National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for rain urban ozone

  1. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  2. Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Chang, Daniel P.Y.

    2007-01-01

    of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality.Natural gas (NG); Hydrogen pathways; Ozone formation; Ozone air quality

  3. Formaldehyde columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: Urban versus background levels and evaluation using aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mlllet, Dylan B.

    Formaldehyde columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: Urban versus background levels formaldehyde column (WHCHO) retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and assess the information (20­200 km) near many urban areas. Citation: Boeke, N. L., et al. (2011), Formaldehyde columns from

  4. URBAN OZONE CONCENTRATION FORECASTING WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK IN CORSICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Perceptron; Ozone concentration. 1. Introduction Tropospheric ozone is a major air pollution problem, both, Ajaccio, France, e-mail: balu@univ-corse.fr Abstract: Atmospheric pollutants concentration forecasting is an important issue in air quality monitoring. Qualitair Corse, the organization responsible for monitoring air

  5. Ozone photochemical production in urban Shanghai, China: Analysis based on ground level observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    of aerosols on surface ozone concentration in Tianjin,W. P. L. (1994), Development of ozone reactivity scales forand M. M. Fox (1953), Ozone formation in photochemical

  6. Ozone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observations and implications for evaluating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3 to a wide span of NOx and VOC emission changes. Properly constrained and well-evaluated modelsOzone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observations and implications for evaluating O3-NOx-VOC sensitivity Rahul A. Zaveri,1 Carl M. Berkowitz,1

  7. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; de Foy, B.; Lamsal, L. N.; Duncan, B. N.; Xing, J.

    2015-05-28

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with windmore »speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., -1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.« less

  8. Observations of the Temperature Dependent Response of Ozone to NOx Reductions in an Urban Plume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFranchi, B W; Goldstein, A H; Cohen, R C

    2011-01-25

    Observations of NO{sub x} in the Sacramento, CA region show that mixing ratios decreased by 30% between 2001 and 2008. Here we use an observation-based method to quantify net ozone production rates in the outflow from the Sacramento metropolitan region and examine the O{sub 3} decrease resulting from reductions in NO{sub x} emissions. This observational method does not rely on assumptions about detailed chemistry of ozone production, rather it is an independent means to verify and test these assumptions. We use an instantaneous steady-state model as well as a detailed 1-D plume model to aid in interpretation of the ozone production inferred from observations. In agreement with the models, the observations show that early in the plume, the NO{sub x} dependence for O{sub x} (O{sub x} = O{sub 3}+NO{sub 2}) production is strongly coupled with temperature, suggesting that temperature dependent biogenic VOC emissions can drive O{sub x} production between NO{sub x}-limited and NO{sub x}-suppressed regimes. As a result, NO{sub x} reductions were found to be most effective at higher temperatures over the 7 year period. We show that violations of the California 1-hour O{sub 3} standard (90 ppb) in the region have been decreasing linearly with decreases in NO{sub x} (at a given temperature) and predict that reductions of NO{sub x} concentrations (and presumably emissions) by an additional 30% (relative to 2007 levels) will eliminate violations of the state 1 hour standard in the region. If current trends continue, a 30% decrease in NO{sub x} is expected by 2012, and an end to violations of the 1 hour standard in the Sacramento region appears to be imminent.

  9. Emissions of nitrogen oxides from US urban areas: estimation from Ozone Monitoring Instrument retrievals for 2005-2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Streets, D. G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); de Foy, B. [Saint Louis Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)] (ORCID:0000000341509922); Lamsal, L. N. [Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research, Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Duncan, B. N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Xing, J. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can provide valuable information for estimating surface nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. Using an exponentially-modified Gaussian (EMG) method and taking into account the effect of wind on observed NO2 distributions, we estimate three-year moving-average emissions of summertime NOx from 35 US urban areas directly from NO2 retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005–2014. Following the conclusions of previous studies that the EMG method provides robust and accurate emission estimates under strong-wind conditions, we derive top-down NOx emissions from each urban area by applying the EMG method to OMI data with wind speeds greater than 3–5 m s-1. Meanwhile, we find that OMI NO2 observations under weak-wind conditions (i.e., < 3 m s-1) are qualitatively better correlated with the surface NOx source strength in comparison to all-wind OMI maps; and therefore we use them to calculate the satellite-observed NO2 burdens of urban areas and compare with NOx emission estimates. The EMG results show that OMI-derived NOx emissions are highly correlated (R > 0.93) with weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens as well as bottom-up NOx emission estimates over 35 urban areas, implying a linear response of the OMI observations to surface emissions under weak-wind conditions. The simultaneous, EMG-obtained, effective NO2 lifetimes (~3.5 ± 1.3 h), however, are biased low in comparison to the summertime NO2 chemical lifetimes. In general, isolated urban areas with NOx emission intensities greater than ~ 2 Mg h-1 produce statistically significant weak-wind signals in three-year average OMI data. From 2005 to 2014, we estimate that total OMI-derived NOx emissions over all selected US urban areas decreased by 49%, consistent with reductions of 43, 47, 49, and 44% in the total bottom-up NOx emissions, the sum of weak-wind OMI NO2 columns, the total weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and the averaged NO2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting the success of NOx control programs for both mobile sources and power plants. The decrease rates of these NOx-related quantities are found to be faster (i.e., -6.8 to -9.3% yr-1) before 2010 and slower (i.e., -3.4 to -4.9% yr-1) after 2010. For individual urban areas, we calculate the R values of pair-wise trends among the OMI-derived and bottom-up NOx emissions, the weak-wind OMI NO2 burdens, and ground-based NO2 measurements; and high correlations are found for all urban areas (median R = 0.8), particularly large ones (R up to 0.97). The results of the current work indicate that using the EMG method and considering the wind effect, the OMI data allow for the estimation of NOx emissions from urban areas and the direct constraint of emission trends with reasonable accuracy.

  10. The Acid Rain Program: What it Means to Mountain Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    ://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrends.html #12;5 Title IV - Acid Rain Program · Power Sector Cap & Emission Trading Program for SO2 · 8) & Emission Trading ­ Title V ­ Permits ­ Title VI ­ Stratospheric Ozone 1http) · Environmental Monitoring #12;6 Recent Programs · NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP) 2000 · Ozone season NOx Cap

  11. Impacts of weather conditions modified by urban expansion on surface ozone: Comparison between the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    model: Impact on urban heat island simulation for anof characteristics of urban heat island and boundary layer1999). In YRD, three urban heat island centers also showed a

  12. Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Urban Form and Air Pollution in US Urban Areas! Center for Transportation Studies Research of Minnesota Grant No. 0853467 #12;Air Pollution Impacts on Health 2 EPA, 2010 Ozone PM2.5 PM10 Lead Nitrogen #12;Purpose and Research Questions 4 Purpose: Explore relationship between air pollution and urban

  13. Rain sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, D.A.; Tomich, S.D.; Glover, D.W.; Allen, E.V.; Hales, J.M.; Dana, M.T.

    1991-05-14

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of the precipitation from the chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device. 11 figures.

  14. Rain sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Danny A. (Richland, WA); Tomich, Stanley D. (Richland, WA); Glover, Donald W. (Prosser, WA); Allen, Errol V. (Benton City, WA); Hales, Jeremy M. (Kennewick, WA); Dana, Marshall T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of said precipitation from said chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device.

  15. West Texas Rain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    Commission, Culberson County Underground Water District and county officials to install a 2,500-gallon rainwater harvesting tank at the Culberson County Courthouse. West Texas Rain Rainwater harvesting demonstration sites save water and money (Above... Left) One of the three rainwater harvesting demonstrations is located at the Culberson County Courthouse in Van Horn. This 2,500-gallon tank has been installed to catch and store the rainwater. (Above Right) Landscape irrigation using the harvested...

  16. Controlling acid rain : policy issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

  17. Stratospheric variability and tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juno; Prather, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Global and zonal total ozone variations estimated fromon multidecadal total ozone simulations, J. Geophys. Res. ,and J. A. Logan (2007), Ozone climatolo- gical profiles for

  18. Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances., Reader, M. C. and Jonsson, A. I. (2010) Quantifying the contributions to stratospheric ozone changes from ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10. pp. 8803

  19. Urban Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01

    property taxation regional economics residential segregationexternalities urban economics urban production externalitiesproperty taxation regional economics residential segregation

  20. The Ozone Hole Some perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    The Ozone Hole · Some perspective · The British Antarctic Survey · The "Ozone Hole" · International of the predicted ozone losses! This was quite a controversy. Ultimately, ozone losses started appearing in the late 1980s (see Figure below), but by then, there was already a credibility issue for ozone scientists. #12

  1. Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    1 Lecture 17 Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends ATOC/CHEM 5151 #12;2 Importance of midlatitude ozone · Covers most of the world's populated areas · Provides protection from UV #12;3 Ozone loss picture, c. 1988 #12;4 Lower vs. Upper stratosphere #12;5 Ozone loss, post 1988 · Discovery of ozone hole

  2. Optical Rain Gauge and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Comparisons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996TechnologiesDistribution, and FilmRain Gauge and

  3. Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment: Algorithm description and validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment October 2005. [1] Ozone profiles are derived from back scattered radiance spectra in the ultraviolet (289­339 nm) measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) using the optimal estimation technique

  4. 6, 74277469, 2006 Linear ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 7427­7469, 2006 Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Evaluation of linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  5. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  6. Tropospheric ozone over the North Pacific from ozonesonde observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongyu

    of urban air pollution. At sites in the mid and eastern Pacific the signature of transport of polluted air, Tsukuba, and Sapporo, Japan), a site in the central Pacific (Hilo, Hawaii), and a site on the west coast very high mixing ratios of ozone were observed that result from pollution transport from China

  7. Rain, Rain, Don't Go Away Taking a 360-Degree View of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    Rain, Rain, Don't Go Away Taking a 360-Degree View of Water The Science of Photography National Flood Studies Field Campaign ­ 6 Taking a 360-Degree View of Water ­ 8 From GLOBE Star Student to GLOBE

  8. The Exposure-Response Curve for Ozone and Risk of Mortality and the Adequacy of Current Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    and applied several statistical models to data on air pollution, weather, and mortality for 98 U.S. urban mortality. Interventions to further reduce ozone pollution would benefit public health, even in regions pollutant linked to numerous harmful health effects, including reduced lung function, increased frequency

  9. The Effect of Rain on ERS Scatterometer Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    measurements in rainy conditions [1] [2]. In a raining area, rain striking the water surface creates splashThe Effect of Rain on ERS Scatterometer Measurements Congling Nie and David G. Long Department evidence of rain surface per- turbation in recent studies of surface radar backscatter, the rain effects

  10. Validation of operational ozone profiles from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Validation of operational ozone profiles from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument M. Kroon,1 J. F. de we present the validation results of the operational vertical ozone profiles retrieved from the nadir observations by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura

  11. NARSTO OZONE ASSESSMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vi NARSTO OZONE ASSESSMENT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Prepared as a NARSTO initiative, this tropospheric O3 in the accompanying Textbox, the NARSTO Ozone Assessment contains two product components. The first of these is a set aspects of tropospheric ozone pollution. The second component, the NARSTO Ozone Assessment Document

  12. Urban Pollution Control Strategies Reading: pages 422-437

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC 3500 Urban Pollution Control Strategies Reading: pages 422-437 Details to come #12;#12;Urban Pollution Control Strategies What we know so far: · Different regions have different issues, but two types, warm, NOx, HCs, ozone, CO) · Pollution is made worse by meteorological conditions called "inversions

  13. Artificial ozone holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Dolya

    2014-10-18

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  14. Long range transport of acid rain precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A model of the long range transport of primary and secondary pollutants derived by Fay and Rosenzweig (1) is applied to the problem of the transport of acid rain precursors. The model describes the long term average (annual ...

  15. Stratospheric variability and tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juno; Prather, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    models include a nearly complete set of chemical species and reactions that affect ozone, but are costly to Earth System

  16. 5, 59575985, 2005 European ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 5957­5985, 2005 European ozone trends J. E. Jonson et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction explain the trends in European ozone levels? J. E. Jonson 1 , D. Simpson 1 , H. Fagerli 1 , and S. Solberg License. 5957 #12;ACPD 5, 5957­5985, 2005 European ozone trends J. E. Jonson et al. Title Page Abstract

  17. 6, 56715709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 5671­5709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone variability indices T. Erbertseder et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Hemispheric ozone variability indices derived from satellite observations.erbertseder@dlr.de) 5671 #12;ACPD 6, 5671­5709, 2006 Hemispheric ozone variability indices T. Erbertseder et al. Title Page

  18. 4, 32853332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 3285­3332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone over Equatorial Africa B. Sauvage et al. Title Page and Physics Discussions Tropospheric ozone over Equatorial Africa: regional aspects from the MOZAIC data B Correspondence to: B. Sauvage (saub@aero.obs-mip.fr) 3285 #12;ACPD 4, 3285­3332, 2004 Tropospheric ozone over

  19. 2, 339356, 2002 Surface ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 2, 339­356, 2002 Surface ozone depletion episodes D. W. Tarasick and J. W. Bottenheim Title ozone depletion episodes in the Arctic and Antarctic from historical ozonesonde records D. W. Tarasick.tarasick@ec.gc.ca) 339 #12;ACPD 2, 339­356, 2002 Surface ozone depletion episodes D. W. Tarasick and J. W. Bottenheim

  20. 5, 38113845, 2005 Antarctic ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 5, 3811­3845, 2005 Antarctic ozone depletion indicators G. E. Bodeker et al. Title Page Discussions Indicators of Antarctic ozone depletion G. E. Bodeker 1 , H. Shiona 1 , and H. Eskes 2 1 National Commons License. 3811 #12;ACPD 5, 3811­3845, 2005 Antarctic ozone depletion indicators G. E. Bodeker et al

  1. Assimilation of Aura ozone data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assimilation of Aura ozone data I. Stajner, H. Hayashi, K. Wargan, L.-P. Chang, and S. Pawson Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) NASA/Goddard AGU Fall meeting December 2004 #12;2 Ozone assimilation at GMAO · Total ozone columns and stratospheric profiles from SBUV/2 instrument are assimilated

  2. 2, 921942, 2002 Global ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone forecasting H. J. Eskes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Geophysical Society 2002 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Global ozone forecasting based on ERS-2 July 2002 Correspondence to: H. J. Eskes (eskes@knmi.nl) 921 #12;ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone

  3. 6, 51375162, 2006 Oceanic ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 5137­5162, 2006 Oceanic ozone deposition velocity C. W. Fairall et al. Title Page Abstract Discussions Water-side turbulence enhancement of ozone deposition to the ocean C. W. Fairall1 , D. Helmig2 , L. Fairall (chris.fairall@noaa.gov) 5137 #12;ACPD 6, 5137­5162, 2006 Oceanic ozone deposition velocity C. W

  4. Ozone decomposition in water solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hewes, Cecil Grayson

    1969-01-01

    OF LITERATUR 1V Vi ~ V111 III ~ EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM AND ITS OPERATION 14 IV. DISCUSS10N OF RESULTS AND COiJCLUSION. . . 24 i~JOMENCLATUHE. BIBLIOGRAPIFY APPENDIX I. WASTE WATER REGENERATION BY OZONATION. II. AMINE REMOVAL BY OZONATION...ATER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIII. REACTION RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE D'COMPOSITION OF OZONE IN INTER SOLUTIONS OF pH 8. XIV COD REMOVAL BY OZONE XV. OZONIZATION OF MATER CONTAINIiNG RESIDUAL AMINE. 57 60 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. FIOW DIAGRAM OF THZ...

  5. Urbanizing terrains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romanos, Christoforos

    2008-01-01

    Urban "sprawl"in the East Attica area of Athens has dramatically changed the former rural economy in a manner consistent with the urbanizing terrain's underlying properties: agricultural subdivisions, existing centres, ...

  6. Ozone decomposing filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L. (Dublin, CA)

    1999-01-01

    In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

  7. Projections of Future Summertime Ozone over the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfister, G. G.; Walters, Stacy; Lamarque, J. F.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barth, Mary; Wong, John; Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy

    2014-05-05

    This study uses a regional fully coupled chemistry-transport model to assess changes in surface ozone over the summertime U.S. between present and a 2050 future time period at high spatial resolution (12 km grid spacing) under the SRES A2 climate and RCP8.5 anthropogenic pre-cursor emission scenario. The impact of predicted changes in climate and global background ozone is estimated to increase surface ozone over most of the U.S; the 5th - 95th percentile range for daily 8-hour maximum surface ozone increases from 31-79 ppbV to 30-87 ppbV between the present and future time periods. The analysis of a set of meteorological drivers suggests that these mostly will add to increasing ozone, but the set of simulations conducted does not allow to separate this effect from that through enhanced global background ozone. Statistically the most robust positive feedbacks are through increased temperature, biogenic emissions and solar radiation. Stringent emission controls can counteract these feedbacks and if considered, we estimate large reductions in surface ozone with the 5th-95th percentile reduced to 27-55 ppbV. A comparison of the high-resolution projections to global model projections shows that even though the global model is biased high in surface ozone compared to the regional model and compared to observations, both the global and the regional model predict similar changes in ozone between the present and future time periods. However, on smaller spatial scales, the regional predictions show more pronounced changes between urban and rural regimes that cannot be resolved at the coarse resolution of global model. In addition, the sign of the changes in overall ozone mixing ratios can be different between the global and the regional predictions in certain regions, such as the Western U.S. This study confirms the key role of emission control strategies in future air quality predictions and demonstrates the need for considering degradation of air quality with future climate change in emission policy making. It also illustrates the need for high resolution modeling when the objective is to address regional and local air quality or establish links to human health and society.

  8. Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models. (2010) Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models Chemistry and Physics Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery

  9. Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S.

    1995-08-18

    Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew. MJ

    2009-12-01

    The Distromet disdrometer model RD-80 and NovaLynx tipping bucket rain gauge model 260-2500E-12 are two devices deployed a few meters apart to measure the character and amount of liquid precipitation. The main purpose of the disdrometer is to measure drop size distribution, which it does over 20 size classes from 0.3 mm to 5.4 mm. The data from both instruments can be used to determine rain rate. The disdrometer results can also be used to infer several properties including drop number density, radar reflectivity, liquid water content, and energy flux. Two coefficients, N0 and ?, from an exponential fit between drop diameter and drop number density, are routinely calculated. Data are collected once a minute. The instruments make completely different kinds of measurements. Rain that falls on the disdrometer sensor moves a plunger on a vertical axis. The disdrometer transforms the plunger motion into electrical impulses whose strength is proportional to drop diameter. The rain gauge is the conventional tipping bucket type. Each tip collects an amount equivalent to 0.01 in. of water, and each tip is counted by a data acquisition system anchored by a Campbell CR1000 data logger.

  11. Solving the Tulsa ozone problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, K.K. [Atmospheric Information Systems, Norman, OK (United States); Wilson, J.D. [Wilson Consulting Group, Tulsa, OK (United States); Gibeau, E. [Aeromet Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.

  12. Why we started a Volunteer Rain Gauge Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    in their backyards #12;4-inch diameter High capacity rain gauges Aluminum foil-wrapped Styrofoam hail pads Snow

  13. Sediment detachment by rain power Emmanuel J. Gabet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabet, Emmanuel "Manny"

    , washload, kinematic wave Citation: Gabet, E. J., and T. Dunne, Sediment detachment by rain power, Water, detaching soil particles and displacing water. We use the term, rain power, to describe the rate at whichSediment detachment by rain power Emmanuel J. Gabet Department of Geological Sciences, University

  14. Berry Brook Watershed 2011 Rain Barrel Sale for Dover Residents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Allowing rain water to soak into the soil decreases stormwater runoff and helps recharge your groundwaterBerry Brook Watershed 2011 Rain Barrel Sale for Dover Residents Order Online: www Road Dover, NH 03824 Final day to ORDER: Orders must reach SkyJuice by June 18 Pick up your Rain Barrel

  15. 6, 66276694, 2006 linearized ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 6627­6694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions CHEM2D-OPP: A new linearized gas-phase ozone photochemistry.mccormack@nrl.navy.mil) 6627 #12;ACPD 6, 6627­6694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al

  16. Roofing as a Contributor to Urban Runoff Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 Roofing as a Contributor to Urban Runoff Pollution Shirley E. Clark, Ph.D., P.E.Shirley E. Clark at: http://www.eng.ua.edu/~rpitt Map courtesy of U.S. Geological Website on Acid Rain #12;2 Roof Dissolved: 35 Not givenRusty galvanized roof roof (plywood

  17. Heavy rains hamper Louisiana gas line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, C.

    1983-06-01

    Despite heavy rains and flooding a 36-mile gas pipeline loop for Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp. was completed from north of Starks (at the end of Transco's south Louisiana lateral) to the Lake Charles area. Somastic-coated, 42-in. grade X-60 pipe comprises 90% of the route. The contract included multiple 30-42 in. fabrications, installation of six 42-in. gate valves, and expansion of the Gillis compressor station.

  18. Ozone production and hydrocarbon reactivity in Hong Kong, Southern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Middleton, P. , and Wang, T. : Ozone precursor relationshipsJ. Zhang et al. : Ozone production and hydrocarbonKiang, C. S. : Ground- level ozone pollution in Hong Kong,

  19. Oceanic alkyl nitrates as a natural source of tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neu, Jessica L; Lawler, Michael J; Prather, Michael J; Saltzman, Eric S

    2008-01-01

    Chemical transport model ozone simulations for spring 2001ozonesondes, and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer columns,behaviour of tropospheric ozone precursors in a global 3-D

  20. Global tropospheric ozone modeling: Quantifying errors due to grid resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wild, Oliver; Prather, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    by and influencing ozone in unpolluted tropospheric air,R. C. , et al. (2004), Ozone production in transpacificplumes and implications for ozone air quality in California,

  1. Rain Machine (Solar Still) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7,DOE HDBK-1113-2008 April 2008 DOE98Rain Machine (Solar

  2. Jack Rains | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing theActivation byIs aItemPolarTool andJack Rains

  3. Reactive nitrogen, ozone and ozone production in the Arctic troposphere and the impact of stratosphere-troposphere exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Part I: NO x , PAN and Ozone Relationships, J. Atmos.Bromine measurements in ozone depleted air over the Arcticto springtime tropospheric ozone maxima using TOPSE measure-

  4. Urban ideograms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luarasi, Skender, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    This thesis offers the concept of Urban Ideograms. It is developed and crystallized through a strategic gathering and selection of specific textual and contextual information from various sources, such as the drawings of ...

  5. Flexible urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anandam, Anahita

    2006-01-01

    This thesis seeks to find a new approach/method towards urbanization in existing low density neighborhoods in major metropolitan cities in the United States. The near South side of the city of Chicago (a city that carries ...

  6. GARDENSA RAIN GARDEN MANUAL FOR SOUTH CAROLINA As development increases, so

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    #12;Rain gardens should be located in an area to which rain water typically flows. If a depression a storm will produce more than 1 inch of rain in 24 hours, excess water should be able to leave the rain an overflow so that excess water from larger storms can be diverted out of the rain garden. To prevent

  7. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  8. Ozone Depletion: Part 2 Antarctic Ozone Hole: Each spring, the ozone layer thins over the poles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    via catalytic cycle: Under cold conditions, dimers ClO OCl form which are unstable in light. #3; Once concentration of ozone drops, reservoir reactions dominate and HCl and ClONO 2 reformed. #3; In antarctic spring

  9. Acid rain - A further look at the evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katzenstein, A.W.

    1986-03-01

    There is widespread belief that acid rain is damaging lakes and forests in eastern North America, and that the threat of further damage is severe enough to warrant prompt remedial action. The cause of acid rain, hence ecological damage, is popularly held to be the sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) created by the combustion of fossil fuels. This popular belief rests on a narrow selection of data, and is not substantiated by the broader body of knowledge which is available. Nevertheless, numerous bills have been introduced in Congress proposing large reductions in SO/sub 2/ emissions. For example, the first bill introduced in 1985 was S.52, ''The Acid Rain Control Act of 1985.'' It calls for reducing SO/sub 2/ emissions by 10 million tons annually. While the language of S.52 and similar bills is not specific on causes and effects of acid rain, the testimony before Congressional committees made it clear that the concerns focus on the actual or potential acidification of lakes and soils by acid rain, and actual or potential impacts of acid rain on fish, other aquatic life, trees, crops, and human health. This article assesses the merits of these contentions about acid rain by examining technical evidence that relates SO/sub 2/ emissions to the acidity of rain to actual or potential environmental impacts.

  10. Sulfur controls edge closer in acid-rain debate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-10-04

    The role of airborne sulfur emissions from midwestern and southern coal-fired power plants in exacerbating the acid rain problem is discussed. This problem is discussed from the standpoint of legislation, compliance costs, scrubber performance and cost, and chemistry of acid rains.

  11. Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements Congling Nie and David G on the ESCAT wind-only retrieval has been evaluated. For high incidence angle measurements, the additional scattering of rain causes estimated wind speeds to appear higher than expected. It is also noted

  12. Impact of organic nitrates on urban ozone production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    has focused on reducing vapor pressure – an action which hadgaso- line with higher vapor pressure fuels (e.g. ethanol)

  13. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Karl Kong, Pei Wen Lei, Yabo Li, Rain Yuan Rain Tian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that are currently used to collect food scraps at UBC are cleaned at the Composting Facility located at the south, Yabo Li, Rain Yuan Rain Tian AN INVETIGATION INTO ORGANIC WASTE BIN LINERS APSC 262 April 10, 2014 1036 Technology and Society Instructor Name: Paul Winkelman AN INVETIGATION INTO ORGANIC WASTE BIN LINERS

  14. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Stratospheric Ozone Destruction in the "Ozone Hole"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 Problem 15 Stratospheric Ozone Destruction in the "Ozone Hole" The figure below shows typical observations of the total amount of ozone in a layer of air 8 km thick between 12 and 20 km over the South Pole (recall that we like to express the `thickness of ozone

  15. N:\\redesign\\guides\\Ozone.doc 1 Materials found in the IIT Archives concerning "Ozone"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    N:\\redesign\\guides\\Ozone.doc 1 Materials found in the IIT Archives concerning "Ozone" Search done of Ozone by G. C. Carnahan and O. A. DeCelle; Chemical Engineering program, 1914 Call No. Thesis 543.2 C22 Press releases issued by Illinois Institute of Technology, 1940-1968 that include the word "ozone

  16. Climatology of UTLS ozone and the ratio of ozone and potential vorticity over northern Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkwood, Sheila

    Climatology of UTLS ozone and the ratio of ozone and potential vorticity over northern Europe T variations of ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region have been studied using of ozone exhibits a prominent annual cycle in the UTLS region. The observed change in the phase

  17. 7, 1009710129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACPD 7, 10097­10129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes 1 , R. M Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  18. 5, 243286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 243­286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone column content during SOLVE II J. M. Livingston et al and Physics Discussions Retrieval of ozone column content from airborne Sun photometer measurements during Aerospace Center), Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany 243 #12;ACPD 5, 243­286, 2005 Retrieval of ozone

  19. 4, 20552088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni et al and Physics Discussions Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni1 , P.bonasoni@isac.cnr.it) 2055 #12;ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni

  20. 6, 43254340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 4325­4340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and temperature C. Varotsos and D. Kirk-Davidoff Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Long-memory processes in global ozone and temperature variations C #12;ACPD 6, 4325­4340, 2006 Scaling in ozone and temperature C. Varotsos and D. Kirk-Davidoff Title

  1. 7, 22492274, 2007 Vertical ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean and Central Europe P. D a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Vertical ozone measurements (kalabokas pavlos@yahoo.gr) 2249 #12;ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean

  2. 8, 31433162, 2008 Total ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 3143­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Total column ozone variations over oceanic region around Indian sub­3162, 2008 Total ozone over oceanic regions M. C. R. Kalapureddy et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  3. 8, 50075060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 8, 5007­5060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone trends from g-b FTIR observations C. Vigouroux et al.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Evaluation of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 5007 #12;ACPD 8, 5007­5060, 2008 Evaluation of ozone

  4. 8, 49114947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss processes B. Vogel et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions Model simulations of stratospheric ozone loss caused by enhanced on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 4911 #12;ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss

  5. 5, 1133111375, 2005 NH total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction On the possible causes of recent increases in NH total ozone from a statistical analysis of satellite data from License. 11331 #12;ACPD 5, 11331­11375, 2005 NH total ozone increase S. Dhomse et al. Title Page Abstract

  6. 6, 84578483, 2006 Low ozone over the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 8457­8483, 2006 Low ozone over the UK M. Keil et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions The January 2006 low ozone event over the UK M. Keil, D. R. Jackson, and M. C. Hort Met Office 2006 Correspondence to: M. Keil (mike.keil@metoffice.gov.uk) 8457 #12;ACPD 6, 8457­8483, 2006 Low ozone

  7. 5, 96419668, 2005 The origin of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 9641­9668, 2005 The origin of ozone V. Grewe Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions-5-9641 European Geosciences Union Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions The origin of ozone V. Grewe The origin of ozone V. Grewe Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  8. 6, 39133943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 3913­3943, 2006 Svalbard total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Re-evaluation of the 1950­1962 total ozone record from Longyearbyen, Svalbard C. Vogler 1 , S. Br total ozone C. Vogler et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back

  9. 3, 187223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 3, 187­223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone anomaly X. Liu et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Geosciences Union 2003 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Occurrence of ozone anomalies over cloudy 2003 Correspondence to: X. Liu (xliu@nsstc.uah.edu) 187 #12;ACPD 3, 187­223, 2003 TOMS cloudy ozone

  10. 3, 10811107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 3, 1081­1107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone changes in a 3D CTM M. P. Chipperfield Title Page-dimensional model study of long-term mid-high latitude lower stratosphere ozone changes M. P. Chipperfield School­1107, 2003 Mid-latitude ozone changes in a 3D CTM M. P. Chipperfield Title Page Abstract Introduction

  11. 4, 21672238, 2004 Ozone loss and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine activation in the Arctic winters 1991­2003 S Union 2004 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ozone loss and chlorine activation Correspondence to: S. Tilmes (simone.tilmes@t-online.de) 2167 #12;ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine

  12. Ozone: Integrating Structured and Semistructured Data ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abiteboul, Serge

    Ozone: Integrating Structured and Semistructured Data ? Tirthankar Lahiri 1 , Serge Abiteboul 2 language, and we implement our extensions in a system called Ozone. In our approach, structured data may full knowledge of structure. Ozone also enhances both ODMG/OQL and OEM/Lorel by virtue

  13. Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies Article Published Version Fioletov, V. E. and Shepherd, T. G. (2003) Seasonal persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies. Geophysical Research persistence of midlatitude total ozone anomalies Vitali E. Fioletov Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto

  14. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  15. Research and Extension Education Capabilities AgriLife Urban Solutions Center and associated County Extension Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extension Programs Water Management for Urban Landscapes · Lawn and landscape water conservation · Irrigation system design and management · Rainwater harvesting, rain gardens, porous pavements, green roofs, and wetlands · In-home water conservation · Use of SWAT, APEX, and other hydrologic and water quality models

  16. International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction November 27~29, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2nd International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction November 27~29, 2007 * Corresponding. They would stand steadily during normal weather conditions including wind, rain, and water flow. They would to debris flow monitoring. WSNs are small electronic systems that can contain various types of sensors

  17. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, Kolby; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J.; Martin, Scot T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  18. A study of the effect of ozone and antioxidants on ozone-sensitive loblolly pine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posey, Karen Lashea

    1995-01-01

    Ozone, a phytotoxic air pollutant, is formed from photochemical reactions of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the troposphere. Ozone is taken into the plant through the stomata, and quickly broken down into hydroxyl radicals. These hydroxyl...

  19. Improving ozone profile retrieval from spaceborne UV backscatter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Chapter 2 Improving ozone profile retrieval from spaceborne UV backscatter spectrometers using convergence behaviour diagnostics Abstract The Ozone Profile Algorithm (OPERA), developed at KNMI, retrieves the vertical ozone distribution from nadir spectral satellite measurements of back scattered sunlight

  20. oZONE Faculty and Staff Enrolling Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Enrolling Students Log in to ozone.ou.edu. Click the Advising tab. Please lecture schedule CRN ­ Course Reference Number In oZONE the Registration Add Errors will display one

  1. Controls over ozone deposition to a high elevation subalpine forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turnipseed, AA; Burns, SP; Moore, DJP; Hu, J; Guenther, AB; Monson, RK

    2009-01-01

    D.L. , Fehsenfeld, F.C. , 1986b. Background ozone andanthropogenic ozone enhancement at Niwot Ridge, Colorado.Day-time variations of ozone eddy ?uxes to maize. Boundary-

  2. Ozone Removal by Filters Containing Activated Carbon: A Pilot Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William

    2012-01-01

    carbon filters for the control of ozone, sulfur dioxide, andMendell (2008). "Outdoor ozone and building-related symptomsAir filter materials, outdoor ozone and building-related

  3. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-01-01

    particles produced by ozone/limonene reactions in indoor airgas-phase reactions of ozone with organic compounds underNazaroff, W.W. , 2008. Ozone levels in passenger cabins of

  4. Ozone Standard Exceedance Days in the South San Joaquin Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan de Leeuw; Shuojun Wang

    2011-01-01

    about the health e?ects of ozone. CES is looking at many8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS F????? 2. Bakers?eld8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS Time F????? 4. Shafter

  5. Ozone Standard Exceedance Days in the South San Joaquin Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Leeuw, Jan; Wang, Shuojun

    2007-01-01

    about the health e?ects of ozone. CES is looking at many8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS F????? 2. Bakers?eld8h national std. days OZONE STANDARDS Time F????? 4. Shafter

  6. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakatsuka, Suguru (Amagasaki, JP)

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  7. 5, 58415874, 2005 Ozone/tracer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 5, 5841­5874, 2005 Ozone/tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller et al. Title Page Discussions Impact of mixing and chemical change on ozone-tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller 1 Commons License. 5841 #12;ACPD 5, 5841­5874, 2005 Ozone/tracer relations in the polar vortex R. M¨uller et

  8. 17 October 2014 Antarctic Ozone Bulletin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    17 October 2014 Antarctic Ozone Bulletin No 4/2014 Global Atmosphere Watch 0 5 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 Ushuaia 2014-10-10 Total ozone = 180 DU 14-21 km column = 39 DU 12-20 km column = 53 DU Ozone Temperature ECMWF analysis of PV at 475 K on 2014-10-10 at 12h -65.0 -59.5 -54.0 -48

  9. A fast stratospheric ozone chemistry schemeA fast stratospheric ozone chemistry scheme Michel Bourqui1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourqui, Michel

    A fast stratospheric ozone chemistry schemeA fast stratospheric ozone chemistry scheme Michel a computationally efficient chemical scheme, the FAst STratospheric Ozone Chemistry (FASTOC) scheme, which has advantages over many existing fast methods, as it does not rely on relaxation to assumed conditions, does

  10. Tropospheric Ozone Pollution and Personal Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ://www.nctcog.org/trans/air/ozone/formation.gif #12;Health Effects · Chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and congestion · Wheezing and difficulty

  11. The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    iii ABSTRACT The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination with other instruments tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) can be derived. In this study, the trajectory

  12. DOE's Studies of Weekday/Weekend Ozone Pollution in Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California 2002 DEER Conference Presentation:...

  13. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-01-01

    to determine deposition velocity, reaction probability, orOzone level, deposition velocity, reaction probability wereOzone level, deposition velocity, reaction probability were

  14. The Weekend Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications WeekendWeekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend Ozone Pollution in Southern California...

  15. Heavy pollution suppresses light rain in China: observations and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gong, Daoyi; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai R.; Bennartz, Ralph; Chen, Deliang; Wang, Weiguo

    2009-08-15

    Long-term observational data reveal that both the frequency and amount of light rain have decreased in eastern China (EC) for 1956-2005 with high spatial coherency. This is different from the trend of total rainfall observed in EC, which decreases in northern EC and increases in southern EC. To examine the cause of the light rain trends, we analyzed the long-term variability of atmospheric water vapor and its correlation with light rain events. Results show very weak relationships between large-scale moisture transport and light rain in EC. This suggests that light rain trend in EC is not driven by large-scale circulation changes. Because of human activities, pollutant emission has increased dramatically in China for the last few decades, leading to significant reductions in visibility between 1960 and 2000. Cloud-resolving model simulations show that aerosols corresponding to heavily polluted conditions can significantly increase the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and reduce droplet sizes compared to pristine conditions. This can lead to a significant decline in raindrop concentration and delay raindrop formation because smaller cloud droplets are less efficient in the collision and coalescence processes. Together with weaker convection, the precipitation frequency and amount are significantly reduced in the polluted case. Satellite data also reveal higher CDNC and smaller droplet size over polluted land in EC relative to pristine regions, which is consistent with the model results. This evidence suggests that the significantly increased aerosol particles produced by air pollution are at least partly responsible for the decreased light rain events observed in China over the past fifty years.

  16. Atmospheric deposition of ^Be by rain events, in central Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Atmospheric deposition of ^Be by rain events, in central Argentina Juri Ayub, J. , Di Gregorio, B Aplicada San Luis. UniversidadNacional de San Luis - CONICET. Ejercito de los Andes 950. Argentina. 2 Buenos Aires, Argentina 3. Escuela de Cienciay Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin. Martin de

  17. Water and Energy Savings, and Carbon Emission Reductions From Rain Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Water and Energy Savings, and Carbon Emission Reductions From Rain Water Harvesting, Combined Heat Infrastructure Ecology Decentralized Water Resource Development: Low Impact Development (LID) Decentralized Energy Production: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Policies for Adoption of Rain Water Harvesting

  18. Speeding up Ozone Profile Retrieval using Machine Learning Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Michael

    Speeding up Ozone Profile Retrieval using Machine Learning Techniques L.M. Strijbosch April 25 to the process of ozone profile retrieval, a method for retrieving a global ozone distribution from satellite Machines are selected to replace the forward model, which is the slowest part of ozone profile retrieval

  19. Effects of stratospheretroposphere chemistry coupling on tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of stratospheretroposphere chemistry coupling on tropospheric ozone Wenshou Tian,1,2 Martyn in both the troposphere and stratosphere. The modeled total column ozone agrees well with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer observations. Modeled ozone profiles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

  20. Atmospheric ozone and colors of the Antarctic twilight sky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Raymond L.

    Atmospheric ozone and colors of the Antarctic twilight sky Raymond L. Lee, Jr.,1, * Wolfgang Meyer absorption at longer wavelengths by ozone's Chappuis bands. Because stratospheric ozone is greatly depleted correlations between ozone concentration and twilight colors. We also used a spectroradiometer at a midlatitude

  1. Part III Research Project Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    Part III Research Project Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone Observed by Data Assimilation Stratosphere-Troposphere exchange of ozone at tropopause folds is an important process in the atmosphere. Reconstruction of the evolution of ozone at a tropopause fold by conventional means requires synoptic ozone

  2. Tropospheric Ozone Satellite Retrievals in the Pacific Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Tropospheric Ozone Satellite Retrievals in the Pacific Northwest Jacqueline Costello1, Farren: Tropospheric ozone is difficult to retrieve from satellites because of the abundance of ozone in the stratosphere. Tropospheric ozone has become a significant environmental issue and can be exacerbated by UT

  3. Ozone Depletion 2. O 3 generation and depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Ozone Depletion Outline: 1. O 3 , O 2 evolution 2. O 3 generation and depletion 3. Antarctic ozone 2 converted to ozone via: O 2 h#23; ! 2O #3; O #3; +O 2 ! O 3 + heat #15; O 3 absorbs near #21;#1;l #15; Decreasing l increases transmittance Imagine all ozone in atmosphere forming a thin layer

  4. Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. )

    1991-03-01

    An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

  5. Ozone Climatologies Figure 1: Ozone climatology for control run in kg/m(a), percentage change in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    Ozone Climatologies (a) (b) (c) Figure 1: Ozone climatology for control run in kg/m³(a), percentage change in ozone for the perturbed runs; tropopause region (b), whole stratosphere (c). Determining the impact of lower stratospheric ozone depletion on Southern Hemisphere climate Sarah P.E. Keeley and Nathan

  6. Effects of 20002050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy-relevant background surface ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shiliang

    Effects of 2000­2050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy-relevant background surface ozone in the United States Shiliang Wu,1 Loretta J. Mickley,1 Daniel J. Jacob,1 David Rind) on the global tropospheric ozone budget and on the policy-relevant background (PRB) ozone in the United States

  7. Observations of Precipitation Size and Fall Speed Characteristics within Coexisting Rain and Wet Snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuter, Sandra

    Snow SANDRA E. YUTER Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State are compared among samples obtained in mixed precipitation (rain and wet snow) and rain in the Oregon Cascade Mountains and in dry snow in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Coexisting rain and snow particles

  8. Photometric Model of a Rain Drop Kshitiz Garg and Shree K. Nayar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nayar, Shree K.

    conditions such as haze and fog, rain drops are large and visible to the naked eye. Each drop refracts and photometric models show that each rain drop behaves like a wide-angle lens that redirects light from a large of rain is highly complex. Unlike the particles that cause other weather conditions such as haze and fog

  9. Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds Mahen Konwar,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds Mahen Konwar,1 R. S. Maheskumar,1 J. R effective radius (re) increased with distance above cloud base (D). Warm rain became detectable, i.e., rain water content >0.01 g/Kg, at the tops of growing convective clouds when re exceeded 12 mm. The re

  10. Rain-induced subsurface airflow and Lisse effect Haipeng Guo,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    is low, and the maximum water-level rise is less than the maximum air pressure induced by rain and the water table depth. Citation: Guo, H., J. J. Jiao, and E. P. Weeks (2008), Rain-induced subsurface] Water table fluctuation may induce subsurface airflow [Jiao and Li, 2004] and airflow caused by rain

  11. RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION Brent A. Williams method for estimating wind and rain in hurricanes from SeaWinds at ultra-high resolution is developed. We use a hurricane model to generate prior distributions for the wind speed, wind di- rection, and rain

  12. An iterative process for international negociations on acid rain in Northern Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toint, Philippe

    An iterative process for international negociations on acid rain in Northern Europe using a general 138.48.4.14) #12; An iterative process for international negotiations on acid rain in Northern Europe transboundary pollution problem related to acid rain in Northern Europe. This simulation shows the need

  13. Microarray-based analysis of survival of soil microbial community during ozonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    3 ] in Ozonation time (h) Ozone BTC TSEM content was used to1. Ozone breakthrough curve (BTC) and TSEM removal during

  14. Exposure to Particulate Matter and Ozone of Outdoor Origin in Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Chen, Ailu; Chang, Victor; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    ulate matter (PM) or ozone, at concentration increments of ~SL, Samet JM, Dominici F. Ozone and short-term mortality inthe penetration of ambient ozone into residential buildings.

  15. LARGE MULTICONFIGURATION SELF-CONSISTENT-FIELD WAVEFUNCTIONS FOR THE OZONE MOLECULE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer III., Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    theory comparable to that employed here for ozone. HoweverB (cyclopentadiyl) > B (ozone) > B (methylene), based onfor the its state of ozone near geometry. Coefficients of

  16. Modeling Ozone Removal to Indoor Materials, Including the Effects of Porosity, Pore Diameter, and Thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Corsi, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    of healthy young volunteers to ozone causes cardiovasculareffects of five common ozone-initiated terpene reactiondecay rates, and removal of ozone and their relation to

  17. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    2008. Learning about ozone depletion. Climatic Change 89(1–and Physics of Stratospheric Ozone. San Diego, CA: AcademicPhotochemical behavior of the ozone layer. Report Number

  18. oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades Exporting/Importing Grades in oZONE The new - Log in to ozone.ou.edu using your OU Net ID (4+4) as you would in any other OU system. Click Importing Grades from a Exported oZONE template If you exported a course template from the oZONE grading

  19. Building an urban image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russin, Andrew J

    1992-01-01

    This design project explores the principles of "urban legibility" and "shared space". The readability, or imageability (in Kevin Lynch's term) of a city results from the recognition of larger urban patterns, organizations, ...

  20. A General Systems Theory for Rain Formation in Warm Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-15

    A cumulus cloud model which can explain the observed characteristics of warm rain formation in monsoon clouds is presented. The model is based on classical statistical physical concepts and satisfies the principle of maximum entropy production. Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations that are ubiquitous to all dynamical systems in nature, such as physical, chemical, social, etc and are characterized by inverse power law form for power (eddy energy) spectrum signifying long-range space-time correlations. A general systems theory model for atmospheric flows developed by the author is based on the concept that the large eddy energy is the integrated mean of enclosed turbulent (small scale) eddies. This model gives scale-free universal governing equations for cloud growth processes. The model predicted cloud parameters are in agreement with reported observations, in particular, the cloud dropsize distribution. Rain formation can occur in warm clouds within 30minutes lifetime under favourable conditions of moisture supply in the environment.

  1. Cometary panspermia explains the red rain of Kerala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godfrey Louis; A. Santhosh Kumar

    2003-10-05

    Red coloured rain occurred in many places of Kerala in India during July to September 2001 due to the mixing of huge quantity of microscopic red cells in the rainwater. Considering its correlation with a meteor airbust event, this phenomenon raised an extraordinary question whether the cells are extraterrestrial. Here we show how the observed features of the red rain phenomenon can be explained by considering the fragmentation and atmospheric disintegration of a fragile cometary body that presumably contains a dense collection of red cells. Slow settling of cells in the stratosphere explains the continuation of the phenomenon for two months. The red cells under study appear to be the resting spores of an extremophilic microorganism. Possible presence of these cells in the interstellar clouds is speculated from its similarity in UV absorption with the 217.5 nm UV extinction feature of interstellar clouds.

  2. 1984 issues: gas decontrol, energy tax, acid rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betts, M.

    1983-12-01

    Energy analysts predict that Congress will propose a limited natural gas deregulation bill, an energy tax to offset budget deficits, and acid rain legislation that will focus on scrubber requirements for boilers. Politics will play an important role in whether legislation materializes since Democrats generally favor federal conservation programs and Republicans want to speed up deregulation. The November election will indicate which direction Congress will lean. (DCK)

  3. Rains County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/WaterEnergy Marketing Corp Jump to: navigation,Rainier,Rains

  4. 5, 90039038, 2005 Ozone in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that extensive forest fires on the Iberian Peninsula, resulting from the drought and heat, contributed to the peak ozone values observed in15 North Europe in August. Additionally, forest fires in Siberia probably

  5. Ozone determination in different copying centers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Chen-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Photocopying machines have been in existence for forty years: however, few people recognize their potential to create a human health hazard by ozone emission. This study was designed to determine the photocopier's emission rate and evaluate tile...

  6. Summer rain pulse size and rainwater uptake by three dominant desert plants in a desertified grassland ecosystem in northwestern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water sources derived from small (rain events, A. ordosia took advantage of deeper soil waterSummer rain pulse size and rainwater uptake by three dominant desert plants in a desertified composition, Rain pulse size, Summer precipitation Abstract To examine the different effects of rain pulse

  7. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3 degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant

  8. Light rain events change over North America, Europe and Asia for 1973-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gong, Daoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2010-10-28

    Long-term daily precipitation data from NCDC are used to investigate the changes of light rain events from 1973-2009 over North America, Europe and Asia. Results reveal that the trend of light rain events presents a remarkably diverse feature in different regions, while an overall decrease trend can be found over the continents in northern hemisphere. In North America, most of stations show a decrease trend for light rain on the annual basis but a decrease trend can also be found for moderate and heavy rain. The opposite trends are observed over the stations in Europe and the trend of light rain is not significant when averaged for all the stations. In Asia, especially East Asia, the light rain days show an overwhelming decrease trend with high spatial coherency. Meanwhile the moderate and heavy rain events (> 10 mm/day) have increased, suggesting a remarkable shift of precipitation from light to heavy rain in East Asia. While both the warming at a global scale and increased atmospheric aerosols due to air pollution at a regional scale (e.g. East Asia) may have affected the light rain changes, it remains a challenging task to quantitatively detect and separate the cause of light rain changes in different regions. ?

  9. Concentration of ozone in surface air over greater Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widen, Donald Allen

    1966-01-01

    Surface ozone concentrations were measured in the Greater Boston area from November, 1964 to December, 1965. Ozone was monitored continuosly using a Mast microcoulombmetric sensor. A chromium trioxide filter was fitted to ...

  10. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  11. What is Ozone? Ozone (O3) is a molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen (O), and is mostly found in the strato-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What is Ozone? Ozone (O3) is a molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen (O), and is mostly found it represents only a tiny fraction of the atmosphere, ozone is crucial for life on Earth. Ozone--acts as a shield to protect Earth's surface from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. With- out ozone, the Sun

  12. Ozone uptake by citrus trees exposed to a range of ozone concentrations Silvano Fares a,b,*, Jeong-Hoo Park a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Ozone uptake by citrus trees exposed to a range of ozone concentrations Silvano Fares a,b,*, Jeong Received in revised form 26 May 2010 Accepted 2 June 2010 Keywords: Ozone fluxes Citrus Tropospheric ozone climates. In the summer, orchards in California experience high levels of tropospheric ozone, formed

  13. Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnow Your PowerWeatherize »Rain or Shine:

  14. Automated Rain Sampler for Real time pH and Conductivity Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weerasinghe, R; Jayananda, M K; Sonnadara, D U J

    2015-01-01

    To monitor the acidity of rain water in real time, a rain water sampling system was developed. The rain sampler detects the initial rain after a dry spell and collects a water sample. Before performing the measurements, the pH probe is calibrated using a standard buffer solution whereas the conductivity probe is calibrated using deionized water. After calibrating the probes the pH and the conductivity of the collected rain water sample are measured using the pH and the conductivity probe. Weather parameters such as air temperature, humidity and pressure are also recorded simultaneously. The pH and conductivity measurement data including weather parameters are transmitted to central station using a GSM modem for further analysis. The collected rain water sample is preserved at the remote monitoring station for post chemical analysis. A programmable logic controller controls the entire process.

  15. Seasonal ozone variations in the upper mesosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, R.J. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1990-05-20

    The global daytime ozone was measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite (SME) for 5 years. The measurements extend through the mesosphere, covering from 50 km to over 90 km. The ozone in the upper mesosphere varies annually by up to a factor of 3. The observed seasonal variations may be summarized in several different ways. From year to year there is a great deal of repeatability of these variations. This repeatability occurs in most of the upper mesosphere outside the tropics. Near 0.01 mbar (80 km) the mid- and high-latitude mixing ratio peaks each year in mid-April. A secondary maximum in the altitude profile of ozone density usually occurs near 85 km. Changes in this structure are directly related to the April maximum and other seasonal changes seen at 0.01 mbar. The changing seasonal structure produces a bump at the ozone mixing ratio minimum that is largest just after spring equinox. This perturbation to the mixing ratio profile seems to move upward during the first half of the year. The seasonal changes of ozone were analyzed in terms of annual and semiannual structure. The variations generally have both an annual and semiannual component depending on altitude and latitude. The phases of the variations change quickly with both altitude and latitude. The semiannual component peaks in April, over most of the upper mesosphere.

  16. With Chest Waders, Hip Boots, Or Rain Gear R. O. Parker Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in addition to the boots and rain gear (fig. 1). FEET FIRST When you fall feet first into the water, airWith Chest Waders, Hip Boots, Or Rain Gear R. O. Parker Jr. Neither chest wade rs, hip boots, nor rain ge a r will cause you to drown if you don't panic . Wade rs, the m ost dreaded of the thre e, can

  17. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  18. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 19982000 tropical ozone climatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998­2000 tropical ozone climatology 2; published 31 January 2003. [1] The first view of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone variability in the Southern Hemisphere tropics is provided by a 3-year record of ozone soundings from the Southern Hemisphere

  19. Ozone climatology using interactive chemistry: results from the Canadian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Ozone climatology using interactive chemistry: results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model., Medvedev, A. S. and Shepherd, T. G. (2000) Ozone climatology using interactive chemistry: results from RESEARCH, VOL. 105,NO. D21, PAGES 26,475-26,491,NOVEMBER 16, 2000 Ozone climatology using interactive

  20. Chemistry climate model simulations of1 spring Antarctic ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Chemistry climate model simulations of1 spring Antarctic ozone Article Published Version Austin, J. (2010) Chemistry climate model simulations of spring Antarctic1 ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research ozone John Austin,1,2 H. Struthers,3 J. Scinocca,4 D. A. Plummer,5 H. Akiyoshi,6 A. J. G. Baumgaertner,7

  1. Assigning vibrational polyads using relative equilibria. Application to ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadovskií, Dmitrií

    Assigning vibrational polyads using relative equilibria. Application to ozone I. N. Kozin a,1 , D equilibria. We use the ozone molecule as a concrete example where n­polyads or ``hyperpolyads'' should structure of the vibrational levels of ozone. We consider the classical mechanical analogue

  2. Using transport diagnostics to understand chemistry climate model ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Using transport diagnostics to understand chemistry climate model ozone simulations Article chemistry climate model ozone simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 116 (D17). D17302 transport diagnostics to understand chemistry climate model ozone simulations S. E. Strahan,1 A. R. Douglass

  3. A comparison study of data assimilation algorithms for ozone forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    A comparison study of data assimilation algorithms for ozone forecasts Lin Wu,1,2 V. Mallet,1,2 M assimilation schemes with the aim of designing suitable assimilation algorithms for short- range ozone but stable systems with high uncertainties (e.g., over 20% for ozone daily peaks (Hanna et al., 1998; Mallet

  4. On the statistical modeling of persistence in total ozone anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    On the statistical modeling of persistence in total ozone anomalies Article Published Version in total ozone anomalies. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115. D16306. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2009JD the statistical modeling of persistence in total ozone anomalies D. I. Vyushin,1 T. G. Shepherd,1 and V. E

  5. Ozone Chemistry in the High-Latitude Boundary Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Ozone Chemistry in the High-Latitude Boundary Layer Linnea Avallone Department of Atmospheric layer ozone loss phenomenon · In situ observations of BrO at Arctic sites · Preliminary results from Antarctic experiments in 2002 and 2004 #12;Brief History · Springtime ozone loss observed at many sites

  6. Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    Effectiveness of Houseplants in Reducing the Indoor Air Pollutant Ozone Heather L. Papinchak1 , E for their species effectiveness in reducing ozone concentrations in a simulated indoor environment. Continuously supply system were used to simulate an indoor environment in which ozone concentrations could be measured

  7. Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer Received: 12 January 2007 ozone depletion has been much studied as a case history in the interaction between environmental science the photochemistry of ozone in order to illustrate how scientific learning has the potential to mislead policy makers

  8. A global picture of the seasonal persistence of stratospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    A global picture of the seasonal persistence of stratospheric ozone anomalies Article Published persistence of stratospheric ozone anomalies. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115. D18119. ISSN 0148-0227 doi global picture of the seasonal persistence of stratospheric ozone anomalies S. Tegtmeier,1,2 V. E

  9. Ozone Treatments of Fresh Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone Treatments of Fresh Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua ELINOR M. RAVESI, JOSEPH J. L1CCIARDELLO and LINDA D. RACICOT Introduction The strong oxidizing nature of ozone, known since its discovery in 1840 (1977) cited in a review article numerous reports of the successful use of ozone to I) control microbial

  10. Relative importance of radical families The "Ozone Hole"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    · Relative importance of radical families · The "Ozone Hole" · Introduction to heterogeneous chemistry Tuesday, March 8, 2011 #12;Review of important points so far Stratospheric ozone is only produced with these parameters Sir Sydney Chapman nearly got it right. He could account for the formation of the ozone layer

  11. oZONE Faculty and Staff Course Overrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Course Overrides and the Registration Add Errors They Resolve Departments of the overrides within the registration component of oZONE. We have, however, retained a few instances where some. There is also a link to this document on the Student Training and Instructions page in the oZONE info site

  12. Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Quantum origin of an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation D. Babikov *, B.K. Kendrick, R mechanical calculations of the ðJ ¼ 0Þ energies and lifetimes of the metastable states of ozone on a new effect in the reaction that forms ozone because of their role in the energy transfer mechanism, in which

  13. The Ozone Layer in the 21st Lead Authors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    CHAPTER 6 The Ozone Layer in the 21st Century Lead Authors: G.E. Bodeker D.W. Waugh Coauthors: H;#12;CHAPTER 6 THE OZONE LAYER IN THE 21ST CENTURY Contents SCIENTIFIC SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 6.2 A FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATING CHANGES IN OZONE ABUNDANCES

  14. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 19982004 tropical ozone climatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998­2004 tropical ozone climatology: 3 more than 3000 ozone profiles from 14 tropical and subtropical sites using balloon- borne technique might cause small station-to-station biases in the total ozone measurement. We present further

  15. Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes Article Published Version Fioletov, V. E. and Shepherd, T. G. (2005) Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar's research outputs online #12;Summertime total ozone variations over middle and polar latitudes Vitali E

  16. Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated threedimensional model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wuhu

    Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated three­dimensional model study Chipperfield winter­spring chemical ozone loss from 1991 2003, its observed correlation with low temperatures. CTM throughout studied. The model reproduces large column winters also captures shape of ozone loss profile

  17. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 19982000 tropical ozone climatology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998­2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements Anne M. Thompson,1 Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - 16.0855_Raines Draft Rev 4

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Management Update Project Management Update Bob Raines Director, Project Management Systems and Assessments * Everybody's Favorite Subject Cost Estimating * Cost Estimating * EVMS...

  19. Public Transport and Sustainable Urbanism: Global Lesson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Public Transport and Sustainable Urbanism: Global Lessonsviable and sustainable form of urbanism. Notes J. Kenworthy

  20. Alternative Fuels, Vehicle Technologies and Urban Logistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witt, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    Technologies and Urban Logistics Policy Note prepared byvehicle technologies, urban logistics, and VMT reduction. It

  1. Acid rain control strategists overlook dust removal benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    Various strategies for controlling acid rain by reducing SO{sub 2} from existing utilities have failed to take into account the incidental particulate removal abilities of SO{sub 2} scrubbers. This has resulted in over-estimating the costs of acid rain control by 25% or more. This oversight has also caused utilities to invest in preliminary engineering of precipitator upgrades which will never have to be made if scrubbers are installed. While it seems inexplicable that a factor of this importance could have been overlooked by the industry, it is because of the unique situation in old U.S. utility power plants. These plants have relatively inefficient particulate control equipment which is not subject to new source performance standards. New power plants incorporate highly efficient particulate control devices so the ability of the downstream scrubbers to remove dust is irrelevant. The very small amount of particulate entering the scrubber from a highly efficient precipitator could be offset by escaping sulfate particles from a poorly operated scrubber. So an informal guideline was established to indicate that the scrubber had no overall effect on particulate emissions. The industry has generalized upon this guideline when, in fact, it only applies to new plants. The McIlvaine Company in its FGD Knowledge Network has thoroughly documented evidence that SO{sub 2} scrubbers will remove as much as 95% of the particulate being emitted from the relatively low efficiency precipitators operating on the nations existing coal-fired power plants.

  2. Structuring institutional analysis for urban ecosystems: A key to sustainable urban forest management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Tom

    Structuring institutional analysis for urban ecosystems: A key to sustainable urban forest in urban settings with a specific focus on sustainable urban forest management. We conclude that urban management . Urban forest policy. Institutional analysis . Ecosystem services . Public goods . Sustainability

  3. Urban Scaling in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography, and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the for...

  4. Urban Retrofit: A Whole-Watershed Approach to Urban Stormwater Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithander, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Creek  Watershed:  Urban  Stormwater  Management  Opportuni?Creek  Watershed:  Urban  Stormwater  Management  Opportuni?Creek  Watershed:  Urban  Stormwater  Management  Opportuni?

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 45, NO. 3, MARCH 2007 621 A C-Band Wind/Rain Backscatter Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    signature is altered by rain. Rain striking the water creates splash products including rings, stalksIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 45, NO. 3, MARCH 2007 621 A C-Band Wind/Rain--With the confirmed evidence of rain surface pertur- bation in recent studies, the rain effects on C

  6. The Effects of Gaseous Ozone and Nitric Acid Deposition on two Crustose Lichen Species From Joshua Tree National Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hessom, Elizabeth Curie

    2012-01-01

    photosynthetic rate responses to ozone in some foliose andof gaseous nitric acid and ozone on lichens. Dissertations &with nitric acid and ozone. Environmental Pollution, In

  7. Tropospheric column ozone: matching individual profiles from Aura OMI and TES with a chemistry-transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Q.; Prather, M. J

    2012-01-01

    Science Objectives of the Ozone Monitoring In- strument,G. J. , and Logan, J. A. : Ozone climatolog- ical profilestroposphere ex- change ozone flux related to deep

  8. Megacity impacts on regional ozone formation: observations and WRF-Chem modeling for the MIRAGE-Shanghai field campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Tie, X. : Analysis of ozone and VOCs measured in Shanghai: AMegacity impacts on regional ozone formation terminations inand Tie, X. : Study of ozone “weekend effect” in Shanghai,

  9. Ozone, water vapor, and temperature in the upper tropical troposphere: Variations over a decade of MOZAIC measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bortz, Sarah E; Prather, Michael J; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Thouret, Valérie; Smit, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An extension of the measurement of ozone and water vapour byin-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) ozone climatologies usingcomparison with SHADOZ ozone and MODIS aerosol, J. Geophys.

  10. On the infiltration of rain water through the soil with runo# of the excess water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasano, Antonio

    On the infiltration of rain water through the soil with runo# of the excess water Iacopo Borsi '' Viale Morgagni 67/A, 50134 Firenze, Italy Abstract This paper deals with the modelling of the rain water infiltration through the soil above the aquifer in case of runo# of the excess water. The main feature

  11. Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudd, Simon Marius

    Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets David Jon by raindrop impacts. We use high-speed imaging of drop impacts on dry sand to describe the drop (2007), Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets, J

  12. Seasonal controls on the exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    Seasonal controls on the exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest Lucy R. Hutyra,1 controls on the exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G03008 response to climate and weather. This study presents 4 years of eddy covariance data for CO2 and water

  13. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Water Management through Rain Gardens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (4m x 5m) and can hold vast amounts of water at any given time. The bowl shaped rain garden must is an important parameter since the soil used effects the water absorption ability of the rain garden. The optimalUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Water Management through

  14. The roles of cloud drop effective radius and LWP in determining rain properties in marine stratocumulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    The roles of cloud drop effective radius and LWP in determining rain properties in marine that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12­14 mm

  15. Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U.S. Department of Energy Residential Building Envelopes Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy ResearchOzone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes I.S. Walker, M.H. Sherman and W.W. Nazaroff

  16. Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary o Regional nuclear war could cause global which traps pollutants o Nuclear weapons cause explosions, which then causes things around the vicinity to start burning, which in turn releases black carbon; it is not the nuclear material or fallout causing

  17. Airborne Pollution In urban environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broday, David

    Airborne Pollution In urban environments What are the real health effects of urban pollution Air Pollution- relevant Human Exposure in Urban Environments" Funded under the "City of Tomorrow" programme of the European Union: Contract number EVK4-CT-2002-00090 URBAN POLLUTION Airborne pollutants

  18. Managing Stormwater for Urban Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Managing Stormwater for Urban Sustainability Using Trees and Structural Soils A new space.B. Dickinson (Eds.) 2008. Managing Stormwater for Urban Sustainability using Trees and Structural Soils Forest Service Urban & Community Forestry Program on the recommendation of the National Urban & Community

  19. Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01

    Finster. 2000. “The Urban Heat Island, Photochemical Smog,2001. “EPA/NASA Urban Heat Island Pilot Project,” GlobalSystem Urban Surfaces and Heat Island Mitigation Potentials

  20. Summer rain pulse size and rainwater uptake by three dominant desert plants in a desertified grassland ecosystem in northwestern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Summer rain pulse size and rainwater uptake by three dominant desert plants in a desertified composition, Rain pulse size, Summer precipitation Abstract To examine the different effects of rain pulse with different pulse sizes based on the changes in the hydrogen isotope ratios (dD) of their stem water 7 days

  1. Relations between isoprene and nitric oxide in exhaled breath and the potential influence of outdoor ozone: a pilot study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Alya; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Galassetti, Pietro; Blake, Donald R.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    2-day 3-day 5-day a 12.7 ppb ozone b Adjusted for splines ofoutput after exposure to ozone. J Appl Physiol. 1996; 80:apparatus against ozone damage, quenches ozone products, and

  2. The Effects of Ozone Deposition and Dissolved Organic Matter on Manganese Speciation in the Surface Ocean 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Alison Michelle

    2014-07-31

    Despite the known reactivity of ozone (O_(3)) in water and ozone’s environmental importance in the atmosphere, there are relatively few studies published examining the chemistry of O_(3) in seawater. This study focused on ...

  3. Sensitivity analysis of ozone formation and transport for a Central California air pollution episode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Ling

    2010-01-01

    Vertical distribution of ozone at four sites in the UnitedAltshuler, S. ; Franco, G. Ozone formation in California'sSeinfeld, J. H. Analysis of ozone in the San Joaquin Valley

  4. Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    J. C. , Reactivity of ozone on solid potassium iodide.and mechanisms of aqueous ozone reactions with bromide,for Dry Deposition of Ozone to Seawater Surfaces. Journal of

  5. Ground-level ozone influenced by circadian control of isoprene emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    S. The relation between ozone, NO x and hydrocarbons inAmerican emissions on surface ozone in the US. Atmos. Chem.10.1038/NGEO1271 Ground-level ozone influenced by circadian

  6. OZONE INDUCED CONDUCTANCE INCREASES ASSAYED WITH LIPID IMPREGNATED FILTER MEMBRANES-EFFECT OF VITAMIN E

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheih, P.K

    2011-01-01

    29-44. R. L. Heath (1975) Ozone, in Response of Plants toSince it is possible that ozone absorption "is incompleteof the filter. After the ozone treatment was stopped the

  7. Secondary Pollutants from Ozone Reaction with Ventilation Filters and Degradation of Filter Media Additives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Destaillats, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    used in LBNL, exposed to 150 ppb ozone at two different flowMendell, 2008. Outdoor ozone and building-related symptomsAir filter materials, outdoor ozone and building-related

  8. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D7, PAGES 9873-9887, JULY 20, 1989 The Sensitivity of Total Ozone and Ozone Perturbation Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    of Total Ozone and Ozone Perturbation Scenarios in a Two-Dimensional Model Due to Dynamical Inputs CHARLESTland The sensitivity of the total ozone distribution in our two-dimensional photochemical model to dynamical inputs has average total ozone varies by up to 10%. dependingon the various dynamical inputs, and the seasonaland

  9. Ozone treatment in a closed culture system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    1978-01-01

    periodically and analyzed for total ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations using the Direct Nessleriza- tion Method and the Cadmium Reduction Method, respectively (APHA, 1976) . 2. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ozonation: The solutions... level. 29 7. Tests of the homogeneity of variance and oneway analysis of variance for the effects of ozonation on two levels of nitrite nitrogen concentration with 95X confidence limit. . . . 31 8. Effects of ozone on ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, COD...

  10. Tropospheric Ozone ATOC/CHEM 5151

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ) ( production! #12;18 Ozone production CO + OH CO2 + H loss · Photolysis (1.4 x 1011 cm-2 s-1) · Oxidation of CO (3.5 x 1011 cm-2 s-1) 4. Chemical production #12;23 Formaldehyde chemistry CH2O + h H + HCO H + O2 + M HO2 + M HCO + O2 CO + HO2 2x [HO2

  11. Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    &AB Junghans Wind and Architecture 33454 P LEC 005 T 330-630PM 2108 A&AB Kim Bioclimatic Bldg Enclosure Sys 506Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning Architecture (ARCH) 201

  12. Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solomon, Susan

    Antarctic ozone depletion is associated with enhanced chlorine from anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons and heterogeneous chemistry under cold conditions. The deep Antarctic “hole” contrasts with the generally weaker depletions ...

  13. Ozone depletion, developing countries, and human rights: Seeking better ground on which to fight for protection of the ozone layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, V.

    1995-12-31

    I urge you not to take a complacent view of the situation. The state of depletion of the ozone layer continues to be alarming... In February, 1993, the ozone levels over North America and most of Europe were 20 percent below normal... Even now, millions of tons of CFC [chlorofluorocarbon] products are en route to their fatal stratospheric rendezvous... This exponential increase calls for increased reflection on the state of the ozone layer and calls for bold decisions.

  14. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  15. Suppression of rice methane emission by sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauci, Vincent

    limitation had been lifted by the simulated acid rain S deposition. Citation: Gauci, V., N. B. Dise, G process and so the duration of paddy inundation and the employment of mid-season field drainage both

  16. Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings : evidence from the U.S. Acid Rain Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Elizabeth M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate ...

  17. Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings : evidence from the U.S. Acid Rain Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Elizabeth M.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate ...

  18. Heat and moisture transfer through building envelope components subjected to outdoor weather conditions including rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayamaha, S.E.G. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Singapore experiences a warm and humid climate with abundant rainfall during the entire year. Such conditions are typical of tropical climates where many of today`s metropolitan cities are situated. Rain has been found to affect the thermal performance of building components in two ways, namely, by cooling the surface during rain and thereafter by drying of the absorbed moisture after rain. However, existing software used for predicting the thermal performance of building components do not consider such effects and are therefore inadequate for accurate estimation of the thermal performance of building components in tropical climates. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and moisture flow through porous building materials exposed to outdoor conditions such as solar radiation and rain.

  19. Analysis of TRMM Precipitation Radar Algorithms and Rain over the Tropics and Southeast Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Funk, Aaron

    2013-12-10

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) 2A23 algorithm classifies rain echo as stratiform or convective while the 2A25 algorithm corrects vertical profiles of radar reflectivity for attenuation ...

  20. Monroe Urbanized Area MTP 2035 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization

    2010-10-31

    /plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Monroe Urbanized Area MTP 2035 The 2035 Metropolitan Transportation Plan for the Monroe Urbanized Area Developed for The Monroe Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization and The Louisiana Department... of Transportation and Development Developed by In association with Neel-Schaffer, Inc. **DRAFT** Adopted Date Here This document was prepared in cooperation with: The Monroe Urbanized Area MPO Technical Advisory Committee and The Louisiana...

  1. Urban health and health inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urban health and health inequalities and the role of urban forestry in Britain: A review Liz O'Brien Kathryn Williams Amy Stewart 2010 #12;Urban health and woodlands Contents Executive Summary 4 1.1.3 Definition of terms 9 3. The policy context: health and forestry policies 11 3.1 Health policies 11 3

  2. Integrated Title V/acid rain permits: Transitioning through initial permit issuance and reopenings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, C. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Titles IV and V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Act or CAA) created two new stationary source permitting programs, one specific to acid rain (Title IV), and a second for operating permits in general (Title V). The Phase 2 portion of the acid rain program was designed to be implemented through the Title V operating permit program, thereby subjecting all Phase 2 acid rain sources to the requirements of Title V. Permits issued pursuant to Phase 2 of the acid rain program will be viewed as a self-contained portion of the Title V operating permit and will be governed by regulations promulgated under both Title IV and Title V. The requirements imposed by Title IV may not always be consistent with the broader operating permit program requirements of Title V, and when inconsistency occurs, the acid rain requirements will take precedence. This nonalignment will perhaps be most apparent during two stages of initial permitting: (1) the transition period following Title V program approval when permit application, issuance, and effective dates differ between the two programs, and (2) at the point when acid rain permits must be reopened to incorporate Phase 2 NO{sub x} requirements. This paper explores strategies for streamlining implementation of the two programs with particular focus on these two coordination issues.

  3. Morphology of rain water channelization in systematically varied model sandy soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Wei; C. M. Cejas; R. Barrois; R. Dreyfus; D. J. Durian

    2014-03-13

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different raining conditions using a quasi-2d experimental set-up, and systematically determine the impact of soil grain diameter and surface wetting property on water channelization phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely-packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates into a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed raining condition, we combine the effects of grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to rain water channelization phenomenon, including pre-wetting sandy soils at different level before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  4. Modeling and analysis of phosphorus reduction by rain gardens and other BMPs in stormwater runoff from small urban developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obeid, Najwa, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    As part of The Discovery Museums (TDM) Low Impact Development (LID) Design and Monitoring report (Master of Engineering Group Project) for the town of Acton, , the effectiveness of low impact development technologies at ...

  5. The urban coffee shop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chadios, Konstantinos

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation of the role of the coffee shop in the urban environment throughout history. Coffee shops spread from the Arab world to Europe and then to the U.S. at the end of the seventeenth century. ...

  6. Reactive uptake of ozone at simulated leaf surfaces: implications for "non-stomatal" ozone flux 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cape, J Neil; Hamilton, Richard P; Heal, Mathew R

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of ozone (O3) with ?-pinene has been studied as a function of temperature and relative humidity and in the presence of wax surfaces that simulate a leaf surface. The objective was to determine whether the presence of a wax surface...

  7. Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stehr, Jeffrey

    Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions Bryan J. Bloomer,1, and R. R. Dickerson (2009), Observed relationships of ozone air pollution with temperature and emissions decreased by 43% for the time period 1995 to 2002 compared with 2003 to 2006 as a result of air pollution

  8. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Ozone and Short-term Mortality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    . With the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS), we have developed na- tional approaches Ambient Air Qual- ity Standard (NAAQS) for ozone, adding a daily maximum 8-hour stan- dard of 80 ppb.19 Because of the relevance of epidemiologic evi- dence to the NAAQS for ozone and other pollutants

  9. Defining urban and rural regions by multifractal spectrums of urbanization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern of urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns associated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on the generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanization. The census data of America and China are adopted to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is not so much a positive analysis as a normative study, but it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  10. Transport Infrastructure and the Environment: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2013-01-01

    ideas for advancing sustainable urbanism and mobility willand sustainable transport and urbanism everywhere --the Environment: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism Robert

  11. Modeling Transport E ects on Ground-Level Ozone Using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Su-Yun

    Modeling Transport E ects on Ground-Level Ozone Using a Non-Stationary Space-Time Model Hsin on Ground-Level Ozone 1 #12;Summary This article presents a novel autoregressive space-time model for ground-level ozone data, which models not only spatio-temporal dynamics of hourly ozone con- centrations, but also

  12. Simulations of Ozone Distributions in an Aircraft Cabin Using Computational Fluid1 Aakash C. Rai1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Simulations of Ozone Distributions in an Aircraft Cabin Using Computational Fluid1 Dynamics2 3 10 Ozone is a major pollutant of indoor air. Many studies have demonstrated the adverse health effect of11 ozone and the byproducts generated as a result of ozone-initiated reactive chemistry

  13. Improving total column ozone retrievals by using cloud pressures derived from Raman scattering in the UV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joiner, Joanna

    Improving total column ozone retrievals by using cloud pressures derived from Raman scattering resolution, coverage, and sampling of the Aura satellite ozone monitoring instrument (OMI), as compared with the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) should allow for improved ozone retrievals. By default, the TOMS

  14. Passive Ozone Control Through Use of Reactive Indoor Wall and Ceiling Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Passive Ozone Control Through Use of Reactive Indoor Wall and Ceiling Materials Paper # 715 Donna A) Austin, TX 78758, USA ABSTRACT Most ozone exposure occurs indoors even though some surfaces consume ozone and reduce its concentration relative to outdoors. Ozone consumption often results in emissions of secondary

  15. Why are there large differences between models in global budgets of tropospheric ozone?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shiliang

    Why are there large differences between models in global budgets of tropospheric ozone? Shiliang Wu for tropospheric ozone. The ozone production rate in the troposphere, P(Ox), varies from 2300 to 5300 Tg yrÀ1 compounds (NMVOCs, mostly biogenic isoprene), and ozone influx from stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE

  16. An intramolecular theory of the mass-independent isotope effect for ozone. I.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hathorn, Bryan C.

    An intramolecular theory of the mass-independent isotope effect for ozone. I. B. C. Hathorn and R-independent isotope effect for ozone formation and dissociation is described. The experiments include the enrichment and asymmetric ozone isotopomers, the enrichment of ozone formed from heavily enriched oxygen isotopes

  17. A cohesive total ozone data set from the SBUV(/2) satellite system A. J. Miller,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    A cohesive total ozone data set from the SBUV(/2) satellite system A. J. Miller,1 R. M. Nagatani,1 of total ozone estimates from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Ozone Sensors (SBUVand SBUV/2) began of individual instruments are good, they give total ozone accuracies of approximately 2%. However, without

  18. Ozone hole and Southern Hemisphere climate change Seok-Woo Son,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Seok-Woo

    Ozone hole and Southern Hemisphere climate change Seok-Woo Son,1 Neil F. Tandon,2 Lorenzo M cooling resulting from ozone depletion has only recently been examined and a comprehensive picture on the stratospheric ozone forcing used, we here show that stratospheric ozone affects the entire atmospheric

  19. PPPL-3281, Preprint: January 1998, UC-426 Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in industrial processes is increasing. Applications for ozone include treatment of waste water, water

  20. Urbanism in the Age of Climate Change, by Peter Calthorpe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungkyoo

    2013-01-01

    Waldheim 2006), Sustainable Urbanism (Farr 2008), EcologicalFarr, Douglas. 2008. Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design withof Urbanism on the New Urbanist Frontier: Sustainable

  1. Essays on the Impact of Climate Change and Building Codes on Energy Consumption and the Impact of Ozone on Crop Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aroonruengsawat, Anin

    2010-01-01

    14 Impact of ozone on crop yield15 Data 15.1 OzoneEstimated effect of mean ozone on crop yields. . . . . . .

  2. SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    consumption Vehicle production 0.77 0.59 0.79 0.32 4.35 0.44 12.25 2.45 3.85 0.97 (Source: Harto, C; et al% Mining; 1% Decentralized Water Production (LID) Decentralized Energy Production Urban Farming #12;Water Footprint of Agricultural Products #12;`Water for Energy' and `Energy for Water' in US Water for Energy

  3. Modeling urban runoff characteristics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Alfred

    1987-01-01

    , commercial, and industrial developments (Jones 1970). From a hydrologic viewpoint, urban developments are characterized by impervious surfaces occupying surfaces that were once pervious. Impervious surfaces can exist in two general forms: (I) single... which reduces both infiltration and depression storage. These factors coupled with hydraulic channel improvements cause a decrease in the time of concentration, a decrease in the hydrograph base length, an increase in the runoff volume...

  4. Evaluation of microporous carbon filters as catalysts for ozone decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whinnery, L.; Coutts, D.; Shen, C.; Adams, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Quintana, C.; Showalter, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Ozone is produced in small quantities in photocopiers and laser printers in the workplace and large quantities in industrial waste water treatment facilities. Carbon filters are commonly used to decompose this unwanted ozone. The three most important factors in producing a filter for this purpose are flow properties, efficiency, and cost. Most ozone decomposition applications require very low back-pressure at modest flow rates. The tradeoff between the number of pores and the size of the pores will be discussed. Typical unfiltered emissions in the workplace are approximately 1 ppm. The maximum permissible exposure limit, PEL, for worker exposure to ozone is 0.1 ppm over 8 hours. Several methods have been examined to increase the efficiency of ozone decomposition. Carbon surfaces were modified with catalysts, the surface activated, and the surface area was increased, in attempts to decompose ozone more effectively. Methods to reduce both the processing and raw material costs were investigated. Several sources of microporous carbon were investigated as ozone decomposition catalysts. Cheaper processing routes including macropore templating, faster drying and extracting methods were also studied.

  5. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  6. Supporting Information for Impact of Chlorine Emissions from Sea-Salt Aerosol on Coastal Urban Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    ALKANES >C12 AROH LUMPED AROMATICS WITH HIGH SOA Y AROL LUMPED AROMATICS WITH LOW SOA Y PHEN LUMPED OXYGENATED AROMATICS BALD LUMPED AROMATIC MONOALDEHYDES ARAC LUMPED AROMATIC MONOACIDS ADAC LUMPED AROMATIC ALDEHYDES MEK LUMPED KETONES C3-C6 KETO LUMPED KETONES >C6 MEOH METHANOL ETOH ETHANOL ALCH LUMPED HIGHER

  7. Urban Ecosystems ISSN 1083-8155

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angilletta, Michael

    1 23 Urban Ecosystems ISSN 1083-8155 Urban Ecosyst DOI 10.1007/s11252-015-0460-x Urban heat island at link.springer.com". #12;Urban heat island mitigation strategies and lizard thermal ecology: landscaping. Urban heat island (UHI) effects may further exacerbate the impacts of climate change on organisms

  8. Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Beverly Kaye

    2009-04-01

    Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

  9. USING NEXRAD AND RAIN GAUGE PRECIPITATION DATA FOR HYDROLOGIC CALIBRATION OF SWAT IN A NORTHEASTERN WATERSHED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, Aisha M.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Srinivasan, Ragahvan; Shirmohammadi, Adel

    2010-05-10

    The value of watershed?scale, hydrologic and water quality models to ecosystem management is increasingly evident as more programs adopt these tools to evaluate the effectiveness of different management scenarios and their impact on the environment. Quality of precipitation data is critical for appropriate application of watershed models. In small watersheds, where no dense rain gauge network is available, modelers are faced with a dilemma to choose between different data sets. In this study, we used the German Branch (GB) watershed (~50 km2), which is included in the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), to examine the implications of using surface rain gauge and next?generation radar (NEXRAD) precipitation data sets on the performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The GB watershed is located in the Coastal Plain of Maryland on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. Stream flow estimation results using surface rain gauge data seem to indicate the importance of using rain gauges within the same direction as the storm pattern with respect to the watershed. In the absence of a spatially representative network of rain gauges within the watershed, NEXRAD data produced good estimates of stream flow at the outlet of the watershed. Three NEXRAD datasets, including (1)*non?corrected (NC), (2) bias?corrected (BC), and (3) inverse distance weighted (IDW) corrected NEXRAD data, were produced. Nash?Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients for daily stream flow simulation using these three NEXRAD data ranged from 0.46 to 0.58 during calibration and from 0.68 to 0.76 during validation. Overall, correcting NEXRAD with rain gauge data is promising to produce better hydrologic modeling results. Given the multiple precipitation datasets and corresponding simulations, we explored the combination of the multiple simulations using Bayesian model averaging.

  10. UrbanSolutionsCenter Urban Uses for Dairy Manure Compost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UrbanSolutionsCenter Urban Uses for Dairy Manure Compost Background Construction of new homes with time and with heat and drought stress. Dairy manure compost (DMC) is readily available for amending regulatory agencies are developing mechanisms for using composted dairy manure to remedy disturbed soils

  11. Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning Architecture (ARCH) 201 ARR Newell 213 Bldgs, Cities,People 4.00 26819 S LEC 001 TTH 1130-1PM UMMA AUD Zimmerman Architecture Bioclimatic Bldg Enclosure Sys 506 Spec Topics Des Fund 3.00 ADVISORY 23543 P RW SEM 001 M 9-12PM 1227 A&AB Mc

  12. Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    Architecture & Urban Planning College of Architecture & Urban Planning Architecture (ARCH) 201, Scherer Intro to Robotics Fabrication 421 Geometric Modeling 3.00 ADVISORY 25595 P RW LEC 001 TH 9-12PMShed 27543 P LEC 004 M 1-4PM 2222 A&AB Junghans Wind and Architecture 28434 P W LEC 005 T 9-12PM 2108 A

  13. High-resolution urban thermal sharpener (HUTS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C; Rickman, Douglas L

    2011-01-01

    C.  A. , 2005.  Urban heat  islands developing in coastal the  Phoenix Urban Heat Island (UHI) experiment: effects at growth of the urban heat island of Houston, Texas,  Remote 

  14. High-resolution urban thermal sharpener (HUTS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C; Rickman, Douglas L

    2011-01-01

    C.  A. , 2005.  Urban heat  islands developing in coastal growth of the urban heat island of Houston, Texas,  Remote the  Phoenix Urban Heat Island (UHI) experiment: effects at 

  15. Detroit's Urban Regime: Composition and Consequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Leda Mclntyre; Hall, Melvin F.

    1993-04-01

    This article examines the urban regime in Detroit, Michigan, specifically examining how the regime makes decisions about redevelopment and major capital projects. Detroit's urban regime, which emergedfrom the urban unrest of the 1960s, mobilizes...

  16. Habitable piers : an alternative for urban expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Chin Yuan, M. Arch. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    1990-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation into an alternative way of urban expansion for a seaside community. This thesis proposes a habitable urban environment on the water by creating for an exchange between the built urban landscape ...

  17. Revised UV absorption spectra, ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials for the ozone-depleting substances CF2Br2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    Revised UV absorption spectra, ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials for the ozone-depleting substances CF2Br2, CF2ClBr, and CF2BrCF2Br Dimitrios K. Papanastasiou,1,2,5 Nabilah. [1] The contribution of Halons, bromine-containing haloalkanes, to stratospheric ozone depletion

  18. Simulating the growth response of aspen to elevated ozone: a mechanistic approach to scaling a leaf-level model of ozone effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simulating the growth response of aspen to elevated ozone: a mechanistic approach to scaling a leaf-level model of ozone effects on photosynthesis to a complex canopy architecture§ M.J. Martina, *, G.E. Hosta; accepted 17 July 2001 ``Capsule'': A process model is described that predicts the relative effects of ozone

  19. Global Health and Economic Impacts of Future Ozone Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Mort D.

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis-Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the ...

  20. Assessing Global Terrestrial Sources of Methyl Halides - Ozone Regulating Gases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gancarczyk, Maciej

    2010-11-24

    Methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) play significant roles in the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. The vast portion of methyl halide sources and sinks sources and sinks are natural in origin. The ...

  1. Waller Creek Urban Redevelopment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, S.

    2013-01-01

    Winkler Melba Whatley Waller Creek Conservancy Directors – November 2013 ESL-KT-13-12-51 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 CITY COUNCIL APPROVES DESIGN PLAN... Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Thomas Phifer ESL-KT-13-12-51 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 8Waller Creek and a Chain of Parks Palm Park Shaded Respite The Narrows Intensified Urbanity The Refuge...

  2. Toward an Integrated Paradigm: Further Thoughts on the Three Urbanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelbaugh, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    a richer, more sustainable, more enduring urbanism? Everydaysustainable and voluntary process. 16 Otherwise, New Urbanism

  3. A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable Energy Practices into Metropolitan Planning, May 2004 A Blueprint for Urban Sustainability: Integrating Sustainable...

  4. Foliar ozone injury and gas exchange among black cherry genotypes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouterick, K.B.; Skelly, J.M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Kolb, T.E.; Savage, J.E.; Snyder, K.R. (Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    The effect of differing ozone exposures on seedlings of black cherry genotypes was investigated in northcentral Pennsylvania. Ozone exclusion treatments were administrated to half-sib families R12 and MO-7, and wild-type (WT) grown in open-top chambers. Over the 1993 growing season, left gas exchange and stem volume were related to percentage of foliar ozone injury observed as adaxial stipple. Ozone symptoms decreased significantly with increasing ozone filtration. R12 exhibited the most severe foliar injury, while WT seedlings showed slightly less symptoms. MO-7 had the least amount of foliar injury. No clear trends in stomatal conductance or net photosynthesis were observed until August. During August, foliar injury was positively related to stomatal conductance. Stomatal conductance values were greatest in R12, followed by WT and MO-7. Photosynthesis followed the same pattern at stomatal conductance. Dark respiration rates were variable across treatments for the entire growing season. Differing ozone exposures did not affect stem volume, but stem volume of seedlings of all families in the open plot were significantly lower than seedlings within chambers. Overall, R12 had higher stem volume than MO-7 and WT seedlings.

  5. 11/17/14 Urbanization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    · In cities, natural resource production is displaced, meaning that urban effects extend well beyond city resource production is displaced, meaning that urban effects extend well beyond city boundaries · Species;11/17/14 3 · Locations of cities exaggerate local effects on wildlife - coasts, river mouths, lakeshores

  6. On the Differences in Storm Rainfall from Hurricanes Isidore and Lili. Part I: Satellite Observations and Rain Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Haiyan

    and freshwater flooding is the number one cause of death from hurricanes in the United States (Elsberry 2002 1998­2000, Lonfat et al. (2004) showed that the maximum azimuthally averaged rainfall rate is about 12. of rain (24 h) 1 ] and Tropical Storm Allison (2001, $6 billion in damages, 27 deaths, 35­40 in. of rain

  7. Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause-Based Climatology and Optimal Estimation Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Laura

    Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause for retrieving atmospheric ozone profile information from advanced satellite infrared sounders, this study investigates various methods to optimize ozone retrievals. A set of retrieval experiments has been performed

  8. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    VOC reactivity and its effect on ozone production during theand HONO chemistry on ozone A. , Molina, L. T. , Nenes, A. ,15/4357/2015/ emissions on ozone concentration during summer

  9. Reconsidering Sustainable Development: Urbanization, Political-Economy, and Deliberative Democracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman-Alcalá, Antonio M.M.

    2013-01-01

    What can we learn for urban energy planning and urbanizationWhat can we learn for urban energy planning and urbanizationEnergy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. ” Journal for Urban Planning

  10. Rethinking the nonmetropolitan turnaround: renewed rural growth or extended urbanization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaodong

    2007-04-25

    was rural, the dominant pattern of urbanization was rural-urban migration. When the majority of the population became urban, the dominant urbanization pattern reversed to urbanrural migration because urban centers had reached beyond their optimal density...

  11. Network Coded Information Raining over High-Speed Rail through IEEE 802.16j

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valaee, Shahrokh

    Network Coded Information Raining over High-Speed Rail through IEEE 802.16j Christopher Sue, Sameh propose a two-hop wireless network architecture for high-speed rail employing 802.16j. Due to its backward in high-speed rail communications and better exploit relay diversity. We refer to our proposed scheme

  12. Formation and evolution of coronal rain observed by SDO/AIA on February 22, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vashalomidze, Z; Zaqarashvili, T V; Oliver, R; Shergelashvili, B; Ramishvili, G; Poedts, S; De Causmaecker, P

    2015-01-01

    The formation and dynamics of coronal rain are currently not fully understood. Coronal rain is the fall of cool and dense blobs formed by thermal instability in the solar corona towards the solar surface with acceleration smaller than gravitational free fall. We aim to study the observational evidence of the formation of coronal rain and to trace the detailed dynamics of individual blobs. We used time series of the 171 \\AA\\, and 304 \\AA\\, spectral lines obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) above active region AR 11420 on February 22, 2012. Observations show that a coronal loop disappeared in the 171 \\AA\\ channel and appeared in the 304 \\AA\\ line$\\text{}\\text{}$ more than one hour later, which indicates a rapid cooling of the coronal loop from 1 MK to 0.05 MK. An energy estimation shows that the radiation is higher than the heat input, which indicates so-called catastrophic cooling. The cooling was accompanied by the formation of coronal rain in the fo...

  13. Midweek increase in U.S. summer rain and storm heights suggests air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Midweek increase in U.S. summer rain and storm heights suggests air pollution invigorates air pollution suppresses cloud-drop coalescence and early rainout during the growth of thunderstorms explained by the difference in composition of aerosol pollution at that time. This ``weekend effect'' may

  14. Rain Forest Islands in the Chilean Semiarid Region: Fog-dependency,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rain Forest Islands in the Chilean Semiarid Region: Fog-dependency, Ecosystem Persistence and Tree that these forests persist as a result of fog-water inputs. If so, then because fog-water deposition is spatially by the direction of fog input should determine forest structure and tree regeneration patterns. To investigate

  15. WeatherJuly2015,Vol.70,No.7 Is there a Rhythm Of The Rain?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Paul

    accessed through channels such as artists' websites and YouTube (our choice of data- base is discussed198198 Weather­July2015,Vol.70,No.7 Is there a Rhythm Of The Rain? An analysis of weather have ana- lysed how our environment has influenced music: Wagner (1972) looked at weather in classical

  16. Adaptive FIR Filtering of Range Sidelobes for Air and Spaceborne Rain Mapping Stephen P. Lohmeier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    Adaptive FIR Filtering of Range Sidelobes for Air and Spaceborne Rain Mapping Stephen P. Lohmeier and Telecommunications Center Abstract ­ This paper describes an adaptive finite-impulse response (FIR) filteringB [1] sidelobe levels. Although others have used wavelets to achieve suppression [2]. To measure light

  17. A phase screen model for simulating numerically the propagation of a laser beam in rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukin, I P; Rychkov, D S; Falits, A V [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lai, Kin S; Liu, Min R [DSO National Laboratories 20 (Singapore)

    2009-09-30

    The method based on the generalisation of the phase screen method for a continuous random medium is proposed for simulating numerically the propagation of laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere with precipitation. In the phase screen model for a discrete component of a heterogeneous 'air-rain droplet' medium, the amplitude screen describing the scattering of an optical field by discrete particles of the medium is replaced by an equivalent phase screen with a spectrum of the correlation function of the effective dielectric constant fluctuations that is similar to the spectrum of a discrete scattering component - water droplets in air. The 'turbulent' phase screen is constructed on the basis of the Kolmogorov model, while the 'rain' screen model utiises the exponential distribution of the number of rain drops with respect to their radii as a function of the rain intensity. Theresults of the numerical simulation are compared with the known theoretical estimates for a large-scale discrete scattering medium. (propagation of laser radiation in matter)

  18. Crowdsourcing, Climate Change and Student Science: The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    it one of the most innovative citizen science programs in the nation. Students of all ages at over 100Crowdsourcing, Climate Change and Student Science: The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow: Dr. Nolan Doesken Address: Department of Atmospheric Science 1371 Campus Delivery Colorado State

  19. RADARSAT SCANSAR WIND RETRIEVAL AND RAIN EFFECTS ON SCANSAR MEASUREMENTS UNDER HURRICANE CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    RADARSAT SCANSAR WIND RETRIEVAL AND RAIN EFFECTS ON SCANSAR MEASUREMENTS UNDER HURRICANE CONDITIONS CB, Provo, Utah 84602 ABSTRACT RADARSAT-1 ScanSAR SWA images of Hurricane Katrina are used-band polarization ratio models have been proposed, none have been well verified in hurricane conditions. Although C

  20. HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED OCEAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT U.S.A * selnimri@mail.ucf.edu 2 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA 3 Space model has been developed to support the analysis and design of the new airborne Hurricane Imaging

  1. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing dissolution equilibrium, and then decomposed to {le} 100 Parts per Million (ppm) oxalate. Since AOP technology largely originated on using ultraviolet (UV) light as a primary catalyst, decomposition of the spent oxalic acid, well exposed to a medium pressure mercury vapor light was considered the benchmark. However, with multi-valent metals already contained in the feed, and maintenance of the UV light a concern; testing was conducted to evaluate the impact from removing the UV light. Using current AOP terminology, the test without the UV light would likely be considered an ozone based, dark, ferrioxalate type, decomposition process. Specifically, as part of the testing, the impacts from the following were investigated: (1) Importance of the UV light on the decomposition rates when decomposing 1 wt% spent oxalic acid; (2) Impact of increasing the oxalic acid strength from 1 to 2.5 wt% on the decomposition rates; and (3) For F-area testing, the advantage of increasing the spent oxalic acid flowrate from 40 L/min (liters/minute) to 50 L/min during decomposition of the 2.5 wt% spent oxalic acid. The results showed that removal of the UV light (from 1 wt% testing) slowed the decomposition rates in both the F & H testing. Specifically, for F-Area Strike 1, the time increased from about 6 hours to 8 hours. In H-Area, the impact was not as significant, with the time required for Strike 1 to be decomposed to less than 100 ppm increasing slightly, from 5.4 to 6.4 hours. For the spent 2.5 wt% oxalic acid decomposition tests (all) without the UV light, the F-area decompositions required approx. 10 to 13 hours, while the corresponding required H-Area decompositions times ranged from 10 to 21 hours. For the 2.5 wt% F-Area sludge, the increased availability of iron likely caused the increased decomposition rates compared to the 1 wt% oxalic acid based tests. In addition, for the F-testing, increasing the recirculation flow rates from 40 liter/minute to 50 liter/minute resulted in an increased decomposition rate, suggesting a better use of ozone.

  2. Atmospheric deposition of {sup 7}Be by rain events, incentral Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayub, J. Juri; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales. Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis. Universidad National de San Luis--CONICET. Ejercito de los Andes 950. Argentina (Argentina); Di Gregorio, D. E.; Huck, H. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision National de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad National de San Martin. Martin de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. (Argentina)

    2008-08-07

    Beryllium-7 is a natural radionuclide that enters into the ecosystems through wet and dry depositions and has numerous environmental applications in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Atmospheric wet deposition of {sup 7}Be was measured in central Argentina. Rain traps were installed (1 m above ground) and individual rain events have been collected. Rain samples were filtered and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The gamma counting was undertaken using a 40%-efficient p-type coaxial intrinsic high-purity natural germanium crystal built by Princeton Gamma-Tech. The cryostat was made from electroformed high-purity copper using ultralow-background technology. The detector was surrounded by 50 cm of lead bricks to provide shielding against radioactive background. The detector gamma efficiency was determined using a water solution with known amounts of chemical compounds containing long-lived naturally occurring radioisotopes, {sup 176}Lu, {sup 138}La and {sup 40}K. Due to the geometry of the sample and its position close to the detector, the efficiency points from the {sup 176}Lu decay, had to be corrected for summing effects. The measured samples were 400 ml in size and were counted curing one day. The {sup 7}Be detection limit for the present measurements was as low as 0.2 Bq l{sup -1}. Thirty two rain events were sampled and analyzed (November 2006-May 2007). The measured values show that the events corresponding to low rainfall (<20 mm) are characterized by significantly higher activity concentrations (Bq l{sup -1}). The activity concentration of each individual event varied from 0.8 to 3.5 Bq l{sup -1}, while precipitations varied between 4 and 70 mm. The integrated activity by event of {sup 7}Be was fitted with a model that takes into account the precipitation amount and the elapsed time between two rain events. The integrated activities calculated with this model show a good agreement with experimental values.

  3. Morphological basis of tolerance to ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.J.; Dekker, N.P.; Cabral-Anderson, L.J.; Shami, S.G.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study Type 1 epithelial cells in the ozone (O/sub 3/)-tolerant lung epithelium. Rats were made tolerant by exposure to 0.5 ppm O/sub 3/ for 2 days and allowed to recover in air. Reexposure to a lethal concentration of O/sub 3/ (6 ppm) at 3, 7, and 15 days of recovery revealed that tolerance was present at 3 days but almost absent at 7 and 15 days of recovery. Using Type 2 cell proliferation as a means of quantitating Type 1 cell injury, it was observed that when the preexposed rats were reexposed to 0.5 ppm at 3, 7, and 15 days, very little Type 1 cell injury occurred at 3 days. However, at 7 and 15 days the amount of Type 1 cell injury was the same as that associated with the original exposure. To determine whether there was any change in the alveolar epithelial cell populations between the periods of tolerance (3 days) and its decline (7 and 15 days), the percentage of tritiated thymidine (( /sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells at these times were determined. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)TdR-labeled Type 1 and 2 cells between the third and fifteenth days of recovery as excess cells were sloughed off and the tissue returned to normal. Using electron microscopic morphometry, Type 1 and 2 cells were then studied during the decline of tolerance. No change was found in the morphology of Type 2 cells; however, the morphology of Type 1 cells revealed a 58% decrease in surface area and a 25% increase in the arithmetic mean thickness when tolerance was present at 3 days. As tolerance declined (7 and 15 days), Type 1 cell morphology returned to normal. It was concluded that tolerance exists when the surface area of a cell exposed to a particular concentration of ozone is small enough so that the existing antioxidant mechanism contained within that cell volume can protect it from damage.

  4. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 25, NO. 3, PAGES 577-579, MARCH 1989 Comment on "Are Rain Rate Processes Self-Similar?"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 25, NO. 3, PAGES 577-579, MARCH 1989 Comment on "Are Rain Rate the properties of the rain field with those of its fluctu- ations in such a way that neither of their theorems are rele- vant to the problem of stochasticself-similar rain modeling. We would thereforelike to take

  5. Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects Da-Lin Zhang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da-Lin

    Upstream urbanization exacerbates urban heat island effects Da-Lin Zhang,1 Yi-Xuan Shou,1; published 19 December 2009. [1] Urban Heat Island (UHI) effects adversely impact weather, air quality find that upstream urbanization exacerbates UHI effects and that meteorological consequences of extra-urban

  6. The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, James; Delucchi, Mark; McCubbin, Donald; Kim, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of Motor-Vehicle Air Pollution. UCD-ITS-RR-96-3 (by Ozone Air Pollution from Motor-Vehicles. UCD- ITS-RR-96-by ozone air pollution from motor vehicles J. J. Murphy†?,

  7. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 3: Analysis and interpretation of trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F.; Bodeker, G. E.; Hubert, D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Steinbrecht, W.; Anderson, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Boone, C. D.; Bourassa, A.; Davis, S. M.; Degenstein, D.; Delcloo, A.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Jones, N.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrölä, E.; Laine, M.; Leblanc, S. T.; Lambert, J.-C.; Liley, B.; Mahieu, E.; Maycock, A.; de Mazière, M.; Parrish, A.; Querel, R.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Roth, C.; Sioris, C.; Staehelin, J.; Stolarski, R. S.; Stübi, R.; Tamminen, J.; Vigouroux, C.; Walker, K.; Wang, H. J.; Wild, J.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2015-03-23

    Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised datasets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine – EESC...

  8. Ozone-Based Atomic Layer Deposition of Crystalline V2O5Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ozone-Based Atomic Layer Deposition of Crystalline V2O5Films for High Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ozone-Based Atomic Layer...

  9. Modeling Ozone Removal to Indoor Materials, Including the Effects of Porosity, Pore Diameter, and Thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Elliott T; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Corsi, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    C. Ozone deposition velocities, reaction probabilities andreaction phenomena described by a single parameter, the ozone deposition velocity,velocity, v t (m h ?1 ), a characteristic of the ?uid mechanics of a space, and the reaction

  10. Weekend/Weekday Ozone Study in the South Coast Air Basin | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ozone Effect - The Weekly Ambient Emissions Control Experiment Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Ozone Problem Areas in the U.S. DOE's Studies of WeekdayWeekend...

  11. A global inventory of ecosystem sources of methyl bromide, an ozone destroying gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenney, Gareth

    2008-12-11

    Stratospheric ozone depletion is affected by halogen radicals, such as bromine, which is 40 times more effective at depleting ozone than chlorine. Methyl bromide, the largest contributor of bromine to the stratosphere is ...

  12. Effect of ozonation on the composition of crude coal-tar benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.

    2007-05-15

    The effect of ozonation on the composition of crude benzene produced by the coal-tar chemical industry was studied.

  13. Information Resources for URBAN FARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    .5 .U72 A55 2012 Anger, Judith et al. EDIBLE CITIES: URBAN PERMACULTURE FOR GARDENS, YEARS, BALCONIES: A GUIDE TO HOME- SCALE PERMACULTURE. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green, 2009. S 494.5 .P47 H46 2009

  14. Urban Reclamation in São Paulo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eskinazi, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The urbanized terrain of São Paulo is characterized by wasteful landscapes on peripheral areas of the metropolitan agglomeration, and decaying landscapes of waste in the core of the city. If on the one hand, the increasingly ...

  15. Claiming the urban industrial landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linton, Cynthia Mayhew

    1992-01-01

    This thesis presents a propositIOn about a prevalent urban condition, that of marginal, left over, or disused space. It contends that these spaces, generally viewed as negative attributes by their communities have inherent ...

  16. Climate Change and Urban Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Climate Change and Urban Trees: effects on disease and insect pests Drew C. Zwart, Ph.D. Bartlett · Other climate related impacts on plant health: Elevated atmospheric CO2 (no real question about

  17. Effects of ozone cooling in the tropical lower stratosphere and upper troposphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of ozone cooling in the tropical lower stratosphere and upper troposphere Piers M. Forster lower stratosphere and upper troposphere and elucidate the key role of ozone changes in driving of tropical ozone decreases at 70 hPa and lower pressures can lead to significant cooling not only

  18. THE FILTERING OF OZONE CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED IN A TURBULENT AIR STREAM USING BAYESIAN MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    THE FILTERING OF OZONE CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED IN A TURBULENT AIR STREAM USING University. The authors thank Alex Guenther for supplying the high frequency ozone concentration measurements a multiscale Bayesian model for separating ozone (O 3 ) concentration turbulent fluctuations from such inherent

  19. EVIDENCE OF ELEVATED OZONE CONCENTRATIONS ON FORESTED SLOPES OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY, BRITISH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKendry, Ian

    EVIDENCE OF ELEVATED OZONE CONCENTRATIONS ON FORESTED SLOPES OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY, BRITISH, hourly average ozone concentrations were mea- sured at three sites of differing elevation (188, 588. Sites experienced ozone concentrations ranging from 0 to 88 ppb in 2001, and 0 to 96 ppb in 2002. Daily

  20. Effect of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the future tropospheric ozone trend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of stratosphere-troposphere exchange on the future tropospheric ozone trend W. J. Collins, R of circulation changes in a changed climate on the exchange of ozone between the stratosphere and the troposphere. We have identified an increase in the net transport of ozone into the troposphere in the future

  1. The ozone response to ENSO in Aura satellite measurements and a chemistry-climate simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waugh, Darryn W.

    The ozone response to ENSO in Aura satellite measurements and a chemistry-climate simulation Luke D impact on tropospheric circulation causes significant changes to the distribution of ozone. Here we derive the lower tropospheric to lower stratospheric ozone response to ENSO from observations

  2. How Bromate and Ozone Concentrations can be Modelled at Full Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 How Bromate and Ozone Concentrations can be Modelled at Full Scale based on Lab-Scale Experiments ­ A Case Study Running head title How to model bromate & ozone at full scale based on lab tests Pierre-scale modelling study of an industrial ozonation unit for practical application. The modelling framework combines

  3. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 18 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 18 3.1.1 CFCs 18 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  4. Technical note Barriers and opportunities for passive removal of indoor ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    Technical note Barriers and opportunities for passive removal of indoor ozone Elliott T. Gall presents a Monte Carlo simulation to assess passive removal materials (PRMs) that remove ozone of homes in Houston, Texas, were taken from the literature and combined with back- ground ozone removal

  5. Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends, impacts and policy implications October 2008. Courtesy of Dr Mhairi Coyle, CEH Edinburgh. #12;Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends Limited #12;Ground-level ozone in the 21st century I October 2008 I iiiThe Royal Society Ground

  6. Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Pilot Scale Study of Excess Sludge Production Reduction in Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Yuan Ma-scale reactors were operated at the LaPrairie Wastewater Treatment plant (one control and one ozonated) to investigate the sludge reduction potential of partially ozonating sludge return activated sludge (RAS

  7. 1 Ozone pollution forecasting 3 Herve Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crambes, Christophe

    Contents 1 Ozone pollution forecasting 3 Herv´e Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda. 1;1 Ozone pollution forecasting using conditional mean and conditional quantiles with functional covariates Herv´e Cardot, Christophe Crambes and Pascal Sarda. 1.1 Introduction Prediction of Ozone pollution

  8. Separating the Influence of Halogen and Climate Changes on Ozone Recovery in the Upper Stratosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    causes ozone destruction by enhancing production of water vapor via methane oxidation. Additionally. Including potential climate-induced stratospheric water vapor increases, the ozone change relative to 1980 depletion chemistry, and therefore indirectly leading to more ozone. Increases in methane directly affect

  9. Formation of ozone: Metastable states and anomalous isotope effect Dmitri Babikov,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Formation of ozone: Metastable states and anomalous isotope effect Dmitri Babikov,a) Brian K for an anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation is given in terms of the energy transfer mechanism, where the metastable states of ozone are formed first, and then stabilized by collisions with other atoms. Unusual

  10. A review of statistical methods for the meteorological adjustment of tropospheric ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    A review of statistical methods for the meteorological adjustment of tropospheric ozone Mary Lou adjustment of tropospheric ozone Mary Lou Thompson1 Joel Reynolds1 Lawrence H. Cox2 Peter Guttorp1 Paul D.larry@epamail.epa.gov ABSTRACT: A variety of statistical methods for meteorological adjustment of ozone have been proposed

  11. Ozone deposition to an orange orchard: Partitioning between stomatal and non-stomatal sinks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Ozone deposition to an orange orchard: Partitioning between stomatal and non-stomatal sinks Silvano January 2012 Keywords: Orange plants Ozone flux Stomatal deposition Non-stomatal deposition BVOC a b s t r a c t Orange trees are widely cultivated in regions with high concentrations of tropospheric ozone

  12. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. , NO. , PAGES 1?? , Analysis of 19701995 Trends in Tropospheric Ozone at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    in Tropospheric Ozone at Northern Hemisphere Midlatitudes with the GEOS­CHEM Model Andrew C. Fusco Department. The causes of trends in tropospheric ozone at Northern Hemisphere mid­ latitudes from 1970 to 1995 to investigate the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone with respect to (1) changes in the anthropogenic emission

  13. Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery Article Published.G. and Ravishankara, A.R. (2009) Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery's research outputs online #12;Impact of sudden Arctic sea-ice loss on stratospheric polar ozone recovery J. F

  14. A Comparison of Bayesian and Conditional Density Models in Probabilistic Ozone Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsieh, William

    A Comparison of Bayesian and Conditional Density Models in Probabilistic Ozone Forecasting Song Cai to provide predictive distributions of daily maximum surface level ozone concentrations. Five forecast models forecasts for extreme events, namely poor air quality events defined as having ozone concentration 82 ppb

  15. Projections of UV radiation changes in the 21st century: impact of ozone recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Projections of UV radiation changes in the 21st century: impact of ozone recovery and cloud effects radiation changes in the 21st century: impact of ozone recovery and cloud effects. Atmospheric Chemistry Chemistry and Physics Projections of UV radiation changes in the 21st century: impact of ozone recovery

  16. Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux Abstract High ground-level ozone concentrations are typical of Mediterranean climates. Plant exposure to this oxidant is known to reduce carbon assimilation. Ozone damage has been traditionally measured through

  17. ATOC/CHEM 5151 Problem 10 Energetics of the Photolysis of Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC/CHEM 5151 ­ Problem 10 Energetics of the Photolysis of Ozone Answers will be posted Thursday, October 9, 2014 Photolysis of ozone is important in the formation of the OH radical throughout much standard enthalpy tables to determine the bond strength of ozone (i.e., heat of reaction O + O2 O3) 105 k

  18. Quantifying stratospheric ozone response to changes in methane and nitrous oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourqui, Michel

    Quantifying stratospheric ozone response to changes in methane and nitrous oxide concentrations of Ozone destruction and creation at different altitudes and concentrations of CH4 and N2O #12;Contents levels have varying conditions and are governed by different chemical regimes We will simulate ozone

  19. Tropospheric ozone climatology over Irene, South Africa, from 1990 to 1994 and 1998 to 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    Tropospheric ozone climatology over Irene, South Africa, from 1990 to 1994 and 1998 to 2002 R. D the characteristic Southern Hemisphere springtime tropospheric ozone maximum, but its seasonal features are modulated anticyclonic gyre over southern Africa permit the buildup of relatively high springtime midtropospheric ozone

  20. Tropical ozone as an indicator of deep convection Ian Folkins and Christopher Braun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    Tropical ozone as an indicator of deep convection Ian Folkins and Christopher Braun Department] The climatological ozone profile in the tropics is shaped like an ``S,'' with a minimum at the surface, a maximum. These features can be reproduced by a very simple model whose only free parameter is the mean ozone mixing ratio

  1. PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Influence of UV irradiation and ozone on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Influence of UV irradiation and ozone. Kelly*1 The corrosion of Ag in an atmosphere of ozone and humidity with or without irradiation corrosion product to chloride in the reduction solution. The presence of both ozone and UV radiation

  2. Photochemical template removal and spatial patterning of zeolite MFI thin films using UV/ozone treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    Photochemical template removal and spatial patterning of zeolite MFI thin films using UV/ozone (structure code: MFI) following a previously published procedure. The films were illuminated using an ozone. Results presented here indicate that the UV/ozone treatment under nominally room temperature conditions

  3. Evaluating Ozone Air Pollution Effects on Pines in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluating Ozone Air Pollution Effects on Pines in the Western United States United States. Evaluating ozone air pollution effects on pines in the western United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW­GTR­155. Historical and technical background is provided about ozone air pollution effects on ponderosa (Pinus

  4. Ensemble-based air quality forecasts: A multimodel approach applied to ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    Ensemble-based air quality forecasts: A multimodel approach applied to ozone Vivien Mallet1 21 September 2006. [1] The potential of ensemble techniques to improve ozone forecasts ozone-monitoring networks. We found that several linear combinations of models have the potential

  5. The potential to narrow uncertainty in projections of stratospheric ozone over the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    The potential to narrow uncertainty in projections of stratospheric ozone over the 21st century of stratospheric ozone over the 21st century. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10 (19). pp. 9473-9486. ISSN 1680 of stratospheric ozone over the 21st century A. J. Charlton-Perez1, E. Hawkins1, V. Eyring2, I. Cionni2, G. E

  6. Ozone depletion during the solar proton events of October//November 2003 as seen by SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    Ozone depletion during the solar proton events of October//November 2003 as seen by SCIAMACHY G; revised 4 May 2005; accepted 13 May 2005; published 20 August 2005. [1] We use atmospheric ozone density profiles between 35 and 65 km altitude derived from SCIAMACHY limb measurements to quantify the ozone

  7. Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding radiative forcing Article., Bodeker, G.E., Shepherd, T.G., Shindell, D.T. and Waugh, D.W. (2011) Ozone database in support of CMIP5 and Physics Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding radiative forcing I

  8. Smoothing Parameter Selection When Errors are Correlated and Application to Ozone Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heckman, Nancy E.

    Smoothing Parameter Selection When Errors are Correlated and Application to Ozone Data by Robert Jr trend of daily and monthly ground ozone levels in southern Ontario. iii #12; Contents Abstract ii.2 Air Pollution Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 5.2.1 Daily Ozone Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  9. Nighttime secondary ozone layer during major stratospheric sudden warmings in specified-dynamics WACCM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpasuvan, Varavut

    Nighttime secondary ozone layer during major stratospheric sudden warmings in specified to the thermosphere. Currently, the role of atmospheric dynamics on polar ozone in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere "secondary" (90­105 km) ozone maximum by examining the dynamics and distribution of key species (like H and O

  10. Impact of Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Recovery on Southern Hemisphere Precipitation, Evaporation, and Extreme Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Seok-Woo

    Impact of Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Recovery on Southern Hemisphere Precipitation, Evaporation) ABSTRACT The possible impact of Antarctic ozone depletion and recovery on Southern Hemisphere (SH) mean- tercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3). By grouping models into four sets, those with and without ozone depletion

  11. Sources of tropospheric ozone along the Asian Pacific Rim: An analysis of ozonesonde observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongyu

    Sources of tropospheric ozone along the Asian Pacific Rim: An analysis of ozonesonde observations ozone over the Asian Pacific Rim in different seasons are quantified by analysis of Hong Kong at midlatitudes from fall at low latitudes due to monsoonal influence. The UT ozone minimum and high variability

  12. Analytica Chimica Acta 573574 (2006) 913 Metal oxide thin films as sensing layers for ozone detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Analytica Chimica Acta 573­574 (2006) 9­13 Metal oxide thin films as sensing layers for ozone. Their structural, electrical and ozone sensing properties were analyzed. Structural investigations carried out with ultraviolet light and subsequent oxidation in ozone atmosphere at room temperature. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. Low ozone concentrations over Macquarie Island during 1997. Part I: trajectory analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordero, Eugene

    Low ozone concentrations over Macquarie Island during 1997. Part I: trajectory analysis by Eugene C instruments show record low ozone column densities between 20°S and 60°S throughout 1997. The monthly averaged record from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) indicates that measurements from 1997 are lower

  14. Ozone ensemble forecast with machine learning Vivien Mallet,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    Ozone ensemble forecast with machine learning algorithms Vivien Mallet,1,2 Gilles Stoltz,3; published 13 March 2009. [1] We apply machine learning algorithms to perform sequential aggregation of ozone forecasts. The latter rely on a multimodel ensemble built for ozone forecasting with the modeling system

  15. Efficient quantum-classical method for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: Application to ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    : Application to ozone formation Mikhail V. Ivanov and Dmitri Babikov Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 136, 184304 (2012 for computing thermal rate constant of recombination: Application to ozone formation Mikhail V. Ivanov of ozone. Comparison of the predicted rate vs. experimental result is presented. © 2012 American Institute

  16. Conditional quantiles when the covariates are curves : an application to Ozone pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bercu, Bernard

    Conditional quantiles when the covariates are curves : an application to Ozone pollution forecasting Summary This work deals with the study of pollution data with the aim of forecas- ting the Ozone of the maximum of Ozone one day kno- wing one or several of these functional variables the day before. To do this

  17. Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation Evgeny Vetoshkin represent the metastable O3 * species and play a central role in the process of ozone formation.1063/1.2778432 I. INTRODUCTION Ozone O3 is formed in the stratosphere as a product of the following recombination

  18. Seedling insensitivity to ozone for three conifer species native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Howard S.

    Seedling insensitivity to ozone for three conifer species native to Great Smoky Mountains National concentrations of ozone had little eect on seedlings of three species of conifers commonly found in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Abstract Field symptoms typical of ozone injury have been observed on several

  19. Quantification of Ozone Levels in Indoor Environments Generated by Ionization and Ozonolysis Air Purifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Quantification of Ozone Levels in Indoor Environments Generated by Ionization and Ozonolysis Air ozone (O3) during operation, either in- tentionally or as a byproduct of air ionization standards. Sev- eral types of air purifiers were tested for their ability to produce ozone in various indoor

  20. The Effect of Ozone Stomatal Conductance on Isoprene Emissions above a Northern Hardwood Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    The Effect of Ozone Stomatal Conductance on Isoprene Emissions above a Northern Hardwood Forest also acts as an antioxidant within a plant, reacting and neutralizing ozone and peroxides, though , and reacts photochemically in the presence of NOx to produce tropospheric ozone. The Model of Emissions

  1. Seasonal persistence of northern low-and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Seasonal persistence of northern low- and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and other trace gases) Seasonal persistence of northern low- and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and other trace gases outputs online #12;Seasonal persistence of northern low- and middle-latitude anomalies of ozone and other

  2. Impact of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone Article Published Version detection in total ozone. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112. D14307. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: 10.1029/2006JD of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone Dmitry I. Vyushin,1 Vitali E. Fioletov,2

  3. Semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations of ultrafast photodissociation dynamics associated with the Chappuis band of ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, William H.

    with the Chappuis band of ozone Victor S. Batista and William H. Millera) Department of Chemistry, University A ) of ozone following photoexcitation of the molecule in the gas phase with visible light. Our algorithm and recurrence events, as well as an interpretation of experimental studies of the Chappuis band of ozone

  4. LOT-G3: Plasma Lamp, Ozonator and CW transmitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobato, Ricardo; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    The LOT-G3 is designed to be a versatile equipment that perform several simple experiments for use in helping the physics classes for high school. Easy construction, low cost, using easily accessible materials. Its construction involves simple practices and knowledge of electromagnetism. It has the function of a plasma globe to demonstrate the ionization of a low pressure gas, as well as the formation of magnetic field. Can be used as sanitizer closed environments such as automotive vehicles in ozonator function, demonstrating the ionization of oxygen in the atmosphere, producing ozone, essential to life on earth. And as a sparks transmitter, low power, low frequency modulated continuous wave in (CW), for signals in Morse code. Therefore the equipment here called LOT-G3, has three functions: a plasma lamp, ozonator and CW transmitter.

  5. Basic Installation Guidelines & Instructions for your SkyJuice Rain Barrel 1. Your rain barrel must be placed on a surface that is flat and level. Use a spade to flatten the area for placement of the barrel.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the barrel by the spigot. To maintain the tight connection, open the barrel and tighten the nut on the inside of dish soap to the rain barrel to stop the mosquitoes from laying eggs in the water. Dish soap

  6. Coronal rain in magnetic arcades: Rebound shocks, Limit cycles, and Shear flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, X; Keppens, R; Van Doorsselaere, T

    2015-01-01

    We extend our earlier multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations of coronal rain occurring in magnetic arcades with higher resolution, grid-adaptive computations covering a much longer ($>6$ hour) timespan. We quantify how in-situ forming blob-like condensations grow along and across field lines and show that rain showers can occur in limit cycles, here demonstrated for the first time in 2.5D setups. We discuss dynamical, multi-dimensional aspects of the rebound shocks generated by the siphon inflows and quantify the thermodynamics of a prominence-corona-transition-region like structure surrounding the blobs. We point out the correlation between condensation rates and the cross-sectional size of loop systems where catastrophic cooling takes place. We also study the variations of the typical number density, kinetic energy and temperature while blobs descend, impact and sink into the transition region. In addition, we explain the mechanisms leading to concurrent upflows while the blobs descend. As a resu...

  7. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Saewung; Kim, So-Young; Lee, Meehye; Shim, Heeyoun; Wolfe, Glenn; Guenther, Alex B.; He, Amy; Hong, Youdeog; Han, Jinseok

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Gangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical concentrations, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational dataset of CO, NOX, SO2, ozone, HONO, and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa Research Forest (TRF) near the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh BVOC emissions. With the dataset, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated with the University of Washington Chemical Box Model (UWCM v 2.1). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that 1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOX distributions especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times) and 2) radical destruction (HO2+HO2 or HO2+RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (HO2+NO) especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone-VOC-NOX sensitivity and oxidation product formation rates. Overall, the VOC limited regime in ozone photochemistry is predicted but the degree of sensitivity can significantly vary depending on the model scenarios. The model results also suggest that RO2 levels are positively correlated with OVOCs production that is not routinely constrained by observations. These unconstrained OVOCs can cause higher than expected OH loss rates (missing OH reactivity) and secondary organic aerosol formation. The series of modeling experiments constrained by observations strongly urge observational constraint of the radical pool to enable precise understanding of regional photochemical pollution problems in the East Asian megacity region.

  8. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban

  9. Transport Infrastructure and the Environment: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2013-01-01

    the Environment: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism Robertthe Environment: Sustainable Mobility and Urbanism RobertGlobal South on more sustainable mobility and urbanization

  10. Indonesia-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indonesia-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies in Emerging Economy Countries (URBAN-LEDS) Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-Promoting Low Emission Urban...

  11. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    The International Urban Energy Balance Models ComparisonT. Williamson, Urban surface energy balance models: modelof the international urban energy balance model comparison,

  12. Economic Growth in Urban Regions: Implications for Future Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2006-01-01

    diesels) and “sustainable urbanism” (e.g. , TOD). To bringto embrace sustainable transport and urbanism can be thea program of sustainable mobility, urbanism, and finance. 2.

  13. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    The International Urban Energy Balance Models ComparisonT. Williamson, Urban surface energy balance models: modelthree-dimensional urban energy balance model for studying

  14. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    urban smoke absorbs sunlight Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming Cloaking urban areas and wildfire zones, tiny smoke particles suspended in...

  15. Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Acid Rain Program is divided into two time periods; Phase I, from 1995 through 1999, and Phase II, starting in 2000. Phase I mostly affects power plants that are the largest sources of SO2 and NOx . Phase II affects virtually all electric power producers, including utilities and nonutilities. This report is a study of the effects of compliance with Phase I regulations on the costs and operations of electric utilities, but does not address any Phase II impacts.

  16. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, V.; Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C.; Cascio, W.E.; Phillips, P.M.; Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C.; Andrews, D.; Miller, D.; Doerfler, D.L.; Kodavanti, U.P.

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased ?{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone metabolic effects are only slightly exacerbated in geriatric rats.

  17. Modeling and Remote Sensing of Urban Land-Atmosphere Interactions with a Focus on Urban Irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahmani, Pouya

    2014-01-01

    representation of both water and energy fluxes is criticalemployed to quantify water and energy cycle fluxes in urban2008), Linking urban water balance and energy balance models

  18. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  19. The red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible extraterrestrial origin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godfrey Louis; A. Santhosh Kumar

    2006-01-02

    A red rain phenomenon occurred in Kerala, India starting from 25th July 2001, in which the rainwater appeared coloured in various localized places that are spread over a few hundred kilometers in Kerala. Maximum cases were reported during the first 10 days and isolated cases were found to occur for about 2 months. The striking red colouration of the rainwater was found to be due to the suspension of microscopic red particles having the appearance of biological cells. These particles have no similarity with usual desert dust. An estimated minimum quantity of 50,000 kg of red particles has fallen from the sky through red rain. An analysis of this strange phenomenon further shows that the conventional atmospheric transport processes like dust storms etc. cannot explain this phenomenon. The electron microscopic study of the red particles shows fine cell structure indicating their biological cell like nature. EDAX analysis shows that the major elements present in these cell like particles are carbon and oxygen. Strangely, a test for DNA using Ethidium Bromide dye fluorescence technique indicates absence of DNA in these cells. In the context of a suspected link between a meteor airburst event and the red rain, the possibility for the extraterrestrial origin of these particles from cometary fragments is discussed.

  20. Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Wei; D. J. Durian

    2014-02-10

    We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

  1. The Roles of Cloud Drop Effective Radius and LWP in Determining Rain Properties in Marine Stratocumulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2012-07-04

    Numerical simulations described in previous studies showed that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open cells. Additional analyses of the same simulations show that the suppression of rain is well described in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12-14 um. Cloud water starts to get depleted when column-maximum rain intensity (Rmax) exceeds 0.1 mm h-1. This happens when cloud-top re reaches 14 um. Rmax is mostly less than 0.1 mm h-1 at re<14 um, regardless of the cloud water path, but increases rapidly when re exceeds 14 um. This is in agreement with recent aircraft observations and theoretical observations in convective clouds so that the mechanism is not limited to describing marine stratocumulus. These results support the hypothesis that the onset of significant precipitation is determined by the number of nucleated cloud drops and the height (H) above cloud base within the cloud that is required for cloud drops to reach re of 14 um. In turn, this can explain the conditions for initiation of significant drizzle and opening of closed cells providing the basis for a simple parameterization for GCMs that unifies the representation of both precipitating and non-precipitating clouds as well as the transition between them. Furthermore, satellite global observations of cloud depth (from base to top), and cloud top re can be used to derive and validate this parameterization.

  2. Ozone air quality measurement requirements for a geostationary satellite mission Peter Zoogman a,*, Daniel J. Jacob a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Ozone air quality measurement requirements for a geostationary satellite mission Peter Zoogman a Accepted 23 May 2011 Keywords: Air quality Ozone Kalman filter Assimilation Remote sensing a b s t r a c satellite measurements of ozone in different spectral regions to constrain surface ozone concentrations

  3. Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Howard S.

    Seasonal development of ozone-induced foliar injury on tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great by symptoms of foliar ozone injury. Abstract The goals of this study were to document the development of ozone-induced foliar injury, on a leaf-by-leaf basis, and to develop ozone exposure relationships for leaf cohorts

  4. Voluntary compliance with market-based environment poliy [sic] : evidence from the U.S. acid rain program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan Pablo

    The U.S. acid rain program, Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, is a pioneering experience in environmental regulation by setting a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and by including ...

  5. Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure by a Quenched Induction-Coupled Plasma Torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Blutke; B.C. Stratton; D.R. Mikkelsen; J. Vavruska; R. Knight

    1998-01-01

    The technical feasibility of using an induction-coupled plasma (ICP) torch to synthesize ozone at atmospheric pressure is explored. Ozone concentrations up to ~250 ppm were produced using a thermal plasma reactor system based on an ICP torch operating at 2.5 MHz and ~11 kVA with an argon/oxygen mixture as the plasma-forming gas. A gaseous oxygen quench formed ozone by rapid mixing of molecular oxygen with atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The ozone concentration in the reaction chamber was measured by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over a wide range of experimental configurations. The geometry of the quench gas flow, the quench flow velocity, and the quench flow rate played important roles in determining the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration was sensitive to the torch RF power, but was insensitive to the torch gas flow rates. These observations are interpreted within the framework of a simple model of ozone synthesis.

  6. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  7. Urban weather generator user interface development : towards a usable tool for integrating urban heat island effect within urban design process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakano, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    Urban Weather Generator (UWG) is the urban design simulation tool that provides climate-specific advice for cityscape geometry and land use to assist the development of energy-efficient cities that are also thermally ...

  8. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    that nuclear war could be winnable, and preceded the first significant reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles, the proliferation of nuclear weapons has produced greater risks of a regional nuclear conflict. At the same timeMassive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict Michael J. Mills* , Owen B

  9. Design and Usage of an Ozone Mapping App Ilyas Uyanik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    design, pollution visualiza- tion, air quality monitoring, ozone, user studies Permission to make digital-time, quantitative, and localized pollutant information has become available for a few big cities. Several mobile to conventional weather report- ing systems that provide a qualitative and static description of pollutant levels

  10. EARTH OBSERVATION 400M Indians Endangered By Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Ramesh P.

    has been linked to increases in skin cancer rates. All rights reserved. © 2004 United Press using satellite and limited ground observations, the Press Trust of India reported Tuesday. The rate the reasons for the depletion, th e report states. Ozone is an important atmospheric trace gas that blocks

  11. Validation of satellite ozone profile retrievals using Beijing ozonesonde data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Laura

    , the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA Aqua satellite and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS in the stratosphere and troposphere. Stratospheric ozone forms a protective layer that absorbs enough solar) on the NASA Aqua satellite [Aumann et al., 2003] and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the NASA Aura

  12. Containers : project for a new urbanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghasemkhani, Yashar

    2011-01-01

    This project investigates the possibilities of a new urbanism in vast territories of urban industrial and logistics landscapes, which have become a significant feature of the American city. It is a search for a hybrid ...

  13. URBANISM AND ENERGY IN DEVELOPING REGIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Global Urban Population 9b TREND CHANGES IN ENERGY CONSUMPTIONGlobal Urban Population 9a 9b Trend Changes i n Energy ConsumptionEnergy Consumption i n C i t i e s Competition i n the Forthcoming Global

  14. Field crossings : hybridizing the urban park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cyphers, Scott M

    2003-01-01

    The growth and identity of urban open space is a vital issue facing our cities today. The development and revitalization of old industrial centers in the United States has prompted urban transformations in usage, densification ...

  15. Urban regeneration : enabled by mobility centric architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Wayne Charles

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is to develop a new urban architectural prototype to reinvigorate the British New Town. New models of adaptable, sustainable, architecture and urban design are explored with the ultimate ...

  16. Urban waterfront : problems and potentials of Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, Mohammad Iqbal

    1984-01-01

    The essence of this thesis is based on the fact that downtown waterfronts are special urban areas in a city. These areas offer unique opportunities for providing cultural and recreational public amenities to urban life. ...

  17. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landweber, Laura

    racial- ized poverty. He challenged the conventional wisdom that urban decline was the result of failed the roots of urban poverty in a hidden history of racial violence, discrimination, and deindustri- alization

  18. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 7 (2008) 195206 Nitrogen fertilization during planting and establishment of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    2008-01-01

    Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 7 (2008) 195­206 Nitrogen fertilization during planting forest increasingly consists of planted trees, especially as native forest fragments yield to urban little for the first few years after planting. Stressful urban sites exacerbate this effect and many

  19. Urban Retrofit: A Whole-Watershed Approach to Urban Stormwater Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithander, Becky

    2012-01-01

    use  reduction  and   heat  island  mitigation.  These  providing  urban  heat-­?island   mitigation  which  

  20. Roles of Urban Tree Canopy and Buildings in Urban Heat Island Effects: Parameterization and Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    and Forecasting model and an urban canopy model (WRF-UCM). By parameterizing the effects of these natural surfacesRoles of Urban Tree Canopy and Buildings in Urban Heat Island Effects: Parameterization (Manuscript received 28 October 2011, in final form 16 April 2012) ABSTRACT Urban heat island (UHI) effects

  1. Center for Sustainable Urban LandscapesCenter for Sustainable Urban Landscapes At a glance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Center for Sustainable Urban LandscapesCenter for Sustainable Urban Landscapes At a glance After rehabilitation, visit www.cnre.vt.edu/urbanforestry/SRES The Center for Sustainable Urban Landscapes (CSUL and never attain their full potential. Soil rehabilitation methods are needed to improve urban soil

  2. Urban Forestry at Virginia Tech Promoting sustainable urban forests through education and research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Urban Forestry at Virginia Tech Promoting sustainable urban forests through education and research's undergraduate curriculum holds Society of American Foresters Specialized Accreditation in Urban Forestry. This accreditation assures that the curriculum has both breadth and depth specifically in urban forestry and meets

  3. Impact of Upstream Urbanization on the Urban Heat Island Effects along the WashingtonBaltimore Corridor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da-Lin

    of Washington, D.C. Results from a coupled ultrahigh-resolution mesoscale­urban canopy model with 2001 National of the urban­bay interaction reveals the importance of horizontal wind direction in determining the intensityImpact of Upstream Urbanization on the Urban Heat Island Effects along the Washington

  4. Metro Vancouver: Designing for Urban Food Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roehr, Daniel; Kunigk, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    urbanism, which would provide for the integration of sustainableurbanism and municipal supported agriculture: a new food system path for sustainable

  5. Towards Militaristic Urban Planning: the Genealogy of the Post-Colonial European Approach to Social and Urban Insecurity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedjazi, Alexandre B; Fekkak, Hatem

    2012-01-01

    Urban Planning: the Genealogy of the Post-Colonial Europeanexperience, the British genealogy of city planning and urban

  6. Cornell's Urban Sustainability Initiatives ACSF Lunch Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Cornell's Urban Sustainability Initiatives ACSF Lunch Summary Compiled by Marianne Krasny (NTRES was to outline steps that Cornell could take to define an urban sustainability initiative in collaboration of our student body, it is important for Cornell to more broadly address urban sustainability issues. Our

  7. Lake Charles Urbanized Area MTP 2034 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lake Charles Urbanized Area Metropolitan Planning Organization

    2009-08-04

    CONSTRAINED AND UNCONSTRAINED PLAN PROJECTS . C-1 ? Lake Charles Urbanized Area MTP 2034 ? Page v Alliance Transportation Group, Inc. Adopted August 4, 2009 Table of Tables Table 2-1 Stakeholders Present... ......................................................................................................... 3-1 ? Lake Charles Urbanized Area MTP 2034 ? Page iii Alliance Transportation Group, Inc. Adopted August 4, 2009 LAKE CHARLES URBANIZED AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODEL .............................................................. 3-2 SOCIOECONOMIC...

  8. A little rain doesn't fix it: Farmers and ranchers remain cautious as drought continues 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    and climate, along with the #17;#19;.#16;#25; billion of agricultural losses in #25;#24;#23;#23; plus crop, hay and livestock losses, leave the question: What is the outlook for agricultural crops, forage and livestock this year? Agricultural outlook ?It... rain doesn?t #30;x it continued Forage outlook #31;e drought took a toll on pastures, leaving most ranchers without any hay to cut and bare spots in the forage for livestock. ?A lot of our pastures, speci#28;cally hay meadows, were probably...

  9. Rain or Shine, Students Keep Their Race Cars Going - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2 RadiometerRafael L. BrasRain or Shine,

  10. Sum frequency generation and catalytic reaction studies of the removal of the organic capping agents from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliaga, Cesar

    2010-01-01

    and (b) after 2 hours of UV/ozone treatment. (a) 50nm (b)a) before and (b) after UV/ozone treatment for 270 minutes.from Pt nanoparticles by UV-ozone treatment Cesar Aliaga, †

  11. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 91, NO. D1, PAGES 1103-1116, JANUARY 20, 1986 Two-Dimensional Monthly Average Ozone BalanceFrom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    -Dimensional Monthly Average Ozone BalanceFrom Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphereand Stratosphericand consistency.We computethe diurnal averagephotochemicalproductionand lossterms of ozone usingmonthly ozone,whichisthelossrate by thechlorinefamily,iscalculatedfroma two

  12. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausladen, Paul; Blessinger, Christopher S; Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  13. The future of emissions trading in light of the acid rain experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLean, B.J.; Rico, R.

    1995-12-31

    The idea of emissions trading was developed more than two decades ago by environmental economists eager to provide new ideas for how to improve the efficiency of environmental protection. However, early emissions trading efforts were built on the historical {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} infrastructure which has dominated U.S. environmental protection until today. The {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} model initially had advantages that were of a very pragmatic character: it assured large pollution reductions in a time when large, cheap reductions were available and necessary; and it did not require a sophisticated government infrastructure. Within the last five years, large-scale emission trading programs have been successfully designed and started that are fundamentally different from the earlier efforts, creating a new paradigm for environmental control just when our understanding of environmental problems is changing as well. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the largest national-scale program--the Acid Rain Program--and from that experience, forecast when emission trading programs may be headed based on our understanding of the factors currently influencing environmental management. The first section of this paper will briefly review the history of emissions trading programs, followed by a summary of the features of the Acid Rain Program, highlighting those features that distinguish it from previous efforts. The last section addresses the opportunities for emissions trading (and its probable future directions).

  14. The red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible extraterrestrial origin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, G; Louis, Godfrey

    2006-01-01

    A red rain phenomenon occurred in Kerala, India starting from 25th July 2001, in which the rainwater appeared coloured in various localized places that are spread over a few hundred kilometers in Kerala. Maximum cases were reported during the first 10 days and isolated cases were found to occur for about 2 months. The striking red colouration of the rainwater was found to be due to the suspension of microscopic red particles having the appearance of biological cells. These particles have no similarity with usual desert dust. An estimated minimum quantity of 50,000 kg of red particles has fallen from the sky through red rain. An analysis of this strange phenomenon further shows that the conventional atmospheric transport processes like dust storms etc. cannot explain this phenomenon. The electron microscopic study of the red particles shows fine cell structure indicating their biological cell like nature. EDAX analysis shows that the major elements present in these cell like particles are carbon and oxygen. St...

  15. Overview of the oxidation and scavenging characteristics of April rains (OSCAR) experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easter, R.C.; Dana, M.T.; Thorp, J.M.; Busness, K.M.; Hales, J.M.; Raynor, G.S.; Benkovitz, C.M.; Tanner, R.L.; Shannon, J.D.

    1984-04-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) field experiment was conducted in April, 1981, as part of the MAP3S/RAINE program. The OSCAR study was designed to provide detailed characterizations of the physicochemical and dynamical features of selected cyclonic storm systems as they traversed the eastern U.S. Major experiment components included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements, aircraft measurements both in cloud and in clear air in storm inflow regions, surface-level air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. The precipitation chemisty network consisted of an intermediate-density network with 37 sampling sites covering the region from southern Ontario to Tennessee and from Illinois to New Hampshire, and a high-density network with 47 sampling sites located in a 100 by 100 km area in northeast Indiana. A total of four storm events were studied during the experiment. The report describes the design and operational aspects for the high-density and intermediate-density components of the experiment, and the composition of the integrated OSCAR data set which has been developed. A synoptic meteorological description of the four storm events studied during OSCAR is also provided. 17 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

  16. Acid rain in China. Rapid industrialization has put citizens and ecosystems at risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorjoern Larssen; Espen Lydersen; Dagang Tang [and others] [Norwegian Institute for Water Research and University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2006-01-15

    Acid rain emerged as an important environmental problem in China in the late 1970s. Many years of record economic growth have been accompanied by increased energy demand, greater coal combustion, and larger emissions of pollutants. As a result of significant emissions and subsequent deposition of sulfur, widespread acid rain is observed in southern and southwestern China. In fact, the deposition of sulfur is in some places higher than what was reported from the 'black triangle' in central Europe in the early 1980s. In addition, nitrogen is emitted from agriculture, power production, and a rapidly increasing number of cars. As a result, considerable deposition of pollutants occurs in forested areas previously thought to be pristine. Little is known about the effects of acid deposition on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in China. This article presents the current situation and what to expect in the future, largely on the basis of results from a five-year Chinese-Norwegian cooperative project. In the years ahead, new environmental challenges must be expected if proper countermeasures are not put into place. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Modelling chemical degradation of concrete during leaching with rain and soil water types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques, D., E-mail: djacques@sckcen.b [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Institute for Environment, Health, and Safety, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Wang, L.; Martens, E.; Mallants, D. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Institute for Environment, Health, and Safety, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    Percolation of external water through concrete results in the degradation of cement and changes the concrete pore water and solid phase composition. The assessment of long-term degradation of concrete is possible by means of model simulation. This paper describes simulations of chemical degradation of cement for different types of rain and soil water at an ambient earth surface temperature (10 {sup o}C). Rain and soil water types were derived using generic equations and measurement of atmospheric boundary conditions representative for North-Belgium. An up-to-date and consistent thermodynamic model is used to calculate the geochemical changes during chemical degradation of the concrete. A general pattern of four degradation stages was simulated with the third stage being the geochemically most complex stage involving reactions with calcium-silicate hydrates, AFm and AFt phases. Whereas the sequence of the dissolution reactions was relatively insensitive to the composition of the percolating water, the duration of the different reactions depends strongly on the percolating water composition. Major identified factors influencing the velocity of cement degradation are the effect of dry deposition and biological activity increasing the partial pressure of CO{sub 2(g)} in the soil air phase (and thus increasing the inorganic carbon content in the percolating water). Soil weathering processes have only a minor impact, at least for the relatively inert sandy material considered in this study.

  18. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

    2006-03-01

    The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

  19. The effect of solids retention time on tertiary ozonation and carbon adsorption of petrochemical wastewaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buys, Ronald Earl

    1980-01-01

    time of 30 days. 34 10 Correlation between measured and calculated nonadsorbable COD values for bio-oxidized samples. 37 Correlation between measured and calculated nonadsorbable COD values for bio-oxidized plus ozonated samples. 12 Effect... of solids retention time on nonadsorbable COD, with and without ozonation. 39 LIST OF TABLES Table Page Biochemical and chemical oxygen demand data. COD removal and ozone consumption data 21 26 iVon-adsorbable COD data for bio-oxidized effluent. . 3O...

  20. Meeting the New Ozone Standard: Challenges and Opportunities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by Anna Garcia, executive director of the Ozone Transport Commission, was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  1. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kim, S. -Y. [National Inst. Environmental Research, Incheon (South Korea); Lee, M. [Korean Univ., Seoul (South Korea); Shim, H. [Korean Univ., Seoul (South Korea); Wolfe, G. M. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States). Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology; Atmosperic Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Guenther, A. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC); He, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Hong, Y. [National Inst. Environmental Research, Incheon (South Korea); Han, J. [National Inst. Environmental Research, Incheon (South Korea)

    2015-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas, and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational data set of CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, HONO, and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa research forest (TRF) near the Seoul metropolitan area in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. With the data set, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated using the University of Washington chemical box model (UWCM v2.1) with near-explicit VOC oxidation mechanisms from MCM v3.2 (Master Chemical Mechanism). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that (1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOx distributions, especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times), and (2) radical destruction (HO2 + HO2 or HO2 + RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (RO2 + NO), especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone–VOC–NOx sensitivity and VOC oxidation product formation rates. Overall, the NOx limited regime is assessed except for the morning hours (8 a.m. to 12 p.m. local standard time), but the degree of sensitivity can significantly vary depending on the model scenarios. The model results also suggest that RO2 levels are positively correlated with oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) production that is not routinely constrained by observations. These unconstrained OVOCs can cause higher-than-expected OH loss rates (missing OH reactivity) and secondary organic aerosol formation. The series of modeling experiments constrained by observations strongly urge observational constraint of the radical pool to enable precise understanding of regional photochemical pollution problems in the East Asian megacity region.

  2. Impact of isoprene and HONO chemistry on ozone and OVOC formation in a semirural South Korean forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, S.; Kim, S. -Y.; Lee, M.; Shim, H.; Wolfe, G. M.; Guenther, A. B.; He, A.; Hong, Y.; Han, J.

    2015-04-29

    Rapid urbanization and economic development in East Asia in past decades has led to photochemical air pollution problems such as excess photochemical ozone and aerosol formation. Asian megacities such as Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Beijing are surrounded by densely forested areas, and recent research has consistently demonstrated the importance of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation in determining oxidation capacity in the suburban Asian megacity regions. Uncertainties in constraining tropospheric oxidation capacity, dominated by hydroxyl radical, undermine our ability to assess regional photochemical air pollution problems. We present an observational data set of CO, NOx, SO2, ozone, HONO,more »and VOCs (anthropogenic and biogenic) from Taehwa research forest (TRF) near the Seoul metropolitan area in early June 2012. The data show that TRF is influenced both by aged pollution and fresh biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. With the data set, we diagnose HOx (OH, HO2, and RO2) distributions calculated using the University of Washington chemical box model (UWCM v2.1) with near-explicit VOC oxidation mechanisms from MCM v3.2 (Master Chemical Mechanism). Uncertainty from unconstrained HONO sources and radical recycling processes highlighted in recent studies is examined using multiple model simulations with different model constraints. The results suggest that (1) different model simulation scenarios cause systematic differences in HOx distributions, especially OH levels (up to 2.5 times), and (2) radical destruction (HO2 + HO2 or HO2 + RO2) could be more efficient than radical recycling (RO2 + NO), especially in the afternoon. Implications of the uncertainties in radical chemistry are discussed with respect to ozone–VOC–NOx sensitivity and VOC oxidation product formation rates. Overall, the NOx limited regime is assessed except for the morning hours (8 a.m. to 12 p.m. local standard time), but the degree of sensitivity can significantly vary depending on the model scenarios. The model results also suggest that RO2 levels are positively correlated with oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) production that is not routinely constrained by observations. These unconstrained OVOCs can cause higher-than-expected OH loss rates (missing OH reactivity) and secondary organic aerosol formation. The series of modeling experiments constrained by observations strongly urge observational constraint of the radical pool to enable precise understanding of regional photochemical pollution problems in the East Asian megacity region.« less

  3. The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James; Kim, Jin; McCubbin, Donald R.

    1996-01-01

    without motor-vehicle related pollution. This diagram is forBY OZONE AIR POLLUTION FROM MOTOR VEHICLES Report #12 in thePOLLUTION FROM MOTOR VEHICLES

  4. Sustainable Urbanism: Vision and Planning Process Through an Examination of Two Model Neighborhood Developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasioumi, Eirini

    2011-01-01

    the 1990s. Routledge. Sustainable Urbanism Davoudi, S. 2001.Council. 2008. Sustainable Urbanism: Urban Design withVauban area). Sustainable Urbanism Stadt Freiburg Im

  5. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Ozone near the Mesopause from Observations of the 11.072-GHz Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratap, P.

    Ground-based observations of the 11.072-GHz line of ozone were made from January 2008 through January 2009. These observations provide an estimate of the diurnal and seasonal variations of ozone in the mesopause region. ...

  6. THE MEXICO CITY INITIATIVE: RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION OF EVERYDAY URBANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, X. Shirley

    sustainable urbanism. Innovations in Everyday Urbanism. At the same time as risk problematizes the urbanTHE MEXICO CITY INITIATIVE: RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION OF EVERYDAY URBANISM An expanding metropolis, physically expanding, environmentally fragile, and socially complex locale that has faced new urban

  7. An urban weather generator coupling a building simulation program with an urban canopy model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bueno Unzeta, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The increase in air temperature observed in urban environments compared to the undeveloped rural surroundings, known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, is being intensely studied, due to its adverse environmental and ...

  8. Boundaries to membranes : the urban project revisited : an urban strategy for Rio de Janeiro, Zona Norte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudek, Phebe (Phebe Helena Melania)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates urban boundaries in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro. The Zona Norte transitioned in the last hundred years from a rural outskirts area of Rio, into its industrial hinterland, into a fully urbanized ...

  9. Managing change: tensions between urban morphology and everyday life in the heterotopic urban context of Tainan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei-Kuang

    2011-06-29

    Urban conservation and development practices are often in conflict. This thesis examines this general claim in the context of rapid urban development in East Asia through an analysis of the postcolonial historic city of ...

  10. SproutslO Urban Microfarm : interactive indoor farming system for urban use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farah, Jennifer Broutin

    2013-01-01

    SproutslO Urban Microfarm is an interactive farming system that enables people to reliably grow and access healthy produce in urban areas. The introduction of a localized system with the capacity to induce scalar impact ...

  11. Urban Parks: The Value of Small Urban Parks, Plazas and Other Outdoor Spaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafer, Carl Scott; Jacob, John

    2006-11-27

    People need parks. Great urban parks are places where communities come together, people interact, and social capital develops. Learn the characteristics of great urban parks and how they are created....

  12. An Examination of Version 5 Rainfall Estimates from the TRMM Microwave Imager, Precipitation Radar, and Rain Gauges on Global, Regional, and Storm Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    , and Rain Gauges on Global, Regional, and Storm Scales STEPHEN W. NESBITT1 AND EDWARD J. ZIPSER Department TRMM rainfall products with Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) global rain gauge analyses is done to evaluate the overall biases of the TMI and PR to "ground truth" to examine regional differences

  13. Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings: Evidence from the US Acid Rain Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    The US Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate in allowance trading, and whether regulatory activity at the state level would further complicate utilities` decision to trade allowances. This paper finds that public utility commission regulation has encouraged allowance trading activity in states with regulatory rulings, but that allowance trading activity has not been limited to states issuing regulations. Until there is evidence suggesting that significant additional cost savings could have been obtained if additional allowance trading activity had occurred in states without regulations or that utilities in states with regulations are still not taking advantage of all cost saving trading opportunities, this analysis suggests that there is little reason to believe that allowance trading activity is impeded by public utility commission regulations.

  14. Traces of Radioactive 131I in Rain Water Samples in Romania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margineanu, Romul; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of I-131 (T1/2 = 8.04 days) have been performed in IFIN-HH's underground laboratory situated in Unirea salt mine from Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The rain water samples were collected in March 27th in Brasov and March 27th and 29th in Slanic. The samples were measured using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a GeHP detector having a FWHM = 1.80 keV at 1332.48 keV at the second Co-60 gammaray, and a relative efficiency of 22.8 %. The results show a specific activity of I-131 of 0.35 \\pm 0.04 Bq/dm^3 in Brasov and 0.39 \\pm 0.04 Bq/dm^3, 0.13 \\pm 0.03 Bq/dm^3 and 0.71 \\pm 0.06 Bq/dm^3 in Slanic.

  15. High-resolution urban thermal sharpener (HUTS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C; Rickman, Douglas L

    2011-01-01

    of zoning in urban ecosystems with remote sensing, Remote Sensing of Environment  Yaghoobian, N. , J.  of thermal imagery.  Remote Sensing of Environment 107 , 

  16. Strategies for systemic urban constructed wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balderas-Guzmán, Celina

    2013-01-01

    As a result of ubiquitous impermeable surfaces, conventional water management and stormwater infrastructure, and the resultant degradation of natural hydrologic networks, most American urban areas have suffered severely ...

  17. Parcel delivery and urban logistics-changes in urban courier, express and parcel services: the French (DUCRET, Raphalle; DELAITRE, Loc)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Parcel delivery and urban logistics- changes in urban courier, express and parcel services PARCEL DELIVERY AND URBAN LOGISTICS- CHANGES IN URBAN COURIER, EXPRESS AND PARCEL SERVICES: THE FRENCH new logistic organisations. The purpose of this paper is to give an updated overview of the urban

  18. Scaling the Daytime Urban Heat Island and Urban-Breeze Circulation JULIA HIDALGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that describe the shape of the urban heat island and the horizontal and vertical wind intensity and profiles. 1 an atmospheric numerical model coupled with an urban surface energy balance (SEB) model. For example, simulations atmospheric Nonhydrostatic Meso- scale (Meso-NH) model (Lafore et al. 1998) with a Town Energy Balance urban

  19. Very low zonally asymmetric ozone values in March 1997 above the North Atlantic-European region, induced by dynamic processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Very low zonally asymmetric ozone values in March 1997 above the North Atlantic-European region September 1998 / Revised: 25 January 1999 / Accepted: 26 January 1999 Abstract. The total ozone distribution before. A spatial pattern correlation between the zonally asymmetric part of total ozone

  20. Sensitivity of China's ozone air quality to 2000-2050 global changes of1 climate and emissions2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shiliang

    1 Sensitivity of China's ozone air quality to 2000-2050 global changes of1 climate and emissions2 3 the effect on China's ozone air quality from 2000-2050 global15 changes in climate and anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors. The climate and16 emission effect in combination will increase afternoon mean

  1. LA RPARTITION DE L'OZONE ATMOSPHRIQUE EN FONCTION DE L'ALTITUDE Par M. D. BARBIER.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    LA RÉPARTITION DE L'OZONE ATMOSPHÉRIQUE EN FONCTION DE L'ALTITUDE Par M. D. BARBIER. Observatoire observations en déter- minant la distribution de l'ozone par une série de Charlier du type A. En général on ne peut déterminer que la quantité totale d'ozone et la hauteur moyenne de la distribution, ces quantités

  2. Photodissociation of Ozone from 321 to 329 nm: The Relative Yields P2) with O2(X 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Paul L.

    Photodissociation of Ozone from 321 to 329 nm: The Relative Yields of O(3 P2) with O2(X 3 g - ), O2 Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Product imaging of O(3 P2) following dissociation of ozone has been used to determine the relative yields of the product channels O(3 P2) + O2(X 3 g - ) of ozone. All three channels

  3. Measurement of ozone in ambient air with microsensors : on-site campaign Isabelle ZDANEVITCH*. Nicolas MOSER**, Caroline CHARPENTIER*, Alexis MOQUET*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Measurement of ozone in ambient air with microsensors : on-site campaign Isabelle ZDANEVITCH, Switzerland E-mail : Isabelle.Zdanevitch(a),iner is.fr (corresponding author) ABSTRACT Ozone is actually one by continuous monitors but a better information on ozone levels would be given by a denser monitoring network

  4. Vertical Ozone Profiling at UMBS K. O'Donnell, T. Jobson, M. Erickson, T. Vanreken, W. Wallace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Vertical Ozone Profiling at UMBS K. O'Donnell, T. Jobson, M. Erickson, T. Vanreken, W. Wallace been done to determine vertical ozone profiles, especially in environments such as the northern mixed forest where this field campaign is being run. What past research that has been done has shown that ozone

  5. Ozone injury on cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata) and crown-beard (Verbesina occidentalis) in Great Smoky Mountains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Howard S.

    Ozone injury on cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata) and crown-beard (Verbesina occidentalis ``Capsule'': Ground-level ozone causes deleterious effects to cutleaf coneflower and crown-beard in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Abstract Incidence and severity of visible foliar ozone injury on cutleaf

  6. The Huggins band of ozone: Unambiguous electronic and vibrational Zheng-Wang Qu, Hui Zhu, Motomichi Tashiro, and Reinhard Schinkea)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farantos, Stavros C.

    The Huggins band of ozone: Unambiguous electronic and vibrational assignment Zheng-Wang Qu, Hui Zhu 12 February 2004; accepted 2 March 2004 The Huggins band of ozone is investigated by means of exact.1063/1.1711589 Because of the importance of ozone for the shielding of harmful UV light, its photophysics has been

  7. Rapid formation of molecular bromine from deliquesced NaBr aerosol in the presence of ozone and UV light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Rapid formation of molecular bromine from deliquesced NaBr aerosol in the presence of ozone and UV deliquesced NaBr aerosols in the presence of OH radicals produced by ozone irradiated by UV light, depending on the availability of ozone and bromide in the system. Interface reactions, an important source

  8. The Huggins band of ozone: A theoretical analysis Zheng-Wang Qu, Hui Zhu, Sergy Yu. Grebenshchikov, and Reinhard Schinkea)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farantos, Stavros C.

    The Huggins band of ozone: A theoretical analysis Zheng-Wang Qu, Hui Zhu, Sergy Yu. Grebenshchikov; accepted 16 September 2004 The Huggins band of ozone is investigated by means of dynamics calculations American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1814098 I. INTRODUCTION Because of the importance of ozone

  9. The vibrational energies of ozone up to the dissociation threshold: Dynamics calculations on an accurate potential energy surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farantos, Stavros C.

    The vibrational energies of ozone up to the dissociation threshold: Dynamics calculations present an ab initio potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone. It is global, i. All bound states of nonrotating ozone up to more than 99% of the dissociation energy are calculated

  10. Validation of AIRS v4 ozone profiles in the UTLS using ozonesondes from Lauder, NZ and Boulder, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Laura

    Validation of AIRS v4 ozone profiles in the UTLS using ozonesondes from Lauder, NZ and Boulder, USA) are used to examine the quality of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) v4 vertical ozone profile range), AIRS ozone mixing ratios are larger than ozonesonde measurements, and at higher altitudes ($100

  11. Products and Mechanisms of Ozone Reactions with Oleic Acid for Aerosol Particles Having Core-Shell Morphologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Products and Mechanisms of Ozone Reactions with Oleic Acid for Aerosol Particles Having Core of oleic acid aerosol particles with ozone are studied below 1% relative humidity. The particles have inert of the organic layer is monitored with increasing ozone exposure by using an aerosol mass spectrometer

  12. 3USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech.Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Biochemical Reactions of Ozone in Plants1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech.Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Biochemical Reactions of Ozone in Plants1 Abstract Plants react biochemically to ozone in three phases: with constitutive chemicals in the apoplastic, plant reactions with ozone result in constitutive molecules such as the ozonolysis of ethylene

  13. A New Application of UV-Ozone Treatment in the Preparation of Substrate-Supported, Mesoporous Thin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    A New Application of UV-Ozone Treatment in the Preparation of Substrate-Supported, Mesoporous Thin room temperature photochemical method, simply employing ultraviolet light- (187-254 nm) generated ozone. The structures and compositions of the thin film mesophases before and after exposure to UV/ozone were determined

  14. Week 4, Rain in my Brain On top of the Harbor Cone, Otago Peninsula, Pacific Ocean in the distance.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    Week 4, Rain in my Brain On top of the Harbor Cone, Otago Peninsula, Pacific Ocean in the distance of the ocean or of this beautiful city from on-high and it all comes back that we're here, a dream come true

  15. Volcanic Ash Fall--A "Hard Rain" of Abrasive Particles U.S. Department of the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V Volcanic Ash Fall--A "Hard Rain" of Abrasive Particles U.S. Department of the Interior U olcanic ash consists of tiny jagged particles of rock and natural glass blasted into the air by a volcano. Ash can threaten the health of people and live- stock, pose a hazard to flying jet aircraft, damage

  16. IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE@mail.ucf.edu ABSTRACT The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new imaging technology microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

  17. A neural emission-receptor model for ozone reduction S.Barazzetta, G. Corani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corani, Giorgio

    A neural emission-receptor model for ozone reduction planning S.Barazzetta, G. Corani , G- ulated areas. Ozone is produced by a series of photochemical reactions, activated by the emissions concen- trations are equally complex and cannot be directly used to optimize emission reduction policies

  18. Lusaka, Zambia, during SAFARI-2000: Convergence of local and imported ozone pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    Lusaka, Zambia, during SAFARI-2000: Convergence of local and imported ozone pollution Anne M of the southern African burning region were taken at Lusaka, Zambia (15.5S, 28E) in early September 2000. Maximum from trans- boundary recirculation. Starting out over Zambia, Angola, and Namibia, ozone-rich air

  19. White Pine Emission Trends of Monoterpenes and Sesquiterpenes After Acute Ozone Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    White Pine Emission Trends of Monoterpenes and Sesquiterpenes After Acute Ozone Exposure Daniel M on a large scale in forests. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from trees significantly contribute investigates the effect of an abiotic stress, specifically acute ozone exposure, on the terpene emissions

  20. Intercontinental source attribution of ozone pollution at western U.S. sites using an adjoint method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    the history of air parcels reaching the site. MBO experiences distinct Asian ozone pollution episodes; most stringent air quality standards [Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution, 2007]. Ozone previously to pollutant transport to Hawaii [Vukic´evic´ and Hess, 2000; Hess and Vukic´evic´, 2003

  1. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 treatment of open pit mines wastewater by a coupled ozone technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    /or hydroxides such as MnO2 or Fe(OH)3. The disinfection power of ozone is also well known. Thus the efficiency of University of São Paulo (USP). It has more than 2000 installations in Brazil, Argentina and Peru, treating of new application of ozone permitting to support his growth. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org) #12;

  2. Sources of tropospheric ozone along the Asian Pacific Rim: An analysis of ozonesonde observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    1 Sources of tropospheric ozone along the Asian Pacific Rim: An analysis of ozonesonde observations contributing to tropospheric ozone over the Asian Pacific Rim in different seasons are quantified by analysis influence along the Pacific Rim occurs in summer, reflecting rapid convective transport of surface pollution

  3. Air Pollution Physics and Chemistry EAS 6790 Home Work Assignment Ozone Chemistry 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    1 Air Pollution Physics and Chemistry EAS 6790 Fall 2010 Home Work Assignment Ozone Chemistry 2 and Chemistry EAS 6790 Fall 2006 Home Work Assignment No. 4, Ozone Chemistry Problems 11.8 and 11.9 (sub-part 1 and 2 only). Daniel Jacob, Atmospheric Chemistry #12;2 Problem 2: 2 2. Consider an air parcel ventilated

  4. The impact of large scale biomass production on ozone air pollution in Joost B. Beltman a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    The impact of large scale biomass production on ozone air pollution in Europe Joost B. Beltman by up to 25% and 40%. Air pollution mitigation strategies should consider land use management. a r t i Poplar a b s t r a c t Tropospheric ozone contributes to the removal of air pollutants from

  5. Response of different-aged black cherry trees to ambient ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredericksen, T.S.; Joyce, B.J.; Kouterick, K.B.; Kolb, T.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Savage, J.E.; Snyder, K.R. (Pennyslvania State Univ., Univ. Park, PA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is a valuable commercial timber species which is also highly sensitive to ozone relative to other eastern deciduous tree species. Studies of ozone effects on forest trees have been restricted mostly to experiments using small seedlings under controlled conditions. Yet, mature trees may differ from seedlings in physiology, morphology, and exposure to air pollutants. An experiment was conducted in 1993 to determine differences in ozone uptake and foliar injury symptoms between open-ground seedlings, forest saplings, and mature forest trees of black cherry in northcentral Pennsylvania. Seedlings grew under the highest ozone concentrations and also had greater seasonal ozone uptake due to higher rates of stomatal conductance. However, because of their indeterminate growth habit, seedlings had lower cumulative ozone uptake per leaf lifespan than saplings or mature trees, both of which had determinate shoot growth. Although greater initially for seedlings, foliar injury was nearly identical between size classes by the end of the growing season. Leaves in the lower crown of larger trees had lower ozone uptake than leaves in the upper crown, but exhibited more foliar injury symptoms. Lower crown leaves received more effective exposure to ozone because of their thinner leaves and had less available photosynthate for repair or replacement of damaged tissue.

  6. Establishment and persistence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in disturbed soil as a function of an urban-rural macro-enviornment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis H. Ziska, Kate George, David A. Frenz

    2007-01-01

    No data are available on whether rising carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] or increased air temperature can alter the establishment and persistence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) within a plant community following soil disturbance. To determine ragweed longevity, we exposed disturbed soil with a common seed bank population to an in situ temperature and [CO2] gradient along an urban-rural transect beginning in early 2002. No other consistent differences in meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed, humidity, PAR, tropospheric ozone) as a function of urbanization were documented over the course of the study (2002-2005). Above-ground measurements of biomass over this period demonstrated that ragweed along the transect responded to urban induced increases in [CO2]/temperature with peak biomass being observed at this location by the end of 2003. However, by the Fall of 2004, and continuing through 2005, urban ragweed populations had dwindled to a few plants. The temporal decline in ragweed populations was not associated with increased disease, herbivory or auto-allelopathy, but was part of a demographic reduction in the total number of annual plant species observed for the urban location. In a separate experiment, we showed that such a demographic shift is consistent with CO2/temperature induced increases in biomass and litter accumulation, with a subsequent reduction in germination / survival of annual plant species. Overall, these data indicate that [CO2]/temperature differences associated with urbanization may increase initial ragweed productivity and pollen production, but suggest that long-term, multi-year persistence of ragweed in the urban macro-environment may be dependent on other factors.

  7. Distinguishing the impacts of ozone-depleting substances and well-mixed greenhouse gases on Arctic stratospheric ozone and temperature trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieder, Harald E.

    Whether stratospheric cooling due to increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHG) could increase the depletion of Arctic stratospheric ozone has been the subject of scientific and public attention for decades. Here we ...

  8. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    of outdoor urban spaces, The role of materials, Solar Energyof outdoor urban spaces, The role of materials, Sol. Energy.outdoor urban spaces, the role of materials. Sol. Energy 77,

  9. Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands: A Global View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands: A Global View Alanurban climate is the phenomenon of the urban heat island.The urban heat island phenomenon was first observed over one

  10. Master of Urban Affairs & Policy: Economic/ Community Development Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haiying

    Master of Urban Affairs & Policy: Economic/ Community Development Policy Student Name Relations __________ URPA 5311 Social Policy Formation and Analysis __________ URPA 5312 Urban Economic Policy __________ Research and Analysis Courses (12 hours) URPA 5302 Foundations of Urban Research

  11. Faculty perceptions of presidential leadership in urban school reform 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClendon, Rodney Prescott

    2009-06-02

    The study examined urban university faculty members’ perceptions of their presidents’ leadership role in urban school reform. The population for this study consisted of faculty members from five urban research universities. All of the universities...

  12. Ozone production efficiency in an urban area Lawrence I. Kleinman, Peter H. Daum, Yin-Nan Lee, Linda J. Nunnermacker,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    parameter to consider when evaluating impacts from NOx emission sources. We present calculational), NOx (NO + NO2), and sunlight. Control of O3 is accomplished by reducing emissions of NOx and/or VOCs as the number of molecules of oxidant (O3 + NO2) produced photochemically when a molecule of NOx (NO + NO2

  13. Rapid urbanization and changes in spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitation in Beijing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AghaKouchak, Amir

    ., 2011], and urban heat islands [Oke, 1973]. The hydrological impacts of urbanization and heat island

  14. Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, February 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Document describing a model design for urban development and redevelopment that will reduce urban energy consumption

  15. An analytical approximation for the macropscopic fundamental diagram of urban traffic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daganzo, Carlos F; Geroliminis, Nikolas

    2008-01-01

    Future Urban Transport, University of California, Berkeley,Future Urban Transport, University of California, Berkeley,

  16. Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, February 2004 Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed...

  17. Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Cities in India Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban...

  18. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    efforts to reduce urban heat island, Build Environ. 49 (saving potentials of heat-island reduction strategies,Taha, Mitigation of urban heat islands: materials, utility

  19. Essays on Urban Transportation and Transportation Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chun Kon

    2008-01-01

    energy can be approached in two ways: one is through urban planningenergy, it may be approached in two ways: one is through urban planning

  20. Cultivation, Capital, and Contamination: Urban Agriculture in Oakland, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClintock, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    urban gardens. Land Contamination & Reclamation 12 Schiff,Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils andAlloway, B. J. 2004. Contamination of soils in domestic

  1. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    to mitigate urban heat islands. Atmos. Environ. 32, 95–saving potentials of heat-island reduction strategies.of surface urban heat islands under “ideal” conditions at

  2. Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis...

  3. Village Vices: The Contradiction of New Urbanism and Sustainability [Portfolio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durack, Ruth

    2001-01-01

    Urbanism and its dubious claims to sustainability, and to draw attention to an altogether more sustainablesustainable form. Admittedly, we cannot accurately evaluate the impacts of New Urbanism

  4. Migration and the City: Urban Effects of the Morisco Expulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valencia, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Migration and the City: Urban Effects of the MoriscoJames Monroe Spring 2011 Migration and the City: Urbanby Adriana Valencia Abstract Migration and the City: Urban

  5. Urban Form, Wind, Comfort, and Sustainability: The San Francisco Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungkoo

    2014-01-01

    small subset of San Francisco’s diverse urban form and windsmall. The boundary layer changes in the vertical wind profile over urban,

  6. "Dangerous" urban trees & community health & safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "Dangerous" urban trees & community health & safety Norman Dandy Forest Research #12;Urban trees application 4. When tree is deemed `dead, dying or dangerous' ­ no consent is needed under either forestry. Full assessment of `dead, dying or dangerous' requires `expert' knowledge Liability + lack

  7. UF in Brazil Urban, Medical, & Agricultural Entomology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    UF in Brazil Urban, Medical, & Agricultural Entomology Summer B: August 9 - 21, 2015 Explore aspects in Brazil and the United States. Course Information College of Agricultural and Life Sciences: Urban, Medical and Agricultural Entomology in Brazil Total Number of Credits Offered: 3 About

  8. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    decreases the roads' level of service, while at the same time increasing both fuel consump- tion5Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas Pu Wang1,2 , Timothy Hunter4 , Alexandre M. Bayen4 patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own

  9. Reconnecting urban communities : Northeastern University Housing Project, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jing, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    This design thesis studies the potential of urban design and urban housing to weave vacant lands, their urban context and the urban communities surrounding them. It focuses on an urban housing project adjacent to Northeastern ...

  10. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of ozone formation and transport for a Central California air pollution episode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Ling; Tonse, Shaheen; Cohan, Daniel S.; Mao, Xiaoling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2009-05-15

    CMAQ-HDDM is used to determine spatial and temporal variations in ozone limiting reagents and local vs upwind source contributions for an air pollution episode in Central California. We developed a first- and second- order sensitivity analysis approach with the Decoupled Direct Method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a five-day ozone episode (29th July-3rd Aug, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8-hr ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1-hr ozone standard. Inter-basin source contributions of NO{sub x} emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NO{sub x} and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO{sub 2} termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NO{sub x} emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

  12. THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherburne, Carol [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Remediation, LLC; Osterberg, Paul [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Johnson, Tom [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States); Frawely, Thomas [Fauske and Associates, LLC, Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    2013-01-23

    The Savannah River Site, in conjunction with AREVA Federal services, has designed a process to treat dissolved radioactive waste solids with ozone. It is known that in this radioactive waste process, radionuclides radiolytically break down water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, which presents a well defined flammability hazard. Flammability limits have been established for both ozone and hydrogen separately; however, there is little information on mixtures of hydrogen and ozone. Therefore, testing was designed to provide critical flammability information necessary to support safety related considerations for the development of ozone treatment and potential scale-up to the commercial level. Since information was lacking on flammability issues at low levels of hydrogen and ozone, a testing program was developed to focus on filling this portion of the information gap. A 2-L vessel was used to conduct flammability tests at atmospheric pressure and temperature using a fuse wire ignition source at 1 percent ozone intervals spanning from no ozone to the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) of ozone in the vessel, determined as 8.4%(v/v) ozone. An ozone generator and ozone detector were used to generate and measure the ozone concentration within the vessel in situ, since ozone decomposes rapidly on standing. The lower flammability limit of hydrogen in an ozone-oxygen mixture was found to decrease from the LFL of hydrogen in air, determined as 4.2 % (v/v) in this vessel. From the results of this testing, Savannah River was able to develop safety procedures and operating parameters to effectively minimize the formation of a flammable atmosphere.

  13. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?°C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  14. Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberbauer, S. F.

    2004-01-16

    The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

  15. Acid rain regs will be falling on utilities in '84, but not too hard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smock, R.

    1984-01-01

    Regulations will probably call for sulfur dioxide scrubber retrofits on some older power plants in 1984, but because the action will likely be administrative under the Clean Air Act rather than new legislation, the rulings will be less harsh. A response to Canadian pressures was delayed when administration attention focused on military problems and rejected the first Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposals submitted by the new director as too costly. Failure to take action in 1984, however, will be politically damaging to the administration during an election year. A lack of scientific data hampers decision making, but EPA scientists predict there will be enough information by 1988 to accurately quantify acid-rain damage. EPA must decide which states to include in the regulations, how much to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions, and how to allocate quotas. Complicating the issue is the effect on the jobs of high-sulfur coal miners and the high capital costs of scrubbers. A low-cost retrofit may be possible with a furnace-injection technique now under study. 2 figures, 3 tables. (DCK)

  16. Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

  17. Urban Land and Housing Markets in the Punjab, Pakistan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David E. Dowall; Peter Ellis

    2007-01-01

    Planning Support provided by the California Resource Agency and the California Energy Commission Institute of Urban

  18. Economic Growth in Urban Regions: Implications for Future Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    2006-01-01

    to pursue a program of sustainable mobility, urbanism, andthe Challenges to Sustainable Mobility”, the World Business

  19. Urban Form, Wind, Comfort, and Sustainability: The San Francisco Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyungkoo

    2014-01-01

    sustainable transportation modes. 2.2 Vernacular Urban Form and Historical Attempts Vernacular settlements and architecture

  20. Enhancing Resource Sustainability by Transforming Urban and Suburban Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable Transportation, Smart Growth, and New Urbanismsustainable transportation,” “smart growth,” and “new urbanism

  1. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 2: Rain Microphysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben; Williams, Christopher R.

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observations and retrievals from a scanning polarimetric radar, co-located UHF and VHF vertical profilers, and a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in an attempt to explain published results showing a low bias in simulated stratiform rainfall. Despite different forcing methodologies, similar precipitation microphysics errors appear in CRMs and LAMs with differences that depend on the details of the bulk microphysics scheme used. One-moment schemes produce too many small raindrops, which biases Doppler velocities low, but produces rain water contents (RWCs) that are similar to observed. Two-moment rain schemes with a gamma shape parameter (?) of 0 produce excessive size sorting, which leads to larger Doppler velocities than those produced in one-moment schemes, but lower RWCs than observed. Two moment schemes also produce a convective median volume diameter distribution that is too broad relative to observations and thus, may have issues balancing raindrop formation, collision coalescence, and raindrop breakup. Assuming a ? of 2.5 rather than 0 for the raindrop size distribution improves one-moment scheme biases, and allowing ? to have values greater than 0 may improve two-moment schemes. Under-predicted stratiform rain rates are associated with under-predicted ice water contents at the melting level rather than excessive rain evaporation, in turn likely associated with convective detrainment that is too high in the troposphere and mesoscale circulations that are too weak. In addition to stronger convective updrafts than observed, limited domain size prevents a large, well-developed stratiform region from developing in CRMs, while a dry bias in ECMWF analyses does the same to the LAMs.

  2. The role of land surface processes on the mesoscale simulation of the July 26, 2005 heavy rain event over Mumbai, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    The role of land surface processes on the mesoscale simulation of the July 26, 2005 heavy rain Mesoscale convection Weather research and forecast model Indian summer monsoon Land surface processes

  3. Vegetation History And Logging Disturbance: Effects On Rain Forest In The Lope Reserve, Gabon (With Special Emphasis On Elephants and Apes) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Lee JT

    An investigation of the effects of commercial mechanised selective logging on rain forest vegetation and mammals, was undertaken in the Lope Reserve, central Gabon, between January 1989 to July 1991. Vegetation in Lope ...

  4. Upstream Urbanization Exacerbates Urban Heat Island Effects Da-Lin Zhang*, Yi-Xuan Shou, & Russell R. Dickerson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    1 Upstream Urbanization Exacerbates Urban Heat Island Effects Da-Lin Zhang*, Yi-Xuan Shou, Maryland 20742 Email: dalin@atmos.umd.edu The adverse impacts of urbanization on climate and weather through urban heat island (UHI) effects and greenhouse emissions are issues of growing concern1

  5. Beyond opposites : an urban initiative in Seoul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Hoon

    1993-01-01

    The thesis began with the understanding of urban, cultural, and social conditions of Seoul. The choice of the existing bridge as the point of departure has meaning in two layers. layer one: the need for more space in the ...

  6. Counter urban transformation in Istanbul Beyoglu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uzunyayla, Sakine Dicle

    2014-01-01

    Urban transformation has become central to the Turkish government's neo-liberal program of commercial development for Istanbul. These transformations have provoked public discontent and passionate responses, the largest ...

  7. Multilevel comparison of large urban systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pumain, Denise; Cottineau, Clémentine; Vacchiani-Marcuzzo, Céline; Ignazzi, Antonio; Bretagnolle, Anne; Delisle, François; Cura, Robin; Lizzi, Liliane; Baffi, Solène

    2015-01-01

    For the first time the systems of cities in seven countries or regions among the largest in the world (China, India, Brazil, Europe, the Former Soviet Union (FSU), the United States and South Africa) are made comparable through the building of spatio-temporal standardised statistical databases. We first explain the concept of a generic evolutionary urban unit ("city") and its necessary adaptations to the information provided by each national statistical system. Second, the hierarchical structure and the urban growth process are compared at macro-scale for the seven countries with reference to Zipf's and Gibrat's model: in agreement with an evolutionary theory of urban systems, large similarities shape the hierarchical structure and growth processes in BRICS countries as well as in Europe and United States, despite their positions at different stages in the urban transition that explain some structural peculiarities. Third, the individual trajectories of some 10,000 cities are mapped at micro-scale following a...

  8. Ecotransology : integrated design for urban mobility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachim, Mitchell Whitney

    2006-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates a rethinking of urban mobility through ecological design. Human mobility and ecological accountability are inextricably linked in city design; our current world ecological crisis underscores this ...

  9. A design project for an urban frontier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Robert Louis

    1992-01-01

    The interplay between the form and infrastructure of modern cities produces spatial and temporal dimensions which allow for erratic growth and fragmentary perception. Though their origins can be clearly seen in urban ...

  10. Browse : re-forming the urban library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baron, Sandra Ann

    2007-01-01

    The urban library has persisted as a cultural entity, largely because its interiorized form functions as a vault, creating a clear, although often intimidating, boundary between library program and the public realm. While ...

  11. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paskevych, Sergiy; Voropay, Dmitry; Schmieman, Eric

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  12. The urban garden : Port Alliance, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Isaac Hall, 1958-

    1990-01-01

    This thesis focuses on of three urban parks; Central Park i n New York , the Fens to Franklin Park in Boston, and Rock Creek Park in washington, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and the growth of the cities around them. ...

  13. Sustainable and equitable urban environments in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badshah, Akhtar

    1993-01-01

    This study identifies some of the factors and conditions that can encourage the development of sustainable and equitable urban environments. It argues that cities will continue to grow and that it is not productive to view ...

  14. Team MIT Urban Challenge Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard, John

    2007-12-14

    This technical report describes Team MIT?s approach to theDARPA Urban Challenge. We have developed a novel strategy forusing many inexpensive sensors, mounted on the vehicle periphery,and calibrated with a new cross-­modal ...

  15. Urban solarium : thermal performance in Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Juliet Chia-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the issue of energy efficiency through the lens of thermal performance in the context of urban housing in the city of Boston. Located in the historic brick row house neighborhood of the South End, the ...

  16. Artificial Immune System based urban traffic control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negi, Pallav

    2007-09-17

    Borrowing ideas from natural immunity, Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) offer a novel approach to solving many diagnosis, optimization and control problems. In the course of this research this paradigm was applied to the problem of optimizing urban...

  17. Urban Parks: Volunteers and Civic Engagement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuett, Michael A.

    2007-03-02

    When citizens are engaged with urban park and recreation departments, everyone benefits. This publication describes successful programs that involve community volunteers, and explains what managers can do to engage citizens in such programs....

  18. Metromorphosis : evolution on the urban island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vezina, Kenrick (Kenrick Freitas)

    2011-01-01

    Cities are very much alive. Like islands, they provide a natural testing ground for evolution. With more than half of the world's population living in urban areas now, the influence cities have on the planet's life is ...

  19. 2014 Urban Forest Symposium Tom Hinckley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    2014 Urban Forest Symposium Tom Hinckley Professor Emeritus May 24, 2014 #12;Questions, temperature, ppt, extremes) #12;Simple Model: Carbon and Stress Leaf GrowthCarbon Production Carbon Storage, solarization · Growing season ­ Soil moisture ­ Atmospheric (wind, temperature, humidity, radiation) ­ Outcomes

  20. Evaluation of a novel ozone generation technique for disinfection of poultry hatchers and processed broiler carcasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Gerardo Arturo

    1994-01-01

    When comparing electrochemically generated ozone(03)(2.94.2 wt % inside the (hatcher) and formaldehyde (16 n-A formalin + 7.5 g potassium pertnanganate) for disinfection of Salmonella enteiltidis (SE) contaminated agar plates and typical hatchery...