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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Algae: Composition Analysis and Fluorescence Background Behavior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Algae: Composition Analysis and Fluorescence Background performed using Stokes Raman scattering for compositional analysis of algae. Two algal species, Chlorella while acquiring Raman signals from the algae. The time dependence of fluorescence background is char

2

Composition for absorbing hydrogen from gas mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen storage composition is provided which defines a physical sol-gel matrix having an average pore size of less than 3.5 angstroms which effectively excludes gaseous metal hydride poisons while permitting hydrogen gas to enter. The composition is useful for separating hydrogen gas from diverse gas streams which may have contaminants that would otherwise render the hydrogen absorbing material inactive.

Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Lee, Myung W. (Aiken, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional 3D Darcy flow with a 1D compositional free gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional 3D Darcy flow with a 1D compositional free gas. Masson1 , L. Trenty2 , Y. Zhang1 Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional 3D Darcy flow #12 analysis K, Brenner1 , R. Masson1 , L. Trenty2 , Y. Zhang1 Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional

Ribot, Magali

4

Characterization of Gas Shales by X-ray Raman Spectroscopy |...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Drew Pomerantz, Schlumberger Unconventional hydrocarbon resources such as gas shale and oil-bearing shale have emerged recently as economically viable sources of energy,...

5

Combined raman and IR fiber-based sensor for gas detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A double-pass fiber-optic based spectroscopic gas sensor delivers Raman excitation light and infrared light to a hollow structure, such as a hollow fiber waveguide, that contains a gas sample of interest. A retro-reflector is placed at the end of this hollow structure to send the light back through the waveguide where the light is detected at the same end as the light source. This double pass retro reflector design increases the interaction path length of the light and the gas sample, and also reduces the form factor of the hollow structure.

Carter, Jerry C; Chan, James W; Trebes, James E; Angel, Stanley M; Mizaikoff, Boris

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

6

Gas treating process and composition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the removal of H/sub 2/S from a sour gaseous stream. The process consists of: (a) contacting the sour gaseous stream in a contacting zone with an aqueous reaction solution, at a temperature not greater than about 160{sup 0}C, the reaction solution comprising an effective amount of vanadium V-containing ions to oxidize H/sub 2/S to elemental sulfur and being substantially free of anthraquinone disulfonate, and producing a sweet gas stream and an aqueous solution having a pH of 8-11 and containing sulfur and vanadium IV-containing ions, the reaction solution further comprising an amount of phosphate ions sufficient to provide a molar ratio of phosphate ions to vanadium IV-containing ions produced in solution of at least 0.1; (b) removing sulfur from the aqueous solution, producing an aqueous solution having reduced sulfur content; (c) regenerating aqueous solution having reduced sulfur content in a regenerating zone and producing regenerated reactant in the solution; and (d) returning regenerated solution from step (c) to the contacting zone for use as aqueous reaction solution therein.

Byers, D.L.

1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

7

Ceramic oxide composite hot gas filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the development and testing of continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) based hot gas filters. The work was divided into three primary tasks. In the first task, a preliminary set of compositions was fabricated in the form of open end tubes and characterized. The results of the first task were then used to identify the most promising compositions for sub-scale fabrication and testing. In addition to laboratory measurements of permeability and strength, exposure testing in a coal combustion environment was performed to assess the thermo-chemical stability of the CFCC materials. The results of this testing were used to down-select the filter composition for full-scale filter fabrication and testing in the third phase of the program.

Wagner, R.A.; Weitzel, P. [Babcock and Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Apparatus for gas sorption measurement with integrated gas composition measurement device and gas mixing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparatus for testing of multiple material samples includes a gas delivery control system operatively connectable to the multiple material samples and configured to provide gas to the multiple material samples. Both a gas composition measurement device and pressure measurement devices are included in the apparatus. The apparatus includes multiple selectively openable and closable valves and a series of conduits configured to selectively connect the multiple material samples individually to the gas composition device and the pressure measurement devices by operation of the valves. A mixing system is selectively connectable to the series of conduits and is operable to cause forced mixing of the gas within the series of conduits to achieve a predetermined uniformity of gas composition within the series of conduits and passages.

Micklash. II, Kenneth James; Dutton, Justin James; Kaye, Steven

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

9

Gas Composition Transients in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calculations with plotted results presented as confirmation bases for selected problems involving the prediction of transient gas compositions during Cold Vacuum Drying Operations.

PACKER, M.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Variations in dissolved gas compositions of reservoir fluids...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A. E.; Copp, J. F. . 111991. Variations in dissolved gas compositions of reservoir fluids from the Coso geothermal field. Proceedings of () ; () : Sixteenth workshop on...

11

58 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 53, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2004 Multichannel Raman Gas Analyzer: The Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the green laser source previously used and reported in a related article. Index Terms--Air-pollution, data Raman Gas Analyzer: The Data Acquisition and Control System. Measurement Improvement With Blue Laser Albrecht, and Nikiforos G. Theofanous Abstract--In this paper, the data acquisition and control system

Athens, University of

12

Crystallinity and compositional changes in carbonated apatites: Evidence from {sup 31}P solid-state NMR, Raman, and AFM analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-state (magic-angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool for obtaining structural information on bone organic and mineral components and synthetic model minerals at the atomic-level. Raman and {sup 31}P NMR spectral parameters were investigated in a series of synthetic B-type carbonated apatites (CAps). Inverse {sup 31}P NMR linewidth and inverse Raman PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}?{sub 1} bandwidth were both correlated with powder XRD c-axis crystallinity over the 0.3–10.3 wt% CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} range investigated. Comparison with bone powder crystallinities showed agreement with values predicted by NMR and Raman calibration curves. Carbonate content was divided into two domains by the {sup 31}P NMR chemical shift frequency and the Raman phosphate ?{sub 1} band position. These parameters remain stable except for an abrupt transition at 6.5 wt% carbonate, a composition which corresponds to an average of one carbonate per unit cell. This near-binary distribution of spectroscopic properties was also found in AFM-measured particle sizes and Ca/P molar ratios by elemental analysis. We propose that this transition differentiates between two charge-balancing ion-loss mechanisms as measured by Ca/P ratios. These results define a criterion for spectroscopic characterization of B-type carbonate substitution in apatitic minerals. - Graphical abstract: Carbonated apatite shows an abrupt change in spectral (NMR, Raman) and morphological (AFM) properties at a composition of about one carbonate substitution per unit cell. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Crystallinity (XRD), particle size (AFM) of carbonated apatites and bone mineral. • Linear relationships among crystallinity, {sup 31}P NMR and Raman inverse bandwidths. • Low and high carbonated apatites use different charge-balancing ion-loss mechanism.

McElderry, John-David P.; Zhu, Peizhi [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Mroue, Kamal H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Xu, Jiadi [Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Pavan, Barbara [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Fang, Ming [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Zhao, Guisheng; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Franceschi, Renny T. [School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Holl, Mark M.Banaszak [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Tecklenburg, Mary M.J., E-mail: mary.tecklenburg@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Morris, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

COMPOSITION OF LOW-REDSHIFT HALO GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Halo gas in low-z (z < 0.5) {>=}0.1 L{sub *} galaxies in high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations is examined with respect to three components: cold, warm, and hot with temperatures of <10{sup 5}, 10{sup 5-6}, and >10{sup 6} K, respectively. Utilizing O VI {lambda}{lambda}1032, 1038 absorption lines, the warm component is compared to observations, and agreement is found with respect to the galaxy-O VI line correlation, the ratio of the O VI line incidence rate in blue to red galaxies, and the amount of O VI mass in star-forming galaxies. A detailed account of the sources of warm halo gas (stellar feedback heating, gravitational shock heating, and accretion from the intergalactic medium), inflowing and outflowing warm halo gas metallicity disparities, and their dependencies on galaxy types and environment is also presented. With the warm component securely anchored, our simulations make the following additional predictions. First, cold gas is the primary component in inner regions with its mass comprising 50% of all gas within galactocentric radius r = (30, 150) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies. Second, at r > (30, 200) kpc in (red, blue) galaxies the hot component becomes the majority. Third, the warm component is a perpetual minority, with its contribution peaking at {approx}30% at r = 100-300 kpc in blue galaxies and never exceeding 5% in red galaxies. The significant amount of cold gas in low-z early-type galaxies, which was found in simulations and in agreement with recent observations (Thom et al.), is intriguing, as is the dominance of hot gas at large radii in blue galaxies.

Cen Renyue, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

14

CuAl{sub 2} revisited: Composition, crystal structure, chemical bonding, compressibility and Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of CuAl{sub 2} is usually described as a framework of base condensed tetragonal antiprisms [CuAl{sub 8/4}]. The appropriate symmetry governed periodic nodal surface (PNS) divides the space of the structure into two labyrinths. All atoms are located in one labyrinth, whereas the second labyrinth seems to be 'empty'. The bonding of the CuAl{sub 2} structure was analyzed by the electron localization function (ELF), crystal orbital Hamiltonian population (COHP) analysis and Raman spectroscopy. From the ELF representation it is seen, that the 'empty' labyrinth is in fact the place of important covalent interactions. ELF, COHP in combination with high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy show that the CuAl{sub 2} structure is described best as a network built of interpenetrating graphite-like nets of three-bonded aluminum atoms with the copper atoms inside the tetragonal-antiprismatic cavities. - Graphical abstract: Atomic interactions in the crystal structure of the intermetallic compound CuAl{sub 2}: Three-bonded aluminum atoms form interpenetrating graphite-like nets. The copper atoms are located in the channels of aluminum network by means of three-center bonds. The bonding model is in agreement with the result of polarized Raman spectroscopy and high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction.

Grin, Yuri [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: grin@cpfs.mpg.de; Wagner, Frank R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Armbruester, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Kohout, Miroslav [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Leithe-Jasper, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Schwarz, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Noethnitzer Strasse 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Wedig, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Georg von Schnering, Hans [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Backward Raman amplification in a partially ionized gas A. A. Balakin,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was accessed 10,11 . The experimental success was achieved using a gas jet of propane, subse- quently ionized that would be most desired. Using the pro- pane gas jet, as opposed to pure hydrogen, eased conditions on the gas jet nozzle, since a lower gas pressure could pro- duce a higher density target. However, the use

16

Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

Shih, Chien-Ju

2010-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

17

Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

Ni(NiO)/single-walled carbon nanotubes composite: Synthesis of electro-deposition, gas sensing property for NO gas and density functional theory calculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: The Ni(NiO)/semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes composite collected from the cathode after electro-deposition shows a high sensitivity to low-concentration NO gas at room temperature (18 °C). Display Omitted Highlights: ? Ni(NiO) nanoparticles were deposited on semiconducting SWCNTs by electro-deposition. ? Ni(NiO)/semiconducting SWCNTs film shows a high sensitivity to NO gas at 18 °C. ?Theoretical calculation reveals electron transfer from SWCNTs to NO via Ni. -- Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes which contains metallic SWCNTs (m-SWCNTs) and semiconducting SWCNTs (s-SWCNTs) have been obtained under electric arc discharge. Their separation can be effectively achieved by the electro-deposition method. The Ni(NiO)/s-SWCNTs composite was found on cathode where Ni was partially oxidized to NiO at ambient condition with Ni(NiO) nanoparticles deposited uniformly on the bundles of SWCNTs. These results were confirmed by Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis–NIR and TG characterizations. Furthermore, investigation of the gas sensing property of Ni(NiO)/s-SWCNTs composite film to NO gas at 18 °C demonstrated the sensitivity was approximately 5% at the concentration of 97 ppb. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to explore the sensing mechanism which suggested the adsorption of NO molecules onto the composite through N–Ni interaction as well as the proposition of electron transfer mechanisms from SWCNTs to NO via the Ni medium.

Li, Li; Zhang, Guo; Chen, Lei [Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, College of Heilongjiang Province, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, College of Heilongjiang Province, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Bi, Hong-Mei [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Shi, Ke-Ying, E-mail: shikeying2008@yahoo.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Two-beam ultrabroadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy for high resolution gas-phase multiplex imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose and develop a method for wideband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the gas phase and demonstrate the single-shot measurement of N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Pure-rotational and vibrational O-, Q-, and S- branch spectra are collected simultaneously, with high spectral and spatial resolution, and within a single-laser-shot. The relative intensity of the rotational and vibrational signals can be tuned arbitrarily using polarization techniques. The ultrashort 7 fs pump and Stokes pulses are automatically overlapped temporally and spatially using a two-beam CARS technique, and the crossed probe beam allows for excellent spatial sectioning of the probed location.

Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J., E-mail: cjkliew@sandia.gov [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

22

E ects of the Driving Force on the Composition of Natural Gas Hydrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E ects of the Driving Force on the Composition of Natural Gas Hydrates Odd I. Levik(1) , Jean for storage and transport of natural gas. Storage of natural gas in the form of hydrate at elevated pressure concept) (Gud- mundsson et al. 1998). Natural gas hydrate contains up to 182 Sm3 gas per m3 hydrate

Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

23

Gas Composition and Oxygen Supply in the Root Environment of Substrates in Closed Hydroponic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

299 Gas Composition and Oxygen Supply in the Root Environment of Substrates in Closed Hydroponic Abstract The objective of this study was to get more information about the root zone, mainly the gas and ethylene, a gas sampling system was used to get gas samples from the root zone. CO2 gas samples of 20 ml

Lieth, J. Heinrich

24

Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a composite immobilized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation. 3 figs.

Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

1989-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

25

Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a composite immobulized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation.

Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabrics for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling of Multilayer Composite Fabrics for Gas Turbine Engine Containment Systems J. Sharda1 ; C of multilayer composite fabrics used in a gas turbine engine containment system is developed. Specifically: Tensile strength; Stress analysis; Stress strain relations; Fabrics; Composite materials; Finite element

Mobasher, Barzin

27

Microemulsion impregnated catalyst composite and use thereof in a synthesis gas conversion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst composition for synthesis gas conversion comprising a ruthenium metal component deposited on a support carrier wherein the average metal particle size is less than about 100 A. The method of manufacture of the composition via a reverse micelle impregnation technique and the use of the composition in a Fischer-Tropsch conversion process is also disclosed.

Abrevaya, Hayim (Chicago, IL); Targos, William M. (Palatine, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Microemulsion impregnated catalyst composite and use thereof in a synthesis gas conversion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst composition is described for synthesis gas conversion comprising a ruthenium metal component deposited on a support carrier wherein the average metal particle size is less than about 100 A. The method of manufacture of the composition via a reverse micelle impregnation technique and the use of the composition in a Fischer-Tropsch conversion process is also disclosed.

Abrevaya, H.; Targos, W.M.

1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

29

Use of high temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites in gas turbines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic composition for insulating components, made of ceramic matrix composites, of gas turbines is provided. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere and the arrangement of spheres is such that the composition is dimensionally stable and chemically stable at a temperature of approximately 1600.degree. C. A stationary vane of a gas turbine comprising the composition of the present invention bonded to the outer surface of the vane is provided. A combustor comprising the composition bonded to the inner surface of the combustor is provided. A transition duct comprising the insulating coating bonded to the inner surface of the transition is provided. Because of abradable properties of the composition, a gas turbine blade tip seal comprising the composition also is provided. The composition is bonded to the inside surface of a shroud so that a blade tip carves grooves in the composition so as to create a customized seal for the turbine blade tip.

Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL); Merrill, Gary Brian (Pittsburgh, PA); Ludeman, Evan McNeil (New Boston, NH); Lane, Jay Edgar (Murrysville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Method and apparatus for off-gas composition sensing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for non-intrusive collection of off-gas data in a steelmaking furnace includes structure and steps for transmitting a laser beam through the off-gas produced by a steelmaking furnace, for controlling the transmitting to repeatedly scan the laser beam through a plurality of wavelengths in its tuning range, and for detecting the laser beam transmitted through the off-gas and converting the detected laser beam to an electrical signal. The electrical signal is processed to determine characteristics of the off-gas that are used to analyze and/or control the steelmaking process.

Ottesen, David Keith (Livermore, CA); Allendorf, Sarah Williams (Fremont, CA); Hubbard, Gary Lee (Richmond, CA); Rosenberg, David Ezechiel (Columbia, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

INTERACTION BETWEEN GAS DIFFUSION AND MULTISTABLE HETEROGENEOUS CHEMICAL KINETICS IN C=C COMPOSITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), and a matrix which is again either ceramic or carbon. Rocket propeller pieces, aircraft and F-1 racing carINTERACTION BETWEEN GAS DIFFUSION AND MULTISTABLE HETEROGENEOUS CHEMICAL KINETICS IN C=C COMPOSITE PROCESSING G#19;erard L. VIGNOLES Universit#19;e Bordeaux 1, Laboratoire des Composites ThermoStructuraux 3

Recanati, Catherine

32

Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and the active vapor-dominated geothermal system at The Geysers, CA are related to a composite hypabyssal granitic pluton emplaced beneath the field 1.1 to 1.2 million years ago....

33

Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor: Experimental measurements, model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor-wafer, lamp-heated chemical vapor deposition system were used to study the wafer temperature response to gas composition. A physically based simulation procedure for the process gas and wafer temperature was developed

Rubloff, Gary W.

34

Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those… (more)

Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Variations in dissolved gas compositions of reservoir fluids from the Coso geothermal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas concentrations and ratios in 110 analyses of geothermal fluids from 47 wells in the Coso geothermal system illustrate the complexity of this two-phase reservoir in its natural state. Two geographically distinct regions of single-phase (liquid) reservoir are present and possess distinctive gas and liquid compositions. Relationships in soluble and insoluble gases preclude derivation of these waters from a common parent by boiling or condensation alone. These two regions may represent two limbs of fluid migration away from an area of two-phase upwelling. During migration, the upwelling fluids mix with chemically evolved waters of moderately dissimilar composition. CO{sub 2} rich fluids found in the limb in the southeastern portion of the Coso field are chemically distinct from liquids in the northern limb of the field. Steam-rich portions of the reservoir also indicate distinctive gas compositions. Steam sampled from wells in the central and southwestern Coso reservoir is unusually enriched in both H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}. Such a large enrichment in both a soluble and insoluble gas cannot be produced by boiling of any liquid yet observed in single-phase portions of the field. In accord with an upflow-lateral mixing model for the Coso field, at least three end-member thermal fluids having distinct gas and liquid compositions appear to have interacted (through mixing, boiling and steam migration) to produce the observed natural state of the reservoir.

Williams, Alan E.; Copp, John F.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

37

Secondary porosity and permeability of coal vs. gas composition and pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have been investigating the sequestration of atmospheric pollutants by injection into coal seams while at the same time enhancing hydrocarbon productivity by displacement of methane with pollutants. We found that changing the composition of the gas sorbed into the coal changes the porosity and permeability of the coal natural-fracture system owing to gas-content changes, which cause matrix swelling or shrinkage due to relative adsorption of different gases. We collected sufficient information to develop a method for predicting the permeability and porosity of a coalbed as a function of the secondary porosity system (SPS) pressure and the gas content and composition of the primary porosity system (PPS). The method uses data from injection/falloff tests with water and/or a weaker adsorbing gas (WAG) than CH{sub 4} and a stronger adsorbing gas (SAG) than CH{sub 4}. Estimates of effective permeability to gas and water obtained from these tests are used with an iterative computation procedure subject to constraints to solve for equivalent SPS porosity and absolute permeability at atmospheric pressure. Once calibrated, the model can be used to predict a coalbed's permeability and porosity as a function of injection pressure and injected-fluid composition, which in turn are used to predict injection performance. The model is applicable to production forecasts to account for SPS permeability and porosity changes as reservoir pressure declines with changes in gas composition. This paper describes the new model and discusses well-test procedures to obtain the data required for model calibration. Also included are coal property estimates resulting from Alberta Medicine River (Manville) coal core and test data and an example model calibration.

Mavor, M.J,; Gunter, W.D. [Tesseract Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Development of ceramic composite hot-gas filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel type of hot-gas filter based on a ceramic fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix was developed and extended to fullsize, 60-mm OD by 1.5-meter-long, candle filters. A commercially viable process for producing the filters was developed, and the filters are undergoing testing and demonstration throughout the world for applications in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants. Development activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and at the 3M Company, and testing at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (STC) are presented. Demonstration tests at the Tidd PFBC are underway. Issues identified during the testing and demonstration phases of the development are discussed. Resolution of the issues and the status of commercialization of the filters are described.

Judkins, R.R.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Smith, R.G.; Fischer, E.M.; Eaton, J.H.; Weaver, B.L.; Kahnke, J.L.; Pysher, D.J. [3M Co., St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Raman Nanometrology of Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

13 Optical image of the graphene layers. . . . . .Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Grapheneand Graphene Multi-Layers . . . . Raman Spectroscopy

Calizo, Irene Gonzales

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Modeling of Gas Phase Transport and Composition Evolution during the Initial Stage Sintering of Boron Carbide with Carbon Additions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Modeling of Gas Phase Transport and Composition Evolution during the Initial Stage Sintering the pores close. This process is examined using a computational model based on co-diffusion of multiple gas is to model the gas diffusion to determine the needed hold time as a function of key parameters

Matthewson, M. John

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Method of making a continuous ceramic fiber composite hot gas filter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic fiber composite structure particularly suitable for use as a hot gas cleanup ceramic fiber composite filter and method of making same from ceramic composite material has a structure which provides for increased strength and toughness in high temperature environments. The ceramic fiber composite structure or filter is made by a process in which a continuous ceramic fiber is intimately surrounded by discontinuous chopped ceramic fibers during manufacture to produce a ceramic fiber composite preform which is then bonded using various ceramic binders. The ceramic fiber composite preform is then fired to create a bond phase at the fiber contact points. Parameters such as fiber tension, spacing, and the relative proportions of the continuous ceramic fiber and chopped ceramic fibers can be varied as the continuous ceramic fiber and chopped ceramic fiber are simultaneously formed on the porous vacuum mandrel to obtain a desired distribution of the continuous ceramic fiber and the chopped ceramic fiber in the ceramic fiber composite structure or filter.

Hill, Charles A. (Lynchburg, VA); Wagner, Richard A. (Lynchburg, VA); Komoroski, Ronald G. (Lynchburg, VA); Gunter, Greg A. (Lynchburg, VA); Barringer, Eric A. (Lynchburg, VA); Goettler, Richard W. (Lynchburg, VA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Effects of Natural Recharge on Gas Composition in the Larderello - Castelnuovo Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the temporal behaviour of gas compsition in the Larderello-Castelnuovo area shows that this behaviour varies, depending on whether the wells are affected or not by natural recharge. Where no natural recharge exists, gas composition seems to be governed by chemical equilibria. The recharge water, and the steam it produces, mix with the fluid already existing in the reservoir. At Larderello (far from absorption areas) the gas composition resulting from this mixing does not undergo further changes by chemical reaction. This is due either to a lack of reactivity where there is no liquid phase or to an ineffective fluid-rock interaction. At Castelnuovo (close to absorption areas) the H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 4} contents in the gas have gradually decreased with the increase in recharge effects. The decrease in H{sub 2}S can be attributed to dissolution in liquid water and oxidation. Various hypotheses have been forwarded for the methane. The correlation existing between CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2} concentrations, even when methane decreases in the areas affected by recharge, suggests that CH{sub 4} may be governed by more than just the Fisher-Tropsch reaction.

D'Amore, Franco; Celati, Romano; Calore, Claudio; Bertrami, Rino

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those systems must be characterized by an equation of state (EOS...

Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Application of advanced composites for efficient on-board storage of fuel in natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following outlines the performance requirements for high pressure containers for on-board storage of fuel in Natural Gas Vehicles. The construction of state-of-the-art carbon-fiber reinforced all-composite cylinders is described and the validation testing and key advantages are discussed. Carbon-fiber reinforced advanced composite technology offers a number of key advantages to the NGV industry, by providing: improved range, including up to 30% more fuel storage for a given storage envelope and up to 300% more fuel storage for a given weight allowance; life-cycle cost advantages, including savings in non-recurring costs (installation), savings in recurring costs (fuel and maintenance), and increased revenues from more passengers/payload; and uncompromising safety, namely, superior resistance to degradation from fatigue or stress rupture and inherent resistance to corrosion; proven toughness/impact resistance.

Sirosh, S.N. [EDO Canada Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Variation of density with composition for natural gas mixtures in the supercritical region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact = $ 255,150,000 ___________________ This thesis follows the style and format of the AIChE Journal. 2 Table 2 shows the economic impact of using different orifice measurement standards as reported by Baldwin and Starling et al. (1997... parameters. 8 Starling et al. (1991) developed a natural gas equation of state with the accuracy to 0.02% for pure methane in a temperature range from 222 to 355K. For 84 natural gases with a range of compositions, the prediction is within 0...

Widia

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composites for Shrouds and Combustor Liners of Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers work performed under the Advanced Materials for Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines (AMAIGT) program by GE Global Research and its collaborators from 2000 through 2010. A first stage shroud for a 7FA-class gas turbine engine utilizing HiPerComp{reg_sign}* ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material was developed. The design, fabrication, rig testing and engine testing of this shroud system are described. Through two field engine tests, the latter of which is still in progress at a Jacksonville Electric Authority generating station, the robustness of the CMC material and the shroud system in general were demonstrated, with shrouds having accumulated nearly 7,000 hours of field engine testing at the conclusion of the program. During the latter test the engine performance benefits from utilizing CMC shrouds were verified. Similar development of a CMC combustor liner design for a 7FA-class engine is also described. The feasibility of using the HiPerComp{reg_sign} CMC material for combustor liner applications was demonstrated in a Solar Turbines Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) engine test where the liner performed without incident for 12,822 hours. The deposition processes for applying environmental barrier coatings to the CMC components were also developed, and the performance of the coatings in the rig and engine tests is described.

Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra; Jill Jonkowski; Joseph Mavec; Paul Bakke; Debbie Haught; Merrill Smith

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

47

Raman spectroscopy of solutions and interfaces containing nitrogen dioxide, water, and 1,4 dioxane: Evidence for repulsion of surface water by NO{sub 2} gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of water, 1,4 dioxane, and gaseous nitrogen dioxide, has been studied as a function of distance measured through the liquid-vapour interface by Raman spectroscopy with a narrow (<0.1 mm) laser beam directed parallel to the interface. The Raman spectra show that water is present at the surface of a dioxane-water mixture when gaseous NO{sub 2} is absent, but is virtually absent from the surface of a dioxane-water mixture when gaseous NO{sub 2} is present. This is consistent with recent theoretical calculations that show NO{sub 2} to be mildly hydrophobic.

Murdachaew, Garold [Institute of Chemistry and the Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)] [Institute of Chemistry and the Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Varner, Mychel E.; Veer, Wytze E. van der [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Gerber, R. Benny [Institute of Chemistry and the Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel) [Institute of Chemistry and the Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Phillips, Leon F., E-mail: leon.phillips@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

48

E-Print Network 3.0 - auger resonant raman Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: Gas hydrate measurements at Hydrate Ridge using Raman spectroscopy K.C. Hester a , R.M. Dunk b , S... for the first time using a seagoing Raman spectrometer at...

49

Synthetic crystalline metallosilicate compositions, the preparation thereof and their use in the conversion of synthesis gas to low molecular weight hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for the conversion of synthesis gas comprising: contacting synthesis gas which consists of hydrogen and carbon monoxide with a catalytically effective amount of a crystalline ferrometallosilicate composition represented in terms of mole ratios.

Hinnenkamp, J.A.; Walatka, V.V.

1987-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

50

Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Carbon-Carbon Composites as Recuperator Material for Direct Gas Brayton Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Of the numerous energy conversion options available for a space nuclear power plant (SNPP), one that shows promise in attaining reliable operation and high efficiency is the direct gas Brayton (GB) system. In order to increase efficiency, the GB system incorporates a recuperator that accounts for nearly half the weight of the energy conversion system (ECS). Therefore, development of a recuperator that is lighter and provides better performance than current heat exchangers could prove to be advantageous. The feasibility of a carbon-carbon (C/C) composite recuperator core has been assessed and a mass savings of 60% and volume penalty of 20% were projected. The excellent thermal properties, high-temperature capabilities, and low density of carbon-carbon materials make them attractive in the GB system, but development issues such as material compatibility with other structural materials in the system, such as refractory metals and superalloys, permeability, corrosion, joining, and fabrication must be addressed.

RA Wolf

2006-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

52

Industrial Compositional Streamline Simulation for Efficient and Accurate Prediction of Gas Injection and WAG Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas-injection processes are widely and increasingly used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In the United States, for example, EOR production by gas injection accounts for approximately 45% of total EOR production and has tripled since 1986. The understanding of the multiphase, multicomponent flow taking place in any displacement process is essential for successful design of gas-injection projects. Due to complex reservoir geometry, reservoir fluid properties and phase behavior, the design of accurate and efficient numerical simulations for the multiphase, multicomponent flow governing these processes is nontrivial. In this work, we developed, implemented and tested a streamline based solver for gas injection processes that is computationally very attractive: as compared to traditional Eulerian solvers in use by industry it computes solutions with a computational speed orders of magnitude higher and a comparable accuracy provided that cross-flow effects do not dominate. We contributed to the development of compositional streamline solvers in three significant ways: improvement of the overall framework allowing improved streamline coverage and partial streamline tracing, amongst others; parallelization of the streamline code, which significantly improves wall clock time; and development of new compositional solvers that can be implemented along streamlines as well as in existing Eulerian codes used by industry. We designed several novel ideas in the streamline framework. First, we developed an adaptive streamline coverage algorithm. Adding streamlines locally can reduce computational costs by concentrating computational efforts where needed, and reduce mapping errors. Adapting streamline coverage effectively controls mass balance errors that mostly result from the mapping from streamlines to pressure grid. We also introduced the concept of partial streamlines: streamlines that do not necessarily start and/or end at wells. This allows more efficient coverage and avoids the redundant work generally done in the near-well regions. We improved the accuracy of the streamline simulator with a higher order mapping from pressure grid to streamlines that significantly reduces smoothing errors, and a Kriging algorithm is used to map from the streamlines to the background grid. The higher accuracy of the Kriging mapping means that it is not essential for grid blocks to be crossed by one or more streamlines. The higher accuracy comes at the price of increased computational costs, but allows coarser coverage and so does not generally increase the overall costs of the computations. To reduce errors associated with fixing the pressure field between pressure updates, we developed a higher order global time-stepping method that allows the use of larger global time steps. Third-order ENO schemes are suggested to propagate components along streamlines. Both in the two-phase and three-phase experiments these ENO schemes outperform other (higher order) upwind schemes. Application of the third order ENO scheme leads to overall computational savings because the computational grid used can be coarsened. Grid adaptivity along streamlines is implemented to allow sharp but efficient resolution of solution fronts at reduced computational costs when displacement fronts are sufficiently separated. A correction for Volume Change On Mixing (VCOM) is implemented that is very effective at handling this effect. Finally, a specialized gravity operator splitting method is proposed for use in compositional streamline methods that gives an effective correction of gravity segregation. A significant part of our effort went into the development of a parallelization strategy for streamline solvers on the next generation shared memory machines. We found in this work that the built-in dynamic scheduling strategies of OpenMP lead to parallel efficiencies that are comparable to optimal schedules obtained with customized explicit load balancing strategies as long as the ratio of number of streamlines to number of threads is sufficiently high, which is the case in real-fie

Margot Gerritsen

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

Toughened Silcomp composites for gas turbine engine applications. Continuous fiber ceramic composites program: Phase I final report, April 1992--June 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two main factors driving the development of new industrial gas turbine engine systems are fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. One method of providing improvements in both areas is to reduce the cooling air requirements of the hot gas path components. For this reason ceramic components are becoming increasingly attractive for gas turbine applications because of their greater refractoriness and oxidation resistance. Among the ceramics being considered, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) are leading candidates because they combine the high temperature stability of ceramics with the toughness and damage tolerance of composites. The purpose of this program, which is part of DOE`s CFCC initiative, is to evaluate the use of CFCC materials as gas turbine engine components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such components from Toughened Silcomp composites. Toughened silcomp is a CFCC material made by a reactive melt infiltration process, and consists of continuous SiC reinforcing fibers, with an appropriate fiber coating, in a fully dense matrix of SiC and Si. Based on the material physical properties, the material/process improvements realized in Phase 1, and the preliminary design analyses from Task 1, they feel the feasibility of fabricating Toughened Silcomp with the requisite physical and mechanical properties for the intended applications has been demonstrated. Remaining work for Phase 2 is to further improve the system for enhanced oxidation resistance, incorporate additional process controls to enhance the reproducibility of the material, transition the fabrication process to the selected vendors for scale-up, develop a more complete material property data base, including long-term mechanical behavior, and fabricate and test preliminary ``representative part`` specimens.

Corman, G.S.; Luthra, K.L.; Brun, M.K.; Meschter, P.J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Controls of coal fabric on coalbed gas production and compositional shift in both field production and canister desorption tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production rates of coalbed gas wells commonly vary significantly, even in the same field with similar reservoir permeability and gas content. The compositional variation in produced gas is also not everywhere predictable, although in most fields produced gas becomes progressively enriched in CO, through the production life of a reservoir, such as parts of the San Juan basin. In contrast, it is generally observed that the ratio of CO{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} declines with time during field and laboratory desorption testing of coal cores. In this study, we investigate numerically the importance of coal fabric, namely cleat spacing and aperture width, on the performance of coalbed gas wells and gas compositional shifts during production. Because of the cubic relationship between fracture permeability and fracture aperture width (and thus fracture porosity) for a given cleat permeability, the production profile of coal seams varies depending on whether the permeability is distributed among closely spaced fractures (cleat) with narrower apertures or more widely spaced fractures (cleat) with wider apertures. There is a lower fracture porosity for coal with widely spaced fractures than for coal with closely spaced fractures. Therefore, the relative permeability to gas increases more rapidly for coals with more widely spaced cleats as less dewatering from fractures is required, assuming that the fractures are initially water saturated. The enrichment of CO{sub 2} in the production gas with time occurs because of the stronger adsorption of coals for CO{sub 2} than CH{sub 4}. However, during desorption of coal cores, CO{sub 2} desorbs more rapidly than methane because desorption rate is governed more by diffusion than by sorption affinity, and CO{sub 2} has much higher effective diffusivity in microporous coals than CH{sub 4}.

Cui, X.J.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

Schilke, Peter W. (4 Hempshire Ct., Scotia, NY 12302); Muth, Myron C. (R.D. #3, Western Ave., Amsterdam, NY 12010); Schilling, William F. (301 Garnsey Rd., Rexford, NY 12148); Rairden, III, John R. (6 Coronet Ct., Schenectady, NY 12309)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

A new chemodynamical tool to study the evolution of galaxies in the local Universe: a quick and accurate numerical technique to compute gas cooling rate for any chemical composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have developed a quick and accurate numerical tool to compute gas cooling whichever its chemical composition.

Nicolas Champavert; Hervé Wozniak

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

57

Prediction of the effects of compositional mixing in a reservoir on conversion to natural gas storage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The increased interest in the development of new Gas Storage Fields over the lastseveral decades has created some interesting challenges for the industry. Most existinggas… (more)

Brannon, Alan W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Geochemical Analyses of Surface and Shallow Gas Flux and Composition Over a Proposed Carbon Sequestration Site in Eastern Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using soil gas chemistry to detect leakage from underground reservoirs (i.e. microseepage) requires that the natural range of soil gas flux and chemistry be fully characterized. To meet this need, soil gas flux (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and the bulk (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and isotopic chemistry ({delta}{sup 13}C-CO2) of shallow soil gases (<1 m, 3.3 ft) were measured at 25 locations distributed among two active oil and gas fields, an active strip mine, and a relatively undisturbed research forest in eastern Kentucky. The measurements apportion the biologic, atmospheric, and geologic influences on soil gas composition under varying degrees of human surface disturbance. The measurements also highlight potential challenges in using soil gas chemistry as a monitoring tool where the surface cover consists of reclaimed mine land or is underlain by shallow coals. For example, enrichment of ({delta}{sup 13}C-CO2) and high CH{sub 4} concentrations in soils have been historically used as indicators of microseepage, but in the reclaimed mine lands similar soil chemistry characteristics likely result from dissolution of carbonate cement in siliciclastic clasts having {delta}{sup 13}C values close to 0{per_thousand} and degassing of coal fragments. The gases accumulate in the reclaimed mine land soils because intense compaction reduces soil permeability, thereby impeding equilibration with the atmosphere. Consequently, the reclaimed mine lands provide a false microseepage anomaly. Further potential challenges arise from low permeability zones associated with compacted soils in reclaimed mine lands and shallow coals in undisturbed areas that might impede upward gas migration. To investigate the effect of these materials on gas migration and composition, four 10 m (33 ft) deep monitoring wells were drilled in reclaimed mine material and in undisturbed soils with and without coals. The wells, configured with sampling zones at discrete intervals, show the persistence of some of the aforementioned anomalies at depth. Moreover, high CO{sub 2} concentrations associated with coals in the vadose zone suggest a strong affinity for adsorbing CO{sub 2}. Overall, the low permeability of reclaimed mine lands and coals and CO2 adsorption by the latter is likely to reduce the ability of surface geochemistry tools to detect a microseepage signal.

Thomas Parris; Michael Solis; Kathryn Takacs

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Portable raman explosives detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

JOURNAL OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY J. Raman Spectrosc. 2005; 36: 864871  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

traditionally been utilized to indicate the phase transition. Comparisons with the Raman spectra of spodumene

Downs, Robert T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H{sub 2} separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({approx}10 {micro}m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. Based on preliminary results, thin Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films are expected to exhibit hydrogen flux up to ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H{sub 2} separation, and resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. The overall objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sequential electroless plating to fabricate Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} alloy membranes on porous supports for H{sub 2} separation. These following advantages of these membranes for processing of coal-derived gas will be demonstrated: High H{sub 2} flux; Sulfur tolerant, even at very high total sulfur levels (1000 ppm); Operation at temperatures well above 500 C; and Resistance to embrittlement and degradation by thermal cycling. The proposed research plan is designed to providing a fundamental understanding of: Factors important in membrane fabrication; Optimization of membrane structure and composition; Effect of temperature, pressure, and gas composition on H{sub 2} flux and membrane selectivity; and How this membrane technology can be integrated in coal gasification-fuel cell systems.

J. Douglas Way; Robert L. McCormick

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Structural and composition investigations at delayered locations of low k integrated circuit device by gas-assisted focused ion beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report a new delayering technique – gas-assisted focused ion beam (FIB) method and its effects on the top layer materials of integrated circuit (IC) device. It demonstrates a highly efficient failure analysis with investigations on the precise location. After removing the dielectric layers under the bombardment of an ion beam, the chemical composition of the top layer was altered with the reduced oxygen content. Further energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that the oxygen reduction lead to appreciable silicon suboxide formation. Our findings with structural and composition alteration of dielectric layer after FIB delayering open up a new insight avenue for the failure analysis in IC devices.

Wang, Dandan, E-mail: dandan.wang@globalfoundries.com; Kee Tan, Pik; Yamin Huang, Maggie; Lam, Jeffrey; Mai, Zhihong [Technology Development Department, GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore Pte. Ltd., 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D, Street 2, Singapore 738406 (Singapore)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For hydrogen from coal gasification to be used economically, processing approaches that produce a high purity gas must be developed. Palladium and its alloys, nickel, platinum and the metals in Groups 3 to 5 of the Periodic Table are all permeable to hydrogen. Hydrogen permeable metal membranes made of palladium and its alloys are the most widely studied due to their high hydrogen permeability, chemical compatibility with many hydrocarbon containing gas streams, and infinite hydrogen selectivity. Our Pd composite membranes have demonstrated stable operation at 450 C for over 70 days. Coal derived synthesis gas will contain up to 15000 ppm H{sub 2}S as well as CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and other gases. Highly selectivity membranes are necessary to reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration to acceptable levels for solid oxide and other fuel cell systems. Pure Pd-membranes are poisoned by sulfur, and suffer from mechanical problems caused by thermal cycling and hydrogen embrittlement. Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H{sub 2} separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({le} 5 {micro}m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. With support from this DOE Grant, we have fabricated thin, high flux Pd-Cu alloy composite membranes using a sequential electroless plating approach. Thin, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films exhibit a hydrogen flux more than ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H{sub 2} separation, resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas, and exceed the DOE Fossil Energy target hydrogen flux of 80 ml/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min = 0.6 mol/m{sup 2} {center_dot} s for a feed pressure of 40 psig. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. We have developed practical electroless plating procedures for fabrication of thin Pd-Cu composite membranes at any scale.

J. Douglas Way

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Raman scattering in crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

Edwards, D.F.

1988-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

65

Geology, compositional heterogeneities, and geochemical origin of the Yacheng gas field, Qiongdongnan Basin, South China Sea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yacheng gas field is located in the footwall of the No. 1 fault, the boundary fault between the Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan basins. All strata are normally pressured in the gas field except for the Meishan Formation. The Meishan Formation is overpressured near the No. 1 fault in the gas field and in the adjacent Yinggehai Basin. An obvious thermal anomaly occurs below 3600 m in the gas field. This anomaly, characterized by an abrupt increase in drill-stem test and fluid-inclusion homogenization temperatures, vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}), and Rock-Eval T{sub max}, and by an abnormally low temperature/R{sub o}/T{sub max} gradient, diminishes away from the Yinggehai Basin. The gases and condensates have abnormally high aromatic hydrocarbon contents and show obvious heterogeneities. Away from the No. 1 fault, the C{sub 2+} hydrocarbon content and C{sub 2+}/{Sigma}C{sub n} increase; carbon dioxide content decreases; {delta}{sup 13}C values for methane, ethane, and carbon dioxide become lighter; the heptane and isoheptane values decrease; and the relative contents of aromatic hydrocarbons, both in C{sub 6}/C{sub 7} light hydrocarbons and in the condensates, decrease. The gas field was charged from both the Qiongdongnan and the Yinggehai basins. Hydrocarbons sourced from the Qiongdongnan Basin have relatively low maturities, whereas hydrocarbons from the Yinggehai Basin have relatively higher maturities and seem to have been in association with hydrothermal fluids. The hydrothermal fluids from the Yinggehai Basin, in which methane, ethane, carbon dioxide, and especially aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved under the high-temperature and high-pressure subsurface conditions, migrated along the No. 1 fault and caused the abnormally high concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as the thermal anomalies in the gas field, especially near the No. 1 fault.

Hao, F.; Li, S.; Sun, Y. [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China). Dept. of Petroleum Geology; Zhang, Q. [Nanhai West Oil Corp., Guangdong (China). Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

REMORA 3: The first instrumented fuel experiment with on-line gas composition measurement by acoustic sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the aim to improve the knowledge of nuclear fuel behaviour, the development of advanced instrumentation used during in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor (MTR) is necessary. To obtain data on high Burn-Up MOX fuel performance under transient operating conditions, especially in order to differentiate between the kinetics of fission gas and helium releases and to acquire data on the degradation of the fuel conductivity, a highly instrumented in-pile experiment called REMORA 3 has been conducted by CEA and IES (Southern Electronic Inst. - CNRS - Montpellier 2 Univ.). A rodlet extracted from a fuel rod base irradiated for five cycles in a French EDF commercial PWR has been re-instrumented with a fuel centerline thermocouple, a pressure transducer and an advanced acoustic sensor. This latter, patented by CEA and IES, is 1 used in addition to pressure measurement to determine the composition of the gases located in the free volume and the molar fractions of fission gas and helium. This instrumented fuel rodlet has been re-irradiated in a specific rig, GRIFFONOS, located in the periphery of the OSIRIS experimental reactor core at CEA Saclay. First of all, an important design stage and test phases have been performed before the irradiation in order to optimize the response and the accuracy of the sensors: - To control the influence of the temperature on the acoustic sensor behaviour, a thermal mock-up has been built. - To determine the temperature of the gas located in the acoustic cavity as a function of the coolant temperature, and the average temperature of the gases located in the rodlet free volume as a function of the linear heat rate, thermal calculations have been achieved. The former temperature is necessary to calculate the molar fractions of the gases and the latter is used to calculate the total amount of released gas from the internal rod pressure measurements. - At the end of the instrumented rod manufacturing, specific internal free volume and pressure measurements have been carried out. Preliminary calculations of the REMORA 3 experiments have been performed from these measurements, with the aim to determine free volume evolution as a function of linear heat rate history. - A tracer gas has been added to the filling gas in order to optimize the accuracy of the helium balance at the time of the post irradiation examination. The two phases of the REMORA 3 irradiation have been achieved at the end of 2010 in the OSIRIS reactor. Slight acoustic signal degradation, observed during the test under high neutron and gamma flux, has led to an efficiency optimization of the signal processing. The instrumentation ran smoothly and allowed to reach all the experimental objectives. After non destructive examination performed in the Osiris reactor pool, typically gamma spectrometry and neutron radiography, the instrumented rod and the device have been disassembled. Then the instrumented rod has been transported to the LECA facility in Cadarache Centre for post irradiation examination. The internal pressure and volume of the rodlet as well as precise gas composition measurements will be known after puncturing step performed in a hot cell of this facility. That will allow us to qualify the in-pile measurements and to finalize the data which will be used for the validation of the fuel behaviour computer codes. (authors)

Lambert, T.; Muller, E.; Federici, E. [CEA - Nuclear Energy Div., DEN - Fuel Research Dept. - Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Rosenkrantz, E.; Ferrandis, J. Y. [CNRS - Univ. Montpellier 2, Southern Electronic Inst., UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Tiratay, X.; Silva, V. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Div., DEN, Nuclear Reactors and Facilities Dept., F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Machard, D. [EDF, SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France); Trillon, G. [AREVA-NP, F-69456 Lyon (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Influence of Heteroanion and Ammonium Cation Size on the Composition and Gas-Phase Fragmentation of Polyoxovanadates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of a systematic experimental investigation of the influence of different size cationic ammonium ligands and heteroanions on the composition, ionic charge state and gas-phase fragmentation pathways of anionic polyoxovanadates synthesized in solution. Four separate solutions of olyoxometalates (POMs) were prepared using all possible combinations of the tetraethylammonium [(C2H5)4N+] ligand, chloride (Cl-) heteroanion, tetrabutylammonium [(C4H9)4N+] ligand and acetate (CH3CO2-) heteroanion. Employing electrospray ionization combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) we demonstrate that POM solutions synthesized using the small [(C2H5)4N+] ligand and Cl-heteroanion are composed predominately of large doubly and triply charged chlorine containing clusters with a size distribution centered at fourteen vanadium atoms. POM solutions prepared using the Cl- anion and [(C4H9)4N+] ligand are shown to contain slightly larger clusters with fifteen and sixteen vanadium atoms, thereby indicating that the size of the cationic ammonium ligand exerts only a weak influence on the polymerization of polyoxovanadates. POM solutions prepared using (C2H5)4NCl and (C4H9)4NCl also produced peaks consistent with the attachment of one and two ammonium cations to the larger clusters. Solutions prepared using the large CH3CO2 - heteroanion, in contrast, are demonstrated to contain much smaller singly and doubly *Manuscript Click here to view linked References 2 charged clusters with a size distribution centered at six vanadium atoms. In addition, while incorporation of one and two ammonium ligands into the smaller clusters was observed, no POMs containing the CH3CO2 - heteroanion were identified. The gas-phase fragmentation pathways of representative POMs containing one and two ammonium ligands were examined using collision induced dissociation (CID) and mass spectrometry. Similar primary fragmentation pathways involving partial loss of a ligand -[(CxHy)3N+ x = 2,4; y = 5,9] were observed for clusters containing both one and two ligands largely independent of the size, composition and charge state of the precursor ion. The [(C4H9)4N+] ligand was found to exhibit stronger interactions with the core of the POMs resulting in higher abundances of fragment ions containing (C4H9) units compared to (C2H5) units from [(C2H5)4N+]. These results provide fundamental insight into the interactions between anionic metal oxide clusters, heteroanions and cationic ammonium ligands that are responsible for the size and composition controlled synthesis of POMs in solution.

Johnson, Grant E.; Al Hasan, Naila M.; Laskin, Julia

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

In situ Raman spectroscopy of lanthanum-strontium-cobaltite thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Raman spectroscopy is used to probe the structural change of Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite (La1.xSrxCoO 3 -8) thin films across change in composition (0%-60% strontium) and temperature (30*C-520°C). Raman shift peaks were ...

Breucop, Justin Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.

Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

70

Final Report - Composite Fermion Approach to Strongly Interacting Quasi Two Dimensional Electron Gas Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work related to this project introduced the idea of an â??effective monopole strengthâ? Q* that acted as the effective angular momentum of the lowest shell of composite Fermions (CF). This allowed us to predict the angular momentum of the lowest band of energy states for any value of the applied magnetic field simply by determining N{sub QP} the number of quasielectrons (QE) or quasiholes (QH) in a partially filled CF shell and adding angular momenta of the N{sub QP} Fermions excitations. The approach reported treated the filled CF level as a â??vacuum stateâ? which could support QE and QH excitations. Numerical diagonalization of small systems allowed us to determine the angular momenta, the energy, and the pair interaction energies of these elementary excitations. The spectra of low energy states could then be evaluated in a Fermi liquidâ?like picture, treating the much smaller number of quasiparticles and their interactions instead of the larger system of N electrons with Coulomb interactions.

John Quinn

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

71

Preparation and characterization of composite membrane for high temperature gas separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new class of perm-selective inorganic membrane was developed by electroless deposition of palladium thin-film on a microporous {alpha}-alumina ceramic substrate ({phi}39 mm x 2 mm thickness, nominal pore size 150 nm and open porosity {approx} 42 %). The new membrane was characterized by Scanning Electron Micrography (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and conducting permeability experiments with hydrogen, helium, argon and carbon dioxide at temperatures from 473 K to 673 K and feed pressures from 136 kPa to 274 kPa. The results indicate that the membrane has both high permeability and selectivity for hydrogen. The hydrogen transport through the Pd-composite membrane closely followed Sievert's law. A theoretical model is presented to describe the performance of a single-stage permeation process. The model uses a unified mathematical formulation and calculation methods for two flow patterns (cocurrent and countercurrent) with two permeable components and a nonpermeable fraction in the feed and a sweep stream in the permeate. The countercurrent flow pattern is always better than the cocurrent flow pattern with respect to stage cut and membrane area. The effect of flow configuration decreases with increasing membrane selectivity or with decreasing permeate/feed ratio.

Ilias, S.; King, F.G.

1998-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

72

A layered surface acoustic wave gas sensor based on a polyaniline/In2O3 nanofibre composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polyaniline/In 2 O 3 Nanofiber Composite A. Z. Sadek *1 , W.In 2 O 3 nanofiber composite based layered surface acousticIn 2 O 3 nanoparticle composite. The nanocomposite was

Sadek, A Z; Wlodarski, W; Shin, K; Kaner, Richard B; Kalantar-zadeh, K

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Genetic optimization of two-material composite laminates Laurent Grosset  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the power of GAs for this application. COMPOSITE LAMINATE DESIGN Composite laminate optimization typically

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

74

Fingerprint and high-wavenumber Raman spectroscopy in a human-swine coronary xenograft in vivo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intracoronary Raman spectroscopy could open new avenues for the study and management of coronary artery disease due to its potential to measure the chemical and molecular composition of coronary atherosclerotic lesions. ...

Motz, Jason T.

75

The effects of ionized gas exposure on the toughness and fatigue properties of aluminum alloys and composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of an oxygen ionized gas from simulated space exposure on the toughness and fatigue properties of several aerospace aluminum alloys and aluminum composites have been analyzed. The test matrix consisted of four aluminum systems: the 6000 and 1100 series and two 8090 aluminum-lithium alloys. The test specimens were prepared as Charpy V-notched impact and disk-shaped compact fracture toughness specimens. A small specimen size is used for the compact tension specimens to facilitate exposure in a Radio Frequency (RF) Plasma Prep 2 unit. Radio frequency plasma, sometimes referred to as the electrodeless plasma, is used in dissociative ionization of molecular oxygen to simulate high fluence, relatively low energy, low earth orbit (LEO) space atomic oxygen. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was also employed to determine the effect of short exposure to the oxygen plasma environment. AFM indicates that sharp spikes of oxygen rich material are produced above the aluminum specimen surface resulting in stress concentrations with gradual roughing of the surface.

Zaat, S.V.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

George, E.V.; Swingle, J.C.

1982-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

77

Monitoring of tritium purity during long-term circulation in the KATRIN test experiment LOOPINO using laser Raman spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The gas circulation loop LOOPINO has been set up and commissioned at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) to perform Raman measurements of circulating tritium mixtures under conditions similar to the inner loop system of the neutrino-mass experiment KATRIN, which is currently under construction. A custom-made interface is used to connect the tritium containing measurement cell, located inside a glove box, with the Raman setup standing on the outside. A tritium sample (purity > 95%, 20 kPa total pressure) was circulated in LOOPINO for more than three weeks with a total throughput of 770 g of tritium. Compositional changes in the sample and the formation of tritiated and deuterated methanes CT_(4-n)X_n (X=H,D; n=0,1) were observed. Both effects are caused by hydrogen isotope exchange reactions and gas-wall interactions, due to tritium {\\beta} decay. A precision of 0.1% was achieved for the monitoring of the T_2 Q_1-branch, which fulfills the requirements for the KATRIN experiment and demonstrates the feasibility ...

Fischer, Sebastian; Schlösser, Magnus; Bornschein, Beate; Drexlin, Guido; Priester, Florian; Lewis, Richard J; Telle, Helmut H

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Polymer Nano-composites Robert J Young FREng*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Carbon Fibres 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 0 100 200 300 P120 P100 P75 P55 P25 Intensity University #12;Contents · Advanced Composites · Carbon fibres · Raman spectroscopy · Carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) ­ Raman spectroscopy · Carbon nanotubes in epoxy composites ­ Mechanical deformation ­ Interfacial stress

Mellor-Crummey, John

79

Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

Meyer, Matthew W. [Ames Laboratory

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

80

Superradiant Raman Laser Magnetometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate a proof-of-principle magnetometer that relies on the active oscillation of a cold atom Raman laser to continuously map a field-sensitive atomic phase onto the phase of the radiated light. We demonstrate wideband sensitivity during continuous active oscillation, as well as narrowband sensitivity in passive Ramsey-like mode with translation of the narrowband detection in frequency using spin-echo techniques. The sensor operates with a sensitivity of 190 pT/Hz^(1/2) at 1 kHz and effective sensing volume of 2 * 10^-3 mm^3. Fundamental quantum limits on the magnetic field sensitivity of an ideal detector are also considered.

Weiner, Joshua M; Bohnet, Justin G; Chen, Zilong; Thompson, James K

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Raman spectroscopy of shocked water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raman scattering has been used extensively to study the vibrational and rotational properties of molecules under a variety of conditions. Here, interest is in the behavior of water molecules shocked to high pressures and temperatures. Behind the shock front the water molecules undergo changes in bonding and the molecules may become ionized. Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the molecular species behind the shock front. In addition, changes in Raman spectra can yield information regarding inter- and intramolecular potentials and the temperature behind the shock front.

Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Graham, W.B.; Walrafen, G.E.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

In-situ raman microscopy of individual LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles in the Li-ion battery composite cathode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 Particles in the Li-ion Battery Composite Cathode Jingleidegradation of various Li-ion battery systems has been the

Lei, Jinglei; McLarnon, Frank; Kostecki, Robert

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Mathematical models of interconnections between composition and properties of oils in the Apsheron oil-and gas-bearing region of Azerbaijan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the example of oils in the Apsheron oil- and gas-bearing region and Apsheron archipelago located in the western part of the Southern Caspian depression, of which the authors have developed mathematical models of a group hydrocarbon composition; interconnection between oil density and content of asphalt-resin materials, benzine, and ligroin; interconnections between oil density and viscosity and temperature; and interconnections between content of asphalt-resin properties and low-temperature fractions. The models obtained enable us to extrapolate factual data on composition and properties of oils beyond the limits of fixed depths of burial of oil-saturated reservoirs both to a zone of great depths and increased temperatures where hydrocarbons were in a gaseous or oil and gaseous state, and to a zone of near-surface conditions where oils acquire the consistency of asphalts.

Buryakovsky, L.A.; Dzhevanshir, R.D. (Inst. of Deep Oil and Gas Deposits, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, 33 Narimanov Prospect, Baku 370143, Azerbaijan (SU))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Multifunctional Nanowire/film Composites based Bi-modular Sensors for In-situ and Real-time High Temperature Gas Detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report to the Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory for DE-FE0000870 covers the period from 2009 to June, 2013 and summarizes the main research accomplishments, which can be divided in sensing materials innovation, bimodular sensor demonstration, and new understanding and discoveries. As a matter of fact, we have successfully completed all the project tasks in June 1, 2013, and presented the final project review presentation on the 9th of July, 2013. Specifically, the major accomplishments achieved in this project include: 1) Successful development of a new class of high temperature stable gas sensor nanomaterials based on composite nano-array strategy in a 3D or 2D fashion using metal oxides and perovskite nanostructures. 2) Successful demonstration of bimodular nanosensors using 2D nanofibrous film and 3D composite nanowire arrays using electrical resistance mode and electrochemical electromotive force mode. 3) Series of new discoveries and understandings based on the new composite nanostructure platform toward enhancing nanosensor performance in terms of stability, selectivity, sensitivity and mass flux sensing. In this report, we highlight some results toward these accomplishments.

Gao, Pu-Xian; Lei, Yu

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Performance analysis of compositional and modified black-oil models for rich gas condensate reservoirs with vertical and horizontal wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It has been known that volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs cannot be modeled accurately with conventional black-oil models. One variation to the black-oil approach is the modified black-oil (MBO) model that allows the use of a simple...

Izgec, Bulent

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

86

JOURNAL OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY J. Raman Spectrosc. 2003; 34: 769775  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/jrs.1051 Raman spectroscopic study of spodumene (LiAlSi2O6 spectrum of a natural specimen of the pyroxene spodumene, from its low-pressure (C2/c) to its high, was not observed. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS: spodumene; pyroxene; pressure-induced phase

Downs, Robert T.

87

Inversion-free, noiseless Raman echoes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using double optical Raman rephasing, an inversion-free resonant Raman echo is studied in an inhomogeneously broadened spin ensemble of a solid medium, where the Raman optical field-excited spin coherence has a frozen propagation vector. Unlike photon echoes whose quantum memory application is strictly limited due to \\pi rephasing pulse-induced population inversion causing quantum noises, the optical Raman field-excited spin echo is inherently silent owing to the frozen propagation vector. Thus, the doubly rephased Raman echo can be directly applied for quantum interface in a population inversion-free environment.

Byoung S. Ham

2011-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

88

Intermodal entanglement in Raman processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The operator solution of a completely quantum mechanical Hamiltonian of the Raman processes is used here to investigate the possibility of obtaining intermodal entanglement between different modes involved in the Raman processes (e.g. pump mode, Stokes mode, vibration (phonon) mode and anti-Stokes mode). Intermodal entanglement is reported between a) pump mode and anti-Stokes mode, b) pump mode and vibration (phonon) mode c) Stokes mode and vibration phonon mode, d) Stokes mode and anti-stokes mode in the stimulated Raman processes for the variation of the phase angle of complex eigenvalue $\\alpha_{1}$ of pump mode $a$. Some incidents of intermodal entanglement in the spontaneous and the partially spontaneous Raman processes are also reported. Further it is shown that the specific choice of coupling constants may produce genuine entanglement among Stokes mode, anti-Stokes mode and vibration-phonon mode. It is also shown that the two mode entanglement not identified by Duan's criterion may be identified by Hillery-Zubairy criteria. It is further shown that intermodal entanglement, intermodal antibunching and intermodal squeezing are independent phenomena.

Biswajit Sen; Sandip Kumar Giri; Swapan Mandal; C. H. Raymond Ooi; Anirban Pathak

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

89

Development and characterization of Textron continuous fiber ceramic composite hot gas filter materials. Final report, September 30, 1994--October 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainties about the long-term ability of monolithic ceramics to survive in the IGCC or PFBC hot gas filter environment led DOE/METC to consider the merits of using continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites (CFCCs) as potential next-generation high temperature filter elements. This seems to be a logical strategy to pursue in light of the fact that properly-engineered CFCC materials have shown much-improved damage tolerance and thermal shock behavior as compared to existing monolithic ceramic materials. Textron`s Advanced Hot Gas Filter Development Program was intended to be a two year, two phase program which transitioned developmental materials R and D into prototype filter element fabrication. The first phase was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of fabricating CFCC hot gas filter elements which could meet the pressure drop specifications of less than ten inches of water (iwg) at a face velocity of ten feet per minute (fpm), while showing sufficient integrity to survive normal mechanical loads and adequate environmental resistance to steam/alkali corrosion conditions at a temperature of approximately 870 C (1600 F). The primary objective of the second phase of the program was to scale up fabrication methods developed in Phase 1 to produce full-scale CFCC candle filters for validation testing. Textron encountered significant process-related and technical difficulties in merely meeting the program permeability specifications, and much effort was expended in showing that this could indeed be achieved. Thus, by the time the Phase 1 program was completed, expenditure of program funds precluded continuing on with Phase 2, and Textron elected to terminate their program after Phase 1. This allowed Textron to be able to focus technical and commercialization efforts on their largely successful DOE CFCC Program.

DiPietro, S.G.; Alvin, M.A.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko, David J.

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

91

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

92

Structure in Nascent Carbon Nanotubes Revealed by Spatially Resolved Raman Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or filtration [1], supercapacitors [2], composite materials [3,4]. They are mainly prepared by CVD (Chemical1 Structure in Nascent Carbon Nanotubes Revealed by Spatially Resolved Raman Spectroscopy Périne: The understanding of carbon nanotubes (CNT) growth is crucial for the control of their production. In particular

93

Layers for Effective Volume Rendering Sundaresan Raman, Oleg Mishchenko, and Roger Crawfis, Member, IEEE Computer Society  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Layers for Effective Volume Rendering Sundaresan Raman, Oleg Mishchenko, and Roger Crawfis, Member, IEEE Computer Society Abstract--A multi-layer volume rendering framework is presented. The final image is obtained by compositing a number of renderings, each being represented as a separate layer. This layer

Crawfis, Roger

94

Investigation of the Thermal Decomposition of Triethylgallium Using in situ Raman Spectroscopy and DFT Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(TEGa) were followed using in situ Raman spectroscopy measurements in an up-flow, cold-wall CVD reactor an design with ss beads to p ure 1. Schem asurements. dy, the gas p ectroscopy i h numerical ons, which w Ex

Anderson, Timothy J.

95

Correlation of rocket propulsion fuel properties with chemical composition using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by partial least squares regression analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is an increased need to more fully assess and control the composition of kerosene based rocket propulsion fuels, namely RP-1 and RP-2. In particular, it is crucial to be able to make better quantitative connections between the following three attributes: (a) fuel performance, (b) fuel properties (flash point, density, kinematic viscosity, net heat of combustion, hydrogen content, etc) and (c) the chemical composition of a given fuel (i.e., specific chemical compounds and compound classes present as a result of feedstock blending and processing). Indeed, recent efforts in predicting fuel performance through modeling put greater emphasis on detailed and accurate fuel properties and fuel compositional information. In this regard, advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology provides improved data relative to classical boiling point and volatility curve techniques. Using ADC metrology, data obtained from RP-1 and RP-2 fuels provides compositional variation information that is directly relevant to predictive modeling of fuel performance. Often, in such studies, one-dimensional gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) is typically employed to provide chemical composition information. Building on approaches using GC-MS, but to glean substantially more chemical composition information from these complex fuels, we have recently studied the use of comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC - TOFMS) to provide chemical composition data that is significantly richer than that provided by GC-MS methods. In this report, by applying multivariate data analysis techniques, referred to as chemometrics, we are able to readily model (correlate) the chemical compositional information from RP-1 and RP-2 fuels provided using GC × GC - TOFMS, to the fuel property information such as that provided by the ADC method and other specification properties. We anticipate that this new chemical analysis strategy will have broad implications for the development of high fidelity composition-property models, leading to an optimized approach to fuel formulation and specification for advanced engine cycles.

Kehimkar, Benjamin; Hoggard, Jamin C.; Marney, Luke C.; Billingsley, Matthew; Fraga, Carlos G.; Bruno, Thomas J.; Synovec, Robert E.

2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Raman activity in synchronously dividing bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a spectrometer equipped with an optical-multichannel analyzer as the detector (OMA), we have observed the Stokes laser-Raman spectra of metabolically active Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium from 100 - 2100 cm/sup -1/. After lengthy investigation, no Raman lines attributable to the metabolic process nor the cells themselves were found. Previous Raman spectra of active bacteria cannot be used to support nonlinear theories in biology. 34 refs., 9 figs.

Layne, S.P.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Raman fiber optic probe assembly for use in hostile environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a device for Raman spectroscopic measurement of composition and concentrations in a hostile environment by the use of a first fiber optic as a means of directing high intensity monochromatic light from a laser to the hostile environment and a second fiber optic to receive the lower intensity scattered light for transmittal to a monochromator for analysis. To avoid damage to the fiber optics, they are protected from the hostile environment. A preferred embodiment of the Raman fiber optic probe is able to obtain Raman spectra of corrosive gases and solutions at temperatures up to 600.degree. F. and pressures up to 2000 psi. The incident exciting fiber optic cable makes an angle of substantially 90.degree. with the collecting fiber optic cable. This 90.degree. geometry minimizes the Rayleigh scattering signal picked up by the collecting fiber, because the intensity of Rayleigh scattering is lowest in the direction perpendicular to the beam path of the exciting light and therefore a 90.degree. scattering geometry optimizes the signal to noise ratio.

Schmucker, John E. (Hurt, VA); Falk, Jon C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Archer, William B. (Bethel Park, PA); Blasi, Raymond J. (Harrison City, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Videos of Experiments from ORNL Gas Hydrate Research  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Gas hydrate research performed by the Environmental Sciences Division utilizes the ORNL Seafloor Process Simulator, the Parr Vessel, the Sapphire Cell, a fiber optic distributed sensing system, and Raman spectroscopy. The group studies carbon sequestration in the ocean, desalination, gas hydrates in the solar system, and nucleation and dissociation kinetics. The videos available at the gas hydrates website are very short clips from experiments.

99

Raman Spectroscopy of Lithium Hydride Corrosion: Selection of an Appropriate Excitation Wavelength to Minimize Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent interest in a hydrogen-based fuel economy has renewed research into metal hydride chemistry. Many of these compounds react readily with water to release hydrogen gas and form a caustic. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFT) has been used to study the hydrolysis reaction. The LiOH stretch appears at 3670 cm{sup -1}. Raman spectroscopy is a complementary technique that employs monochromatic excitation (laser) allowing access to the low energy region of the vibrational spectrum (<600 cm{sup -1}). Weak scattering and fluorescence typically prevent Raman from being used for many compounds. The role of Li{sub 2}O in the moisture reaction has not been fully studied for LiH. Li{sub 2}O can be observed by Raman while being hidden in the Infrared spectrum.

Stowe, A. C.; Smyrl, N. R.

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

100

Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to quantitatively determine the major elemental abundance of the remaining samples. PLS analysis suggests that the major element compositions can be determined with root mean square errors ca. 5% (absolute) for SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(total), MgO, and CaO, and ca. 2% or less for TiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO, K{sub 2}O, and Na{sub 2}O. Finally, the Raman experiments have been conducted under supercritical CO{sub 2} involving single-mineral and mixed-mineral samples containing talc, olivine, pyroxenes, feldspars, anhydrite, barite, and siderite. The Raman data have shown that the individual minerals can easily be identified individually or in mixtures.

Clegg, Sanuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Humphries, Seth D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vaniman, D. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, S. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Misra, A. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Dyar, M. D. [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Smrekar, S. E. [JET PROPULSION LAB.

2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Landfill Gas Fueled HCCI Demonstration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 121:569-operations with natural gas: Fuel composition implications,”USA ICEF2006-1578 LANDFILL GAS FUELED HCCI DEMONSTRATION

Blizman, Brandon J.; Makel, Darby B.; Mack, John Hunter; Dibble, Robert W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Inelastic neutron and low-frequency Raman scattering in a niobium-phosphate glass for Raman gain applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inelastic neutron and low-frequency Raman scattering in a niobium-phosphate glass for Raman gain: Raman scattering; Neutron scattering; Raman gain; Boson peak We present measurements of the vibrational, extracted from specific-heat or neutron scattering measurements [7,8]. Only very recently two of the present

Schirmacher, Walter

103

Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

Ferrare, Richard

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

104

Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

Ferrare, Richard

105

Identification of minerals and meteoritic materials via Raman techniques after capture in hypervelocity impacts on aerogel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For this study, an extensive suite of mineral particles analogous to components of cosmic dust were tested to determine if their Raman signatures can be recognized after hypervelocity capture in aerogel. The mineral particles were mainly of greater than 20 micrometers in size and were accelerated onto the silica aerogel by light gas gun shots. It was found that all the individual minerals captured in aerogel could be subsequently identified using Raman (or fluorescent) spectra. The beam spot size used for the laser illumination was of the order of 5 micrometers, and in some cases the captured particles were of a similar small size. In some samples fired into aerogel there was observed a shift in the wavenumbers of some of the Raman bands, a result of the trapped particles being at quite high temperatures due to heating by the laser. Temperatures of samples under laser illumination were estimated from the relative intensities of Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman bands, or, in the case of ruby particles, from the wavenumber of fluorescence bands excited by the laser. It was found that the temperature of particles in aerogel varied greatly, dependent upon laser power and the nature of the particle. In the worst case, some particles were shown to have temperatures in the 500-700 C range at a laser power of about 3 mW at the sample. However most of the mineral particles examined at this laser power had temperatures below 200 C. This is sufficiently low a temperature not to damage most materials expected to be found captured in aerogel in space. In addition, selected meteorite samples were examined to obtain Raman signatures of their constituent minerals and were then shot into aerogel. It was possible to find several Raman signatures after capture in aerogel and obtain a Raman map of a whole grain in situ in the aerogel. Finally, a Raman analysis was carried out of a particle captured in aerogel in space and carbonaceous material identified. In general therefore it is concluded that Raman analysis is indeed well suited for an in-situ analysis of micrometer sized non-terrestrial materials captured in aerogel.

Burchell, M J; Mann, J; Creighton, J A; Kearsley, A; Graham, G A; Esposito, A P; Franchi, I A; Westphal, A J; Snead, C

2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

106

The vibrational Raman spectrum of CS?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE VIBRATIONAL RAMAN SPECTRUM OF CSp A Thesis By HAROLD NOBLE BALLARD Approved as to style and content by Chairman o| Committee THE VIBRATIONAL RAMAN SPECTRUM OF CS2 HAROLD NOBLE BALLARD A Thesis Suhmitted to the Graduate School... in the procurement of necessary equipment. SECTION I: INTRODUCTION. SECTION II: CLASSICAL THEORY OF RAHAM SCATTERING . SECTION III: THEORY OF NORMAL VIBRATIONS AND VIBRATIONAL WAVE EQUATIONS. A, Morsel Vibrations B. Vibrational Wave Eqnation and lhergy Levels...

Ballard, Harold Noble

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

High fidelity nanohole enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive technique that can even detect single molecules. However, in many SERS applications, the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of intense local fields makes it very difficult for a quantitive assessment of the fidelity, or reproducibility of the signal, which limits the application of SERS. Herein, we report the development of exceptionally high-fidelity hole-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HERS) from ordered, 2D hexagonal nanohole arrays. We take the fidelity f to be a measure of the percent deviation of the Raman peaks from measurement to measurement. Overall, area averaged fidelities for 12 gold array samples ranged from f {approx} 2-15% for HERS using aqueous R6G molecules. Furthermore, intensity modulations of the enhanced Raman spectra were measured for the first time as a function of polarization angle. The best of these measurements, which focus on static laser spots on the sample, could be consistent with even higher fidelities than the area-averaged results. Nanohole arrays in silver provided supporting polarization measurements and a more complete enhanced Raman fingerprint for phenylalanine molecules. We also carried out finite-difference time-domain calculations to assist in the interpretation of the experiments, identifying the polarization dependence as possibly arising from hole-hole interactions. Our results represent a step toward making quantitative and reproducible enhanced Raman measurements possible and also open new avenues for a large-scale source of highly uniform hot spots.

Bahns, J. T.; Guo, Q.; Gray, S. K.; Jaeger, H. M.; Chen, L.; Montgomery, J. M.; Univ. of Chicago

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

109

Tunable infrared source employing Raman mixing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tunable source of infrared radiation is obtained by irradiating an assemblage of Raman active gaseous atoms or molecules with a high intensity pumping beam of coherent radiation at a pump frequency .omega..sub.p to stimulate the generation of Stokes wave energy at a Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s and to stimulate the Raman resonant mode at the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R within the irradiated assemblage where the pump frequency .omega..sub.p minus the Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s is equal to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R. The stimulated assemblage is irradiated with a tunable source of coherent radiation at a frequency .omega..sub.i to generate the output infrared radiation of the frequency .omega..sub.0 which is related to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R and the input wave .omega..sub.i by the relation .omega..sub.0 =.omega..sub.i .+-..omega..sub.R. In one embodiment the interaction between the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i is collinear and the ratio of the phase velocity mismatch factor .DELTA.k to the electric field exponential gain coefficient T is within the range of 0.1 to 5. In another embodiment the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i have velocity vectors k.sub.p and k.sub.i which cross at an angle to each other to compensate for phase velocity mismatches in the medium. In another embodiment, the Stokes wave energy .omega..sub.s is generated by pump energy .omega..sub.p in a first Raman cell and .omega..sub.s, .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.p are combined in a second Raman mixing cell to produce the output at .omega..sub.i.

Byer, Robert L. (Stanford, CA); Herbst, Richard L. (Menlo Park, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided {approx}2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and {approx}800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of {approx}25-fold at 244 nm and {approx}190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

Short, B J; Carter, J C; Gunter, D; Hovland, P; Jagode, H; Karavanic, K; Marin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J; Moore, S; Norris, B; Oliker, L; Olschanowsky, C; Roth, P C; Schulz, M; Shende, S; Snavely, A; Spear, W

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

111

Real-time Raman system for in vivo disease diagnosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Raman spectroscopy has been well established as a powerful in vitro method for studying biological tissue and diagnosing disease. The recent development of efficient, high-throughput, low-background optical fiber Raman ...

Motz, Jason T.

112

Absolute Raman matrix elements of graphene and graphite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using sample substitution [Grimsditch et al., J. Raman Spectrosc. 10, 77 (1981)] we deconvolve the highly wavelength-dependent response of the spectrometer from the Raman spectra of graphene suspended on an SiO[subscript ...

Reich, Stephanie

113

Raman and surface-enhanced Raman study of asymmetrically substituted viologens  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The normal Raman (NR), resonance Raman (RR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) spectra of the three redox forms of several asymmetric viologens, N-octyl-N'-methylviologen (C/sub 8/MV), N-dodecyl-N'-methylviologen (C/sub 12/MV), and N-hexadecyl-N'-methylviologen (C/sub 16/MV), have been characterized and compared with the corresponding spectra of the three redox forms of methylviologen (MV). It was observed that the substituents of the two N atoms of the viologen do not affect its overall symmetry. Only the Raman bands near 1200 cm/sup /minus/1/, containing major contributions from the N-alkyl stretching vibrations, are affected by the asymmetric substitution. The RR spectra of both the monomer and dimer forms of the cation radicals were obtained by varying the experimental conditions used in their preparation. As previously observed for MV, dimerization of the asymmetric viologen radicals produces splitting of certain RR bands. Resonance Raman spectra of the fully reduced viologens were also obtained and used to monitor the disproportionation reaction between the dication and fully reduced form of the viologen. Surface-enhanced Raman and SERRS spectra of the different asymmetric viologens were found to vary slightly due to changes in their adsorption behavior with increasing chain length of the alkyl substituent.

Lu, T.; Cotton, T.M.; Hurst, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.P.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Diamond-silicon carbide composite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5–8 GPa, T=1400K–2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.dot.m1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yusheng

2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

115

Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

Schmucker, John E. (Hurt, VA); Blasi, Raymond J. (Harrison City, PA); Archer, William B. (Bethel Park, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Double resonance surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates: an intuitive coupled  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Westcott, L. R. Hirsch, J. L. West, and N. J. Halas, "Controlling the surface enhanced Raman effect via

117

Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder A China Paper on Type 4;Industrial Computed Tomography (CT) Examination of Composite Gas Cylinder #12;CT of 01-01 Layer at 4.8MPa during the gas compressing and releasing processes are the direct causes for liner defect - Since

118

Vibrational Raman Spectroscopy of High-temperature Superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vibrational Raman Spectroscopy of High-temperature Superconductors C. Thomsen and G. Kaczmarczyk-temperature Superconductors C. Thomsen and G. Kaczmarczyk Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany 1 INTRODUCTION Raman after the discovery of high- critical-temperature Tc superconductors:2 while reports on Raman scattering

Nabben, Reinhard

119

Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman spectroscopy Yan Zhou Cheng-Hui Liu Yi Sun Yang Pu://biomedicaloptics.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 11/16/2012 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Human brain cancer studied by resonance Raman of human brain tissues are examined using a confocal micro-Raman system with 532-nm excitation in vitro

Sun, Yi

120

Special Section Guest Editorial Coherent Raman Imaging Techniques and Biomedical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Special Section Guest Editorial Coherent Raman Imaging Techniques and Biomedical Applications. The combination of high resolution and molecular contrast has moved Raman techniques into the biomedical spotlight on biomedical imag- ing. The spontaneous Raman interaction is weak, yielding insufficient photons for fast

Potma, Eric Olaf

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Multidimensional resonance raman spectroscopy by six-wave mixing in the deep UV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-dimensional (2D) resonance Raman spectroscopies hold great potential for uncovering photoinduced relaxation processes in molecules but are not yet widely applied because of technical challenges. Here, we describe a newly developed 2D resonance Raman experiment operational at the third-harmonic of a Titanium-Sapphire laser. High-sensitivity and rapid data acquisition are achieved by combining spectral interferometry with a background-free (six-pulse) laser beam geometry. The third-harmonic laser pulses are generated in a filament produced by the fundamental and second-harmonic pulses in neon gas at pressures up to 35 atm. The capabilities of the setup are demonstrated by probing ground-state wavepacket motions in triiodide. The information provided by the experiment is explored with two different representations of the signal. In one representation, Fourier transforms are carried out with respect to the two experimentally controlled delay times to obtain a 2D Raman spectrum. Further insights are derived in a second representation by dispersing the signal pulse in a spectrometer. It is shown that, as in traditional pump-probe experiments, the six-wave mixing signal spectrum encodes the wavepacket's position by way of the (time-evolving) emission frequency. Anharmonicity additionally induces dynamics in the vibrational resonance frequency. In all cases, the experimental signals are compared to model calculations based on a cumulant expansion approach. This study suggests that multi-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopies conducted on systems with Franck-Condon active modes are fairly immune to many of the technical issues that challenge off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies (e.g., third-order cascades) and photon-echo experiments in the deep UV (e.g., coherence spikes). The development of higher-order nonlinear spectroscopies operational in the deep UV is motivated by studies of biological systems and elementary organic photochemistries.

Molesky, Brian P.; Giokas, Paul G.; Guo, Zhenkun; Moran, Andrew M., E-mail: ammoran@email.unc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

122

Raman laser with controllable suppression of parasitics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for switching energy out of a Raman laser optical cavity. Coherent radiation at both the pump and first Stokes wave frequencies are introduced into the optical cavity from the same direction, and a second Stokes wave is utilized to switch the energy out of the cavity.

George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Raman Scattering of Water and Photoluminescence of Pollutants Arising from Solid-Water Interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Systematic Raman experiments performed on water and water-ethanol samples, stored in different containers (fused silica, polypropylene, soda-lime glass type III) for several hours, have shown that the luminescence contribution to the Raman signal fluctuations is directly related to the container composition. Intensity fluctuations as large as 98%, have been observed in the spectral regions corresponding to the both water intramolecular and intermolecular vibrations, despite the fact that the wavenumbers of the modes remained unchanged. We undoubtedly attribute these fluctuations to a luminescence phenomenon on the basis of : i) the absence of such effect in the anti-Stokes domain, ii) its dependence on the excitation laser wavelength, iii) other relevant photoluminescence experiments. This luminescence is attributed to pollutants at ultra-low concentration coming from the different containers.

Vallée, P; Ghomi, M; Jouanne, M; Vall\\'{e}e, Philippe; Lafait, Jacques; Ghomi, Mahmoud; Jouanne, Michel

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Application of Raman spectroscopy to identification and sorting of post-consumer plastics for recycling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high accuracy rapid system for sorting a plurality of waste products by polymer type. The invention involves the application of Raman spectroscopy and complex identification techniques to identify and sort post-consumer plastics for recycling. The invention reads information unique to the molecular structure of the materials to be sorted to identify their chemical compositions and uses rapid high volume sorting techniques to sort them into product streams at commercially viable throughput rates. The system employs a laser diode (20) for irradiating the material sample (10), a spectrograph (50) is used to determine the Raman spectrum of the material sample (10) and a microprocessor based controller (70) is employed to identify the polymer type of the material sample (10).

Sommer, Edward J. (Nashville, TN); Rich, John T. (Lebanon, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Gas Atomization of Amorphous Aluminum: Part I. Thermal Behavior Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

which are summarized below: 1. Gas composition is moree?ective than gas pressure on in?uencing cooling rate for app. 210–11. 37. J.E.A. John: Gas Dynamics, Allyn and Bacon,

Zheng, Baolong; Lin, Yaojun; Zhou, Yizhang; Lavernia, Enrique J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Goal of DOE`s Advanced Turbine Systems program is to develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Primary objective of the program here is to develop a comprehensive combustion model for advanced gas turbine combustion systems using natural gas (coal gasification or biomass fuels). The efforts included code evaluation (PCGC-3), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, and laser-induced fluorescence.

Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.; Brewster, B.S.; Kramer, S.K. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Phase characterization and grain size effects of nanophase Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} composites produced by the gas-phase condensation technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanophase (n-) ZrO{sub 2} was produce in its pure and partially stabilized form by the gas-phase condensation method. The material was examined by x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering to obtain information on the structural evolution of the material during sintering. Two types of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped ZrO{sub 2} doped ZrO{sub 2} nanophase materials were made, one by co-deposition of n-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and n-ZrO{sub 2}. We have determined that the co-deposition process is the most effect means of doping the n-ZrO{sub 2}.

Foster, C.M.; Bai, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Parker, J.C.; Ali, M.N. [Nanophase Technologies Corp., Darien, IL (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Phase characterization and grain size effects of nanophase Y[sub 2]O[sub 3], ZrO[sub 2] and Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]-ZrO[sub 2] composites produced by the gas-phase condensation technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanophase (n-) ZrO[sub 2] was produce in its pure and partially stabilized form by the gas-phase condensation method. The material was examined by x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering to obtain information on the structural evolution of the material during sintering. Two types of Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] doped ZrO[sub 2] doped ZrO[sub 2] nanophase materials were made, one by co-deposition of n-Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] and n-ZrO[sub 2]. We have determined that the co-deposition process is the most effect means of doping the n-ZrO[sub 2].

Foster, C.M.; Bai, G.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Parker, J.C.; Ali, M.N. (Nanophase Technologies Corp., Darien, IL (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Graphene and its derivatives : fabrication and Raman spectroscopy study.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis presents results on fabrication and Raman spectroscopy studies of graphene and its derivates. The works can be divided into two parts as follows.… (more)

Cong, Chunxiao.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Combining Raman Microprobe and XPS to Study High Temperature...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

spectroscopy. Citation: Windisch CF, Jr, CH Henager, MH Engelhard, and WD Bennett.2011."Combining Raman Microprobe and XPS to Study High Temperature Oxidation of...

131

Raman and XPS characterization of fuel-cladding interactions...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MOX fuel mixtures. Citation: Windisch CF, Jr, CH Henager, Jr, MH Engelhard, and WD Bennett.2009."Raman and XPS characterization of fuel-cladding interactions using miniature...

132

Inelastic neutron scattering, Raman and DFT investigations of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Inelastic neutron scattering, Raman and DFT investigations of the adsorption of phenanthrenequinone on onion-like carbon Daniela M. Anjos a , Alexander I. Kolesnikov a , Zili Wu a...

133

Compositions, devices and methods for SERS and LSPR  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to compositions, devices and methods for detecting microorganisms (e.g., anthrax). In particular, the present invention provides portable, surface-enhanced Raman biosensors, and associated substrates, and methods of using the same, for use in rapidly detecting and identifying microorganisms (e.g., anthrax).

Van Duyne, Richard P; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Jing; Whitney, Alyson V; Elam, Jeffrey W; Schatz, George C; Stair, Peter C; Zou, Shengli; Young, Matthew; Lyandres, Olga

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

134

MODIFYING AN INVERTED LABORATORY MICROSCOPE FOR RAMAN Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODIFYING AN INVERTED LABORATORY MICROSCOPE FOR RAMAN MICROSCOPY A Thesis Presented in Partial modifications a spectroscopic imaging instrument, a Raman microscope, can be constructed from a common inverted

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - adeep-ultraviolet resonance raman Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Maruyama Summary: Temperature dependence of resonance Raman of single-walled carbon nanotubes Shohei Chiashi... , Mototeru Oba and Shigeo Maruyama Raman scattering from...

136

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-stokes raman spectroscopic Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic imaging device in which two laser pulse trains... . August 19, 2008 System and method for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering...

137

Optical pumping via incoherent Raman transitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new optical pumping scheme is presented that uses incoherent Raman transitions to prepare a trapped Cesium atom in a specific Zeeman state within the 6S_{1/2}, F=3 hyperfine manifold. An important advantage of this scheme over existing optical pumping schemes is that the atom can be prepared in any of the F=3 Zeeman states. We demonstrate the scheme in the context of cavity quantum electrodynamics, but the technique is equally applicable to a wide variety of atomic systems with hyperfine ground-state structure.

A. D. Boozer; R. Miller; T. E. Northup; A. Boca; H. J. Kimble

2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

138

Quantum-entanglement-initiated super Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has now been possible to prepare a chain of ions in an entangled state and thus the question arises: How will the optical properties of a chain of entangled ions differ from say a chain of independent particles? We investigate nonlinear optical processes in such chains. Since light scattering is quite a versatile technique to probe matter, we explicitly demonstrate the possibility of entanglement-produced super Raman scattering. Our results suggest the possibility of similar enhancement factors in other nonlinear processes like four-wave mixing.

Agarwal, G. S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Raman lidar and MPL Measurements during ALIVE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323Program2Raftopoulos takesBridges.Raman lidar

140

CLIENT : INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES C. V. RAMAN AVENUE,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CLIENT : INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES C. V. RAMAN AVENUE, SADASHIVNAGAR, BANGALORE ­ 560080 TENDER : PROPOSED INTERIORS FOR CABIN CUM MEETING ROOM AT INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, C V RAMAN AVENUE, BANGALORE COMPLEX, KAMARAJ ROAD, II CROSS, BANGALORE - 560042 #12;INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES BANGALORE ­ 560080

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Raman Measurements on Electrochemically Doped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Raman Measurements on Electrochemically Doped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes P. M. Rafailov, M and studied the Raman response of electro- chemically doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using different salt solutions. The fre- quency shift of the radial breathing mode (RBM) and the high-energy mode

Nabben, Reinhard

142

Hydrogen Raman shifts in carbon nanotubes from molecular dynamics simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Raman shifts in carbon nanotubes from molecular dynamics simulation S.J.V. Frankland *, D hydrogen in individual single-shell carbon nanotubes and nanotube ropes using a semiclassical model. The calculations predict that isolated hydrogen molecules inside of nanotubes have a Raman frequency that increases

Brenner, Donald W.

143

Raman spectra of aligned carbon micro-coils and their impedance characteristics under loads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the morphology of the carbon microcoils (CMCs). The Raman spectra showed that CMCs had local regular structure as I{sub D}/I{sub G}?=?0.841. Then, aligned CMCs/silicone–rubber composites (5?×?5?×?1 mm{sup 3}) were fabricated by coating of silicone rubber on the CMCs. Their alternating current impedance characteristics were measured as a function of applied load and the pressure sensitivity was discussed. The results showed that the impedance decreased as the increasing applied load, and the sample with less CMCs owned high pressure sensitivity, which indicated a novel composite film could act as an alternative of tactile sensor.

Tao, Wang; Yabo, Zhu, E-mail: zhuyabo@163.com; Heliang, Fan; Zhicheng, Ju; Lei, Chen; Zhengyuan, Wang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xu Zhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

144

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

145

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

146

ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

147

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

148

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

149

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

150

Robust high temperature composite and CO sensor made from such composite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described herein is a composite exhibiting a change in electrical resistance proportional to the concentration of a reducing gas present in a gas mixture, detector and sensor devices comprising the composite, a method for making the composite and for making devices comprising the composite, and a process for detecting and measuring a reducing gas in an atmosphere. In particular, the reducing gas may be carbon monoxide and the composite may comprise rutile-phase TiO2 particles and platinum nanoclusters. The composite, upon exposure to a gas mixture containing CO in concentrations of up to 10,000 ppm, exhibits an electrical resistance proportional to the concentration of the CO present. The composite is useful for making sensitive, low drift, fast recovering detectors and sensors, and for measuring CO concentrations in a gas mixture present at levels from sub-ppm up to 10,000 ppm. The composites, and devices made from the composites, are stable and operable in a temperature range of from about 450.degree. C. to about 700.degree. C., such as may be found in a combustion chamber.

Dutta, Prabir K.; Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy; Li, Xiaogan; Akbar, Sheikh A.

2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

151

Propagation of Lamb waves in one-dimensional quasiperiodic composite thin plates: A split of phonon band gap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Propagation of Lamb waves in one-dimensional quasiperiodic composite thin plates: A split of phonon the propagation of Lamb waves in one-dimensional quasiperiodic composite thin plates made of tungsten B spectra, Raman scattering spectra, and propagating modes of acoustic waves on corrugated surfaces.14

Li, Baowen

152

Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes work to develop CFCC's for various applications in the Industries of the Future (IOF) and power generation areas. Performance requirements range from relatively modest for hot gas filters to severe for turbine combustor liners and infrared burners. The McDermott Technology Inc. (MTI) CFCC program focused on oxide/oxide composite systems because they are known to be stable in the application environments of interest. The work is broadly focused on dense and porous composite systems depending on the specific application. Dense composites were targeted at corrosion resistant components, molten aluminum handling components and gas turbine combustor liners. The development work on dense composites led to significant advances in fiber coatings for oxide fibers and matrix densification. Additionally, a one-step fabrication process was developed to produce low cost composite components. The program also supported key developments in advanced oxide fibers that resulted in an improved version of Nextel 610 fiber (commercially available as Nextel 650) and significant progress in the development of a YAG/alumina fiber. Porous composite development focused on the vacuum winding process used to produce hot gas filters and infrared burner components.

R. A. Wagner

2002-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

153

Detection of Physiologically Relevant Alcohol Concentrations Using Raman Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is the first step in a series of studies to test the feasibility of using Raman Spectroscopy (RS) to non-invasively detect physiologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations. Blood tests, urine tests, and the breathalyzer are currently...

McKay, Joshua L.

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

154

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an attractive analytical technique, which enables single-molecule sensitive detection and provides its special chemical fingerprints. During the past decades, researchers have ...

Xu, Weigao

155

Quantitative biological Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive blood analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The long term goal of this project is the measurement of clinically-relevant analytes in the blood tissue matrix of human subjects using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy, with the shorter term research directed towards ...

Shih, Wei-Chuan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dosimeter and probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dosimeter and probe for measuring exposure to chemical and biological compounds is disclosed. The dosimeter or probe includes a collector which may be analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The collector comprises a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active material having a coating applied thereto to improve the adsorption properties of the collector. The collector may also be used in automated sequential devises, in probe array devices.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Development of an Integrated Raman and Turbidity Fiber Optic Sensor for the In-Situ Analysis of High Level Nuclear Waste - 13532  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stored nuclear waste must be retrieved from storage, treated, separated into low- and high-level waste streams, and finally put into a disposal form that effectively encapsulates the waste and isolates it from the environment for a long period of time. Before waste retrieval can be done, waste composition needs to be characterized so that proper safety precautions can be implemented during the retrieval process. In addition, there is a need for active monitoring of the dynamic chemistry of the waste during storage since the waste composition can become highly corrosive. This work describes the development of a novel, integrated fiber optic Raman and light scattering probe for in situ use in nuclear waste solutions. The dual Raman and turbidity sensor provides simultaneous chemical identification of nuclear waste as well as information concerning the suspended particles in the waste using a common laser excitation source. (authors)

Gasbarro, Christina; Bello, Job [EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey St., Norwood, MA, 02062 (United States)] [EIC Laboratories, Inc., 111 Downey St., Norwood, MA, 02062 (United States); Bryan, Samuel; Lines, Amanda; Levitskaia, Tatiana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Investigation of Temperature Dependent Optical Modes in GexAs35-xSe65 Thin Films: Structure Specific Raman, FIR and Optical Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article, we present a comprehensive study of temperature and composition dependent Raman spectroscopy of GexAs35-xSe65 thin films to understand different structural units responsible for optical properties. Strikingly, our experimental results uncover the ratio of GeSe4/2 tetrahedral and AsSe3/2 pyramidal units in GexAs35-xSe65 thin films and their linear scaling relationship with temperature and x. An important notable outcome of our study is the formation of Se8 rings at lower temperatures. Our experimental results further provide interesting optical features, thermally and compositionally tunable optical absorption spectra. Detailed structure specific FIR data at room temperature also present direct information on the structural units in consistent with Raman data. We foresee that our studies are useful in determining the lightinduced response of these films and also for their potential applications in optics and optoelectronics.

Khan, Pritam; Joshy, Abin; Sathe, Vasant; Deshpande, Uday; Adarsh, K V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Kinetics simulation for natural gas conversion to unsaturated C? hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

value. The usual chemical composition range of natural gas is shown in Table I. l. Table 1. 1 Natural Gas Composition Component Methane Ethane Pro ane iso-Butane normal-Butane iso-Pentane normal-Pentane Hexane s lus Nitro en Carbon Dioxide... Acetylene Carbon Ethylene Hydrogen Methane Water Carbon Dioxide CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Challenge for Natural Gas Natural Gas (NG), which is comprised priinarily of methane, is found throughout the world, burns cleanly, and processes a high caloric...

Yang, Li

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

VOLUME 84, NUMBER 17 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 24 APRIL 2000 Bose-Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage in Photoassociation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a degenerate molecular gas (MBEC) from an already Bose-condensed sample of atoms [4­6]. Photoassociation (PA two-color photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate, focusing on stimulated Raman adiabatic element for an atomic condensate, and photoassociative STIRAP turns out to be a viable mechanism

Javanainen, Juha

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Method for removing undesired particles from gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a process for removing undesired particles from a gas stream including the steps of contacting a composition containing an adhesive with the gas stream; collecting the undesired particles and adhesive on a collection surface to form an aggregate comprising the adhesive and undesired particles on the collection surface; and removing the agglomerate from the collection zone. The composition may then be atomized and injected into the gas stream. The composition may include a liquid that vaporizes in the gas stream. After the liquid vaporizes, adhesive particles are entrained in the gas stream. The process may be applied to electrostatic precipitators and filtration systems to improve undesired particle collection efficiency.

Durham, Michael Dean (Castle Rock, CO); Schlager, Richard John (Aurora, CO); Ebner, Timothy George (Westminster, CO); Stewart, Robin Michele (Arvada, CO); Hyatt, David E. (Denver, CO); Bustard, Cynthia Jean (Littleton, CO); Sjostrom, Sharon (Denver, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Electrode compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

Block, J.; Fan, X.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

163

Method of manufacturing aerogel composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herewith is a process of forming an aerogel composite which comprises introducing a gaseous material into a formed aerogel monolith or powder, and causing decomposition of said gaseous material in said aerogel in amounts sufficient to cause deposition of the decomposition products of the gas on the surfaces of the pores of the said aerogel.

Cao, Wanqing (Alameda, CA); Hunt, Arlon Jason (Oakland, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Method of manufacturing aerogel composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herewith is a process of forming an aerogel composite which comprises introducing a gaseous material into a formed aerogel monolith or powder, and causing decomposition of said gaseous material in said aerogel in amounts sufficient to cause deposition of the decomposition products of the gas on the surfaces of the pores of the said aerogel.

Cao, W.; Hunt, A.J.

1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

165

Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Coatings on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Li-Ion Battery Composite Cathodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

O 2 for Li-ion Battery Composite Cathodes Marek L. MarcinekRaman spectroscopy. The composite LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2electronic contact within the composite cathode and does not

Doeff, M.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Nanopillars array for surface enhanced Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present a new class of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. Two types of nanopillars within this class are discussed: vertical pillars and tapered pillars. For the vertical pillars, the gap between each pair of nanopillars is small enough (< 50 nm) such that highly confined plasmonic cavity resonances are supported between the pillars when light is incident upon them, and the anti-nodes of these resonances act as three-dimensional hotspots for SERS. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of 1,2 bis-(4-pyridyl)-ethylene (BPE), benzenethiol (BT) monolayer and toluene vapor. The results show that SERS enhancement factor of over 0.5 x 10{sup 9} can be achieved, and BPE can be detected down to femto-molar concentration level. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors such as volatile organic compounds.

S.P. Chang, A; Bora, M; Nguyen, H T; Behymer, E M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Carter, J C; Bond, T C

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

167

Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission D. S. Burnett1 and Genesis Science Team2: the isoto- pic compositions of O, N, and noble gases differ in the Sun from other inner solar system objects in the noble gas data from solar wind implanted in lunar soils. (ii) The most advanced analytical instruments

168

Detection and Quantitative Analysis of Chemical Species in Hanford Tank Materials Using Raman Spectroscopy Technology: FY94Florida State University Raman Spectroscopy Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a summary of work completed in FY-94 by FSU to develop and investigate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy with Hanford tank waste materials. Raman performance impacts from sample morphology, including the effects of absorption, particle size, density, color and refractive index, are discussed. An algorithm for relative species concentration measurement from Raman data is presented. An Algorithm for applying Raman to tank waste core screening is presented and discussed. A library of absorption and Raman spectra are presented that support this work.

Reich, F.R.

1997-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

169

Local structures of polar wurtzites Zn1-xMgxO studied by raman and 67Zn/25Mg NMR spectroscopies and by total neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research in the area of polar semiconductor heterostructures has been growing rapidly, driven in large part by interest in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems. 2DEGs are known to form at heterojunction interfaces that bear polarization gradients. They can display extremely high electron mobilities, especially at low temperatures, owing to spatial confinement of carrier motions. Recent reports of 2DEG behaviors in Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N/GaN and Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O/ZnO heterostructures have great significance for the development of quantum Hall devices and novel high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). 2DEG structures are usually designed by interfacing a polar semiconductor with its less or more polar alloys in an epitaxial manner. Since the quality of the 2DEG depends critically on interface perfection, as well as the polarization gradient at the heterojunction, understanding compositional and structural details of the parent and alloy semiconductors is an important component in 2DEG design and fabrication. Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O/ZnO is one of the most promising heterostructure types for studies of 2DEGs, due to the large polarization of ZnO, the relatively small lattice mismatch, and the large conduction band offsets in the Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O/ZnO heterointerface. Although 2DEG formation in Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O/ZnO heterostructures have been researched for some time, a clear understanding of the alloy structure of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O is currently lacking. Here, we conduct a detailed and more precise study of the local structure of Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O alloys using Raman and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), in conjunction with neutron diffraction techniques.

Proffen, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yiung- Il [UCSB; Cadars, Sylvian [UCSB; Shayib, Ramzy [UCSB; Feigerle, Charles S [UNIV OF TENNESSEE; Chmelka, Bradley F [UCSB; Seshadri, Ram [UCSB

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Storage and Manipulation of Light Using a Raman Gradient Echo Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Gradient Echo Memory (GEM) scheme has potential to be a suitable protocol for storage and retrieval of optical quantum information. In this paper, we review the properties of the $\\Lambda$-GEM method that stores information in the ground states of three-level atomic ensembles via Raman coupling. The scheme is versatile in that it can store and re-sequence multiple pulses of light. To date, this scheme has been implemented using warm rubidium gas cells. There are different phenomena that can influence the performance of these atomic systems. We investigate the impact of atomic motion and four-wave mixing and present experiments that show how parasitic four-wave mixing can be mitigated. We also use the memory to demonstrate preservation of pulse shape and the backward retrieval of pulses.

Hosseini, M; Campbell, G T; Lam, P K; Buchler, B C

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Dust Samples from NSTX  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Raman spectrum of dust particles exposed to the NSTX plasma is different from the spectrum of unexposed particles scraped from an unused graphite tile. For the unexposed particles, the high energy G-mode peak (Raman shift ~1580 cm-1) is much stronger than the defect-induced D-mode peak (Raman shift ~ 1350 cm-1), a pattern that is consistent with Raman spectrum for commercial graphite materials. For dust particles exposed to the plasma, the ratio of G-mode to D-mode peaks is lower and becomes even less than 1. The Raman measurements indicate that the production of carbon dust particles in NSTX involves modifications of the physical and chemical structure of the original graphite material. These modifications are shown to be similar to those measured for carbon deposits from atmospheric pressure helium arc discharge with an ablating anode electrode made from a graphite tile material. We also demonstrate experimentally that heating to 2000-2700 K alone can not explain the observed structural modifications indicating that they must be due to higher temperatures needed for graphite vaporization, which is followed either by condensation or some plasma-induced processes leading to the formation of more disordered forms of carbon material than the original graphite.

Y. Raitses, C.H. Skinner, F. Jiang and T.S. Duffy

2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

172

Bitumen composition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a bitumen composition. It comprises: asphalt and from about 1 wt.% to about 10 wt.%, based on asphalt, of an {alpha} -olefin polymer having a molecular weight within the range from about 750 to 5000.

Halasz, A.; Spinell, G.; Doolittle, D.H.

1989-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

173

Hydride compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung, W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.; Bagheri, R.

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

175

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA); Bagheri, Reza (Bethlehem, PA)

1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

176

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

McInnis, Edwin L. (Allentown, PA); Scharff, Robert P. (Louisville, KY); Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figures.

McInnis, E.L.; Scharff, R.P.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

178

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles.

McInnis, Edwin L. (Allentown, PA); Bauman, Bernard D. (Emmaus, PA); Williams, Mark A. (Souderton, PA)

1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

179

Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

McInnis, E.L.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

180

Noise figure and photon statistics in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). 11. J. Perina, "Photon statistics in Raman scattering with frequency mismatch," Optica Acta 28, 1529 (1981). 12. J. Perina, "Photon statistics in Raman scattering of intense coherent light," Optica Acta 28

Jalali. Bahram

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for the detection of excitatory amino acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) on aqueous silver colloids. This study examines methods to monitor the colloidal reactions for the calibration of the enhancement observed. Thirty second Raman spectral scans were taken utilizing a 50 mW argon laser...

O'Neal, Dennis Patrick Doucet

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) optimized by exploiting optical interference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this work is to study the interference between the coherent nonresonant four-wave-mixing (FWM) background and the Raman-resonant signal in the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). The nonresonant background is usually...

Wang, Xi

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

183

Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Raman Spectroscopy Probing Single Dye...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Raman Spectroscopy Probing Single Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Nanoparticles. Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Raman Spectroscopy Probing Single Dye-Sensitized TiO2...

184

G? band in double- and triple-walled carbon nanotubes: A Raman study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Double- and triple-walled carbon nanotubes are studied in detail by laser energy-dependent Raman spectroscopy in order to get a deeper understanding about the second-order G[superscript '] band Raman process, general ...

Hirschmann, Thomas Ch.

185

Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Study on Graphene-Coated Metallic Nanostructure Substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Study on Graphene-Coated Metallic Nanostructure Substrates University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Graphene, we combine graphene with conventional metallic surface- enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates

186

Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

187

Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.

Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K

2008-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

188

Cone penetrometer fiber optic raman spectroscopy probe assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemically and mechanically robust optical Raman spectroscopy probe assembly that can be incorporated in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for subsurface deployment. This assembly consists of an optical Raman probe and a penetrometer compatible optical probe housing. The probe is intended for in-situ chemical analysis of chemical constituents in the surrounding environment. The probe is optically linked via fiber optics to the light source and the detection system at the surface. A built-in broadband light source provides a strobe method for direct measurement of sample optical density. A mechanically stable sapphire window is sealed directly into the side-wall of the housing using a metallic, chemically resistant, hermetic seal design. This window permits transmission of the interrogation light beam and the resultant signal. The spectroscopy probe assembly is capable of accepting Raman, Laser induced Fluorescence, reflectance, and other optical probes with collimated output for CPT deployment.

Kyle, Kevin R. (Brentwood, CA); Brown, Steven B. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

UV resonance Raman analysis of trishomocubane and diamondoid dimers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present resonance Raman measurements of crystalline trishomocubane and diamantane dimers containing a C=C double bond. Raman spectra were recorded with excitation energies between 2.33 eV and 5.42 eV. The strongest enhancement is observed for the C=C stretch vibration and a bending mode involving the two carbon atoms of the C=C bond, corresponding to the B{sub 2g} wagging mode of ethylene. This is associated with the localization of the ?-HOMO and LUMO and the elongation of the C=C bond length and a pyramidalization of the two sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon atoms at the optical excitation. The observed Raman resonance energies of the trishomocubane and diamantane dimers are significantly lower than the HOMO-LUMO gaps of the corresponding unmodified diamondoids.

Meinke, Reinhard, E-mail: rene@physik.tu-berlin.de; Thomsen, Christian; Maultzsch, Janina [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)] [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Richter, Robert; Merli, Andrea [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)] [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Fokin, Andrey A. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Justus-Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany) [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Justus-Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Department of Organic Chemistry, Kiev Polytechnic Institute, pr. Pobedy 37, 03056 Kiev (Ukraine); Koso, Tetyana V.; Schreiner, Peter R. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Justus-Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)] [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Justus-Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Rodionov, Vladimir N. [Department of Organic Chemistry, Kiev Polytechnic Institute, pr. Pobedy 37, 03056 Kiev (Ukraine)] [Department of Organic Chemistry, Kiev Polytechnic Institute, pr. Pobedy 37, 03056 Kiev (Ukraine)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

Standoff ultraviolet raman scattering detection of trace levels of explosives.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultraviolet (UV) Raman scattering with a 244-nm laser is evaluated for standoff detection of explosive compounds. The measured Raman scattering albedo is incorporated into a performance model that focused on standoff detection of trace levels of explosives. This model shows that detection at {approx}100 m would likely require tens of seconds, discouraging application at such ranges, and prohibiting search-mode detection, while leaving open the possibility of short-range point-and-stare detection. UV Raman spectra are also acquired for a number of anticipated background surfaces: tile, concrete, aluminum, cloth, and two different car paints (black and silver). While these spectra contained features in the same spectral range as those for TNT, we do not observe any spectra similar to that of TNT.

Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E.; Reichardt, Thomas A.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Flammable gas project topical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

Johnson, G.D.

1997-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

192

Outline Phonon spectra of graphene Raman spectra of graphene Crystal lattice dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seminar Heng Wang University of Konstanz July 11, 2013 Heng Wang University of Konstanz () Crystal lattice Raman spectra of graphene What is Raman scattering Applications of Raman spectroscopy of graphene Heng (2013). Heng Wang University of Konstanz () Crystal lattice dynamics July 11, 2013 3 / 19 #12;Outline

193

Raman scattering in carbon nanotubes revisited J. Maultzsch, S. Reich, and C. Thomsen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of whether the high-energy Raman spectrum in carbon nanotubes is also dominated by processes that allow for understanding the high-energy modes in carbon nanotubes attribute the ob- served Raman peaks to -pointRaman scattering in carbon nanotubes revisited J. Maultzsch, S. Reich, and C. Thomsen Institut fu

Nabben, Reinhard

194

Variable temperature Raman microscopy as a nanometrology tool for graphene layers and graphene-based devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Variable temperature Raman microscopy as a nanometrology tool for graphene layers and graphene; accepted 24 July 2007; published online 15 August 2007 Raman microscopy of graphene was carried out over-band frequencies extracted from Raman spectra of the single-layer graphene are - 1.6±0.2 10-2 cm-1 /K and - 3

195

On-line chemical composition analyzer development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy consumed in distillation processes in the United States represents nearly three percent of the total national energy consumption. If effective control of distillation columns can be accomplished, it has been estimated that it would result in a reduction in the national energy consumption of 0.3%. Real-time control based on mixture composition could achieve these savings. However, the major distillation processes represent diverse applications and at present there does not exist a proven on-line chemical composition sensor technology which can be used to control these diverse processes in real-time. This report presents a summary of the findings of the second phase of a three phase effort undertaken to develop an on-line real-time measurement and control system utilizing Raman spectroscopy. A prototype instrument system has been constructed utilizing a Perkin Elmer 1700 Spectrometer, a diode pumped YAG laser, two three axis positioning systems, a process sample cell land a personal computer. This system has been successfully tested using industrially supplied process samples to establish its performance. Also, continued application development was undertaken during this Phase of the program using both the spontaneous Raman and Surface-enhanced Raman modes of operation. The study was performed for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, whose mission is to conduct cost-shared R D for new high-risk, high-payoff industrial energy conservation technologies. Although this document contains references to individual manufacturers and their products, the opinions expressed on the products reported do not necessarily reflect the position of the Department of Energy.

Roberts, M.J.; Garrison, A.A.; Muly, E.C.; Moore, C.F.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, George D.; Lewis, Linda; Yen, Laurel C.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

197

Photoimageable composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The use of photoacid generators including an alkoxyphenylphenyliodonium salt and/or bis(t-butylphenyl)iodonium salt in a photoimageable composition helps improve resolution. Suitable photoimageable compositions includes: (a) a multifuctional polymeric epoxy resin that is dissolved in an organic solvent wherein the epoxy resin comprises oligomers of bisphenol A that is quantitatively protected by glycidyl ether and wherein the oligomers have an average functionality that ranges from about 3 to 12; and a photoacid generator comprising an alkoxyphenylphenyliodonium salt and/or bis(t-butylphenyl)iodonium salt. Preferred alkoxyphenylphenyliodonium salts include 4-octyloxyphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and 4-methoxyphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate. The photoimageable composition is particularly suited for producing high aspect ratio microstructures.

Dentinger, Paul; Krafick, Karen L.; Simison, Kelby Liv

2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

198

Photoimageable composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The use of selected buffering amines in a photoimageable composition prevents process bias which with conventional photoresists causes designed features to be distorted, especially in corners and high resolution features. It is believed that the amines react with the catalysts, e.g., photoacids, generated to create an inert salt. The presence of the amines also increases resolution. Suitable photoimageable compositions includes: (a) a multifunctional polymeric epoxy resin that is dissolved in an organic solvent wherein the epoxy resin comprises oligomers of bisphenol A that is quantitatively protected by glycidyl ether and wherein the oligomers have an average functionality that ranges from about 3 to 12; (b) a photoactive compound; and (c) an amine that is selected from the group consisting of triisobutylamine, 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (also known as PROTON SPONGET.TM.), 2,2'-diazabicyclo[2.2.2] octane and mixtures thereof. The photoimageable composition is particularly suited for producing high aspect ratio metal microstructures.

Simison, Kelby Liv; Dentinger, Paul

2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

199

Transformation Composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proc. AGTIVE'99, to appear in LNCS Graph Transformation Modules and their Composition ? Frank,knirsch,kreo,kuskeg@informatik.uni-bremen.de Abstract. In this paper, we investigate the notion of transformation modules as a structuring principle. Based on the notion of transformation units, a concept that allows to specify binary relations on graphs

Drewes, Frank

200

Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Delaye, Anne Rouvie, Jordi Chinaud, Robert Frey, Gérald Roosen Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d" Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 455 (1962) 2. Y.R. Shen "The principles of nonlinear optics" (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1994). 4. R.Frey, F. Pradère "Powerful tunable infrared generation by stimulated Raman

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

CLIENT : Indian Academy of Sciences C. V. RAMAN AVENUE,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CLIENT : Indian Academy of Sciences C. V. RAMAN AVENUE, SADASHIVNAGAR, BANGALORE ­ 560080 TENDER FOR : PROPOSED HOSTEL BLOCK AT INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, FELLOWS RESIDENCY NEXT TO ISRO QUARTERS, JALAHALLI AND PLUMBING WORKS : 136-138 #12;3 INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES BANGALORE ­ 560080 NOTICE INVITING TENDER SEALED

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

202

Electrochemical and Raman measurements on single-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical and Raman measurements on single-walled carbon nanotubes M. Stoll a,*, P performed on a carbon nanotube mat as a working electrode using different salt solutions. The gravimetric capacitance of the nanotube material was estimated and its effective surface area was de- termined in a purely

Nabben, Reinhard

203

Raman Scattering in Carbon Nanotubes Christian Thomsen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy [4]. Theoretically, the electronic dispersion of nanotubes may be described by an- alyticRaman Scattering in Carbon Nanotubes Christian Thomsen1 and Stephanie Reich2 1 Institut f¨ur Festk of single-walled carbon nanotubes reflect the electron and phonon confinement as well as the cylindrical

Nabben, Reinhard

204

Probing the Intrinsic Properties of Exfoliated Graphene: Raman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Probing the Intrinsic Properties of Exfoliated Graphene: Raman Spectroscopy of Free-standing graphene monolayers prepared by mechanical exfoliation of graphite are investigated. The graphene,7 or to solubilize macroscopic quantities of graphene,8 mechanical exfoliation of graphite9 currently remains

Heinz, Tony F.

205

Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) Value-Added Product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to describe the Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) value-added product (VAP) and the procedures used to derive atmospheric temperature profiles from the raw RL measurements. Sections 2 and 4 describe the input and output variables, respectively. Section 3 discusses the theory behind the measurement and the details of the algorithm, including calibration and overlap correction.

Newsom, RK; Sivaraman, C; McFarlane, SA

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Raman Amplification of Laser Pulses in Microcapillary Plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of overcoming the power limit of current chirped-pulse-amplification (CPA) CP641, X-Ray Lasers 2002: 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, edited by J. J. Rocca et al. > 2002American Institute of Physics 0 of the optics. Such Raman amplifiers can be useful to produce ultra-intense laser pulses for pumping soft x-ray

207

hal00276997, Raman spectra of misoriented bilayer graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hal­00276997, version 1 ­ 5 May 2008 Raman spectra of misoriented bilayer graphene P. Poncharal 1 spectra from single layer graphene with a bilayer in which the two layers are arbitrarily misoriented to the similarity of the electronic structures of single layer graphene and misoriented bilayer graphene. Another

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

Postdoc Position in Microfluidics and Single Cell Raman Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Postdoc Position in Microfluidics and Single Cell Raman Spectroscopy Department of Microbial and Environmental Microfluidics Group (http://web.mit.edu/romanstocker) Department of Civil & Environmental (junior or senior) with strong expertise in microfluidics and an interest in applying it to microbial

Horn, Matthias

209

Technical Notes UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopic Detection of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- in wastewater for the real-time control of water treatment plants. The reliability and performance of biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can be enhanced by the ability to monitor the utility of UV resonance Raman3-8 spectroscopy to monitor nitrate and nitrite in wastewater treatment

Asher, Sanford A.

210

Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Laug, Matthew T. (Idaho Fall, ID); Lambert, John D. B. (Wheaton, IL); Herzog, James P. (Downers Grove, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Neural net controlled tag gas sampling system for nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system are disclosed for providing a tag gas identifier to a nuclear fuel rod and analyze escaped tag gas to identify a particular failed nuclear fuel rod. The method and system include disposing a unique tag gas composition into a plenum of a nuclear fuel rod, monitoring gamma ray activity, analyzing gamma ray signals to assess whether a nuclear fuel rod has failed and is emitting tag gas, activating a tag gas sampling and analysis system upon sensing tag gas emission from a failed nuclear rod and evaluating the escaped tag gas to identify the particular failed nuclear fuel rod. 12 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.; Lambert, J.B.; Herzog, J.P.

1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

212

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

213

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

214

Raman spectroscopic studies of chemical speciation in calcium chloride melts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raman spectroscopy was applied to CaCl2 melts at 900 degrees C under both non-electrolyzed and electrolyzed conditions. The later used titania cathodes supplied by TIMET, Inc. and graphite anodes. Use of pulse-gating to collect the Raman spectra successfully eliminated any interference from black-body radiation and other stray light. The spectrum of molten CaCl2 exhibited no distinct, resolvable bands that could be correlated with a calcium chloride complex similar to MgCl42- in MgCl2 melts. Rather, the low frequency region of the spectrum was dominated by a broad “tail” arising from collective oscillations of both charge and mass in the molten salt “network.” Additions of both CaO and Ca at concentrations of a percent or two resulted in no new features in the spectra. Addition of CO2, both chemically and via electrolysis at concentrations dictated by stability and solubility at 900 degrees C and 1 bar pressure, also produced no new bands that could be correlated with either dissolved CO2 or the carbonate ion. These results indicated that Raman spectroscopy, at least under the conditions evaluated in the research, was not well suited for following the reactions and coordination chemistry of calcium ions, nor species such as dissolved metallic Ca and CO2 that are suspected to impact current efficiency in titanium electrolysis cells using molten CaCl2. Raman spectra of TIMET titania electrodes were successfully obtained as a function of temperature up to 900 degrees C, both in air and in-situ in CaCl2 melts. However, spectra of these electrodes could only be obtained when the material was in the unreduced state. When reduced, either with hydrogen or within an electrolysis cell, the resulting electrodes exhibited no measurable Raman bands under the conditions used in this work.

Windisch, Charles F.; Lavender, Curt A.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Graphene as a Substrate To Suppress Fluorescence in Resonance Raman Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), which can enhance Raman signal by 107 times than normal Raman spectroscopy, is a powerful approach to characterize structures of chemicals (especially biomolecules) at low concentrations.1-4 However, fluorescence (FL) background is a major obstacle in RRS because the FL cross section (?10-16 cm2) is much larger than the RRS cross section (?10-22 cm2).3 Several approaches, such as ultraviolet RRS (UV-RRS),1 time-resolved Raman detection,5,6 femtosecond broadband stimu-lated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS),7 and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS),8 have been used to suppress or reject FL background in RRS. However, these approaches need expensive and complex equipments and have other limitations, such as sample degradation in UV-RRS. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is another powerful approach to characterize structures of chemicals at extremely low concentrations or even at the single

Liming Xie; Xi Ling; Yuan Fang; Jin Zhang; Zhongfan Liu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Diamond-Silicon Carbide Composite And Method For Preparation Thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fully dense, diamond-silicon carbide composites are prepared from ball-milled microcrystalline diamond/amorphous silicon powder mixture. The ball-milled powder is sintered (P=5-8 GPa, T=1400K-2300K) to form composites having high fracture toughness. A composite made at 5 GPa/1673K had a measured fracture toughness of 12 MPa.multidot.m.sup.1/2. By contrast, liquid infiltration of silicon into diamond powder at 5 GPa/1673K produces a composite with higher hardness but lower fracture toughness. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra indicate that amorphous silicon is partially transformed into nanocrystalline silicon at 5 GPa/873K, and nanocrystalline silicon carbide forms at higher temperatures.

Qian, Jiang (Los Alamos, NM); Zhao, Yusheng (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

217

Spirometer techniques for measuring molar composition in argon carbon dioxide mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper examines a new technique for measuring gas composition through the use of a spirometer. A spirometer is high precision pressure transducer which measures the speed of sound in a gas through the emission and ...

Chonde, Daniel Burje

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.bacsa@cemes.fr [CEMES-CNRS and University of Toulouse, 29 Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe [Université de Toulouse, Institut Clément Ader, I.U.T. Université Paul Sabatier - 133C Avenue de Rangueil - B.P. 67701, 31077 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Sapelkin, Andrei [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri [AIRBUS FRANCE (B.E. M and P Toulouse), 316 Route de Bayonne, 31060 Toulouse (France)

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

219

Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally describes multilayer coating systems comprising a composite metal/metal oxide bond coat layer. The coating systems may be used in gas turbines.

Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Quasi 2D Materials: Raman Nanometrology and Thermal Management Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high degree of crystalinity. 4.2.3 Stoichiometric Composition and Crystallinity: Energy Dispersive Spectrometry

Shahil, Khan Mohammad Farhan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Preparation of graphene–Ag composites and their application for electrochemical detection of chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Graphene–Ag composites were prepared in situ using ascorbic acid as green reducing agent. ? The morphology of Ag particles was irregular sheet and Ag particles homogeneously distributed on the graphene matrix. ? The surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement factor of D band is 5.85 for composites. ? The composites exhibited good sensitivity for the detection of chloride ions. -- Abstract: Graphene–Ag composites were prepared in situ using ascorbic acid as green reducing agent. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electronic diffraction (SAED), and Raman spectrometer. It was showed that Ag particles homogeneously distributed on the graphene matrix. The morphology of Ag particles was irregular sheet with (1 1 1) basal plane. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factor of D band is 5.85 for composites. The application of the composites for electrochemical detection of chloride was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The composites exhibited good sensitivity for the detection of chloride ions. The maximum peak current of cyclic voltammetry curve in 5 mM KCl was 0.80 mA. In the range of 500 ?M to 50 mM for Cl{sup ?}, the current response was proportional and linear to the Cl{sup ?} concentration. The sensitivity to the detection for Cl{sup ?} was 0.059 (mA/mM) and the detection limit was 61 ?M for Cl{sup ?}. It indicates graphene–Ag composites would be a competitive material for detection of halide.

Yu, Mei, E-mail: yumei@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Pengrui; Zhang, Shilu; Liu, Jianhua; An, Junwei; Li, Songmei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Aerogel composites and method of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herewith is a process of forming an aerogel composite which comprises introducing a gaseous material into a formed aerogel monolith or powder, and causing decomposition of said gaseous material in said aerogel in amounts sufficient to cause deposition of the decomposition products of the gas on the surfaces of the pores of the said aerogel. Also disclosed are the composites made by the process.

Cao, Wanqing (Alameda, CA); Hunt, Arlon Jason (Oakland, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Lubricant compositions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubricant compositions adapted for use under extreme pressure conditions are disclosed. They comprise a major proportion of a lubricating grease, and a minor proportion of an additive consisting essentially of a solid, oil insoluble arylene sulfide polymer, and a metal salt, particularly an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salt, particularly an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal salt of a phosphorus acid, for example, mono- or dicalcium phosphate, or an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonate exemplified by calcium carbonate, or a mixture of such a phosphate salt and carbonate.

Johnson, A.L.; Lawson, R.D.; Root, J.C.

1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for a Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage (SERODS) System are disclosed. A medium which exhibits the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) phenomenon has data written onto its surface of microenvironment by means of a write-on procedure which disturbs the surface or microenvironment of the medium and results in the medium having a changed SERS emission when excited. The write-on procedure is controlled by a signal that corresponds to the data to be stored so that the disturbed regions on the storage device (e.g., disk) represent the data. After the data is written onto the storage device it is read by exciting the surface of the storage device with an appropriate radiation source and detecting changes in the SERS emission to produce a detection signal. The data is then reproduced from the detection signal. 5 figures.

Vo-Dinh, T.

1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

225

Surface-enhanced raman optical data storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for a Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage (SERODS) System is disclosed. A medium which exhibits the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) phenomenon has data written onto its surface of microenvironment by means of a write-on procedure which disturbs the surface or microenvironment of the medium and results in the medium having a changed SERS emission when excited. The write-on procedure is controlled by a signal that corresponds to the data to be stored so that the disturbed regions on the storage device (e.g., disk) represent the data. After the data is written onto the storage device it is read by exciting the surface of the storage device with an appropriate radiation source and detecting changes in the SERS emission to produce a detection signal. The data is then reproduced from the detection signal.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Ultrafast stimulated Raman parallel adiabatic passage by shaped pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a general and versatile technique of population transfer based on {\\it parallel adiabatic passage} by femtosecond shaped pulses. Their amplitude and phase are specifically designed to optimize the adiabatic passage corresponding to parallel eigenvalues at all times. We show that this technique allows the robust adiabatic population transfer in a Raman system with the total pulse area as low as 3 $\\pi$, corresponding to a fluence of one order of magnitude below the conventional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage process. This process of short duration, typically pico- and subpicosecond, is easily implementable with the modern pulse shaper technology and opens the possibility of ultrafast robust population transfer with interesting applications in quantum information processing.

G. Dridi; S. Guerin; V. Hakobyan; H. R. Jauslin; H. Eleuch

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

227

Raman scheme for adjustable-bandwidth quantum memory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a scenario of quantum memory for light based on Raman scattering. The storage medium is a vapor and the different spectral components of the input pulse are stored in different atomic velocity classes. One uses appropriate pulses to reverse the resulting Doppler phase shift and to regenerate the input pulse, without distortion, in the backward direction. The different stages of the protocol are detailed and the recovery efficiency is calculated in the semiclassical picture. Since the memory bandwidth is determined by the Raman transition Doppler width, it can be adjusted by changing the angle between the input pulse wave vector and the control beams. The optical depth also depends on the beam angle. As a consequence the available optical depth can be optimized depending on the needed bandwidth. The predicted recovery efficiency is close to 100% for large optical depth.

Le Goueet, J.-L.; Berman, P. R. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS UPR3321, Universite Paris Sud, Batiment 505, Campus Universitaire, 91405 Orsay (France); Department of Physics and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

X-ray Raman scattering study of aligned polyfluorene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study at the carbon K-edge on aligned poly[9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-fluorene-2,7-diyl] and show that the x-ray Raman scattering technique can be used as a practical alternative to x-ray absorption measurements. We demonstrate that this novel method can be applied to studies on aligned $\\pi$-conjugated polymers complementing diffraction and optical studies. Combining the experimental data and a very recently proposed theoretical scheme we demonstrate a unique property of x-ray Raman scattering by performing the symmetry decomposition on the density of unoccupied electronic states into $s$- and $p$-type symmetry contributions.

S. Galambosi; M. Knaapila; J. A. Soininen; K. Nyg\\aard; S. Huotari; F. Galbrecht; U. Scherf; A. P. Monkman; K. Hämäläinen

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

229

Multi mode nano scale Raman echo quantum memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low loss magnetic surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes characterized by enhanced electrical field component and subwavelength confinement on the dielectric and negative-index metamaterial interface are presented. We demonstrate a possibility of storage and perfect retrieval of the low loss magnetic SPP fields by using a photon echo quantum memory on Raman atomic transition. We describe specific properties of the proposed technique which opens a possibility for efficient nano scale multi-mode quantum memory.

S. A. Moiseev; E. S. Moiseev

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

The infrared and Raman spectra of N-alkyl ethylenimines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Assi nments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 5 A, Structural Considerations. . . . ~ . . . , . . . , 5 B, Assi"na ent of Spectra. . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 9 1, Yethod, 9 2. N-Yethyl Ethylenimine, . . . . , . . . . . . . 10 3. N-Ethyl... the Or ientation of the Principal Axes. Page 2. The Infrared Spectrum of I!-Yythyl Ethy- lenimine from 4000 to 50 cm . . . . . . . , . . . . 11 3. The Raman Spectrum of !! i~'. ethyl Ethylenimine. 13 4. The Infrared Spectrum of N-Ethyl Ethy- lenimine from...

Ashby, Theodore Leroy

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Stochastic Programming Approaches for the Placement of Gas Detectors in Process Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these detectors is required in order to have a well-functioning gas detection system. However, the uncertainty in leak locations, gas composition, process and weather conditions, and process geometries must all be considered when attempting to determine...

Legg, Sean W

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

232

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced flue gas Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 5 INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION AT WASTE-TO-ENERGY Summary: -Beam process is applied to flue gas compositions...

233

UV-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption studies of model and bulk heterogeneous catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) have been used to investigate the surface structure of model heterogeneous catalysts in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). UV-Raman spectroscopy has been used to probe the structure of bulk model catalysts in ambient and reaction conditions. The structural information obtained through UV-Raman spectroscopy has been correlated with both the UHV surface analysis and reaction results. The present day propylene and ethylene polymerization catalysts (Ziegler-Natta catalysts) are prepared by deposition of TiCl{sub 4} and a Al(Et){sub 3} co-catalyst on a microporous Mg-ethoxide support that is prepared from MgCl{sub 2} and ethanol. A model thin film catalyst is prepared by depositing metallic Mg on a Au foil in a UHV chamber in a background of TiCl{sub 4} in the gas phase. XPS results indicate that the Mg is completely oxidized to MgCl{sub 2} by TiCl{sub 4} resulting in a thin film of MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub x}, where x = 2, 3, and 4. To prepare an active catalyst, the thin film of MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub x} on Au foil is enclosed in a high pressure cell contained within the UHV chamber and exposed to {approx}1 Torr of Al(Et){sub 3}.

Tewell, Craig R.

2002-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

234

Gas sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

235

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF RAMAN LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTECRYSTAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High quality CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals have the potential for use in room temperature gamma-ray and X-ray spectrometers. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. The presence of structural heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SPs) can have an impact on the detector performance. There is considerable need for reliable and reproducible characterization methods for the measurement of crystal quality. With improvements in material characterization and synthesis, these crystals may become suitable for widespread use in gamma radiation detection. Characterization techniques currently utilized to test for quality and/or to predict performance of the crystal as a gamma-ray detector include infrared (IR) transmission imaging, synchrotron X-ray topography, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. In some cases, damage caused by characterization methods can have deleterious effects on the crystal performance. The availability of non-destructive analysis techniques is essential to validate a crystal's quality and its ability to be used for either qualitative or quantitative gamma-ray or X-ray detection. The work presented herein discusses the damage that occurs during characterization of the CZT surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy, even at minimal laser powers. Previous Raman studies have shown that the localized annealing from tightly focused, low powered lasers results in areas of higher Te concentration on the CZT surface. This type of laser damage on the surface resulted in decreased detector performance which was most likely due to increased leakage current caused by areas of higher Te concentration. In this study, AFM was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to a Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage and increased conductivity in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam.

Teague, L.; Duff, M.

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

236

Method and apparatus for decreased undesired particle emissions in gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a process for removing undesired particles from a gas stream including the steps of contacting a composition containing an adhesive with the gas stream; collecting the undesired particles and adhesive on a collection surface to form an aggregate comprising the adhesive and undesired particles on the collection surface; and removing the agglomerate from the collection zone. The composition may then be atomized and injected into the gas stream. The composition may include a liquid that vaporizes in the gas stream. After the liquid vaporizes, adhesive particles are entrained in the gas stream. The process may be applied to electrostatic precipitators and filtration systems to improve undesired particle collection efficiency.

Durham, Michael Dean (Castle Rock, CO); Schlager, Richard John (Aurora, CO); Ebner, Timothy George (Westminster, CO); Stewart, Robin Michele (Arvada, CO); Bustard, Cynthia Jean (Littleton, CO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Characterization of Gas Shales by X-ray Raman Spectroscopy | Stanford  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User Group and User ExecutiveCentralDepartment

238

Characterization of Gas Shales by X-ray Raman Spectroscopy | Stanford  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User Group and User ExecutiveCentralDepartmentSynchrotron Radiation

239

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption phonon raman Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: absorption phonon raman Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 SELECTION RULES FOR SECOND ORDER INFRARED...

240

NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Processing and Gas Barrier Behavior of Multilayer Thin Nanocomposite Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

barrier for goods requiring long shelf life. Current gas barrier technologies like plasma-enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD) often create high barrier metal oxide films, which are prone to cracking when flexed. Bulk composites composed of polymer...

Yang, You-Hao

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

242

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Method and apparatus for manufacturing gas tags  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

For use in the manufacture of gas tags employed in a gas tagging failure detection system for a nuclear reactor, a plurality of commercial feed gases each having a respective noble gas isotopic composition are blended under computer control to provide various tag gas mixtures having selected isotopic ratios which are optimized for specified defined conditions such as cost. Using a new approach employing a discrete variable structure rather than the known continuous-variable optimization problem, the computer controlled gas tag manufacturing process employs an analytical formalism from condensed matter physics known as stochastic relaxation, which is a special case of simulated annealing, for input feed gas selection. For a tag blending process involving M tag isotopes with N distinct feed gas mixtures commercially available from an enriched gas supplier, the manufacturing process calculates the cost difference between multiple combinations and specifies gas mixtures which approach the optimum defined conditions. The manufacturing process is then used to control tag blending apparatus incorporating tag gas canisters connected by stainless-steel tubing with computer controlled valves, with the canisters automatically filled with metered quantities of the required feed gases.

Gross, Kenny C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Laug, Matthew T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Method and apparatus for manufacturing gas tags  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

For use in the manufacture of gas tags employed in a gas tagging failure detection system for a nuclear reactor, a plurality of commercial feed gases each having a respective noble gas isotopic composition are blended under computer control to provide various tag gas mixtures having selected isotopic ratios which are optimized for specified defined conditions such as cost. Using a new approach employing a discrete variable structure rather than the known continuous-variable optimization problem, the computer controlled gas tag manufacturing process employs an analytical formalism from condensed matter physics known as stochastic relaxation, which is a special case of simulated annealing, for input feed gas selection. For a tag blending process involving M tag isotopes with N distinct feed gas mixtures commercially available from an enriched gas supplier, the manufacturing process calculates the cost difference between multiple combinations and specifies gas mixtures which approach the optimum defined conditions. The manufacturing process is then used to control tag blending apparatus incorporating tag gas canisters connected by stainless-steel tubing with computer controlled valves, with the canisters automatically filled with metered quantities of the required feed gases. 4 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

245

Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

Sherrill, David

246

RtS>-l-2437 Utilization of the Isotoplc Composition of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

131+Xe132. This conversion is of importance in the calculation of the total Xe generation duringRtS«>-l»-2437 3*- if, -. Utilization of the Isotoplc Composition of Xe and Kr in Fission Gas 4* #12;RIS�-M-2437 UTILIZATION OF THE ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF Xe AND Kr IN FISSION GAS RELEASE

247

3D Temperature Measurement in IC Chips using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy Javad Shabani, Xi Wang, and Ali Shakouri  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for remote temperature measurement in depth was investigated value where the surface temperature starts to rise due to heating by incident light. #12;Raman

248

Raman studies of corrosion layers formed on archaeological irons in various media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

147 Raman studies of corrosion layers formed on archaeological irons in various media Ludovic mandana.saheb@cea.fr, f philippe.dillmann@cea.fr Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, iron corrosion, ancient artefact, imaging. Abstract. The description and identification of corrosion products formed

249

Raman spectroscopy of carbon dust samples from NSTX Y. Raitses a,*, C.H. Skinner a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the diagnosis of the microscopic structure of different forms of carbon. The intensity of D-mode at 1350 cmÃ?1Raman spectroscopy of carbon dust samples from NSTX Y. Raitses a,*, C.H. Skinner a , F. Jiang b , T. The Raman measurements indicate that the production of carbon dust particles in NSTX involves modifications

Duffy, Thomas S.

250

Raman intensity measurements of single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions as a quantitative technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Raman intensity measurements of single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions as a quantitative, Biological and Materials Engineering, Carbon Nanotube Technology Center (CANTEC), University of Oklahoma, 100 the purity of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bulk samples based on Raman spectroscopy is reported

Resasco, Daniel

251

RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF MACROSCALE FIBERS COMPRISED OF CARBON NANOTUBES OF DIFFERENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF MACROSCALE FIBERS COMPRISED OF CARBON NANOTUBES OF DIFFERENT LENGTHS UNDER University Carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers are considered an excellent material for high performance engineering) Fibers Raman Spectroscopy of Macroscopic Fibers Spun from Carbon Nanotubes under Tensile Strain D

Mellor-Crummey, John

252

Indian Academy of Sciences C V Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Indian Academy of Sciences C V Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080 The Academy or email before 20 December 2013 to: The Executive Secretary Indian Academy of Sciences C V Raman Avenue: 1. The Academy reserves the right to restrict the number of candidates for interview to a reasonable

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

253

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 134, 234310 (2011) False estimates of stimulated Raman pumping efficiency caused  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 134, 234310 (2011) False estimates of stimulated Raman pumping June 2011; published online 20 June 2011) One technique for measuring the fraction of molecules pumped to the excited state in stimulated Raman pumping (SRP) is to record the depletion of molecules in the lower state

Zare, Richard N.

254

Raman excitation profiles for the (n1, n2) assignment in carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Raman excitation profiles for the (n1, n2) assignment in carbon nanotubes H. Telg , J. Maultzsch indices n1 and n2 in semiconducting and metallic nanotubes was performed comparing resonance Raman nanotube families. Ever since the discovery of how to keep isolated nanotubes from rebundeling in solu

Nabben, Reinhard

255

10.1098/rsta.2004.1444 Resonant Raman spectroscopy of nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10.1098/rsta.2004.1444 Resonant Raman spectroscopy of nanotubes By Christian Thomsen1 , Stephanie. The experimental situation in carbon nanotubes is reviewed in view of these criteria. The evidence for the D mode for the application of Raman scattering to the characterization of nanotubes are discussed. Keywords: carbon nanotubes

Nabben, Reinhard

256

POLARIZED RAMAN MEASUREMENTS IN ZEOLITE-GROWN SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POLARIZED RAMAN MEASUREMENTS IN ZEOLITE-GROWN SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES J. Maultzsch*, P. M, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin, E-Mail: janina@physik.tu-berlin.de The Raman spectra of carbon nanotubes able to grow carbon nanotubes inside the channels of an AlPO4 zeolite crystal [1]. The directions

Nabben, Reinhard

257

Raman characterization of boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes J. Maultzsch,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. We interpret this result as an indication that the high-energy mode in carbon nanotubes is defectRaman characterization of boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes J. Maultzsch,a) S. Reich, and C of boron-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The Raman intensities are analyzed as a function

Nabben, Reinhard

258

Raman scattering in carbon nanotubes Technische Universitat Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin, Germany  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in carbon nanotubes is the strong excitation-energy dependent Raman shift of the socalled D-mode, which for instance for metallic nanotubes near the K-point. For a given incident photon energy, there is an incomingRaman scattering in carbon nanotubes C. Thomsen Technische Universit¨at Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse

Nabben, Reinhard

259

Origin of the high-energy Raman modes in single-wall carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Origin of the high-energy Raman modes in single-wall carbon nanotubes J. Maultzsch, C. Thomsen, S nanotubes. Similar to the disorder-induced D mode, the high-energy modes are deter- mined by double of the first-order high-energy Raman modes in carbon nanotubes has been a puzzling question since the first

Nabben, Reinhard

260

Raman spectroscopy on single and multi-walled nanotubes under high pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dependence of the high-energy Raman modes in single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes was measuredRaman spectroscopy on single and multi-walled nanotubes under high pressure C. Thomsen, S. Reich, H properties of carbon nanotubes have become of scienti c interest since it was recognized that the low atomic

Nabben, Reinhard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Imaging Lignin-Downregulated Alfalfa Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Imaging Lignin-Downregulated Alfalfa Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy Yining-downregulated alfalfa lines were imaged using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. The 1,600-cm-1 (CARS) . Lignin-downregulated alfalfa Introduction Lignocellulosic biomass is under consideration

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

262

Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11

263

Breaking the Stokesanti-Stokes symmetry in Raman heterodyne detection of magnetic-resonance transitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is the source of the Raman field. The Raman wave is phase locked to the excit- ing laser field heterodyne detection, using the excitation laser as the local oscillator. In this case, the two sidebands that contains a coherent excitation. Figure 1 schematically shows the simplest quantum-mechanical system

Suter, Dieter

264

Noise suppression and enhanced focusability in plasma Raman amplifier with multi-frequency pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Noise suppression and enhanced focusability in plasma Raman amplifier with multi-frequency pump A. Fisch Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 and Department of Astrophysical Laser pulse compression­amplification through Raman backscattering in plasmas can be facilitated

265

UV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates samples, such as petroleum and coal, or for man-made samples, such as coal liquids, a major desire- nique for studying coal-liquid samples. 1-4 We demon- strated that the Raman spectra of polycyclic

Asher, Sanford A.

266

A versatile femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy setup with tunable pulses in the visible to near infrared  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a versatile and efficient setup to perform femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS). Technical innovations are implemented to achieve the wavelength tunability for both the picosecond narrowband Raman pump pulse and femtosecond broadband Raman probe pulse. Using a simplified one-grating scheme in a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor followed by a two-stage noncollinear optical parametric amplifier, we tune the Raman pump pulse from ca. 480 to 750?nm. To generate the suitable Raman probe pulse in tandem, we rely on our recently demonstrated broadband up-converted multicolor array technique that readily provides tunable broadband laser sidebands across the visible to near-infrared range. This unique setup has unparalleled flexibility for conducting FSRS. We measure the ground-state Raman spectra of a cyclohexane standard using tunable pump-probe pairs at various wavelengths across the visible region. The best spectral resolution is ?12?cm{sup ?1}. By tuning the pump wavelength closer to the electronic absorption band of a photoacid pyranine in water, we observe the pre-resonantly enhanced Raman signal. The stimulated Raman gain of the 1627?cm{sup ?1} mode is increased by over 15 times.

Zhu, Liangdong [Department of Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Liu, Weimin [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Fang, Chong, E-mail: Chong.Fang@oregonstate.edu [Department of Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

267

Molecular dynamics in liquid cyclopropane. Raman and magnetic nuclear resonance studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

723 Molecular dynamics in liquid cyclopropane. II. 2014 Raman and magnetic nuclear resonance as a function of temperature (155, 300 K) and pressure (up to 3 kilobars). 13C and 2H nuclear magnetic resonance experiments are performed in the same temperature range. The isotropic and anisotropic Raman profiles

Boyer, Edmond

268

Determination of substrate pinning in epitaxial and supported graphene layers via Raman scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The temperature-induced shift of the Raman G line in epitaxial graphene on SiC and Ni surfaces, as well as in graphene supported on SiO[subscript 2], is investigated with Raman spectroscopy. The thermal shift rate of ...

Ferralis, Nicola

269

Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology Ji 11747-3157 USA ABSTRACT Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy with fast., 1990). Duncan et al. constructed the first CARS microscope by use of two dye laser beams

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

270

Micro-Raman spectroscopy of refractive index microstructures in silicone-based hydrogel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micro-Raman spectroscopy of refractive index microstructures in silicone-based hydrogel polymers 26, 2009 (Doc. ID 102944); published March 3, 2009 Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to study transparent hydro- gel polymer materials through a high (or medium) nu- merical aperture (NA) objective

Novotny, Lukas

271

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm

Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

272

Realignment-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and three-dimensional imaging in anisotropic fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy to characterize director structures in liquid crystals.

A. V. Kachynski; A. N. Kuzmin; P. N. Prasad; I. I. Smalyukh

2008-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

273

Composite of refractory material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite refractory material composition comprises a boron carbide matrix and minor constituents of yttrium-boron-oxygen-carbon phases uniformly distributed throughout the boron carbide matrix.

Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

274

Composite of refractory material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite refractory material composition comprises a boron carbide matrix and minor constituents of yttrium-boron-oxygen-carbon phases uniformly distributed throughout the boron carbide matrix.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

SeZnSb alloy and its nano tubes, graphene composites properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Composite can alter the individual element physical property, could be useful to define the specific use of the material. Therefore, work demonstrates the synthesis of a new composition Se{sub 96}-Zn{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2} and its composites with 0.05% multi-walled carbon nano tubes and 0.05% bilayer graphene, in the glassy form. The diffused amorphous structure of the multi walled carbon nano tubes and bilayer gaphene in the Se{sub 96}-Zn{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2} alloy have been analyzed by using the Raman, X-ray photoluminescence spectroscopy, Furrier transmission infrared spectra, photoluminescence, UV/visible absorption spectroscopic measurements. The diffused prime Raman bands (G and D) have been appeared for the multi walled carbon nano tubes and graphene composites, while the X-ray photoluminescence core energy levels peak shifts have been observed for the composite materials. Subsequently the photoluminescence property at room temperature and a drastic enhancement (upto 80%) in infrared transmission percentage has been obtained for the bilayer graphene composite, along with optical energy band gaps for these materials have been evaluated 1.37, 1.39 and 1.41 eV.

Singh, Abhay Kumar [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Physics, Bangalore-560012 (India)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap there between. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition. 6 figs.

Kong, P.C.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

277

Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap therebetween. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Detection and quantitative analysis of ferrocyanide and ferricyanide: FY 93 Florida State University Raman spectroscopy report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a summary of work to develop and investigate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy with tank waste materials. It contains Raman spectra from organics, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetetraacteic acid (HEDTA), imino diacetic acid (IDA), kerosene, tributyl phosphate (TBP), acetone and butanol, anticipated to be present in tank wastes and spectra from T-107 real and BY-104 simulant materials. The results of investigating Raman for determining moisture content in tank materials are also presented. A description of software algorithms developed to process Raman spectra from a dispersive grating spectrometer system and an in initial design for a data base to support qualitative and quantitative application of remote Raman sensing with tank wastes.

Mann, C.K.; Vickers, T.J. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

279

Thermogenic and secondary biogenic gases, San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico - Implications for coalbed gas producibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the types and the major components of coalbed gases, (2) evaluate the variability of Fruitland coalbed gas composition across the basin, (3) assess factors affecting coalbed gas origin and composition, (4) determine the timing and extent of gas migration and entrapment, and (5) suggest application of these results to coalbed gas producibility. Data from more than 750 Fruitland coalbed gas wells were used to make gas-composition maps and to evaluate factors controlling gas origin. The gas data were divided into overpressured, underpressured, and transitional categories based on regional pressure regime. Also, [delta][sup 13]C isotopic values from 41 methane, 7 ethane and propane, 13 carbon dioxide, and 10 formation-water bicarbonate samples were evaluated to interpret gas origin. The data suggests that only 25-50% of the gas produced in the high-productivity fairway was generated in situ during coalification. 82 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Ayers, W.B. Jr. (Taurus Exploration, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

The effect of substrates on the Raman spectrum of graphene: Graphene-on-sapphire and graphene-on-glass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effect of substrates on the Raman spectrum of graphene: Graphene- on-sapphire and graphene The authors investigated the influence of substrates on Raman scattering spectrum from graphene. The room-temperature Raman signatures from graphene layers on GaAs, sapphire, and glass substrates were compared with those

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

785 nm Raman Spectroscopy of CVD Diamond Films Paul William May, James A Smith, and Keith N Rosser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Here, we report that when using 785 nm excitation, the Raman spectra from thin polycrystalline diamond785 nm Raman Spectroscopy of CVD Diamond Films Paul William May, James A Smith, and Keith N Rosser Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique often used to study CVD diamond films, however, very little

Bristol, University of

282

Pump side scattering in ultrapowerful backward Raman amplifiers A. A. Solodov, V. M. Malkin, and N. J. Fisch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pump side scattering in ultrapowerful backward Raman amplifiers A. A. Solodov, V. M. Malkin, and N of a laser pump by plasma noise might be suppressed by an appropriate detuning of the Raman resonance, even scattering of laser pumps by plasma noise in backward Raman amplifiers. Though its growth rate is smaller

283

New C-H Stretching Vibrational Spectral Features in the Raman Spectra of Gaseous and Liquid Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New C-H Stretching Vibrational Spectral Features in the Raman Spectra of Gaseous and Liquid Ethanol Traditionally, the Raman spectrum of ethanol in the C-H vibrational stretching region between 2800 cm-1 and 3100, and the -CH3 antisymmetric stretching. In this report, new Raman spectral features were observed for ethanol

Liu, Shilin

284

Surface-enhanced raman optical data storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage System (SERODS) is disclosed. In the improved system, entities capable of existing in multiple reversible states are present on the storage device. Such entities result in changed Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) when localized state changes are effected in less than all of the entities. Therefore, by changing the state of entities in localized regions of a storage device, the SERS emissions in such regions will be changed. When a write-on device is controlled by a data signal, such a localized regions of changed SERS emissions will correspond to the data written on the device. The data may be read by illuminating the surface of the storage device with electromagnetic radiation of an appropriate frequency and detecting the corresponding SERS emissions. Data may be deleted by reversing the state changes of entities in regions where the data was initially written. In application, entities may be individual molecules which allows for the writing of data at the molecular level. A read/write/delete head utilizing near-field quantum techniques can provide for a write/read/delete device capable of effecting state changes in individual molecules, thus providing for the effective storage of data at the molecular level.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage System (SERODS) is disclosed. In the improved system, entities capable of existing in multiple reversible states are present on the storage device. Such entities result in changed Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) when localized state changes are effected in less than all of the entities. Therefore, by changing the state of entities in localized regions of a storage device, the SERS emissions in such regions will be changed. When a write-on device is controlled by a data signal, such a localized regions of changed SERS emissions will correspond to the data written on the device. The data may be read by illuminating the surface of the storage device with electromagnetic radiation of an appropriate frequency and detecting the corresponding SERS emissions. Data may be deleted by reversing the state changes of entities in regions where the data was initially written. In application, entities may be individual molecules which allows for the writing of data at the molecular level. A read/write/delete head utilizing near-field quantum techniques can provide for a write/read/delete device capable of effecting state changes in individual molecules, thus providing for the effective storage of data at the molecular level. 18 figures.

Vo-Dinh, T.

1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

286

The effect of fuel composition on flame dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As fuel sources diversify, the gas turbine industry is under increasing pressure to develop fuel-flexible plants, able to use fuels with a variety of compositions from a large range of sources. However, the dynamic characteristics vary considerably with composition, in many cases altering the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. We compare the flame dynamics, or the response in heat release rate of the flame to acoustic perturbations, of the three major constituents of natural gas: methane, ethane, and propane. The heat release rate is quantified using OH* chemiluminescence and product gas temperature. Gas temperature is measured by tracking the absorption of two high-temperature water lines, via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. The flame dynamics of the three fuels differ significantly. The changes in flame dynamics due to variations in fuel composition have the potential to have a large effect on the thermoacoustic stability of the combustor. (author)

Hendricks, Adam G.; Vandsburger, Uri [Department of Mechanical Engineering - 0238, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

In situ apparatus for the study of clathrate hydrates relevant to solar system bodies using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clathrate hydrates are believed to play a significant role in various solar system environments, e.g. comets, and the surfaces and interiors of icy satellites, however the structural factors governing their formation and dissociation are poorly understood. We demonstrate the use of a high pressure gas cell, combined with variable temperature cooling and time-resolved data collection, to the in situ study of clathrate hydrates under conditions relevant to solar system environments. Clathrates formed and processed within the cell are monitored in situ using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction allows the formation of clathrate hydrates to be observed as CO2 gas is applied to ice formed within the cell. Complete conversion is obtained by annealing at temperatures just below the ice melting point. A subsequent rise in the quantity of clathrate is observed as the cell is thermally cycled. Four regions between 100-5000cm-1 are present in the Raman spectra that carry feature...

Day, Sarah J; Evans, Aneurin; Parker, Julia E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Propagation of light in low pressure gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The criticism by W. E. Lamb, W. Schleich, M. Scully, C. Townes of a simplified quantum electrodynamics which represents the photon as a true particle is illustrated. Collisions being absent in low-pressure gas, exchanges of energy are radiative and coherent. Thin shells of plasma containing atoms in a model introduced by Str\\"omgren are superradiant, seen as circles possibly dotted. Spectral radiance of novae has magnitude of laser radiance, and column densities are large in nebulae: Superradiance, multiphoton effects, etc., work in astrophysics. The superradiant beams induce multiphotonic scatterings of light emitted by the stars, brightening the limbs of plasma bubbles and darkening the stars. In excited atomic hydrogen, impulsive Raman scatterings shift frequencies of light. Microwaves exchanged with the Pioneer probes are blueshifted, simulating anomalous accelerations. Substituting coherence for wrong calculations in astrophysical papers, improves results, avoids "new physics".

Jacques Moret-Bailly

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

289

Raman Investigation of The Uranium Compounds U3O8, UF4, UH3 and UO3 under Pressure at Room Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our current state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction experiments are primarily sensitive to the position of the uranium atom. While the uranium - low-Z element bond (such as U-H or U-F) changes under pressure and temperature the X-ray diffraction investigations do not reveal information about the bonding or the stoichiometry. Questions that can be answered by Raman spectroscopy are (i) whether the bonding strength changes under pressure, as observed by either blue- or red-shifted peaks of the Raman active bands in the spectrum and (ii) whether the low-Z element will eventually be liberated and leave the host lattice, i.e. do the fluorine, oxygen, or hydrogen atoms form dimers after breaking the bond to the uranium atom. Therefore Raman spectra were also collected in the range where those decomposition products would appear. Raman is particularly well suited to these types of investigations due to its sensitivity to trace amounts of materials. One challenge for Raman investigations of the uranium compounds is that they are opaque to visible light. They absorb the incoming radiation and quickly heat up to the point of decomposition. This has been dealt with in the past by keeping the incoming laser power to very low levels on the tens of milliWatt range consequently affecting signal to noise. Recent modern investigations also used very small laser spot sizes (micrometer range) but ran again into the problem of heating and chemical sensitivity to the environment. In the studies presented here (in contrast to all other studies that were performed at ambient conditions only) we employ micro-Raman spectroscopy of samples situated in a diamond anvil cell. This increases the trustworthiness of the obtained data in several key-aspects: (a) We surrounded the samples in the DAC with neon as a pressure transmitting medium, a noble gas that is absolutely chemically inert. (b) Through the medium the sample is thermally heat sunk to the diamond anvils, diamond of course possessing the very best heat conductivity of any material. Therefore local heating and decomposition are avoided, a big challenge with other approaches casting doubts on their results. (c) This in turn benefits the signal/noise ratio tremendously since the Raman features of uranium-compounds are very small. The placement of the samples in DACs allows for higher laser powers to impinge on the sample spot while keeping the spot-size larger than in previous studies and keep the samples from heating up. Raman spectroscopy is a very sensitive non-invasive technique and we will show that it is even possible to distinguish the materials by their origin / manufacturer as we have studied samples from Cameco (Canada) and IBI-Labs (US-Florida) and can compare with ambient literature data for samples from Strem (US-MA) and Areva (Pierrelatte, France).

Lipp, M J; Jenei, Z; Park-Klepeis, J; Evans, W J

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Chemical and Isotopic Composition and Gas Concentrations of Ground Water and Surface Water from Selected Sites At and Near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1994-97  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

>From May 1994 through May 1997, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, collected water samples from 86 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The samples were analyzed for a variety of chemical constituents including all major elements and 22 trace elements. Concentrations of scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanide series were measured in samples from 11 wells and 1 hot spring. The data will be used to determine the fraction of young water in the ground water. The fraction of young water must be known to calculate the ages of ground water using chlorofluorocarbons. The concentrations of the isotopes deuterium, oxygen-18, carbon-13, carbon-14, and tritium were measured in many ground water, surface-water and spring samples. The isotopic composition will provide clues to the origin and sources of water in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Concentrations ! of helium-3 , helium-4, total helium, and neon were measured in most groundwater samples, and the results will be used to determine the recharge temperature, and to date the ground waters.

E. Busenberg; L. N. Plummer; M. W. Doughten; P. K. Widman; R. C. Bartholomay (USGS)

2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

291

Fuel gas conditioning process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Notch sensitivity of fatigue life in a Sylramic TM composite at elevated temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sensitivity; Fatigue; SiC composite; Embrittlement 1. Introduction Continuous-fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs in advanced gas turbine engines. The motivation for this activity is the desire to increase operating are expelled during unloading and the oxidizing atmosphere drawn into the composite through matrix cracks

Zok, Frank

293

Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided. 5 figs.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Remediation of Risks in Natural Gas Storage Produced Waters: The Potential Use of Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Natural gas storage produced waters (NGSPWs) are generated in large volumes, vary in composition, and often contain constituents in concentrations and forms that are toxic… (more)

Johnson, Brenda

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future Penn State Natural Gas Utilization Workshop Bradley Hall sales to commercial and industrial customers ­ Natural gas, power, oil · Power generation ­ FossilMMBtuEquivalent Wellhead Gas Price, $/MMBtu Monthly US Spot Oil Price, $/MMBtu* U.S. Crude Oil vs. Natural Gas Prices, 2005

Lee, Dongwon

297

Synthesis and characterization of mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods and their Raman activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Gold nanorods surface functionalization. - Highlights: • Mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods. • Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. • HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin as a Raman active compound. - Abstract: The cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) gold nanorods (AuNRs) were prepared by seed-mediated route followed by the addition of a Raman active compound (HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin) on the gold nanorods surfaces. Different stoichiometric mixtures of HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin and HS-PEG-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}COOH were evaluated for their Raman activities. The lowest stoichiometric ratio HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin adsorbed on gold nanorods surface was detected and enhanced by Raman spectroscopy. The produced mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods were characterized by UV-vis spectrometer for optical properties, transmission electron microscope (TEM) for structural properties (shape and aspect ratio) and their zeta potentials (charges) were obtained from ZetaSizer to determine the stability of the produced mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods. The Raman results showed a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement at the lowest stoichiometric ratio of 1% HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin compared to high ratio of 50% HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin on the surface of gold nanorods.

Mlambo, Mbuso [Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, Advanced Materials Division, Mintek, Private Bag X3015, Randburg 2125 (South Africa); Mdluli, Phumlani S.; Shumbula, Poslet; Mpelane, Siyasanga [Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, Advanced Materials Division, Mintek, Private Bag X3015, Randburg 2125 (South Africa); Moloto, Nosipho, E-mail: Nosipho.Moloto@wits.ac.za [Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Skepu, Amanda; Tshikhudo, Robert [Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, Advanced Materials Division, Mintek, Private Bag X3015, Randburg 2125 (South Africa)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. A low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively.

Alfano, Robert R. (Bronx, NY); Wang, Wubao (Flushing, NY)

2003-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

299

CERAMIC COMPOSITES FOR NEAR TERM REACTOR APPLICATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently, two composites types are being developed for incore application: carbon fiber carbon composite (CFC), and silicon carbide fiber composite (SiC/SiC.) Irradiation effects studies have been carried out over the past few decades yielding radiation-tolerant CFC's and a composite of SiC/SiC with no apparent degradation in mechanical properties to very high neutron exposure. While CFC's can be engineered with significantly higher thermal conductivity, and a slight advantage in manufacturability than SiC/SiC, they do have a neutron irradiation-limited lifetime. The SiC composite, while possessing lower thermal conductivity (especially following irradiation), appears to have mechanical properties insensitive to irradiation. Both materials are currently being produced to sizes much larger than that considered for nuclear application. In addition to materials aspects, results of programs focusing on practical aspects of deploying composites for near-term reactors will be discussed. In particular, significant progress has been made in the fabrication, testing, and qualification of composite gas-cooled reactor control rod sheaths and the ASTM standardization required for eventual qualification.

Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Windes, Will [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Katoh, Yutai [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. In accordance with the teachings of the invention, a low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic tansaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively. For example, it may also be used to diagnose diseases associated with the concentration of Raman-active constituents in urine, lymph and saliva It may be used to identify cancer in the breast, cervix, uterus, ovaries and the like by measuring the fingerprint excitation Raman spectra of these tissues. It may also be used to reveal the growing of tumors or cancers by measuring the levels of nitric oxide in tissue.

Alfano, Robert R. (Bronx, NY); Wang, Wubao (Flushing, NY)

2000-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Chilcoat, Bill R. (Knoxville, TN); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Chilcoat, Bill R. (Knoxville, TN); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Q-branch Raman scattering and modern kinetic thoery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program is an extension of previous APL work whose general aim was to calculate line shapes of nearly resonant isolated line transitions with solutions of a popular quantum kinetic equation-the Waldmann-Snider equation-using well known advanced solution techniques developed for the classical Boltzmann equation. The advanced techniques explored have been a BGK type approximation, which is termed the Generalized Hess Method (GHM), and conversion of the collision operator to a block diagonal matrix of symmetric collision kernels which then can be approximated by discrete ordinate methods. The latter method, which is termed the Collision Kernel method (CC), is capable of the highest accuracy and has been used quite successfully for Q-branch Raman scattering. The GHM method, not quite as accurate, is applicable over a wider range of pressures and has proven quite useful.

Monchick, L. [The Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

2012-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

305

Surface enhanced Raman gene probe and methods thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The subject invention disclosed herein is a new gene probe biosensor and methods based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) label detection. The SER gene probe biosensor comprises a support means, a SER gene probe having at least one oligonucleotide strand labeled with at least one SERS label, and a SERS active substrate disposed on the support means and having at least one of the SER gene probes adsorbed thereon. Biotargets such as bacterial and viral DNA, RNA and PNA are detected using a SER gene probe via hybridization to oligonucleotide strands complementary to the SER gene probe. The support means supporting the SERS active substrate includes a fiberoptic probe, an array of fiberoptic probes for performance of multiple assays and a waveguide microsensor array with charge-coupled devices or photodiode arrays. 18 figs.

Vo-Dinh, T.

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

306

Surface enhanced Raman gene probe and methods thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The subject invention disclosed is a new gene probe biosensor and methods based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) label detection. The SER gene probe biosensor comprises a support means, a SER gene probe having at least one oligonucleotide strand labeled with at least one SERS label, and a SERS active substrate disposed on the support means and having at least one of the SER gene probes adsorbed. Biotargets such as bacterial and viral DNA, RNA and PNA are detected using a SER gene probe via hybridization to oligonucleotide strands complementary to the SER gene probe. The support means supporting the SERS active substrate includes a fiberoptic probe, an array of fiberoptic probes for performance of multiple assays and a waveguide microsensor array with charge-coupled devices or photodiode arrays. 18 figs.

Vo-Dinh, T.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

307

Nanosensors based on functionalized nanoparticles and surface enhanced raman scattering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that utilizes metal surfaces to provide enhanced signals of several orders of magnitude. When molecules of interest are attached to designed metal nanoparticles, a SERS signal is attainable with single molecule detection limits. This provides an ultrasensitive means of detecting the presence of molecules. By using selective chemistries, metal nanoparticles can be functionalized to provide a unique signal upon analyte binding. Moreover, by using measurement techniques, such as, ratiometric received SERS spectra, such metal nanoparticles can be used to monitor dynamic processes in addition to static binding events. Accordingly, such nanoparticles can be used as nanosensors for a wide range of chemicals in fluid, gaseous and solid form, environmental sensors for pH, ion concentration, temperature, etc., and biological sensors for proteins, DNA, RNA, etc.

Talley, Chad E. (Brentwood, CA); Huser, Thomas R. (Livermore, CA); Hollars, Christopher W. (Brentwood, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Hart, Bradley R. (Brentwood, CA); Laurence, Ted A. (Livermore, CA)

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

308

Surface enhanced Raman gene probe and methods thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The subject invention disclosed is a new gene probe biosensor and methods based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) label detection. The SER gene probe biosensor comprises a support means, a SER gene probe having at least one oligonucleotide strand labeled with at least one SERS label, and a SERS active substrate disposed on the support means and having at least one of the SER gene probes adsorbed thereon. Biotargets such as bacterial and viral DNA, RNA and PNA are detected using a SER gene probe via hybridization to oligonucleotide strands complementary to the SER gene probe. The support means includes a fiberoptic probe, an array of fiberoptic probes for performance of multiple assays and a waveguide microsensor array with charge-coupled devices or photodiode arrays. 18 figs.

Vo-Dinh, T.

1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

309

Multiphonon resonant Raman scattering in MoS{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical emission spectrum of a resonantly (??=?632.8?nm) excited molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) is studied at liquid helium temperature. More than 20 peaks in the energy range spanning up to 1400?cm{sup ?1} from the laser line, which are related to multiphonon resonant Raman scattering processes, are observed. The attribution of the observed lines involving basic lattice vibrational modes of MoS{sub 2} and both the longitudinal (LA(M)) and the transverse (TA(M) and/or ZA(M)) acoustic phonons from the vicinity of the high-symmetry M point of the MoS{sub 2} Brillouin zone is proposed.

Go?asa, K., E-mail: Katarzyna.Golasa@fuw.edu.pl; Grzeszczyk, M.; Wysmo?ek, A.; Babi?ski, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland); Leszczy?ski, P.; Faugeras, C.; Nicolet, A. A. L.; Potemski, M. [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses, CNRS-UJF-UPS-INSA, 25, avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

310

Third harmonic stimulated Raman backscattering of laser in a magnetized plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article studies the nonlinear Raman shifted third harmonic backscattering of an intense extraordinary laser wave through a homogenous transversely magnetized cold plasma. Due to the relativistic nonlinearity, the plasma dynamic is modified in the presence of transversely magnetic field, and this can generate the third harmonic scattered wave and an electrostatic upper hybrid wave via the Raman scattering process. Using the nonlinear wave equation, the mechanism of nonlinear third harmonic Raman scattering is discussed in detail to obtain the maximum growth rate of instability in the mildly relativistic regime. The growth rate decreases as the static magnetic field increases. It also increases with the pump wave amplitude.

Paknezhad, Alireza [Physics Department, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Physics Department, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dorranian, Davoud [Laser Lab., Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser Lab., Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Raman shifted third harmonic generation of upper hybrid radiation in a plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raman shifted third harmonic generation of upper hybrid radiation is proposed and studied. In the presence of ambient magnetic field, the plasma wave present in the system produces electron density ripple (perturbation) which couples with the velocity imparted by the nonlinear ponderomotive force at twice the laser frequency producing the Raman shifted third harmonic field. The wave vector of the plasma wave provides the uncompensated momentum necessary for phase matching condition. The applied magnetic field can be adjusted to have the phase matching for the given plasma frequency. The energy conversion ratio from pump to the Raman shifted third harmonic generation of upper hybrid radiation is analyzed.

Magesh Kumar, K.K.; Singh, Ranjeet; Tripathi, V. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Time?resolved anisotropic coherent anti?Stokes Raman scattering: A new probe of reorientational dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

anti-Stokes Raman scattering (TRA CARS) and spontaneous Raman (TRA Raman) as probes of rota­ tional motion. II. THEORY When a sample system is illuminated by three laser beams at frequencies (Uo, (UI, and (U2, the incident fields induce a third... is described by a nonlinear sus­ ceptibility tensor containing three independent compo­ nents in the L=O subspace and six independent compo­ nents in the L = 2 subspace. First we write the molecular susceptibility MU11(0) iIi terms of the direct product...

Wan, Chaozhi; Johnson, Carey K.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Program solves for gas well inflow performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Windows-based program, GasIPR, can solve for the gas well inflow performance relationship (IPR). The program calculates gas producing rates at various pressures and is applicable for both turbulent and non-turbulent flow. It also has the following capabilities: computes PVT properties {gamma}{sub g}, P{sub c}, T{sub c}, heating value, Z, {mu}{sub g}, B{sub g}, and {rho}{sub g} from input gas composition data; calculates the Reynolds number (N{sub Re}) and shows the gas flow rates at the sandface at which the turbulence effect must be considered; helps the user to optimize the net perforation interval (h{sub p}) so that the turbulence effect can be minimized; and helps the user to evaluate the sensitivity of formation permeability on gas flow rate for a new play. IPR is a critical component in forecasting gas well deliverability. IPRs are used for sizing optimum tubing configurations and compressors, designing gravel packs, and solving gas well loading problems. IPR is the key reference for nodal analysis.

Engineer, R. [AERA Energy LLC, Bakersfield, CA (United States); Grillete, G. [Bechtel Petroleum Operations Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

1997-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

314

Conductive ceramic composition and method of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic anode composition is formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The anode is prepared as a non-stoichiometric crystalline structure by reaction and conditioning in a hydrogen gas cover containing minor proportions of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The structure exhibits a single phase and substantially enhanced electrical conductivity over that of the corresponding stoichiometric structure. Unexpectedly, such oxides and oxygenates are found to be stable in the reducing anode fuel gas of a molten carbonate fuel cell.

Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Kucera, Eugenia H. (Downers Grove, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Conductive ceramic composition and method of preparation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic anode composition is formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The anode is prepared as a non-stoichiometric crystalline structure by reaction and conditioning in a hydrogen gas cover containing minor proportions of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The structure exhibits a single phase and substantially enhanced electrical conductivity over that of the corresponding stoichiometric structure. Unexpectedly, such oxides and oxygenates are found to be stable in the reducing anode fuel gas of a molten carbonate fuel cell. 4 figures.

Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

1991-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

316

Natural gas transport by plastic pipes. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of plastic piping to transport natural gas or liquid propane gas. The interaction between gas odorants and plastic pipe, the effects of aging on plastic pipe used to transport gas, and pipe failure analyses are examined. Bending, joining, and repair methods are discussed. Composite reinforced plastic pipes and plastic coated pipes are considered. Polyethylene and epoxy composites are among the materials discussed. Gas main upgrading projects that replaced old pipes with plastic ones are briefly cited. (Contains a minimum of 88 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Gas Storage Act (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Any corporation which is engaged in or desires to engage in, the distribution, transportation or storage of natural gas or manufactured gas, which gas, in whole or in part, is intended for ultimate...

318

Gas Utilities (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter regulates natural gas utilities in the State of New York, and describes standards and procedures for gas meters and accessories, gas quality, line and main extensions, transmission and...

319

Industrial Gas Turbines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

320

Gas Utilities (Maine)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rules regarding the production, sale, and transfer of manufactured gas will also apply to natural gas. This section regulates natural gas utilities that serve ten or more customers, more than one...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A Network Model for The Genesis and Migration of Gas Phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A Network Model for The Genesis and Migration of Gas Phase Koukung Alex Chang and W. Brent, of a compositional fluid consisting of water with a dissolved hydrocarbon gas. The model captures both single phase 99% of the (effectively) stored CO2 resides in the liquid phase. Key Words: network model, gas

New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

322

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New Tracers Identify Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Accidental Releases from Oil and Gas produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine

Jackson, Robert B.

323

Gas Production Tax (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A tax of 7.5 percent of the market value of natural gas produced in the state of Texas is imposed on every producer of gas.

324

Natural gas dehydration apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

325

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

326

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

327

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

328

NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

329

Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vulcanizedpolyaniline/sulfur (SPANI/S) nanostructures were investigated for Li-S battery applications, but the detailed molecular structures of such composites have not been fully illustrated. In this paper, we synthesize SPANI/S composites with different S content in a nanorod configuration. FTIR, Raman, XPS, XRD, SEM and elemental analysis methods are used to characterize the molecular structure of the materials. We provide clear evidence that a portion of S was grafted on PANI during heating and connected the PANI chains with disulfide bonds to form a crosslinked network and the rest of S was encapsulated within it.. Polysulfides and elementary sulfur nanoparticles are physically trapped inside the polymer network and are not chemically bound to the polymer. The performance of the composites is further improved by reducing the particle size. Even after 500 cycles a capacity retention rate of 68.8% is observed in the SPANI/S composite with 55% S content.

Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Jie; Schwenzer, Birgit; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Nie, Zimin; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Liu, Jun

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

330

LOW NOx EMISSIONS IN A FUEL FLEXIBLE GAS TURBINE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In alignment with Vision 21 goals, a study is presented here on the technical and economic potential for developing a gas turbine combustor that is capable of generating less that 2 ppm NOx emissions, firing on either coal synthesis gas or natural gas, and being implemented on new and existing systems. The proposed solution involves controlling the quantity of H2 contained in the fuel. The presence of H2 leads to increased flame stability such that the combustor can be operated at lower temperatures and produce less thermal NOx. Coal gas composition would be modified using a water gas shift converter, and natural gas units would implement a catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reactor to convert part of the natural gas feed to a syngas before fed back into the combustor. While both systems demonstrated technical merit, the economics involved in implementing such a system are marginal at best. Therefore, Praxair has decided not to pursue the technology any further at this time.

Raymond Drnevich; James Meagher; Vasilis Papavassiliou; Troy Raybold; Peter Stuttaford; Leonard Switzer; Lee Rosen

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 511522 In situ Raman spectroscopy of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 511­522 In situ Raman spectroscopy. In this situation, a low energy excitation (e.g. visible light) is needed to excite an electron to a neighboring

Nabben, Reinhard

332

Diradicals acting through diamagnetic phenylene vinylene bridges: Raman spectroscopy as a probe to characterize spin delocalization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a complete Raman spectroscopic study in two structurally well-defined diradical species of different lengths incorporating oligo p-phenylene vinylene bridges between two polychlorinated triphenylmethyl radical units, a disposition that allows sizeable conjugation between the two radicals through and with the bridge. The spectroscopic data are interpreted and supported by quantum chemical calculations. We focus the attention on the Raman frequency changes, interpretable in terms of: (i) bridge length (conjugation length); (ii) bridge conformational structure; and (iii) electronic coupling between the terminal radical units with the bridge and through the bridge, which could delineate through-bond spin polarization, or spin delocalization. These items are addressed by using the “oligomer approach” in conjunction with pressure and temperature dependent Raman spectroscopic data. In summary, we have attempted to translate the well-known strategy to study the electron (charge) structure of ??conjugated molecules by Raman spectroscopy to the case of electron (spin) interactions via the spin delocalization mechanism.

González, Sandra Rodríguez; Nieto-Ortega, Belén; González Cano, Rafael C.; López Navarrete, Juan T., E-mail: vecianaj@icmab.es, E-mail: teodomiro@uma.es, E-mail: casado@uma.es; Casado, Juan, E-mail: vecianaj@icmab.es, E-mail: teodomiro@uma.es, E-mail: casado@uma.es [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, Málaga 29071 (Spain)] [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, Málaga 29071 (Spain); Lloveras, Vega; Vidal-Gancedo, José; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume, E-mail: vecianaj@icmab.es, E-mail: teodomiro@uma.es, E-mail: casado@uma.es [Department of Molecular Nanoscience and Organic Materials, Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, E-08193 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain) [Department of Molecular Nanoscience and Organic Materials, Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, E-08193 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); NANOMOL group, Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Campus Universitari de Bellaterra, E-08193 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); Novoa, Juan J.; Mota, Fernando [Dpt. de Química Física and IQTCUB, Fac. Química, Univ. de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 647, 08028-Barcelona (Spain)] [Dpt. de Química Física and IQTCUB, Fac. Química, Univ. de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 647, 08028-Barcelona (Spain); Corro, Elena del; Taravillo, Mercedes; Baonza, Valentín G. [MALTA-Consolider Team, Department of Physical Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)] [MALTA-Consolider Team, Department of Physical Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

333

Beyond Myopic Inference in Big Data Pipelines Karthik Raman, Adith Swaminathan, Johannes Gehrke, Thorsten Joachims  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]: Learning General Terms Algorithms, Experimentation, Theory Keywords Big Data Pipelines, Modular Design Detection & Recognition pipeline. creation, model construction, testing, and visualization. In orderBeyond Myopic Inference in Big Data Pipelines Karthik Raman, Adith Swaminathan, Johannes Gehrke

Joachims, Thorsten

334

Detection of bacterial endospores by means of ultrafast coherent raman spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work is devoted to formulation and development of a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid detection of biohazards, such as Bacillus anthracis spores. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used as an underlying process for active...

Pestov, Dmitry Sergeyevich

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

335

Raman excitation profile of the G band in single-chirality carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present in this work measurements of the Raman excitation profile of the high-energy phonons (G band) in single-chirality (n,m) semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes using more than 70 laser excitation energies, ...

Moura, L. G.

336

Resonance Raman spectroscopy in Si and C ion-implanted double-wall carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effect of 170 keV Si and 100 keV C ion bombardment on the structure and properties of highly pure, double-wall carbon nanotubes has been investigated using resonance Raman spectroscopy. The implantations were performed ...

Dresselhaus, Mildred

337

Mapping residual stress fields from Vickers hardness indents using Raman microprobe spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to map the residual stress fields in the vicinity of Vickers hardness indents. Both 514.5 and 488.0 nm, light is used to excite the effect and the resulting shifted and broadened Raman peaks are analyzed using computer deconvolution. Half-wave plates are used to vary the orientation of the incident later light`s polarization state with respect to crystal orientation. The Raman scattered light is then analyzed for polarization dependences which are indicative of the various components of the Raman scattering tensor. Such studies can yield valuable information about the orientation of stress components in a well known stress field. The results can then be applied to the determination of stress components in machined semiconductor materials.

Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Zone folding effect in Raman G-band intensity of twisted bilayer graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The G-band Raman intensity is calculated for twisted bilayer graphene as a function of laser excitation energy based on the extended tight binding method. Here we explicitly consider the electron-photon and electron-phonon ...

Dresselhaus, Mildred

339

UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Using a New cw Laser Source: Convenience and Experimental Simplicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the spectrometer. We dem- onstrate the ability of this laser to excite Raman spectra of solid samples such as coal-liquid- alytical applications. Examples include studies of PAHs in coal-derived liquids4-~and in petroleum

Asher, Sanford A.

340

Double resonance Raman spectra of graphene : a full 2D calculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Visible range Raman spectra of graphene are generated based on the double resonant process employing a full two-dimensional numerical calculation applying second-order perturbation theory. Tight binding expressions for ...

Narula, Rohit

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Uniaxial strain in graphene by Raman spectroscopy: G peak splitting, Grüneisen parameters, and sample orientation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We uncover the constitutive relation of graphene and probe the physics of its optical phonons by studying its Raman spectrum as a function of uniaxial strain. We find that the doubly degenerate E[subscript 2g] optical mode ...

Mohiuddin, T. M. G.

342

Rotational-Vibrational Raman Spectroscopy for Measurements of Thermochemistry in Non-isobaric Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present work examines line measurements of pressure, temperature, and density in high speed, non-isobaric flows emanating from an underexpanded jet nozzle. Line images of rotational and vibrational Raman spectra are collected for a 8-mm linear...

Bayeh, Alexander C.

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

343

Composite bipolar plate for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bipolar separator plate for fuel cells consists of a molded mixture of a vinyl ester resin and graphite powder. The plate serves as a current collector and may contain fluid flow fields for the distribution of reactant gases. The material is inexpensive, electrically conductive, lightweight, strong, corrosion resistant, easily mass produced, and relatively impermeable to hydrogen gas. The addition of certain fiber reinforcements and other additives can improve the properties of the composite material without significantly increasing its overall cost.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Busick, Deanna N. (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ellefson, Robert E. (Centerville, OH); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Heteroporphyrin nanotubes and composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heteroporphyrin nanotubes, metal nanostructures, and metal/porphyrin-nanotube composite nanostructures formed using the nanotubes as photocatalysts and structural templates, and the methods for forming the nanotubes and composites.

Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA); Wang, Zhongchun (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

346

Composite production riser assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The performance of a deep water composite production riser from a system perspective is presented, and its advantages are articulated through comparisons with a typical steel riser under identical service conditions. The composite riser joints...

Kim, Won Ki

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

347

Heteroporphyrin nanotubes and composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heteroporphyrin nanotubes, metal nanostructures, and metal/porphyrin-nanotube composite nanostructures formed using the nanotubes as photocatalysts and structural templates, and the methods for forming the nanotubes and composites.

Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.; Wang, Zhongchun

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

348

Raman spectroscopy for characterization of annealing of ion-implanted InP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raman spectroscopy has been used as a noncontacting, nondestructive tool to evaluate the properties of Si/sup +/- and Be/sup +/- implanted InP samples annealed at temperatures ranging from 600 to 750C using phosphosilicate glass (PSG) as the encapsulant. Carrier activation, carrier mobility and recovery of damage as a function of anneal temperature obtained from analysis of Raman data agree very well with independent electrical measurements.

Myers, D.R.; Gourley, P.L.; Vaidyanathan, K.V.; Dunlap, H.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

X-ray Raman compression via two-stream instability in dense plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Raman compression scheme suitable for x-rays, where the Langmuir wave is created by an intense beam rather than the pondermotive potential between the seed and pump pulses, is proposed. The required intensity of the seed and pump pulses enabling the compression could be mitigated by more than a factor of 100, compared to conventionally available other Raman compression schemes. The relevant wavelength of x-rays ranges from 1 to 10 nm.

S. Son; Sung Joon Moon

2011-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

350

Summary of raman cone penetrometer probe waste tank radiation and chemical environment test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of testing Raman sapphire windows that were braze mounted into a mockup Raman probe head and stainless steel coupons in a simulated tank waste environment. The simulated environment was created by exposing sapphire window components, immersed in a tank simulant, in a gamma pit. This work was completed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM-50) for Technical Task Proposal RL4-6-WT-21.

Reich, F.R.

1996-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

351

Study on the effect of heat treatment and gasification on the carbon structure of coal chars and metallurgical cokes using fourier transform Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Differences in the development of carbon structures between coal chars and metallurgical cokes during high-temperature reactions have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. These are important to differentiate between different types of carbons in dust recovered from the top gas of the blast furnace. Coal chars have been prepared from a typical injectant coal under different heat-treatment conditions. These chars reflected the effect of peak temperature, residence time at peak temperature, heating rate and pressure on the evolution of their carbon structures. The independent effect of gasification on the development of the carbon structure of a representative coal char has also been studied. A similar investigation has also been carried out to study the effect of heat-treatment temperature (from 1300 to 2000{sup o}C) and gasification on the carbon structure of a typical metallurgical coke. Two Raman spectral parameters, the intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) and the intensity ratio of the valley between D and G bands to the G band (I{sub V}/I{sub G}), have been found useful in assessing changes in carbon structure. An increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} indicates the growth of basic graphene structural units across the temperature range studied. A decrease in I{sub V}/I{sub G} appears to suggest the elimination of amorphous carbonaceous materials and ordering of the overall carbon structure. The Raman spectral differences observed between coal chars and metallurgical cokes are considered to result from the difference in the time-temperature history between the raw injectant coal and the metallurgical coke and may lay the basis for differentiation between metallurgical coke fines and coal char residues present in the dust carried over the top of the blast furnace. 41 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

S. Dong; P. Alvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Composite fuel cell membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Nano-composite materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

354

Composite fuel cell membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

355

Two-boson composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Composite bosons made of two bosonic constituents exhibit deviations from ideal bosonic behavior due to their substructure. This deviation is reflected by the normalization ratio of the quantum state of N composites. We find a set of saturable, efficiently evaluable bounds for this indicator, which quantifies the bosonic behavior of composites via the entanglement of their constituents. We predict an abrupt transition between ordinary and exaggerated bosonic behavior in a condensate of two-boson composites.

Malte C. Tichy; Peter Alexander Bouvrie; Klaus Mølmer

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

356

Vibrational Damping of Composite Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the Damping of Composite Laminates”, SPIE Proceedings onpublication to Journal of Composite Materials Biggerstaff,submitted for publication to Composites, Part A Biggerstaff,

Biggerstaff, Janet M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Solid polymer electrolyte compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Phase change compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions containing crystalline, straight chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Phase change compositions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compositions containing crystalline, long chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH); Griffen, Charles W. (Mason, OH)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Compressed gas manifold  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

Mottram, Nigel

362

Noble gas magnetic resonator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuels (eg diesel, compressed natural gas). Electricity (infossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Composition of Ices in Low-Mass Extrasolar Planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the formation conditions of icy planetesimals in protoplanetary disks in order to determine the composition of ices in small and cold extrasolar planets. Assuming that ices are formed from hydrates, clathrates, and pure condensates, we calculate their mass fractions with respect to the total quantity of ices included in planetesimals, for a grid of disk models. We find that the composition of ices weakly depends on the adopted disk thermodynamic conditions, and is rather influenced by the initial composition of the gas phase. The use of a plausible range of molecular abundance ratios and the variation of the relative elemental carbon over oxygen ratio in the gas phase of protoplanetary disks, allow us to apply our model to a wide range of planetary systems. Our results can thus be used to constrain the icy/volatile phase composition of cold planets evidenced by microlensing surveys, hypothetical ocean-planets and carbon planets, which could be detected by Corot or Kepler.

Ulysse Marboeuf; Olivier Mousis; David Ehrenreich; Yann Alibert; Arnaud Cassan; Valentine Wakelam; Jean-Philippe Beaulieu

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

365

Composition of Ices in Low-Mass Extrasolar Planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the formation conditions of icy planetesimals in protoplanetary disks in order to determine the composition of ices in small and cold extrasolar planets. Assuming that ices are formed from hydrates, clathrates, and pure condensates, we calculate their mass fractions with respect to the total quantity of ices included in planetesimals, for a grid of disk models. We find that the composition of ices weakly depends on the adopted disk thermodynamic conditions, and is rather influenced by the initial composition of the gas phase. The use of a plausible range of molecular abundance ratios and the variation of the relative elemental carbon over oxygen ratio in the gas phase of protoplanetary disks, allow us to apply our model to a wide range of planetary systems. Our results can thus be used to constrain the icy/volatile phase composition of cold planets evidenced by microlensing surveys, hypothetical ocean-planets and carbon planets, which could be detected by Corot or Kepler.

Marboeuf, Ulysse; Ehrenreich, David; Alibert, Yann; Cassan, Arnaud; Wakelam, Valentine; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Natural gas monthly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Effects of Propane/Natural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports to the U.S. are expected to grow significantly over the next 10-15 years. Likewise, it is expected that changes to the domestic gas supply may also introduce changes in natural gas composition. As a result of these anticipated changes, the composition of fuel sources may vary significantly from conventional domestic natural gas supplies. This paper will examine the effects of fuel variability on pollutant emissions for premixed gas turbine conditions. The experimental data presented in this paper have been collected from a pressurized single injector combustion test rig at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The tests are conducted at 7.5 atm with a 588 K air preheat. A propane blending facility is used to vary the Wobbe Index of the site natural gas. The results indicate that propane addition of about five (vol.) percent does not lead to a significant change in the observed NOx or CO emissions. These results are different from data collected on some engine applications and potential reasons for these differences will be described.

Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Gas mixing system for imaging of nanomaterials under dynamic environments by environmental transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gas mixing manifold system that is capable of delivering a stable pressure stream of a desired composition of gases into an environmental transmission electron microscope has been developed. The system is designed to provide a stable imaging environment upon changes of either the composition of the gas mixture or upon switching from one gas to another. The design of the system is described and the response of the pressure inside the microscope, the sample temperature, and sample drift in response to flow and composition changes of the system are reported.

Akatay, M. Cem [School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Zvinevich, Yury; Ribeiro, Fabio H., E-mail: fabio@purdue.edu, E-mail: estach@bnl.gov [Forney Hall of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Baumann, Philipp [Computer Sciences, University of Applied Sciences of Northeastern Switzerland, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland and Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, New York 10016 (United States)] [Computer Sciences, University of Applied Sciences of Northeastern Switzerland, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland and Department of Physics, Yeshiva University, New York, New York 10016 (United States); Stach, Eric A., E-mail: fabio@purdue.edu, E-mail: estach@bnl.gov [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Micro-Raman spectroscopic study of nanolaminated Ti{sub 5}Al{sub 2}C{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro-Raman spectroscopic study and lattice dynamics calculations were conducted to study a recently identified layered ternary carbide, Ti{sub 5}Al{sub 2}C{sub 3}. The experimental Raman shifts were remarkably consistent with the calculated values. Polarized Raman spectrum was collected in the polycrystalline sample, which confirmed the theoretical symmetry assignment of the Raman modes. In addition, the atomic vibrations of the peaks at 192?cm{sup ?1}, 311?cm{sup ?1}, and 660?cm{sup ?1} were identified to be the combination of the counterparts in Ti{sub 2}AlC and Ti{sub 3}AlC{sub 2}.

Zhang, H.; Li, Z. J. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, X. H. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xiang, H. M.; Zhou, Y. C, E-mail: yczhou714@gmail.com [Science and Technology of Advanced Functional Composite Laboratory, ARIMPT, No.1 South Dahongmen Road, Beijing 100076 (China)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

The AMWCNTs supported porous nanocarbon composites for high-performance supercapacitor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: The AMWCNTs supported porous nanocarbon composites were prepared by a easy method. The composites had shown good performances for electrochemical energy storage with high specific capacitance and good stability. - Highlights: • The AMWCNTs supported porous nanocarbon composites were prepared. • The composites have good conductivity and large BET specific surface areas. • The composites had shown high specific capacitance, and good stability. - Abstract: The porous nanocarbons supported by acid-treated multiwall carbon nanotubes (PC@ACNTs) were prepared by the combination of the hydrothermal polymerization of glucose on ACNTs, carbonization under N{sub 2} protection and final activation with ZnCl{sub 2}. The materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectra. The results indicated that the ACNTs distributed uniformly into the framework of the porous carbon. The composites showed the high BET specific surface area up to 1712 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} and good conductivity. The electrochemical measurements indicated that the composites processed good performances for electrochemical energy storage (210 F g{sup ?1} at 0.5 A g{sup ?1}), and high stability (>99.9%), much higher than the corresponding ACNTs, porous carbons and the samples prepared by using raw MWCNTs as source. The good performance of PC@ACNTs composites was relative with the synergy of good conductivity of ACNTs and large specific surface areas of PC.

Fu, Yu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun, Li [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Tian, Chungui, E-mail: chunguitianhq@163.com [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Lin, Haibo, E-mail: lhb910@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

A Composite Scheme for Gas Dynamics in Lagrangian Coordinates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the Sedov blast wave problem, and for several one­dimensional problems including a Riemann problem is usually acceptable. In [7] and [8] it is shown that an effective way to overcome this behavior of the two, but the codes quickly generate a constant velocity and pressure at the origin, so the viscosity has no effect

373

Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models | Department1 Prepared by:DTEMoab3

374

Fluid Inclusion Gas Compositions From An Active Magmatic-Hydrothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6Theoretical vsFlint GeothermalInformation

375

Method for nonlinear optimization for gas tagging and other systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for providing nuclear fuel rods with a configuration of isotopic gas tags. The method includes selecting a true location of a first gas tag node, selecting initial locations for the remaining n-1 nodes using target gas tag compositions, generating a set of random gene pools with L nodes, applying a Hopfield network for computing on energy, or cost, for each of the L gene pools and using selected constraints to establish minimum energy states to identify optimal gas tag nodes with each energy compared to a convergence threshold and then upon identifying the gas tag node continuing this procedure until establishing the next gas tag node until all remaining n nodes have been established.

Chen, Ting (Chicago, IL); Gross, Kenny C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Wegerich, Stephan (Glendale Heights, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Method for nonlinear optimization for gas tagging and other systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system are disclosed for providing nuclear fuel rods with a configuration of isotopic gas tags. The method includes selecting a true location of a first gas tag node, selecting initial locations for the remaining n-1 nodes using target gas tag compositions, generating a set of random gene pools with L nodes, applying a Hopfield network for computing on energy, or cost, for each of the L gene pools and using selected constraints to establish minimum energy states to identify optimal gas tag nodes with each energy compared to a convergence threshold and then upon identifying the gas tag node continuing this procedure until establishing the next gas tag node until all remaining n nodes have been established. 6 figs.

Chen, T.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.

1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

377

Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule, applicable to gas utilities, establishes rules for calculation of gas cost adjustments, procedures to be followed in establishing gas cost adjustments and refunds, and describes reports...

378

Temporal condensed matter physics in gas-filled photonic crystal fibers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Raman effect in gases can generate an extremely long-living wave of coherence that can lead to the establishment of an almost perfect periodic variation of the medium refractive index. We show theoretically and numerically that the equations, regulate the pulse propagation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers filled by Raman-active gas, are exactly identical to a classical problem in quantum condensed matter physics -- but with the role of space and time reversed -- namely an electron in a periodic potential subject to a constant electric field. We are therefore able to infer the existence of Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch oscillations, and Zener tunneling, phenomena that are normally associated with condensed matter physics only, now realized with purely optical means in the temporal domain.

Saleh, Mohammed F; Tran, Truong X; Marini, Andrea; Belli, Federico; Abdolvand, Amir; Biancalana, Fabio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Hydrogen storage compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH4- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH4- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

380

Enhanced membrane gas separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

Prasad, R.

1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

None

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Nanocomposite thin films for optical gas sensing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a plasmon resonance-based method for gas sensing in a gas stream utilizing a gas sensing material. In an embodiment the gas stream has a temperature greater than about 500.degree. C. The gas sensing material is comprised of gold nanoparticles having an average nanoparticle diameter of less than about 100 nanometers dispersed in an inert matrix having a bandgap greater than or equal to 5 eV, and an oxygen ion conductivity less than approximately 10.sup.-7 S/cm at a temperature of 700.degree. C. Exemplary inert matrix materials include SiO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3N.sub.4 as well as modifications to modify the effective refractive indices through combinations and/or doping of such materials. Changes in the chemical composition of the gas stream are detected by changes in the plasmon resonance peak. The method disclosed offers significant advantage over active and reducible matrix materials typically utilized, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or TiO.sub.2.

Ohodnicki, Paul R; Brown, Thomas D

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

383

Near-resonance enhanced O2 detection for dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering with an ultraviolet-visible setup at 266 nm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broadband and dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) are widely established tools for nonintrusive gas diagnostics. Up to now the investigations have been mainly performed for electronic nonresonant conditions of the gas species of interest. We report on the enhancement of the O2-N2 detection limit of dual-broadband pure rotational CARS by shifting the wavelength of the narrowband pump laser from the commonly used 532-266 nm. This enhancement is caused when the Schumann-Runge absorption band is approached near 176 nm. The principal concept of this experiment, i.e., covering the Raman resonance with a single- or dual-broadband combination of lasers in the visible range and moving only the narrowband probe laser near or directly into electronic resonant conditions in the UV range, should also be applicable to broadband CARS experiments to directly exploit electronic resonance effects for the purpose of single-shot concentration measurements of minority species. To quantify the enhancement in O2 sensitivity, comparative measurements at both a 266 and a 532 nm narrowband pump laser wavelength are presented, employing a 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyram (DCM) dye laser as a broadband laser source at 635 nm. An increase of approximately 13% in the ratio of the rotational CARS cross sections of O2 and N2 was obtained. The broad spectral width of the CARS excitation profile was approximately equal for both setups. Further enhancement should be achievable by shifting the narrowband pump laser closer toward 176 nm, for example, with a frequency-doubled optical parametric oscillator or an excimer laser. The principal concept of this experiment should also be applicable to broadband CARS experiments to directly exploit electronic resonance effects of the narrowband pump laser with electronic transitions of minority species for the purpose of single-shot concentration measurements of those species.

Schenk, Martin; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Method for continuous control of composition and doping of pulsed laser deposited films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for growing a deposit upon a substrate of semiconductor material involves the utilization of pulsed laser deposition techniques within a low-pressure gas environment. The substrate and a target of a first material are positioned within a deposition chamber and a low-pressure gas atmosphere is developed within the chamber. The substrate is then heated, and the target is irradiated, so that atoms of the target material are ablated from the remainder of the target, while atoms of the gas simultaneously are adsorbed on the substrate/film surface. The ablated atoms build up upon the substrate, together with the adsorbed gas atoms to form the thin-film deposit on the substrate. By controlling the pressure of the gas of the chamber atmosphere, the composition of the formed deposit can be controlled, and films of continuously variable composition or doping can be grown from a single target of fixed composition.

Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); McCamy, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Method for continuous control of composition and doping of pulsed laser deposited films by pressure control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for growing a deposit upon a substrate of semiconductor material involves the utilization of pulsed laser deposition techniques within a low-pressure gas environment. The substrate and a target of a first material are positioned within a deposition chamber and a low-pressure gas atmosphere is developed within the chamber. The substrate is then heated, and the target is irradiated, so that atoms of the target material are ablated from the remainder of the target, while atoms of the gas simultaneously are adsorbed on the substrate/film surface. The ablated atoms build up upon the substrate, together with the adsorbed gas atoms to form the thin-film deposit on the substrate. By controlling the pressure of the gas of the chamber atmosphere, the composition of the formed deposit can be controlled, and films of continuously variable composition or doping can be grown from a single target of fixed composition.

Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); McCamy, James W. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Novel Composite Cathode Structures  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory May 16, 2012 Novel Composite Cathode Structures This presentation does not contain any proprietary or...

387

Leptons in Composite MFV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the lepton sector of composite Higgs models with partial compositeness. The standard anarchic scenario is in conflict with the absence of observable charged lepton flavor violation. This tension can be completely solved in MFV scenarios that require either left-handed or right-handed SM leptons to be equally composite. Constraints on this scenario are weak and the composite lepton partners could be as light as few hundreds GeVs with interesting LHC signatures. The contribution to the muon (g-2) in theories where the Higgs is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson is also discussed.

Michele Redi

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

388

Electrically conductive cellulose composite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

389

Raman lidar profiling of water vapor and aerosols over the ARM SGP Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. The Raman lidar sytem is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols. These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. The authors have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

Ferrare, R.A.

2000-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

390

RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. This Raman lidar system is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols (Goldsmith et al., 1998). These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. We have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (Feltz et al., 1998; Turner et al., 1999). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

FERRARE,R.A.

2000-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

391

Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, Raman spectroscopy is used as a tool to determine the light-trapping capability of textured ZnO front electrodes implemented in microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon films deposited on superstrates of various roughnesses are characterized by Raman micro-spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 442?nm, 514?nm, 633?nm, and 785?nm, respectively. The way to measure quantitatively and with a high level of reproducibility the Raman intensity is described in details. By varying the superstrate texture and with it the light trapping in the ?c-Si:H absorber layer, we find significant differences in the absolute Raman intensity measured in the near infrared wavelength region (where light trapping is relevant). A good agreement between the absolute Raman intensity and the external quantum efficiency of the ?c-Si:H solar cells is obtained, demonstrating the validity of the introduced method. Applications to thin-film solar cells, in general, and other optoelectronic devices are discussed.

Ledinský, M., E-mail: ledinsky@fzu.cz [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Moulin, E.; Bugnon, G.; Meillaud, F.; Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Ganzerová, K.; Vetushka, A.; Fejfar, A. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

The effects of machine parameters on residual stress determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of machine parameters on residual stresses in single point diamond turned silicon and germanium have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Residual stresses were sampled across ductile feed cuts in < 100 > silicon and germanium which were single point diamond turned using a variety of feed rates, rake angles and clearance angles. High spatial resolution micro-Raman spectra (1{mu}m spot) were obtained in regions of ductile cutting where no visible surface damage was present. The use of both 514-5nm and 488.0nm excitation wavelengths, by virtue of their differing characteristic penetration depths in the materials, allowed determinations of stress profiles as a function of depth into the sample. Previous discussions have demonstrated that such Raman spectra will exhibit asymmetrically broadened peaks which are characteristic of the superposition of a continuum of Raman scatterers from the various depths probed. Depth profiles of residual stress were obtained using computer deconvolution of the resulting asymmetrically broadened raman spectra.

Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

High temperature coatings for gas turbines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coating for high temperature gas turbine components that include a MCrAlX phase, and an aluminum-rich phase, significantly increase oxidation and cracking resistance of the components, thereby increasing their useful life and reducing operating costs. The aluminum-rich phase includes aluminum at a higher concentration than aluminum concentration in the MCrAlX alloy, and an aluminum diffusion-retarding composition, which may include cobalt, nickel, yttrium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, rhodium, cadmium, indium, cerium, iron, chromium, tantalum, silicon, boron, carbon, titanium, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, and combinations thereof, and particularly nickel and/or rhenium. The aluminum-rich phase may be derived from a particulate aluminum composite that has a core comprising aluminum and a shell comprising the aluminum diffusion-retarding composition.

Zheng, Xiaoci Maggie

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

Natural Gas & Local Governments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-trailers New business ventures Frac services Water hauling Brine water remediation Pipeline Group #12;2. Sublette County, Wyoming Largest gas-producing county in Wyoming (44% of states gas

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

395

Microminiature gas chromatograph  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Microminiature gas chromatograph  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

Yu, C.M.

1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

397

Recirculating rotary gas compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

398

Recirculating rotary gas compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Oil and Gas Exploration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

Tingley, Joseph V.

400

Gas and Oil (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Natural gas annual 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

NONE

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Raman Database Considerations for Near-Infrared Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For Raman spectroscopy the ability to detect is often limited by the existence and quality of the reference library to which field spectra are compared. Developing such databases is often labor- and resource-intensive; typically the generated data are not transferred to other instruments. Still other considerations may exist for comparing data at visible and ultraviolet excitation wavelengths such as resonance enhancement. However, for the common near-infrared wavelengths of 785, 830, 960, 1047 and 1064 nm where this is normally of a lesser concern, it is logical to consider whether data can be ported from one spectrometer to another so as to obviate the expensive and time-consuming process of generating reference data for each system. The present experiment generated a list of 125 chemical and common substances and formed a database from their corresponding 1064 nm spectra. The same molecules were then measured using a 785 nm system the new spectra were treated as “unknowns” and compared to the 1064 nm database using a commercial search algorithm. We found that at least 108 of the 125 spectra recorded at 785 nm were correctly identified using the search algorithm. For the few that were incorrectly identified, in most cases the spectra were extremely similar or the 785 nm signal was degraded due to fluorescence, as would occur regardless of reference data. Our results indicate that if the spectrometers are properly calibrated on both their wavelength and intensity axes, “foreign” data recorded at a different NIR wavelength can be successfully used as reference libraries

Kunkel, Brenda M.; Su, Yin-Fong; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Stephan, Eric G.; Joly, Alan G.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Jarman, Kristin H.; Johnson, Timothy J.

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

403

Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules are implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority). Purchased Gas Adjustment (PGA) Rules are intended to permit the company/LDC (local gas...

404

COMPUTATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF GAS COMPRESSOR ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feb 26, 2015 ... When considering cost-optimal operation of gas transport net- works ..... The four most frequently used drive types are gas turbines, gas driven.

2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

405

Natural gas transport by plastic pipes. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of plastic piping to transport natural gas or liquid propane gas. The interaction between gas odorants and plastic pipe, the effects of aging on plastic pipe used to transport gas, and pipe failure analyses are examined. Bending, joining, and repair methods are discussed. Composite reinforced plastic pipes and plastic coated pipes are considered. Polyethylene and epoxy composites are among the materials discussed. Gas main upgrading projects that replaced old pipes with plastic ones are briefly cited. (Contains a minimum of 89 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Residual gas analysis device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

Natural gas annual 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

408

Natural gas annual 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Gas Cylinders: Proper Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compressed Gas Cylinders: Proper Management And Use Published by the Office of Environment, Health;1 Introduction University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) departments that use compressed gas cylinders (MSDS) and your department's Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). Talk to your gas supplier about hands

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

410

Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

Nizkorodov, Sergey

411

Static gas expansion cooler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Valve for gas centrifuges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

413

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

Rollins, Andrew M.

414

GAS ANALYSES FROM HEADSPACE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS CONTAINERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) 3013 destructive examination program performs surveillances on 3013 containers originating from multiple sites across the DOE complex. The bases for the packaging, storage, and surveillance activities are derived from the Department of Energy's 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013-2004). During destructive examination, headspace gas samples are obtained from the 3013 inner container and the annulus between the outer and inner containers. To characterize gas species, the samples are analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), direct-inlet mass spectrometry (DIMS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The GC results, as well as other parameters, are utilized as input into the gas evaluation software tool (GEST) program for computation of pre-puncture gas compositions and pressures. Over 30 containers from the Hanford Site and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have been examined in the first three years of the surveillance program. Several containers were shown to have appreciable hydrogen content (some greater than 30 mol %), yet little or no oxygen was detected in any of the containers, including those exhibiting high hydrogen concentrations. Characteristics including moisture content, surface area, and material composition, along with the headspace gas composition, are utilized in an attempt to explain the chemical behavior of the packaged materials.

Almond, P.; Livingston, R.; Traver, L.; Arnold, M.; Bridges, N.; Kessinger, G.; Duffey, J.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Fiber-optic apparatus and method for measurement of luminescence and raman scattering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dual fiber forward scattering optrode for Raman spectroscopy with the remote ends of the fibers in opposed, spaced relationship to each other to form a analyte sampling space therebetween and the method of measuring Raman spectra utilizing same. One optical fiber is for sending an exciting signal to the remote sampling space and, at its remote end, has a collimating microlens and an optical filter for filtering out background emissions generated in the fiber. The other optical fiber is for collecting the Raman scattering signal at the remote sampling space and, at its remote end, has a collimating microlens and an optical filter to prevent the exciting signal from the exciting fiber from entering the collection fiber and to thereby prevent the generation of background emissions in the collecting fiber.

Myrick, Michael L. (Livermore, CA); Angel, Stanley M. (Livermore, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Relation between squeezing of vacuum fluctuations, quantum entanglement and sub-shot noise in Raman scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A completely quantum description of Raman process is used to investigate the nonclassical properties of the modes in the stimulated, spontaneous and partially spontaneous Raman process. Both coherent scattering (where all the initial modes are coherent) and chaotic scattering (where initial phonon mode is chaotic and all the other modes are coherent) are studied. Nonclassical character of Raman process is observed by means of intermodal entanglement, single mode and intermodal squeezing of vacuum fluctuations, sub-shot noise and wave variances. Joint photon-phonon number and integrated-intensity distributions are then used to illustrate the observed nonclassicalities. Conditional and difference number distributions are also provided to illustrate the nonclassical character. The mutual relation between the obtained nonclassicalities and their variations dependent on phases, rescalled time and ratio of coupling constants are also reported.

Anirban Pathak; Jaromir Krepelka; Jan Perina

2012-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

417

Synthesis of few layer graphene by direct exfoliation of graphite and a Raman spectroscopic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The exfoliation of graphene from pristine graphite in a liquid phase was achieved successfully via sonication followed by centrifugation method. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectra of the obtained graphene dispersions at different exfoliation time indicated that the concentration of graphene dispersion increased markedly with increasing exfoliation time. The sheet-like morphology of the exfoliated graphene was revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image. Further, the morphological change in different exfoliation time was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). A complete structural and defect characterization was probed using micro-Raman spectroscopic technique. The shape and position of the 2D band of Raman spectra revealed the formation of bilayer to few layer graphene. Also, Raman mapping confirmed the presence of uniformly distributed bilayer graphene sheets on the substrate.

Gayathri, S.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V., E-mail: vr.optics1@gmail.com [Department of Laser Studies, School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625021, India. (India); Kottaisamy, M. [Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai-625015, India. (India)] [Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai-625015, India. (India)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Atmospheric Thermodynamics Composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 EnergyBalance Ch4 Water Ch Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http #12;2 Review from Ch. 1 · Thermodynamic quantities · Composition · Pressure · Density · Temperature

Russell, Lynn

419

Biodegradable synthetic bone composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Molybdenum disilicide matrix composite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition consisting of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, which is reinforced with VS silicon carbide whiskers dispersed throughout it and a method of making the reinforced composition. Use of the reinforcing material increases fracture toughness at low temperatures and strength at high temperatures, as compared to pure molybdenum disilicide.

Petrovic, John J. (Los Alamos, NM); Carter, David H. (Los Alamos, NM); Gac, Frank D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Molybdenum disilicide matrix composite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition consisting of an intermetallic compound, molybdenum disilicide, which is reinforced with VS silicon carbide whiskers dispersed throughout it and a method of making the reinforced composition. Use of the reinforcing material increases fracture toughness at low temperatures and strength at high temperatures, as compared to pure molybdenum disilicide.

Petrovic, John J. (Los Alamos, NM); Carter, David H. (Los Alamos, NM); Gac, Frank D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Analysis of condensate banking dynamics in a gas condensate reservoir under different injection schemes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condensate reservoir under natural depletion, and injection of methane, injection of carbon dioxide, produced gas recycling and water injection. To monitor the condensate banking dynamics near the wellbore area, such as oil saturation and compositional...

Sandoval Rodriguez, Angelica Patricia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Serum lipoprotein composition and amounts in eutrophic and hypotrophic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Serum lipoprotein composition and amounts in eutrophic and hypotrophic newborn at term. H Merzouk 1 with that of eu- trophic newborn at term. Twelve eutrophic newborn (birth weight 3 570 ± 93 g) and 18 hypotrophic cholesterol was analyzed by gas liquid chromatography. In the hypotrophic newborn, compared with the eutrophic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Fast and Robust Algorithm for Compositional Modeling: Part II--  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

later) we have noticed that compositional modeling of a rich-retrograde gas condensate het- erogeneous of our study, stability analysis testing in the reduced space was formulated, and its robustness- sitional modeling, stability analysis testing in the reduction method was presented.1 In this paper, Part

Firoozabadi, Abbas

425

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002027 Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of Single-and Few-Layer Graphene by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201002027 Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of Single- and Few-Layer Graphene*[a] Introduction Raman spectroscopy has been utilized as a powerful tool for the characterization of graphene and any defects in the graphene.[1] A Si substrate with a metal oxide layer of a specific thick- ness has

Kim, Bongsoo

426

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 184202 (2011) Can stimulated Raman pumping cause large population transfers in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 184202 (2011) Can stimulated Raman pumping cause large 2011; published online 9 November 2011) When stimulated Raman pumping (SRP) is applied to a stream with the energy difference between the pump and Stokes laser pulses. Using the optical Bloch-Feynman equations, we

Zare, Richard N.

427

785 nm Raman spectroscopy of CVD diamond films P.W. May , J.A. Smith, K.N. Rosser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using 785 nm excitation with 1 µm spot size, the Raman spectra from thin polycrystalline diamond films785 nm Raman spectroscopy of CVD diamond films P.W. May , J.A. Smith, K.N. Rosser School is a powerful technique often used to study CVD diamond films, however, very little work has been reported

Bristol, University of

428

Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.

429

Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

Brassell, Gilbert W. (13237 W. 8th Ave., Golden, CO 80401); Brugger, Ronald P. (Lafayette, CO)

1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

430

Natural gas leak mapper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

431

Flue gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

Im, Kwan H. (Lisle, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Vacuum 65 (2002) 415425 Plasma spraying of micro-composite thermal barrier coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blades and vanes of gas turbine engines, turbine shrouds and combus- tor cans. These coatings increase (TBCs) by gas tunnel-type plasma spraying exhibited ceramic-composite features consisting of a host measurements across the coating thickness. A one-dimensional series heat transfer model was developed

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

433

Method and apparatus for decreased undesired particle emissions in gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a process for removing undesired particles from a gas stream including the steps of contacting a composition containing an adhesive with the gas stream; collecting the undesired particles and adhesive on a collection surface to form an aggregate comprising the adhesive and undesired particles on the collection surface; and removing the agglomerate from the collection zone. The composition may then be atomized and injected into the gas stream. The composition may include a liquid that vaporizes in the gas stream. After the liquid vaporizes, adhesive particles are entrained in the gas stream. The process may be applied to electrostatic precipitators and filtration systems to improve undesired particle collection efficiency. 5 figs.

Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Ebner, T.G.; Stewart, R.M.; Bustard, C.J.

1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

434

High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Theory of Two-Magnon Raman Scattering in Iron Pnictides and Chalcogenides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although the parent iron-based pnictides and chalcogenides are itinerant antiferromagnets, the use of local moment picture to understand their magnetic properties is still widespread. We study magnetic Raman scattering from a local moment perspective for various quantum spin models proposed for this new class of superconductors. These models vary greatly in the level of magnetic frustration and show a vastly different two-magnon Raman response. Light scattering by two-magnon excitations thus provides a robust and independent measure of the underlying spin interactions. In accord with other recent experiments, our results indicate that the amount of magnetic frustration in these systems may be small.

Chen, C. C.

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

Enhancement of photoluminescence and raman scattering in one-dimensional photonic crystals based on porous silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In porous-silicon-based multilayered structures that exhibit the properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals, an increase in the photoluminescence and Raman scattering intensities is observed upon optical excitation at the wavelength 1.064 {mu}m. When the excitation wavelength falls within the edge of the photonic band gap of the structures, a multiple increase (by a factor larger than 400) in the efficiency of Raman scattering is detected. The effect is attributed to partial localization of excitation light and, correspondingly, to the much longer time of interaction of light with the material in the structures.

Gonchar, K. A., E-mail: k.a.gonchar@gmail.com [Moscow State University, Physics Faculty (Russian Federation); Musabek, G. K.; Taurbayev, T. I. [Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Physics Department (Kazakhstan); Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Moscow State University, Physics Faculty (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Manipulation of the Raman process via incoherent pump, tunable intensity, and phase control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Manipulation of the Raman process via incoherent pump, tunable intensity, and phase control Li-Gang Wang,1,2,3 Sajid Qamar,1 Shi-Yao Zhu,1,2,3 and M. Suhail Zubairy1,4,5 1Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology..., Texas 77845, USA 5Texas A&M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Education City, Doha, Qatar #1;Received 14 May 2007; published 18 March 2008#2; We present a proposal to manipulate the Raman process via incoherent pump, tunable intensity, and phase...

Wang, Li-Gang; Qamar, Sajid; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman microspectroscopy using spectral focusing with glass dispersion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate experimentally that coherent anti-Stokes Raman microspectroscopy with high spectral resolution is achieved using femtosecond laser pulses chirped up to a few picoseconds by glass elements of known group-velocity dispersion without significant intensity losses. By simply choosing the length of the glass, the chirp of Stokes and pump pulses is tailored to obtain a spectral resolution given by the Fourier limit of the chirped pulse duration. We show that for chirped pulse durations shorter than or comparable to the Raman coherence time, maximum signal occurs for a pump arriving after the Stokes pulse, a time-ordering effect confirmed by numerical simulations.

Rocha-Mendoza, Israel; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola [School of Biosciences and School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3US (United Kingdom)

2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

439

Role of noise operators on two-photon correlations in an extended coherent Raman medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of noise operators on two-photon correlations in an extended coherent Raman medium C. H. Raymond Ooi1,2,3,4,* and M. Suhail Zubairy3,5 1Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 Korea 2Max... & Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544, USA 5Texas A&M University at Qatar, Education City, P.O. Box 23874, Doha, Qatar #1;Received 8 January 2007; published 29 May 2007#2; An extended medium driven in a double Raman configuration...

Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Zubairy, M. Suhail.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

382 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2004 Effect of a Raman Co-Pump's RIN on the BER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

382 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 22, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2004 Effect of a Raman Co-Pump's RIN from a Raman co-pump, on the bit-error rate (BER). We show that a given amount of the transferred RIN spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, than erbium amplifiers. The backward-pumping scheme, where the Raman pump

Lakoba, Taras I.

442

Paper-based ultracapacitors with carbon nanotubes-graphene composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a paper-based ultracapacitors were fabricated by the rod-rolling method with the ink of carbon nanomaterials, which were synthesized by arc discharge under various magnetic conditions. Composites of carbon nanostructures, including high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene flakes were synthesized simultaneously in a magnetically enhanced arc. These two nanostructures have promising electrical properties and synergistic effects in the application of ultracapacitors. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the properties of carbon nanostructures and their thin films. The sheet resistance of the SWCNT and composite thin films was also evaluated by four-point probe from room temperature to the cryogenic temperature as low as 90?K. In addition, measurements of cyclic voltammetery and galvanostatic charging/discharging showed the ultracapacitor based on composites possessed a superior specific capacitance of up to 100?F/g, which is around three times higher than the ultracapacitor entirely fabricated with SWCNT.

Li, Jian, E-mail: lijian@gwu.edu, E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Brand, Cameron; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael, E-mail: lijian@gwu.edu, E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Sun, Jianwei; Reeves, Mark [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

443

Ceramic-silicide composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The area of ceramic-silicide composites represents a merging of structural ceramics and structural silicides. Such ceramic-silicide composites can possess the desirable characteristics of both classes of compounds. Important structural ceramics are materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZrO{sub 2}, which possess covalent, ionic, or mixed covalent-ionic atomic bonding. An important structural silicide is MoSi{sub 2}, which possesses mixed covalent-metallic bonding. The arena of ceramic-silicide composites encompasses both composites where the structural silicide is the matrix and the structural ceramic is the reinforcement, and composites where the structural ceramic is the matrix and the structural silicide is the reinforcement. In the former area, MoSi{sub 2}-SiC, MoSi{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, and MoSi{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites are discussed. In the latter area, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-MoSi{sub 2} composites are described.

Petrovic, J.J.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Short courses in Composite Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short courses in Composite Materials Overview The ability to tailor the material properties used. Combining the adaptability of composites with clear weight savings, whilst tailoring materials properties Airbus and Glyndr University, the Advanced Composites Training and Development Centre educates current

Davies, John N.

445

Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasproduction and carbon sequestration, Society of Petroleumfeasibiilty of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Flue gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

448

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

1988-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

449

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

452

Hard metal composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, H.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

453

Hard metal composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Composite Dirac Neutrinos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a mechanism that naturally produces light Dirac neutrinos. The basic idea is that the right-handed neutrinos are composite. Any realistic composite model must involve `hidden flavor' chiral symmetries. In general some of these symmetries may survive confinement, and in particular, one of them manifests itself at low energy as an exact $B-L$ symmetry. Dirac neutrinos are therefore produced. The neutrinos are naturally light due to compositeness. In general, sterile states are present in the model, some of them can naturally be warm dark matter candidates.

Yuval Grossman; Dean J Robinson

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

455

Flexible composite radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross E. (Los Alamos, NM); Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Orler, Edward B. (Los Alamos, NM)

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

456

Hybrid matrix fiber composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Novel concepts in weld metal science: Role of gradients and composite structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of compositional and microstructural gradients on weld metal properties are being investigated. Crack propagation is solidified alloy structures is being characterized as to solidification orientation and the profile of the compositional variations. The effects of compositional gradients, are considered based on a thermodynamic analysis, referred to as the Cahn-Hillard analysis, which describes the degree to which a local surface energy is modified by the presence of a compositional gradient. The analysis predicts that both ductile and brittle fracture mechanisms are enhanced by the presence of a composition gradient. Special techniques to produce laboratory samples with microstructures which simulate the composition and microstructure gradients in solidified weld metal are used, along with appropriate mathematical models, to evaluate the properties of the composite weld metals. The composite modeling techniques are being applied to describe the effects of compositional and microstructural gradients on weld metal properties in Ni-Cu alloys. The development of metal matrix composition weld deposits on austenitic stainless steels has been studied. The particulate metal matrix composites were produced with ceramic or refractory metal powder filled cored wire, which was gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc welded.

Matlock, D.K.; Olson, D.L.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests being conducted by Westinghouse at Foster-Wheeler's Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFBC) test facility in Karhula, Finland. Task 5 was designed to demonstrate the improvements implemented in Task 4 by fabricating fifty 1.5-meter hot gas filters. These filters were to be made available for DOE-sponsored field trials at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), operated by Southern Company Services in Wilsonville, Alabama.

E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

459

Gas shielding apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

Brandt, D.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

460

Composition for detecting uranyl  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to an indicator composition for use in spectrophotometric detection of a substance in a solution, and a method for making the composition. Useful indicators are sensitive to the particular substance being measured, but are unaffected by the fluid and other chemical species that may be present in the fluid. Optical indicators are used to measure the uranium concentration of process solutions in facilities for extracting uranium from ores, production of nuclear fuels, and reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The composition comprises an organohalide covalently bonded to an indicator for the substance, in such a manner that the product is itself an indicator that provides increased spectral resolution for detecting the substance. The indicator is preferably arsenazo III and the organohalide is preferably cyanuric chloride. These form a composition that is ideally suited for detecting uranyl.

Baylor, L.C.; Stephens, S.M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Lightweight polymer concrete composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lightweight polymer concrete composites have been developed with excellent insulating properties. The composites consist of lightweight aggregates such as expanded perlites, multicellular glass nodules, or hollow alumina silicate microspheres bound together with unsaturated polyester or epoxy resins. These composites, known as Insulating Polymer Concrete (IPC), have thermal conductivites from 0.09 to 0.19 Btu/h-ft-/sup 0/F. Compressive strengths, dependent upon the aggregates used, range from 1000 to 6000 psi. These materials can be precast or cast-in-place on concrete substrates. Recently, it has been demonstrated that these materials can also be sprayed onto concrete and other substrates. An overlay application of IPC is currently under way as dike insulation at an LNG storage tank facility. The composites have numerous potentials in the construction industry such as insulating building blocks or prefabricated insulating wall panels.

Fontana, J.J.; Steinberg, M.; Reams, W.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Composite zeolite membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoporous layered silicate AMH-3/cellulose acetate nanocomposite membranes for gas separations Wun 20 March 2013 Available online 9 April 2013 Keywords: Layered silicates AMH-3 Composite membrane Exfoliation Interface CO2 separation a b s t r a c t Nanoporous layered silicate/polymer composite membranes

Nair, Sankar

464

Detection and quantitative analysis of chemical species in Hanford tank materials using Raman spectroscopy technology: FY94, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a summary of work completed in FY-94 by FSU to develop and investigate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy with Hanford tank waste materials. Raman performance impacts from sample morphology, including the effects of absorption, particle size, density, color and refractive index, are discussed. An algorithm for relative species concentration measurement from Raman data is presented. An Algorithm for applying Raman to tank waste core screening is presented and discussed. A library of absorption and Raman spectra are presented that support this work.

Vickers, T.J.; Mann, C. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

465

Multifracture of ceramic composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents a mechanistic model for the multifracture process of uniaxially reinforced fibrous ceramic composites under monotonically increasing tension parallel to the fiber direction. The model employs an energy criterion to account for the progression of matrix cracks, bridged by intact fibers, and Weibull failure statistics to relate the failure of the fibers. Consideration is given to the interactions between the foregoing failure processes as well as to the effects of various material parameters on the response of the composite.

Weitsman, Y.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Zhu, H. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Agouti polypeptide compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are methods and compositions comprising novel agouti polypeptides and the polynucleotides which encode them. Also disclosed are DNA segments encoding these proteins derived from human and murine cell lines, and the use of these polynucleotides and polypeptides in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Methods, compositions, kits, and devices are also provided for identifying compounds which are inhibitors of agouti activity, and for altering fatty acid synthetase activity and intracellular calcium levels in transformed cells.

Woychik, Richard P. (Orinda, CA); Bultman, Scott J. (Lakewood, OH); Michaud, Edward J. (Kingston, TN)

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

467

Polyarylether composition and membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition including a polyarylether copolymer is provided. The copolymer includes a polyarylether backbone; and a sulfonated oligomeric group bonded to the polyarylether suitable for use as a cation conducting membrane. Method of bonding a sulfonated oligomeric group to the polyarylether backbone to form a polyarylether copolymer. The membrane may be formed from the polyarylether copolymer composition. The chain length of the sulfonated oligomeric group may be controlled to affect or control the ion conductivity of the membrane.

Hung, Joyce (Auburn, AL); Brunelle, Daniel Joseph (Burnt Hills, NY); Harmon, Marianne Elisabeth (Redondo Beach, CA); Moore, David Roger (Albany, NY); Stone, Joshua James (Worcester, NY); Zhou, Hongyi (Niskayuna, NY); Suriano, Joseph Anthony (Clifton Park, NY)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

468

Composite desiccant structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite formed of small desiccant particles retained in a dark matrix composed of a porous binder containing a transition metal oxide with pores to provide moisture transport with respect to the particles, and metallic fibers to remove the heat of condensation during dehumidification and provide heat for the removal of moisture during regeneration. The moisture absorbing properties of the composite may be regenerated by exposure of the dark matrix to solar radiation with dehumidification occurring at night.

Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorn Woods, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Composite desiccant structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This patent discloses a composite formed of small desiccant particles retained in a dark matrix composed of a porous binder containing a transition metal oxide with pores to provide moisture transport with respect to the particles, and metallic fibers to remove the heat of condensation during dehumidification and provide heat for the removal of moisture during regeneration. The moisture absorbing properties of the composite may be regenerated by exposure of the dark matrix to solar radiation with dehumidification occurring at night.

Fraioli, A.V.; Schertz, W.W.

1984-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

470

Quantitative concentration measurements of creatinine dissolved in water and urine using Raman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the lack of suitable materials with refractive indices lower that of water (n 1.33). Recently, howeverQuantitative concentration measurements of creatinine dissolved in water and urine using Raman in water and in urine. At short integration times, where shot noise is most troublesome, the enhanced

Berger, Andrew J.

471

Development of the Mars microbeam Raman spectrometer (MMRS) Alian Wang,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mineralogy in a planetary exploration. INDEX TERMS: 3672 Mineralogy and Petrology: Planetary mineralogy and petrology (5410); 3694 Mineralogy and Petrology: Instruments and techniques; 3994 Mineral Physics: Raman spectroscopy, Mars in-situ mineralogy, Planetary on-surface mineral identification, Water on Mars

472

Murchison presolar carbon grains of different density fractions: A Raman spectroscopic perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for inorganic sp2 -bonded carbon. Based on their D/G intensity ratios, those grains were grouped.1), "glassy carbon" (D/G > 1.1), and "unusual sp2 -bonded graphitic car- bon" (with extremely intense 2ndMurchison presolar carbon grains of different density fractions: A Raman spectroscopic perspective

473

Excitonic effects of photoluminescence and resonance Raman intensity of single wall carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Excitonic effects of photoluminescence and resonance Raman intensity of single wall carbon been widely used for the optical characterization of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) since the intensity and energy of PL and RRS depend on the diameter and chirality of SWNTs. The optical absorption

Maruyama, Shigeo

474

INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES C.V.RamanAvenue,Sadashivanagar,Bangalore560080.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES C.V.RamanAvenue,Sadashivanagar,Bangalore560080. Indian Academy of the Academy consist of publication of scientific journals, election of Fellows, organizing scientific meetings, initiatives such as promoting science education,etc. The Academy is looking for a suitable person to fill

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

475

Indian Academy of Sciences C V Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Indian Academy of Sciences C V Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080 No. : IASc/ /13 System' The Indian Academy of Sciences is in need of `Multi-point Video Conference System: The Purchase In-charge, Indian Academy of Sciences latest by 30th December 2013 by 15:00 PM. Technical

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

476

Raman spectroscopy on surfacted ferrofluids in a magnetic field J. E. Weber,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a magnetic excitation with an intensity growing in proportion to the magnetization of the ferrofluid becomes of counteracting in- teractions. On one hand, thermal motion and electrostatic or surfactant-mediated repulsion scatter- ing in general and Raman spectroscopy in particular are a very powerful and sensitive tool

Nabben, Reinhard

477

BARANIDHARAN (BARANI) RAMAN, B.Eng., M.S., Ph.D. Brauer Hall, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and M. Stopfer, "Temporally diverse firing patterns in olfactory receptor neurons underlie spatio microsensors," IEEE Sensors, Special Issue on Sensors for Breath Analysis, Vol. 10, pp. 137-144, January 2010. Raman, and M. Stopfer, "Frequency transitions in odor- evoked neural oscillations," Neuron, Vol. 64, pp

Raman, Barani

478

Raman and conductivity studies of boron doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

superconductivity at temperatures polycrystalline boron-doped CVD diamond filmsRaman and conductivity studies of boron doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond and cauliflower diamond films P.W. May a,*, W.J. Ludlow a , M. Hannaway a , P.J. Heard b , J

Bristol, University of

479

Raman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films grown by Hot Filament CVD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H4 flow-rate ratio of standard polycrystalline diamond deposition parameters on formationRaman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films grown by Hot Filament CVD of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia b,c Diamond Research Laboratory, School

Bristol, University of

480

Journal of Crystal Growth 288 (2006) 5356 Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a waveguide with a core consisting of GaAs/AlAs short superlattice (SSL) structure using quantum well spectroscopy measurements, where Raman spectra were collected at different depths of the SSL through probing the SSL layer cross-section. SSL-related phonon states were clearly observed for the lower part of the SSL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "raman gas composition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

hal-00276997,version1-5May2008 Raman spectra of misoriented bilayer graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hal-00276997,version1-5May2008 Raman spectra of misoriented bilayer graphene P. Poncharal1 , A layer graphene with a bilayer in which the two layers are arbitrarily misoriented. The profiles of the 2 of the electronic structures of single layer graphene and misoriented bilayer graphene. Another new aspect

482

Quasitransient backward Raman amplification of powerful laser pulses in dense plasmas with multicharged ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are found. The calculation, applicable to infrared, ultraviolet, soft x-ray, and x-ray laser pulses, takes technique is also applicable to shorter wavelength laser pulses including x-ray pulses for which CPA cannotQuasitransient backward Raman amplification of powerful laser pulses in dense plasmas

483

Raman spectra of out-of-plane phonons in bilayer graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The double resonance Raman spectra of the overtone of the out-of-plane tangential optical (oTO) phonon and of combinations of the LO, ZO, and ZA phonons with one another are calculated for bilayer graphene. In the case of ...

Sato, Kentaro

484

Saturation of the Raman amplification by self-phase modulation in silicon nanowaveguides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of short pulses in order to project and optimize the performance of future silicon-based data processing to a regime in which sensitivity to FCA is strongly reduced.7-10 However, depending on the pulse energy-off Raman gain is measured in terms of the pump intensity and shows a clear saturation that is attributed

485

Homogeneous Decomposition Mechanisms of Diethylzinc by Raman Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemical Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for direct reaction products in an inverted, impinging-jet test reactor coupled to a Raman spectrometer. The homogeneous thermal decomposition of DEZn in N2 carrier was followed in an impinging-jet, up-flow reactor vibrational frequencies of DEZn, as well as anticipated intermediates and products. Comparison of the measured

Anderson, Timothy J.

486

ROTATIONAL AND VIBRATIONAL RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY FOR FLOW FROM AN UNDEREXPANDED JET NOZZLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will be carried out using roational-vibrational Raman line imaging through the axis of the jet exhaust. In this way measurements of the flow field under high pressure, temperature, and velocity can be made without disrupting it. Because of the increasing push...

Bayeh, Alexander

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

487

THE RAMAN SPECTRUM OF MAGNESIUM FLUORIDE By R. S. KRISHNAN and R. S. KATIYAR,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

627. THE RAMAN SPECTRUM OF MAGNESIUM FLUORIDE By R. S. KRISHNAN and R. S. KATIYAR, Department, NOVEMBRE 1965, I Magnesium fluoride, which occurs in nature as the mineral sellaite, crystallizes spectrum of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) taken with a medium Quartz spectrograph. (b) Its microphotometer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

488

Spectroscopic Raman Nanometrology of Graphene and Graphene Multilayers on Arbitrary Substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectroscopic Raman Nanometrology of Graphene and Graphene Multilayers on Arbitrary Substrates I to be an effective tool for characterization of graphene and graphene multilayers on the standard Si/SiO2 (300 nm) substrates, which allows one to determine non-destructively the number of the graphene layers and assess

489

High-Sensitivity Raman Spectrometer To Study Pristine and Irradiated Interstellar Ice Analogs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to ionizing radiation which produces small quantities of new chemical species within the bulk of the icesHigh-Sensitivity Raman Spectrometer To Study Pristine and Irradiated Interstellar Ice Analogs Chris with low temperature ices relevant to the solar system and interstellar medium. The design is based

Kaiser, Ralf I.

490

Thermal metamorphism in the lesser Himalaya of Nepal determined from Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal metamorphism in the lesser Himalaya of Nepal determined from Raman spectroscopy of central and far-western Nepal, including data from near the MCT zone, where a comparison with conventional on the thermal evolution of the Himalaya in Nepal using the RSCM method. This emblematic geological setting

Avouac, Jean-Philippe

491

Numerical Procedure to Extract Physical Properties from Raman Scattering Data in a Flow Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in an up-flow cold-wall CVD reactor was monitored using in situ Raman spectroscopy. A two uncertainties by removing complicating phenomena or sim- plifying model development. An up-flow cold-wall CVD of the process would be useful, e.g., for optimizing an existing process or designing a new reactor. Accurate

Anderson, Timothy J.

492

Coded Aperture Raman Spectroscopy for Quantitative Measurements of Ethanol in a Tissue Phantom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- mard transform spectroscopy'' (HTS).9 Initially, HTS systems were designed to use multiplexing tissue phantom. With 60 mW of excitation power at 808 nm, leave-one-out and blind cross spectroscopy; Multiplexing; Chemometrics. INTRODUCTION Raman spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic tool

Pitsianis, Nikos P.

493

Developments in enzyme immobilization and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy with downstream renewable energy applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation focuses on techniques for (1) increasing ethanol yields from saccharification and fermentation of cellulose using immobilized cellulase, and (2) the characterization and classification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, and quantification of useful parameters such as the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) lignin monomer content using 1064 nm dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.

Lupoi, Jason [Ames Laboratory

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

494

Coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy system for point temperature and major species concentration measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy system (CARS) has been developed as a laser-based, advanced, combustion-diagnostic technique to measure temperature and major species concentration. Principles of operation, description of the system and its capabilities, and operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

Singh, J.P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Rotational and Vibrational Raman Spectroscopy for Thermochemistry Measurements in Supersonic Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the development of new line imaging diagnostics for thermochemistry measurements in high speed flows. A novel combination of vibrational and rotational Raman scattering is used to measure major species densities (O_2, N_2, CH_4, H_2O,CO_2, CO, & H_2...

Bayeh, Alexander C

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

496

Valve for gas centrifuges  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

Hahs, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burbage, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Thermodynamics of Chaplygin gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We clarify thermodynamics of the Chaplygin gas by introducing the integrability condition. All thermal quantities are derived as functions of either volume or temperature. Importantly, we find a new general equation of state, describing the Chaplygin gas completely. We confirm that the Chaplygin gas could show a unified picture of dark matter and energy which cools down through the universe expansion without any critical point (phase transition).

Yun Soo Myung

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

498

Ammonia synthesis gas purification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes the purification of a reformed gas mixture following water gas shift conversion to produce a purified ammonia synthesis gas stream. The improved processing sequence consisting essentially of: (A) Selectively catalytically oxidizing the residual carbon monoxide content of the gas mixture to carbon dioxide so as to reduce the carbon monoxide content of the gas mixture to less than about 20 ppm, the selective catalytic oxidation being carried out with an excess of air, with the excess oxygen being catalytically reacted with a small amount of hydrogen so that the residual oxygen level is reduced to less than about 3 ppm; (B) removing the bulk of the carbon dioxide content of the gas mixture by liquid absorption; (C) Removing residual amounts of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water by selective adsorption on the fixed beds of a thermal swing adsorption system, a dry, purified ammonia ammonia synthesis gas stream containing less than a total of 10 ppm of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide being recovered from the thermal swing adsorption system; (D) Passing the resulting dry, purified ammonia synthesis gas stream having a low content of methane to an ammonia production operation without intermediate passage of the ammonia synthesis gas stream to a methanation unit or to a cryogenic unit for removal of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide therefrom; whereby the efficiency of the overall purification operation and the effective utilization of hydrogen are enhanced.

Fuderer, A.

1986-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

499

Liquefied Natural Gas (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document adopts the standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association as rules for the transportation, storage, handling, and use of liquefied natural gas. The NFPA standards...

500

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z