsible for regulating fugitive air emissions from the transportation of coal combustion by-products and the permissible beneficial uses of these by...

  11. Researchers create successful predictions of combustion reaction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    successful predictions of combustion reaction rates By Jared Sagoff * January 5, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne and Sandia National...

  12. Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    advanced control concepts and enabling system to manage multi-modemulti-fuel combustion events and achieve an up to 30 percent fuel economy improvement deer11yilmaz.pdf...

  13. Flex-flame burner and combustion method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soupos, Vasilios (Chicago, IL); Zelepouga, Serguei (Hoffman Estates, IL); Rue, David M. (Chicago, IL); Abbasi, Hamid A. (Naperville, IL)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion method and apparatus which produce a hybrid flame for heating metals and metal alloys, which hybrid flame has the characteristic of having an oxidant-lean portion proximate the metal or metal alloy and having an oxidant-rich portion disposed above the oxidant lean portion. This hybrid flame is produced by introducing fuel and primary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber containing the metal or metal alloy in a substoichiometric ratio to produce a fuel-rich flame and by introducing a secondary combustion oxidant into the furnace chamber above the fuel-rich flame in a manner whereby mixing of the secondary combustion oxidant with the fuel-rich flame is delayed for a portion of the length of the flame.

  14. Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

    Because of its unique ability to handle a wide variety of liquids and solids in an energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner, fluid bed combustion is being increasingly applied to the utilization of waste materials and low grade fuels...

  15. Smouldering Combustion Phenomena in Science and Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo

    Smouldering is the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion of a condensed fuel. It poses safety and environmental hazards and allows novel technological application but its fundamentals remain mostly unknown ...

  16. Combustion characteristics of alternative liquid fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Cheng Tung

    2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    atomizer are investigated using a phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) under non-reacting conditions. The droplet size and velocity distribution of biodiesels are compared to conventional fuels. For spray combustion investigations, a generic gas turbine...

  17. Light-Duty Advanced Diesel Combustion Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    contains no proprietary or confidential information Light-Duty Advanced Diesel Combustion Research Program Manager: Gurpreet Singh, EERE-OVT M O F E Y D P A R T E N T N E E R...

  18. Control of NOx by combustion process modifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ber?, J. M.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical and experimental study was carried out to determine lower bounds of NOx emission from staged combustion of a 0.7%N #6 fuel oil. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic calculations have shown minimum NOx emissions ...

  19. Improved Solvers for Advanced Engine Combustion Simulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    53560 Improved Solvers for Advanced Engine Combustion Simulation M. J. McNenly (PI), S. M. Aceves, D. L. Flowers, N. J. Killingsworth, G. M. Oxberry, G. Petitpas and R. A....

  20. Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farbstein, S. B.; Moreland, T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project to build a PYROFLOW circulating fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler at the BFGoodrich Chemical Plant at Henry, Illinois, is described. This project is being partially funded by Illinois to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing high...

  1. Predicting combustion properties of hydrocarbon fuel mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Claude Franklin, III

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I applied computational quantum chemistry to improve the accuracy of kinetic mechanisms that are used to model combustion chemistry. I performed transition state theory calculations for several reactions ...

  2. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  3. State of Fluidized Bed Combustion Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new combustion technology has been developed in the last decade that permits the burning of low quality coal, lignite and other fuels, while maintaining stack emissions within State and Federal EPA limits. Low quality fuels can be burned...

  4. Combustion systems for power-MEMS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Christopher Michael), 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of an effort to develop a micro-scale gas turbine engine for power generation and micro-propulsion applications, this thesis presents the design, fabrication, experimental testing, and modeling of the combustion ...

  5. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

  6. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitrolo, Augustine A. (Fairmont, WV); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Shang, Jerry Y. (Fairfax, VA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  7. Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Baseline Powertrain: 3.6L V6, PFI, 6 Speed * Target Powertrain: 2.0L I4, DI, Turbo, 6 Speed -Multi Mode Combustion SIHCCI * 30% Fuel Economy Improvement Compared to...

  8. Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    concepts. * Target Multi Mode Combustion Engine is based on the GM Ecotec 2.0 L DI Turbo platform * Base Engine HW design, improvements for target engine configuration and...

  9. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  10. Coal-Fired Fluidized Bed Combustion Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thunem, C.; Smith, N.

    COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION COGENERATION Cabot Thunem, P.E Norm Smith, P.E. Stanley Consultants, Inc. Muscatine, Iowa ABSTRACT The availability of an environmentally accep table multifuel technology, such as fluidized bed... combustion, has encouraged many steam producers/ users to investigate switching from oil or gas to coal. Changes in federal regulations encouraging cogeneration have further enhanced the economic incentives for primary fuel switching. However...

  11. Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a meeting overview of 'The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World', held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, Texas. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

  12. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be expanded at OSU, with support from state and federal agencies, utilities, trade groups, and the university, to focus on the following four specific areas of promise: (a) Expanding use in proven areas (such as use of fly ash in concrete); (b) Removing or reducing regulatory and perceptual barriers to use (by working in collaboration with regulatory agencies); (c) Developing new or under-used large-volume market applications (such as structural fills); and (d) Placing greater emphasis on FGD byproducts utilization.

  13. Dust Combustion Safety Issues for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a safety research task to identify the safety issues and phenomenology of metallic dust fires and explosions that are postulated for fusion experiments. There are a variety of metal dusts that are created by plasma erosion and disruptions within the plasma chamber, as well as normal industrial dusts generated in the more conventional equipment in the balance of plant. For fusion, in-vessel dusts are generally mixtures of several elements; that is, the constituent elements in alloys and the variety of elements used for in-vessel materials. For example, in-vessel dust could be composed of beryllium from a first wall coating, tungsten from a divertor plate, copper from a plasma heating antenna or diagnostic, and perhaps some iron and chromium from the steel vessel wall or titanium and vanadium from the vessel wall. Each of these elements has its own unique combustion characteristics, and mixtures of elements must be evaluated for the mixture’s combustion properties. Issues of particle size, dust temperature, and presence of other combustible materials (i.e., deuterium and tritium) also affect combustion in air. Combustion in other gases has also been investigated to determine if there are safety concerns with “inert” atmospheres, such as nitrogen. Several coolants have also been reviewed to determine if coolant breach into the plasma chamber would enhance the combustion threat; for example, in-vessel steam from a water coolant breach will react with metal dust. The results of this review are presented here.

  14. Combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines: Experiments and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D L

    2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are being considered as an alternative to diesel engines. The HCCI concept involves premixing fuel and air prior to induction into the cylinder (as is done in current spark-ignition engine) then igniting the fuel-air mixture through the compression process (as is done in current diesel engines). The combustion occurring in an HCCI engine is fundamentally different from a spark-ignition or Diesel engine in that the heat release occurs as a global autoignition process, as opposed to the turbulent flame propagation or mixing controlled combustion used in current engines. The advantage of this global autoignition is that the temperatures within the cylinder are uniformly low, yielding very low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}, the chief precursors to photochemical smog). The inherent features of HCCI combustion allows for design of engines with efficiency comparable to, or potentially higher than, diesel engines. While HCCI engines have great potential, several technical barriers exist which currently prevent widespread commercialization of this technology. The most significant challenge is that the combustion timing cannot be controlled by typical in-cylinder means. Means of controlling combustion have been demonstrated, but a robust control methodology that is applicable to the entire range of operation has yet to be developed. This research focuses on understanding basic characteristics of controlling and operating HCCI engines. Experiments and detailed chemical kinetic simulations have been applied to the characterize some of the fundamental operational and design characteristics of HCCI engines. Experiments have been conducted on single and multi-cylinder engines to investigate general features of how combustion timing affects the performance and emissions of HCCI engines. Single-zone modeling has been used to characterize and compare the implementation of different control strategies. Multi-zone modeling has been applied to investigate combustion chamber design with respect to increasing efficiency and reducing emissions in HCCI engines.

  15. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, J. Michael (Lakewood, CO); Diener, Michael D. (Denver, CO); Nabity, James (Arvada, CO); Karpuk, Michael (Boulder, CO)

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  16. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  17. Fluidized bed combustion of alternate fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, W.C.; Divilio, R.J. [Combustion Systems, Inc., Aptos, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology offers the opportunity combust a broader range of fuels than previously possible with other technologies. FBC boilers are currently being used throughout the world to dispose of a wide range of solid and semi-solid waste fuels, including municipal and industrial solid wastes and sludges, agricultural wastes, and coal mining or cleaning wastes. FBCs can also accommodate cofiring waste fuels in units designed for coal or other solid fuels with relative ease compared to conventional technology. The capacity and experience base for coal-fired FBCs has increased in recent years so that utility-scale reheat units of 200-300 MWe in size are now commercially available, and larger units are now being considered. As utilities install fluidized bed boilers to generate power, it is anticipated that many will at some point consider cofiring one or more waste fuels either together or with coal to reduce the quantity and cost of the primary fuel, and in many cases, help offset the environmental impact of other disposal options such as landfills. In order to assist the industry in their evaluations, this report summarizes the fuel characteristics, experience base, and technical issues associated with burning selected fuels using FBC technology, including: Municipal Solid Wastes; Biomass; Sewage Sludge; Paper Manufacturing and Recycling Wastes; Scrap Tires; and Automobile Wastes.

  18. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) research and development program is designed to develop the technology and data base required for the successful commercialization of the PFBC concept. A cooperative program with the US, West Germany, and the UK has resulted in the construction of the 25 MWe IEA-Grimethorpe combined-cycle pilot plant in England which will be tested in 1981. A 13 MWe coal-fired gas turbine (air cycle) at Curtis-Wright has been designed and construction scheduled. Start-up is planned to begin in early 1983. A 75 MWe pilot plant is planned for completion in 1986. Each of these PFBC combined-cycle programs is discussed. The current status of PFB technology may be summarized as follows: turbine erosion tolerance/hot gas cleanup issues have emerged as the barrier technology issues; promising turbine corrosion-resistant materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking; first-generation PFB combustor technology development is maturing at the PDU level; however, scale-up to larger size has not been demonstrated; and in-bed heat exchanger materials have been identified, but long-term exposure data is lacking. The DOE-PFB development plan is directed at the resolution of these key technical issues. (LCL)

  19. Kinetics and energetics of oxidation of bitumen in relation to in-situ combustion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barta, L.; Hepler, L.G.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ combustion processes involve injection of air or oxygen into the formation to burn part of the bitumen, thereby producing heat that raises the temperature of the reservoir. At low temperatures (<<300/sup 0/C) oxidation is incomplete and leads to an increase in viscosity and to enhances deposition of coke or oxidized bituman that has lower heating value than cokes formed by purely thermal processes. These incomplete oxidation reactions, collectively called ''low temperature oxidation'' or ''LTO'', predominate during the ignition delay period of in-situ combustion and also occur ahead of the combustion front when oxygen is available. It is therefore important to have knowledge of the kinetics of bitumen in the temperature range in which LTO occurs.

  20. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from Fuel Combustion in 2004.. 34Emissions from Fuel Combustion in California, Million MetricEmission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in

  1. An acoustic energy framework for predicting combustion- driven acoustic instabilities in premixed gas-turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim, Zuhair M. A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Swirl Vane Location on Combustion Dynamics," ASME Turbo-ExpoC.E. , " Passive Control of Combustion Instability in Lean2] Williams, F. A. , " Combustion Theory," Second ed. 1985,

  2. An Explicit Runge-Kutta Iteration for Diffusion in the Low Mach Number Combustion Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    usion in the Low Mach Number Combustion Code Joseph F. Grcarthe low Mach number combustion code. Contents 1 Introductionthe low Mach number combustion code, LMC. The multicomponent

  3. CATALYZED COMBUSTION IN A FLAT PLATE BOUNDARY LAYER II. NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schefer, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D.G. , Fourteenth Sympo- sium (International) on Combustion,The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 107 (1973). Wilson,Program for Calculation of Combustion Reaction Equilibrium

  4. CATALYZED COMBUSTION IN A FLAT PLATE BOUNDARY LAYER I. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS AND COMPARISON WITH NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robben, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    l~ Roberts, "Catathermal Combustion: A New Process for Lm'l-significant gas phase combustion is induced by the presenceInternational) on Combustion (to be published), The

  5. THE COMBUSTION OF SOLVENT REPINED COAL IN AN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, W.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pyrolysis of various polymers under combustion conditions.Fourteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion,The Combustion Institute Pittsburgh, 1177. Chin, W.K. and

  6. A Topological Framework for the Interactive Exploration of Large Scale Turbulent Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bremer, Peer-Timo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comparison of terascale combustion simulation data. Mathe-premixed hydrogen ?ames. Combustion and Flame, [7] J. L.of Large Scale Turbulent Combustion Peer-Timo Bremer 1 ,

  7. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1973) Enthalpies of Combustion and Maximum Temperatures ofBurner Assembly Combustion Chamber Exhaust System. . CHAPTERIlMeasurement of NO and N02 in Combustion Systems," Western

  8. Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion & Heavy-Duty Combustion Modeling Heavy-Duty Low-Temperature and Diesel Combustion &...

  9. Application of Genetic Algorithms and Thermogravimetry to Determine the Kinetics of Polyurethane Foam in Smoldering Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rein, Guillermo; Lautenberger, Chris; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Torero, Jose; Urban, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dimensional smoldering combustion. Figure 10. Results forModeling of Smoldering Combustion Propagation, Progressin Energy and Combustion Science 11, pp. 277-310. 2. T.J.

  10. Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, Vi H.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validatingfor Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: A Validation ofs ability to predict combustion gas spillage events due to

  11. An acoustic energy framework for predicting combustion- driven acoustic instabilities in premixed gas-turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim, Zuhair M. A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During Premix Gas Turbine Combustion," Journal ofApplication to Gas-Turbine Combustion Instability Analysis,"Clavin, P. , " Premixed Combustion and Gas Dynamics," Annual

  12. COMBUSTION RESEARCH Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the post- combustion environment of prototype oil fuels. Thein a laboratory combustion tunnel fired with light fuel oilsfuel oil. The tem- perature of the products of combustion

  13. High Efficiency Burners by Retrofit - A Simple Inexpensive Way to Improve Combustion Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, W. T.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing direct fired process heaters and steam boilers can have their efficiencies remarkably improved, and thus cut the fuel bill, by conversion from conventional type natural draft burners to high intensity, "forced draft" type burners...

  14. Oxy-Combustion Burner and Integrated Pollutant Removal Research and Development Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Schoenfield; Manny Menendez; Thomas Ochs; Rigel Woodside; Danylo Oryshchyn

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A high flame temperature oxy-combustion test facility consisting of a 5 MWe equivalent test boiler facility and 20 KWe equivalent IPR® was constructed at the Hammond, Indiana manufacturing site. The test facility was operated natural gas and coal fuels and parametric studies were performed to determine the optimal performance conditions and generated the necessary technical data required to demonstrate the technologies are viable for technical and economic scale-up. Flame temperatures between 4930-6120F were achieved with high flame temperature oxy-natural gas combustion depending on whether additional recirculated flue gases are added to balance the heat transfer. For high flame temperature oxy-coal combustion, flame temperatures in excess of 4500F were achieved and demonstrated to be consistent with computational fluid dynamic modeling of the burner system. The project demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness of the Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process with Integrated Pollutant Removal process for CCS and CCUS. With these technologies total parasitic power requirements for both oxygen production and carbon capture currently are in the range of 20% of the gross power output. The Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process has been demonstrated at a Technology Readiness Level of 6 and is ready for commencement of a demonstration project.

  15. Development and evaluation of coal/water mixture combustion technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheffee, R.S.; Rossmeissl, N.P.; Skolnik, E.G.; McHale, E.T.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective was to advance the technology for the preparation, storage, handling and combustion of highly-loaded coal/water mixtures. A systematic program to prepare and experimentally evaluate coal/water mixtures was conducted to develop mixtures which (1) burn efficiently using combustion chambers and burners designed for oil, (2) can be provided at a cost less than that of No. 6 oil, and (3) can be easily transported and stored. The program consisted of three principal tasks. The first was a literature survey relevant to coal/water mixture technology. The second involved slurry preparation and evaluation of rheological and stability properties, and processing techniques. The third consisted of combustion tests to characterize equipment and slurry parameters. The first task comprised a complete search of the literature, results of which are tabulated in Appendix A. Task 2 was involved with the evaluation of composition and process variables on slurry rheology and stability. Three bituminous coals, representing a range of values of volatile content, ash content, and hardness were used in the slurries. Task 3 was concerned with the combustion behavior of coal/water slurry. The studies involved first upgrading of an experimental furnace facility, which was used to burn slurry fuels, with emphasis on studying the effect on combustion of slurry properties such as viscosity and particle size, and the effect of equipment parameters such as secondary air preheat and atomization.

  16. Mixing and flame structures inferred from OH-PLIF for conventional and low-temperature diesel engine combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Satbir [General Motors Research and Development, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Musculus, Mark P.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Reitz, Rolf D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of first- and second-stage combustion is investigated in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder optical engine using chemiluminescence imaging, Mie-scatter imaging of liquid-fuel, and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (OH-PLIF) along with calculations of fluorescence quenching. Three different diesel combustion modes are studied: conventional non-diluted high-temperature combustion (HTC) with either (1) short or (2) long ignition delay, and (3) highly diluted low-temperature combustion (LTC) with early fuel injection. For the short ignition delay HTC condition, the OH fluorescence images show that second-stage combustion occurs mainly on the fuel jet periphery in a thickness of about 1 mm. For the long ignition delay HTC condition, the second-stage combustion zone on the jet periphery is thicker (5-6 mm). For the early-injection LTC condition, the second-stage combustion is even thicker (20-25 mm) and occurs only in the down-stream regions of the jet. The relationship between OH concentration and OH-PLIF intensity over a range of equivalence ratios is estimated from quenching calculations using collider species concentrations predicted by chemical kinetics simulations of combustion. The calculations show that both OH concentration and OH-PLIF intensity peak near stoichiometric mixtures and fall by an order of magnitude or more for equivalence ratios less than 0.2-0.4 and greater than 1.4-1.6. Using the OH fluorescence quenching predictions together with OH-PLIF images, quantitative boundaries for mixing are established for the three engine combustion modes. (author)

  17. FLUCTUATIONS AND SIMPLE CHAOTIC DYNAMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FLUCTUATIONS AND SIMPLE CHAOTIC DYNAMICS J.P. CRUTCHFIELD and J.D. FARMER Physics Board of Studies FLUCTUATIONS AND SIMPLE CHAOTIC DYNAMICS J.P. CRUTCHFIELD and J.D. FARMER* Physics Board of Studies, Universiiy anharmonic oscillator 76 2. Dynamics in the absence of fluctuations 48 Appendix B. Characteristic exponents

  18. Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-Low NOx Hydrogen Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Precision Combustion, Inc., (PCI) in close collaboration with Solar Turbines, Incorporated, has developed and demonstrated a combustion system for hydrogen fueled turbines that reduces NOx to low single digit level while maintaining or improving current levels of efficiency and eliminating emissions of carbon dioxide. Full scale Rich Catalytic Hydrogen (RCH1) injector was developed and successfully tested at Solar Turbines, Incorporated high pressure test facility demonstrating low single digit NOx emissions for hydrogen fuel in the range of 2200F-2750F. This development work was based on initial subscale development for faster turnaround and reduced cost. Subscale testing provided promising results for 42% and 52% H2 with NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm with improved flame stability. In addition, catalytic reactor element testing for substrate oxidation, thermal cyclic injector testing to simulate start-stop operation in a gas turbine environment, and steady state 15 atm. operation testing were performed successfully. The testing demonstrated stable and robust catalytic element component life for gas turbine conditions. The benefit of the catalytic hydrogen combustor technology includes capability of delivering near-zero NOx without costly post-combustion controls and without requirement for added sulfur control. In addition, reduced acoustics increase gas turbine component life. These advantages advances Department of Energy (DOE’s) objectives for achievement of low single digit NOx emissions, improvement in efficiency vs. postcombustion controls, fuel flexibility, a significant net reduction in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system net capital and operating costs, and a route to commercialization across the power generation field from micro turbines to industrial and utility turbines.

  19. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  20. Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, S.B. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The motivation for this project is the need to obtain a better quantitative understanding of the technologically-important phenomenon of turbulent combustion. In nearly all applications in which fuel is burned-for example, fossil-fuel power plants, furnaces, gas-turbines and internal-combustion engines-the combustion takes place in a turbulent flow. Designers continually demand more quantitative information about this phenomenon-in the form of turbulent combustion models-so that they can design equipment with increased efficiency and decreased environmental impact. For some time the PI has been developing a class of turbulent combustion models known as PDF methods. These methods have the important virtue that both convection and reaction can be treated without turbulence-modelling assumptions. However, a mixing model is required to account for the effects of molecular diffusion. Currently, the available mixing models are known to have some significant defects. The major motivation of the project is to seek a better understanding of molecular diffusion in turbulent reactive flows, and hence to develop a better mixing model.

  1. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  2. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott [ORNL; Hanson, Reed M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition is a low-temperature combustion technique that has been shown, both in computational fluid dynamics modeling and single-cylinder experiments, to obtain diesel-like efficiency or better with ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions, while operating primarily on gasoline-like fuels. This paper investigates reactivity controlled compression ignition operation on a four-cylinder light-duty diesel engine with production-viable hardware using conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Experimental results are presented over a wide speed and load range using a systematic approach for achieving successful steady-state reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion. The results demonstrated diesel-like efficiency or better over the operating range explored with low engine-out nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. A peak brake thermal efficiency of 39.0% was demonstrated for 2600 r/min and 6.9 bar brake mean effective pressure with nitrogen oxide emissions reduced by an order of magnitude compared to conventional diesel combustion operation. Reactivity controlled compression ignition emissions and efficiency results are compared to conventional diesel combustion operation on the same engine.

  3. Development of a reduced n-heptane oxidation mechanism for HCCI combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maroteaux, F.; Noel, L. [University Pierre et Marie Curie, INRIA Rocquencourt, B.P. 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex (France)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is one of the alternatives to reduce significantly engine emissions for future regulations. This new alternative combustion process is mainly controlled by chemical kinetics in comparison with the conventional combustion in internal combustion engines. The optimization of the engine over the complete engine operation range requires an accurate analysis of the combustion process under all operating conditions; detailed modeling of the HCCI process is an opportunity to realize the engine optimization at lower cost. The combination of CFD computations with detailed chemistry leads to excessive computation times, and is not achievable with current computer capabilities. In this paper, a reduced chemical model for n-heptane is described, in view of its implementation into a CFD simulation code. In the first part, the reduction process to get to the 61-step mechanism is detailed and then the 26-step mechanism is described; this further reduction is carried out under various conditions that include a range of interest in engine applications. The third part is dedicated to extensive validation work in reference to the original detailed mechanism and two reduced mechanisms published in the literature, focusing on the prediction of ignition delay times under constant as well as variable volume conditions. A good and accurate reproduction of both ignition delay times and heat release can be reached with the 26-step model. (author)

  4. Hybrid SI-HCCI combustion modes and the potential for control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the fuel efficiency of gasoline engines is necessary to realize a significant reduction in U.S. energy usage. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) in internal combustion engines is of considerable interest because of the potential reductions in flame temperature and nitrogen oxide emissions as well as potential fuel economy improvements resulting from un-throttled operation, faster heat release, and reduced heat transfer losses. Unfortunately for many transportation applications, HCCI may not be possible or practical under the full range of speed and load conditions. Thus, the most important technical developments needed to achieve wide-spread HCCI utilization are expanding the operational range and the ability to switch between HCCI and traditional propagating flame (e.g., spark ignition) combustion as power and speed change. Several recent publications and presentations have begun to address the control issues but have not focused on the fundamental nature of the transition dynamics associated with switching from SI to HCCI combustion. The development of both combustion-mode switching and stabilization technologies requires that the fundamental nature of the transition be well understood, especially in the context of realistic engine conditions.

  5. Air permitting guidelines for combustion turbine projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macak, J.J. III [Mostardi-Platt Associates, Inc., Elmhurst, IL (United States); Schott, G.A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Before construction can begin on a new combustion turbine facility, an air permit must be obtained. The air permitting process is generally the critical path permit, often taking in excess of one year to receive final approval. Careful consideration and understanding of combustion turbine operational characteristics and air pollutant emissions will expedite the air permitting process. The purpose of this paper is to identify key issues related to combustion turbine operation that will aid in the preparation of air permit applications. However, before applying for an air permit, a pre-application meeting should be held with the regulatory agency to present an overview of the proposed project, as well as develop the requisite protocols to begin the process.

  6. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  7. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

  8. Spectroscopy, Kinetics, and Dynamics of Combustion Radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesbitt, David J. [Research/Professor

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectroscopy, kinetics and dynamics of jet cooled hydrocarbon transients relevant to the DOE combustion mission have been explored, exploiting i) high resolution IR lasers, ii) slit discharge sources for formation of jet cooled radicals, and iii) high sensitivity detection with direct laser absorption methods and near the quantum shot noise limit. What makes this combination powerful is that such transients can be made under high concentrations and pressures characteristic of actual combustion conditions, and yet with the resulting species rapidly cooled (T ?10-15K) in the slit supersonic expansion. Combined with the power of IR laser absorption methods, this provides novel access to spectral detection and study of many critical combustion species.

  9. Combustion Engineering IGCC Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H.E.; Thibeault, P.R.; Gibson, C.R.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C-E gasification process uses an entrained-flow, two-stage, slagging bottom gasifier. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the gasifier concept. Some of the coal and all of the char is fed to the combustor section, while the remaining coal is fed to the reducter section of the gasifier. The coal and char in the combustor is mixed with air and the fuel-rich mixture is burned creating the high temperature necessary to gasify the coal and melt the mineral matter in the coal. The slag flows through a slag tap at the bottom of the combustor into a water-filled slag tank where it is quenched and transformed into an inert, glassy, granular material. This vitrified slag is non-leaching, making it easy to dispose of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The hot gas leaving the combustor enters the second stage called the reductor. In the reducter, the char gasification occurs along the length of the reductor zone until the temperature falls to a point where the gasification kinetics become too slow. Once the gas temperature reaches this level, essentially no further gasification takes place and the gases subsequently are cooled with convective surface to a temperature low enough to enter the cleanup system. Nearly all of the liberated energy from the coal that does not produce fuel gas is collected and recovered with steam generating surface either in the walls of the vessel or by conventional boiler convective surfaces in the backpass of the gasifier. A mixture of unburned carbon and ash (called char) is carried out of the gasifier with the product gas strewn. The char is collected and recycled back to the gasifier where it is consumed. Thus, there is no net production of char which results in negligible carbon loss. The product gas enters a desulfurization system where it is cleaned of sulfur compounds present in the fuel gas. The clean fuel gas is now available for use in the gas turbine combuster for an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application.

  10. Combustion Engineering IGCC Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H.E.; Thibeault, P.R.; Gibson, C.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C-E gasification process uses an entrained-flow, two-stage, slagging bottom gasifier. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the gasifier concept. Some of the coal and all of the char is fed to the combustor section, while the remaining coal is fed to the reducter section of the gasifier. The coal and char in the combustor is mixed with air and the fuel-rich mixture is burned creating the high temperature necessary to gasify the coal and melt the mineral matter in the coal. The slag flows through a slag tap at the bottom of the combustor into a water-filled slag tank where it is quenched and transformed into an inert, glassy, granular material. This vitrified slag is non-leaching, making it easy to dispose of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The hot gas leaving the combustor enters the second stage called the reductor. In the reducter, the char gasification occurs along the length of the reductor zone until the temperature falls to a point where the gasification kinetics become too slow. Once the gas temperature reaches this level, essentially no further gasification takes place and the gases subsequently are cooled with convective surface to a temperature low enough to enter the cleanup system. Nearly all of the liberated energy from the coal that does not produce fuel gas is collected and recovered with steam generating surface either in the walls of the vessel or by conventional boiler convective surfaces in the backpass of the gasifier. A mixture of unburned carbon and ash (called char) is carried out of the gasifier with the product gas strewn. The char is collected and recycled back to the gasifier where it is consumed. Thus, there is no net production of char which results in negligible carbon loss. The product gas enters a desulfurization system where it is cleaned of sulfur compounds present in the fuel gas. The clean fuel gas is now available for use in the gas turbine combuster for an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application.

  11. Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, Vi H.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances:and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: A

  12. Microscale combustion: Technology development and fundamental research Yiguang Ju a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Yiguang

    of micro-thrusters, micro internal combustion engines, and micro chemical reactors summarized. ThirdlyReview Microscale combustion: Technology development and fundamental research Yiguang Ju a , Kaoru Maruta b,* a Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

  13. Improved Combustion Efficiencies - Control Systems for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varma, A. C.; Prengle, H. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study of the importance and applications of modern combustion control systems for retrofitting existing boilers and heaters to increase combustion efficiency. Conventional heater control and its deficiencies...

  14. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Advanced Combustion R&D Annual Progress Report This report describes the progress made on the research and...

  16. Development of a Robust Accelerometer-based Start of Combustion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    a Robust Accelerometer-based Start of Combustion Sensing System Development of a Robust Accelerometer-based Start of Combustion Sensing System Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office...

  17. H2 Internal Combustion Engine Research Towards 45% efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal Combustion Engine Research Towards 45% efficiency and Tier2-Bin5 emissions H2 Internal Combustion Engine Research Towards 45% efficiency and Tier2-Bin5 emissions 2009 DOE...

  18. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion DE-FC26-05NT42413 William de Ojeda International Truck and Engine Company 26 Feb 2008 This...

  19. Maximizing Combustion Efficiency Through Selection of Optimum CO Control Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, G. F.; Ketchum, R. L.

    With the increased emphasis on improved combustion control and the availability of accurate and reliable multi-parameter combustion instrumentation, an analytical technique is needed to supplant the previous incomplete assumptions and misleading...

  20. Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Designs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Designs for SI and CI Engines Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Designs for SI and CI Engines 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  1. A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated...

  2. Combustion Gas Turbine Power Enhancement by Refrigeration of Inlet Air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meher-Homji, C. B.; Mani, G.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion gas turbines have gained widespread acceptance for mechanical drive and power generation applications. One key drawback of a combustion turbine is that its specific output and thermal efficiency vary quite significantly with variations...

  3. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels Re-direct Destination: A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum...

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion in a Light-Duty Engine High-Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine via Fuel Reactivity Control...

  5. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

  6. Combustion Gas Turbine Power Enhancement by Refrigeration of Inlet Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meher-Homji, C. B.; Mani, G.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion gas turbines have gained widespread acceptance for mechanical drive and power generation applications. One key drawback of a combustion turbine is that its specific output and thermal efficiency vary quite significantly with variations...

  7. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Laboratory Department of Energy Project ID ace37deojeda 2 Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion DE-FC26-05NT42413 Project Overview...

  8. Soot formation in diesel combustion under high-EGR conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idicheria, Cherian A.; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel to investigate soot formation at diesel combustion conditions - in a high exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) environment. The ambient oxygen concentration was decreased systematically from 21% to 8% to simulate a wide range of EGR conditions. Quantitative measurements of in-situ soot in quasi-steady n-heptane and No.2 diesel fuel jets were made by using laser extinction and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurements. Flame lift-off length measurements were also made in support of the soot measurements. At constant ambient temperature, results show that the equivalence ratio estimated at the lift-off length does not vary with the use of EGR, implying an equal amount of fuel-air mixing prior to combustion. Soot measurements show that the soot volume fraction decreases with increasing EGR. The regions of soot formation are effectively 'stretched out' to longer axial and radial distances from the injector with increasing EGR, according to the dilution in ambient oxygen. However, the axial soot distribution and location of maximum soot collapses if plotted in terms of a 'flame coordinate', where the relative fuel-oxygen mixture is equivalent. The total soot in the jet cross-section at the maximum axial soot location initially increases and then decreases to zero as the oxygen concentration decreases from 21% to 8%. The trend is caused by competition between soot formation rates and increasing residence time. Soot formation rates decrease with decreasing oxygen concentration because of the lower combustion temperatures. At the same time, the residence time for soot formation increases, allowing more time for accumulation of soot. Increasing the ambient temperature above nominal diesel engine conditions leads to a rapid increase in soot for high-EGR conditions when compared to conditions with no EGR. This result emphasizes the importance of EGR cooling and its beneficial effect on mitigating soot formation. The effect of EGR is consistent for different fuels but soot levels depend on the sooting propensity of the fuel. Specifically, No.2 diesel fuel produces soot levels more than ten times higher than those of n-heptane.

  9. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.; Brewster, B.S.; Kramer, S.K. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Goal of DOE`s Advanced Turbine Systems program is to develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Primary objective of the program here is to develop a comprehensive combustion model for advanced gas turbine combustion systems using natural gas (coal gasification or biomass fuels). The efforts included code evaluation (PCGC-3), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, and laser-induced fluorescence.

  10. Degradation of Materials in Combustion Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbins, J. M.; Federer, J. I.; Parks, W. P. Jr.; Reid, J. S.

    Report No.2, Analysis of Basic Refractories Degraded by Residual Oil Combustion Products," ORNL/TM-6088, February 1978. [4] G. C. Wei and V. J. Tennery, "Effects of Alternate Fuels Report No.3, Analysis of High-Duty Fireclay Refractories Degraded..., April 1978. [6] G. C. Wei and V. J. Tennery, "Effects of Alternate Fuels Report No.5, Analysis of Fused Cast AZS Refractory, Silica Refractory, and High-MgO Refractory Degraded by Residual Oil Combustion Products," ORNL/TM-6278, April 1978. [7] G...

  11. Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cool, T.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

  12. Kinetic data base for combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, W.; Herron, J.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is to develop a set of evaluated rate constants for use in the simulation of hydrocarbon combustion. The approach has been to begin with the small molecules and then introduce larger species with the various structural elements that can be found in all hydrocarbon fuels and decomposition products. Currently, the data base contains most of the species present in combustion systems with up to four carbon atoms. Thus, practically all the structural grouping found in aliphatic compounds have now been captured. The direction of future work is the addition of aromatic compounds to the data base.

  13. Preheated Combustion Air | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1DepartmentPreheated Combustion Air Preheated Combustion Air This

  14. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldeira, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffert, M.I. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth System Sciences; Siegenthaler, U. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  15. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  16. Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center Post-Doctoral Position...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University and Sandia National Laboratories on advanced simulations of turbulent combustion. The project involves two simulation methodologies: direct numerical simulation...

  17. Combustion of Cattle Manure in a Fluidized Bed Combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annamalai, K.; Colaluca, M. A.; Ibrahim, M. Y.; Sweeten, J. M.

    COMBUSTION OF CATTLE MANURE IN A FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTOR K. ANNAMALAI M. A. COLALUCA Associate Professor Associate Professor Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering Department Department Texas A&M University Texas A&M University College... combustion technology has been used for the energy conversion of marginal fuels, such a technology is being explored for the combustion of feedlot manure. A fluidized bed combustor of 0.15 m (6 in.) diameter was used for the combustion tests on manure...

  18. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  19. Traveling-Wave Thermoacoustic Engines With Internal Combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiland, Nathan Thomas (Blacksburg, VA); Zinn, Ben T. (Atlanta, GA); Swift, Gregory William (Sante Fe, NM)

    2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoacoustic devices are disclosed wherein, for some embodiments, a combustion zone provides heat to a regenerator using a mean flow of compressible fluid. In other embodiments, burning of a combustible mixture within the combustion zone is pulsed in phase with the acoustic pressure oscillations to increase acoustic power output. In an example embodiment, the combustion zone and the regenerator are thermally insulated from other components within the thermoacoustic device.

  20. Experimental study of fluidized bed combustion of feedlot manure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madan, Ajit M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combustion experiments were conducted in a circulating mode in pilot plant fluidized bed combustion unit at York-Shipley (Sweeten, J. , et a1. , 1984). A total of four experimental runs were conducted. However, combustion effeciency based on these limited...EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION OF FEEDLOT MANURE A Thesis by Ajit M. Madan Submitted to the Braduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December...