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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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1

Urban Modification of Freezing-Rain Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new national database for freezing-rain occurrences during the 1945–2000 period provided an opportunity for a study of the potential urban effects on freezing-rain events. Numerous past studies of snowfall events in urban areas have defined ...

Stanley A. Changnon

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

OZONE PRODUCTION IN URBAN PLUMES.  

SciTech Connect

Ozone levels observed during a field campaign in Houston were significantly higher than that observed in Phoenix or Philadelphia. An examination of the slope of O{sub x} versus NO{sub z} in the urban plumes shows that NO{sub x} is used 2 to 3 times more efficiently in Houston as compared with Phoenix and Philadelphia. Representative values of OPEx are 7-12, 3, and 4, in Houston, Phoenix, and Philadelphia. Aircraft observations have been used to calculate P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}). Values in Houston are significantly higher than in Phoenix and Philadelphia. We show that P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) is proportional to a VOC/NO{sub 2}-OH reactivity ratio. High values of P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) in Houston are due to emissions of reactive olefins from the ship channel region. It is significant that high values of P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) occur at NO{sub x} levels up to several 10's of ppb. Not only is the chemistry efficient but it will be long lasting. The occurrence of high NO{sub x} and high OPEx is fostered by the co-location of VOC and NO{sub x} sources in the Houston industrial areas.

KLEINMAN,L.

2001-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

3

Estimating long term urban exposure to particulate matter and ozone in Europe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OFIS is a robust and efficient model for simulating the formation of photochemical pollutants in an urban plume. In this paper we present applications of the recent further development of OFIS for calculating both particulate matter and ozone concentrations. ... Keywords: Air quality model, Ozone exposure, PM exposure, Urban air pollution

Athanasios Arvanitis; Nicolas Moussiopoulos

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Correlation of Ozone and Meteorology with Hydrogen Peroxide in Urban and Rural Regions of North Carolina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas-phase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ozone (O3) along With other trace gases and meteorology were monitored in two distinct regimes of high- and low-NOx (urban and rural) areas in North Carolina during the summer of 1991 as part of the Southern ...

Viney P. Aneja; Mita Das

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Ozone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Umkehr observations (Angell et al.) The Forest Responses to Anthropogenic Stress (FORAST) (McLaughlin et al.) Ozone EnrichmentAspen FACE Experiment - Rhinelander, Wisconsin...

6

Ozone  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the debate over whether concern about a hole in the ozone layer in Antarctic is real or science fiction. There is a growing consensus that efforts must be taken to protect the ozone layer. The issue now is not whether chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) should be controlled and regulated but how much and how soon. The United States has urged that the production of dangerous CFCs, and any other chemicals that affect the ozone layer, be restricted immediately to current levels and that their use be reduced 95 percent over the next decade. The American position was too strong for many European nations and the Japanese. Negotiations at an international conference on the matter broke down. The breakdown is due in part to a more acute concern for environmental matters in the United States than exists in many countries. Meanwhile CFCs are linked to another environmental problem that equally threatens the world - the Greenhouse Effect. The earth is in a natural warming period, but man could be causing it to become even warmer. The Greenhouse Effect could have a catastrophic impact on mankind, although nothing has been proven yet.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

A Dynamic GIS–Multicriteria Technique for Siting the NASA–Clark Atlanta Urban Rain Gauge Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because Atlanta, Georgia, is a model of rapid transition from forest/agriculture land use to urbanization, NASA and other agencies have initiated programs to identify and understand how urban heat islands (UHIs) impact the environment in terms of ...

J. Marshall Shepherd; Olayiwola O. Taylor; Carlos Garza

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

criteria.htmlS. Accessed on NRC, 1991. Rethinking the OzonePress, Washington, DC. NRC, 2004. The Hydrogen Economy:hours of the summer months (NRC, 1991). In summary the ‘‘

Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Chang, Daniel P.Y.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Observations of Transport Processes for Ozone and Ozone Precursors during the 1991 Lake Michigan Ozone Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Lake Michigan Air Quality Region (LMAQR) continues to experience ozone concentrations in urban and rural areas above the federal standard of 125 ppb. During the summer of 1991, the LMAQR states sponsored the Lake Michigan Ozone Study, which ...

Timothy S. Dye; Paul T. Roberts; Marcelo E. Korc

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

ARM - Instrument - rain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govInstrumentsrain govInstrumentsrain Documentation RAIN : Handbook RAIN : Instrument Mentor Monthly Summary (IMMS) reports RAIN : Data Quality Assessment (DQA) reports ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Rain Gauge (RAIN) Beneficiary of Recovery Act funding. Instrument Categories Surface Meteorology General Overview The tipping bucket rain gauge was located next to the disdrometer. It was replaced with a weighing bucket rain gauge in FY2010. Please contact the instrument mentor, if you have any questions. Output Datastreams rain : Rain gauge Primary Measurements The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant. Precipitation Locations Eastern North Atlantic

11

Tropospheric Ozone in Louisiana and Synoptic Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a pollutant of increasing concern in many urban areas in the United States. There is an increasing need to understand the geographical and meteorological properties associated with O3, particularly because of the ...

Robert V. Rohli; Michelle M. Russo; Anthony J. Vega; John B. Cole

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Wintertime Ozone Fluxes and Profiles above a Subalpine Spruce–Fir Forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High rural concentrations of ozone (O3) are thought to be stratospheric in origin, advected from upwind urban sources, or photochemically generated locally by natural trace gas emissions. Ozone is known to be transported vertically downward from ...

Karl Zeller

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Chlorophyll and acid rain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chlorophyll and acid rain Chlorophyll and acid rain Name: beachbum Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: A while ago I read an article that stated that after a plant received acid rain, there seemed to be less of chlorophyll a and b in the plant. I was wondering where does the chlorophyll go and what is the actual process (cell structure affected?). Replies: I think that less chlorophyll being present would be more likely a result of less being produced. Plant cell constantly turn over cell material, it will also constantly produce more. So if one compares a plant not exposed to acid rain (presumably producing a normal amount of chlorophyll and the exposed plant then one sees that the exposed plant has less chlorophyll than the unexposed plant. I do not think I can answer the rest of your question.

14

ARM - Datastreams - rain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Datastreamsrain Datastreamsrain Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025264 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : RAIN Rain gauge Active Dates 2006.03.01 - 2014.01.09 Measurement Categories Atmospheric State Originating Instrument Rain Gauge (RAIN) Measurements Only measurements considered scientifically relevant are shown below by default. Show all measurements Measurement Units Variable Altitude above mean sea level m alt Base time in Epoch seconds since 1970-1-1 0:00:00 0:00 base_time Record with error unitless error_latch ( time ) Frequency average, sensor 1 Hz frequency1 ( time ) Frequency average, sensor 2 Hz frequency2 ( time )

15

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

16

Rain sampling device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of the precipitation from the chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device. 11 figures.

Nelson, D.A.; Tomich, S.D.; Glover, D.W.; Allen, E.V.; Hales, J.M.; Dana, M.T.

1991-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

17

In Search of the Rain Forest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: In Search of the Rain Forest By Candace Slater (Candace Slater (Ed. ). In Search of the Rain Forest. Durham:

Hamilton-Smith, Elery

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Singin' in the Rain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Singin' in Singin' in the Rain News Featured Articles 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Science Headlines Presentations & Testimony News Archives Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 11.25.13 Singin' in the Rain Ultra water-repellent material developed at Brookhaven Lab may lead to many warming applications. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Brookhaven Lab physicist Antonio Checco. Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory When it comes to designing extremely water-repellent surfaces, shape and size matter. That's the finding of a group of scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, who investigated the

19

Optical Rain Gauge and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Comparisons  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rain Gauge and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Comparisons Rain Gauge and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Comparisons at the ARM Climate Research Facility TWP Sites Michael T. Ritsche 1 , Donna J. Holdridge 1 , Amanda Deieso 2 , Amy Kanta 2 , and Jenni Prell 2 1 Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 2 Department of Geography, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 1. Introduction Measurement of rainfall and precipitation is a difficult task even in the best of circumstances. Different types of gauges are used depending on the type of precipitation expected (solid or liquid) and the rate at which it falls. The ARM Program uses two types of precipitation sensors in its surface meteorological systems: the optical rain gauge (ORG) and the tipping bucket rain gauge (TBRG). The ORG was originally

20

Biases of Rain Retrieval Algorithms for Spaceborne Radar Caused by Nonuniformity of Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The biases of various rain retrieval algorithms for a spaceborne rain radar due to nonuniformity of rain are studied using simple models and an actual time sequence of rainfall rate. A conventional rain retrieval algorithm in which measured radar ...

Kenji Nakamura

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Surface Ozone Pattern in Hong Kong  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface ozone (O3) and its precursors in rural and urban areas of Hong Kong are analyzed through the seasonal, temporal, and spatial variation patterns. The seasonal O3 shows a unique pattern with a major peak in autumn and a trough in summer. ...

L. Y. Chan; C. Y. Chan; Y. Qin

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

A Probability Distribution Model for Rain Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic approach is suggested for modeling the probability distribution of rain rate. Rain rate, conditional on rain and averaged over a region, is modeled as a temporally homogeneous diffusion process with appropriate boundary conditions. ...

Benjamin Kedem; Harry Pavlopoulos; Xiaodong Guan; David A. Short

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Warm Rain Study in Hawaii—Rain Initiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

More than 300 hours of aircraft flights were conducted in Hawaii from 1977 to 1979 to study precipitation mechanisms in warm rain. Airborne instruments were used to measure drop size distributions over the size range from cloud droplets to ...

Tsutomu Takahashi

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Controlling acid rain : policy issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Estimating Rain Rates from Tipping-Bucket Rain Gauge Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the cubic spline–based operational system for the generation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 1-min rain-rate product 2A-56 from tipping-bucket (TB) gauge measurements. A simulated TB gauge from a Joss–...

Jianxin Wang; Brad L. Fisher; David B. Wolff

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Characterization of Ambient Ozone Levels in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ambient ozone data collected at two sites in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) are summarized and compared with data from an urban and a low-elevation rural site. The ozone climatology in the park is found to be similar to that of ...

Stephen F. Mueller

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Interactions between Rain and Wind Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effects of rain on surface waves have been investigated in a circulating wind-wave tank. Surface displacement and slope spectra under different wind velocities were measured near the upwind and downwind edges of a region with simulated rains. ...

Ying-Keung Poon; Shih Tang; Jin Wu

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Rain Rate Estimates from Differential Polarization Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of the accuracy of rain rate estimates from data observed with a radar that has alternating horizontal and vertical polarization. Theoretical accuracies of rain rates from the reflectivity, the differential ...

M. Sachidananda; D. S. Zrni?

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

NEWTON: Why Does It Rain  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why Does It Rain? Why Does It Rain? Name: Drama Status: student Grade: K-3 Location: FL Country: USA Date: Fall 2011 Question: Why does it rain? Replies: Drama, When water is heated it evaporates into the air. You cannot see the water in the air, but sometimes you can feel it (especially when it is hot outside). Have you ever noticed that on some warm days it is really humid (sticky and sweaty) and other warm days it feels dry? You might have also noticed that in the morning, when the air is cool, you might find dew or mist on the leaves and grass. This occurs because cold air cannot hold much of moisture. There is a limit to the amount of water that air can hold. This limit is known as the saturation limit (or dew point). When the air is completely saturated and cannot hold any more water, then it comes down as rain (and leaves all that heat in the air).

30

A Piezoelectrical Rain Gauge for Application on Buoys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain gauge systems are required to measure rainfall data on buoys at oceanic sites that are not suited for conventional rain sensors. A piezoelectrical rain gauge has been developed for use on buoys, to provide rain measurements just above the ...

Jörg Förster; Giselher Gust; Siegfried Stolte

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Photochemical Modeling of Two 1984 SCCCAMP Ozone Episodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data collected during the 1984 SCCCAMP Exploratory Study were used to develop two multiple-day ozone modeling episodes for the Urban Airshed Model (UAM). An operational model performance evaluation was performed for the 5–7 and 16–17 September ...

T. W. Tesche; Dennis E. McNally

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Prediction of ozone levels in London using the MM5-CMAQ modelling system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air pollution in urban areas has important implications for health and environmental management. Consequently, various methodologies have been developed for its assessment. Traditionally, simple approaches such as the box model or the Gaussian plume ... Keywords: Atmospheric modelling, CMAQ, MM5, Ozone, Urban air quality

R. S. Sokhi; R. San José; N. Kitwiroon; E. Fragkou; J. L. Pérez; D. R. Middleton

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Advanced Rain/No-Rain Classification Methods for Microwave Radiometer Observations over Land  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seto et al. developed rain/no-rain classification (RNC) methods over land for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI). In this study, the methods are modified for application to other microwave radiometers. The ...

Shinta Seto; Takuji Kubota; Nobuhiro Takahashi; Toshio Iguchi; Taikan Oki

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Evidence for an Oscillatory Rain Rate in a Midwestern Winter Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain rate during light precipitation in winter was measured with high temporal resolution optical systems at a site in Illinois. In addition to quasi-periodic variations, a clearly sinusoidal oscillation in rain rate was found imbedded in the ...

R. B. Fritz; R. J. Hill; J. T. Priestley; W. P. Schoenfeld

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

The Relation between the Area-Average Rain Rate and the Rain Cell Size Distribution Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of the literature on the rain cell diameter distribution (RCDD) is first presented. It shows that RCDD, for a given rain-rate threshold ?, is accurately described by an exponential distribution with an exponential parameter ? weakly ...

Henri Sauvageot; Frédéric Mesnard; Ricardo S. Tenório

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Characteristics of Rain Integral Parameters during Tropical Convective, Transition, and Stratiform Rain at Gadanki and Its Application in Rain Retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study the characteristics of rain integral parameters during tropical convective (C), transition (T), and stratiform (S) types of rain are studied with the help of Joss–Waldvogel disdrometer (JWD), L-band, and very-high-frequency ...

Sanjay Sharma; Mahen Konwar; Diganta Kumar Sarma; M. C. R. Kalapureddy; A. R. Jain

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Sources of Data on Freezing Rain and Resulting Damages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Freezing rain produces major damages each year in the United States, and various affected groups continue to seek data on the incidence and losses produced by freezing rain. The various kinds of data available about freezing rain and related ...

Stanley A. Changnon; Tamara G. Creech

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Radiation and Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation is the driving force for the general circulation of the atmosphere and controls the Earth's climate. Ozone is responsible for the warm stratosphere and protects life on Earth from harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. In July 1959, the ...

G. Ohring; R. D. Bojkov; H-J. Bolle; R. D. Hudson; H. Volkert

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

SAR Imagery: Rain Forests, South America  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Images of Rain Forests in South America Images of Rain Forests in South America The ORNL DAAC now offers a CD-ROM volume containing Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery of the rain forest region of South America, including the Amazon Basin. The images were collected during 1995-1996 as part of an international project led by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) to map the world's rain forest regions to high resolution by means of SAR. The 4-disc volume--entitled "JERS-1 SAR Global Rain Forest Mapping Project: Vol. AM-1, South America"--is made available under the auspices of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These CDs can be ordered through the ORNL DAAC at http://daac.ornl.gov/prepaks.shtml (look for the "LBA" listings).

40

Ozone in Michigan's Environment 1876–1880  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric ozone was monitored in Michigan during the late 1880's using Schoenbein's test paper. A conversion chart was constructed to relate the Schoenbein ozone scale at various relative humidifies to ozone levels indicated by a Dasibi ozone ...

Dale E. Linvill; W. J. Hooker; Brian Olson

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Stratospheric ozone in the planetary boundary layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of stratospheric ozone associated with rapid transport processes at remote Whiteface Mountain, New York was studied using /sup 7/Be as a stratospheric tracer. The seasonal variation of /sup 7/Be concentration suggests that the greatest impact of stratospheric ozone at Whiteface Mountain occurs during late spring and early summer consistent with the time when the impact of tropopause folding should be maximum. This is also the time when tropospheric photochemical ozone production is likely to be maximum. The analysis of 33 cases with peak /sup 7/Be > 175 fCi/m/sup 3/ shows strong correlation between averaged O/sub 3/ and /sup 7/Be concentration. Assuming peak /sup 7/Be is associated with rapid transport we estimate 12 ppbv as the 24th average increased O/sub 3/ due to tropopause folding events. Also the average SO/sub 4/2/sup -/ concentration peaked a day after /sup 7/Be suggesting the backside of the weather system responsible for rapid subsidence also favors transport to this site from distant urban-industrial centers. Thus, photochemical pollution episodes may be intensified by stratospheric subsidence.

Dutkiewicz, V.A.; Husain, L.; Rusheed, A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ozone Modeling Using Neural Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone models for the city of Tulsa were developed using neural network modeling techniques. The neural models were developed using meteorological data from the Oklahoma Mesonet and ozone, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data from ...

Ramesh Narasimhan; Joleen Keller; Ganesh Subramaniam; Eric Raasch; Brandon Croley; Kathleen Duncan; William T. Potter

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Ozone, Air Pollution, and Respiratory Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Of the outdoor air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act of 1970 (and recently revised in 1990), ozone has been the one pollutant most difficult to control within the federal standards. The known human health effects are all on the respiratory system. At concentrations of ozone which occur during summer air-pollution episodes in many urban metropolitan areas of the United States, a portion of the healthy population is likely to experience symptoms and reversible effects on lung function, particularly if exercising heavily outdoors. More prolonged increase in airway responsiveness and the presence of inflammatory cells and mediators in the airway lining fluid may also result from these naturally occurring exposures. Serial exposures to peak levels of ozone on several consecutive days are more characteristic of pollution episodes in the Northeast United States and may be associated with recurrent symptoms. No "high-risk " or more sensitive group has been found, in contrast to the case of sulfur dioxide, to which asthmatics are more susceptible than normals. The occurrence of multiple exposure episodes within a single year over many years in some areas of California has led to studies looking for chronic effects of ozone exposure on the lung. To date, no conclusive studies have been reported, although further work is under way. Much of what we know about the effects of this gas on the lung are based on controlled exposures to pure gas within an environmental exposure laboratory. Interactions between substances which commonly co-occur in air-pollution episodes are also under investigation.

William S

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Formalism for Comparing Rain Estimation Designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Space-time averages of rain rates are needed in several applications. Nevertheless, they are difficult to estimate because the methods invariably leave gaps in the measurements in space or time. A formalism is developed which makes use of the ...

Gerald R. North; Shoichiro Nakamoto

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Temporal Sampling Requirements for Automatic Rain Gauges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic rain gauges are needed to obtain rainfall statistics from remote locations and platforms. Many of these platforms cannot be serviced regularly, thus requiring unattended operations for many months. At such locations there is often a ...

Jeffrey A. Nystuen

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

The Hunter Region (Australia) Acid Rain Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field measurements for the Hunter Region Acid Rain Project were conducted as a major co-operative effort by the New South Wales State Pollution Control Commission, the Electricity Commission of New South Wales, and the University of Newcastle in ...

Howard A. Bridgman; Robert Rothwell; Christopher Pang Way; Peng-Hing Tio

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Freezing Rain: An Observational and Theoretical Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from a Doppler radar, an instrumented aircraft, and several rawinsonde observations during freezing rain and ice pellet events have been analyzed for this study. From these data, 34 soundings were obtained that characterized the vertical ...

Ryan J. Zerr

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Ozone decomposing filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L. (Dublin, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Ozone depletion and health  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the state of knowledge of the ozone layer and the greenhouse effect. Deleterious effects of ultra-violet radiation on humans, animals, and plants are discussed. Alternatives to chloro-fluoro-carbons and political responses to the scientific discoveries are also addressed.

Russell-Jones, R.; Wigley, T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Urbanizing terrains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urban "sprawl"in the East Attica area of Athens has dramatically changed the former rural economy in a manner consistent with the urbanizing terrain's underlying properties: agricultural subdivisions, existing centres, ...

Romanos, Christoforos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Urban and Regional Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

equipment equipment Urban and Regional Air Quality Research in this area is concerned with regional air quality issues such as: Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds, to manage tropospheric ozone pollution. Hazardous air pollutants: using science to base standards on rigorously studied risks. Air quality and climate: how does climate influence air quality at a regional or local level? Current modeling practices often do not capture variations in pollutants such as ozone-they represent a limited sample of the diverse meteorology and human behavior that affect air pollution. Improved modeling of regional air quality will help understand variability, reveal patterns of behavior, and pollutant transport issues. Controlled experiments in lab and field can help validate improved models.

52

Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor to formation of the ozone component of urban smog. The combined processes of unburned leakage and incomplete combustion of LPG play significant role in causing the excessive ozone characteristic of Mexico City. Reductions in ozone levels should be possible through changes in LPG composition and lowered rates of leakage. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

Blake, D.R.; Rowland, F.S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

53

Source Contributions to VOC's to Ozone Formation in Southeast Texas Using a Source-oriented Air Quality Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area is in severe non-attainment status for ozone compliance. Source-oriented mechanistic modeling was used to determine the major sources of VOCs that contributes to ozone formation during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) from August 16, 2000 to September 7, 2000. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)?s Community Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) version 4.6 was used as a host model to include a revised Statewide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC99) photochemical mechanism with source-oriented extensions to track the contributions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions from diesel engines, biogenic sources, highway gasoline vehicles, fuel combustion, off-highway gasoline engines, solvent utilization and petrochemical industries to ozone formation in the atmosphere. Source-oriented emissions needed to drive the model were generated using a revised Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model version 2.4. VOC/NOx ratios are found to be a critical factor in the formation of ozone. Highest ozone formation rates were observed for ratios from 5-15. The contributions of VOC to ozone formation were estimated based on the linear relationship between the rate of NO to NO2 conversion due to radicals generated from VOC oxidation and the rate of net ozone formation. Petroleum and other industrial sources are the largest anthropogenic sources in the urban Houston region and contribute to 45% of the ozone formation in the HGB area. Highway gasoline vehicles make contributions of approximately 28% to ozone formation. Wildfires contribute to as much 11% of ozone formation on days of high wildfire activity. The model results show that biogenic emissions account for a significant amount of ozone formation in the rural areas. Both highway and off-highway vehicles contribute significantly to ozone formation especially in the downwind region. Diesel vehicles do not contribute significantly to ozone formation due to their low VOC emissions.

Krishnan, Anupama

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

RADIOACTIVITY IN RAIN WATER IN BANGKOK  

SciTech Connect

In order to check the effect of nuclear explosions on the atmosphere over Bangkok, rain water was evaporated and the radioactivity of the residue obtained was counted by a G. M. counter. The result shows that the radioactivity in the rain water began to rise from the normal level since 26 September 1961, reached the maximum on 10 November 1961, and then slowly declined. Because the level of radiation remained above that of the Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) for only a short time, it did not constitute a health hazard. Analysis of the residue of rain water indicates that the increase in radiation is caused by the fall-out from the Russian tests of nuclear weapons in the air from September to October 1961. (auth)

Sundara-vicharana, Y.; Bhodigen, S.; Hayodom, V.

1961-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Rain initiation time in turbulent warm clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a mean-field model that describes droplet growth due to condensation and collisions and droplet loss due to fallout. The model allows for an effective numerical simulation. We study how the rain initiation time depends on different parameters. We also present a simple model that allows one to estimate the rain initiation time for turbulent clouds with an inhomogeneous concentration of cloud condensation nuclei. In particular, we show that over-seeding even a part of a cloud by small hygroscopic nuclei one can substantially delay the onset of precipitation.

Falkovich, G; Vucelja, M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Rain initiation time in turbulent warm clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a mean-field model that describes droplet growth due to condensation and collisions and droplet loss due to fallout. The model allows for an effective numerical simulation. We study how the rain initiation time depends on different parameters. We also present a simple model that allows one to estimate the rain initiation time for turbulent clouds with an inhomogeneous concentration of cloud condensation nuclei. In particular, we show that over-seeding even a part of a cloud by small hygroscopic nuclei one can substantially delay the onset of precipitation.

G. Falkovich; M. G. Stepanov; M. Vucelja

2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

57

Annual and Seasonal Global Variation in Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Ozone » Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone Atmospheric Trace Gases » Ozone » Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone Annual and Seasonal Global Variation in Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone, 1958-1987 (1991) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.ndp023 data Data Investigators J. K. Angell, J. Korshover, and W. G. Planet Description For 1958 through 1987, this data base presents total ozone variations and layer mean ozone variations expressed as percent deviations from the 1958 to 1977 mean. The total ozone variations were derived from mean monthly ozone values published in Ozone Data for the World by the Atmospheric Environment Service in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization. The layer mean ozone variations are derived from ozonesonde and Umkehr observations. The data records include year, seasonal and annual

58

Part I: The South Asian Haze: Air Pollution, Ozone and Aerosols Page 8 -UNEP Assessment Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

locations, where domestic energy consumption depends on biofuels such as wood and cow dung, whereas in urban source of air pollution as it is very inefficient as an energy source. The INDOEX measurements of CO havePart I: The South Asian Haze: Air Pollution, Ozone and Aerosols #12;Page 8 - UNEP Assessment Report

Collins, William

59

A Study of the Mechanisms of Acid Rain Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of rain, snow, cloud water, aerosols and soil were collected in Colorado to study the mechanisms of acid rain formation. Chemical compositions of various types of samples were analyzed to investigate the stepwise incorporation of ...

Farn Parungo; Clarence Nagamoto; Robin Maddl

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

The Rain Profiling Algorithm Applied to Polarimetric Weather Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The algorithm developed in this paper for ground-based polarimetric radars is derived from those used for the spaceborne rain radar of TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission)—the so-called rain profiling algorithms. The characteristic of ...

Jacques Testud; Erwan Le Bouar; Estelle Obligis; Mustapha Ali-Mehenni

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Estimation of Mean Rain Rate through Censoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mixed lognormal distribution is fit to rain-rate data to estimate the space–time average. To mitigate problems associated with biased data, data below a minimum and above a maximum threshold are treated as if they are at the respective ...

Donald Martin

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

ARMAR: An Airborne Rain-Mapping Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new airborne rain-mapping radar (ARMAR) has been developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for operation on the NASA Ames DC-8 aircraft. The radar operates at 13.8 GHz, the frequency to be used by the radar on the Tropical Rainfall ...

S. L. Durden; E. Im; F. K. Li; W. Ricketts; A. Tanner; W. Wilson

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Determination of Oceanic Rain Rate and Rain Cell Structure from Altimeter Waveform Data. Part I: Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The predominant effect of rain on altimeter data is through the attenuation it causes of radar pulses propagating through it. Both the ERS-1 and TOPEX/Poseidon have recorded sharp decreases in the observed backscatter ?0, which have been ...

Graham D. Quartly

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

A Probabilistic View on the Rain Drop Size Distribution Modeling: a Physical Interpretation of Rain Microphysics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Rain Drop Size Distribution (RDSD) is defined as the relative frequency of raindrops per given diameter in a volume. This paper describes a mathematically-consistent modeling of the RDSD drawing on probability theory. It is shown that this ...

Francisco J. Tapiador; Ziad S. Haddad; Joe Turk

65

Principal Modes of Variation of Rain-Rate Probability Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radar or satellite observations of an area generate sequences of rain-rate maps. From a gridded map a histogram of rain rates can be obtained representing the relative areas occupied by rain rates of various strengths. The histograms vary with ...

Thomas L. Bell; R. Suhasini

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Hole in the ozone layer?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hole in the ozone layer? Hole in the ozone layer? Name: Kelley Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is there really a hole in the ozone layer? Replies: That depends on what one means by a "hole". There is a thinning of the layer that is particularly severe during certain seasons at the poles. But the ozone layer is thinning most everywhere. The thinning around the south pole of earth is particularly stunning, and has been referred to as a hole even though some ozone still exists there, it is much less concentrated. As you may know, this ozone destruction is probably due to human release of pollutants such as clorofluorocarbons (CFCs) an due to natural sources such as chemicals from volcanic eruptions. CFCs are used is cooling systems such as refrigerators and air conditioning. There is an international agreement to phase out the use of these destructive chemicals but they won't be banned entirely for years for fears of losing money. Meanwhile the ozone layer thins and we are exposed to increasingly higher doses of cancer causing radiation

67

Flexible urbanism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis seeks to find a new approach/method towards urbanization in existing low density neighborhoods in major metropolitan cities in the United States. The near South side of the city of Chicago (a city that carries ...

Anandam, Anahita

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

The greenhouse effect and acid rain  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons is increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Increased concentrations of these trace gases could lead to global warming, increased acid rain and increased UV radiation on the earth's surface; however, the actual impacts are still uncertain and are also the subject of great debate. Application of clean'' energy sources such as geothermal are obviously desirable for decreasing these effects and improving our overall general environment. This paper briefly summarizes the global environment concerns, providing a backdrop for the following papers which describe the geothermal role in future environmental considerations. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Traeger, R.K.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Evaluation and performance prediction of cooling tower rain zones.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cooling tower rain zone performance characteristics such as the loss coefficient and the Merkel number are evaluated and simulated. To this end the influence of… (more)

Pierce, Darren John

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Urban hopper.  

SciTech Connect

Hopping robots provide the possibility of breaking the link between the size of a ground vehicle and the largest obstacle that it can overcome. For more than a decade, DARPA and Sandia National Laboratories have been developing small-scale hopping robot technology, first as part of purely hopping platforms and, more recently, as part of platforms that are capable of both wheeled and hopping locomotion. In this paper we introduce the Urban Hopper robot and summarize its capabilities. The advantages of hopping for overcoming certain obstacles are discussed. Several configurations of the Urban Hopper are described, as are intelligent capabilities of the system. Key challenges are discussed.

Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Feddema, John Todd; Little, Charles Quentin; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Fischer, Gary John; Weagle, Christian A. (Boston Dynamics Waltham, MA); Salton, Jonathan Robert; Marron, Lisa Carol; Malchano, Matthew D. (Boston Dynamics Waltham, MA); Giarrantana, John (Boston Dynamics Waltham, MA); Murphy, Michael P. (Boston Dynamics Waltham, MA); Rizzi, Alfred A. (Boston Dynamics Waltham, MA); Buerger, Stephen P.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Rain Attenuation Prediction Model for Lagos at Millimeter Wave Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain Attenuation Prediction Model for Lagos at Millimeter Wave bands” is the subject of this work. Lagos (geog. Lat. 6.350N and Long. 3.20E), is a coastal station in the rain forest area in the South-Western Nigeria with an altitude of 380 ...

Abayomi Isiaka Yussuff; Nor Hisham Haji Khamis

72

Microsoft PowerPoint - 16.0855_Raines Draft Rev 4 | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0855Raines Draft Rev 4 Microsoft PowerPoint - 16.0855Raines Draft Rev 4 Microsoft PowerPoint - 16.0855Raines Draft Rev 4 More Documents & Publications Earned Value (EV) Analysis...

73

Comparison of Rain Rates over the Ocean Derived from TRMM Microwave Imager and Precipitation Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface rain rates over the ocean derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and precipitation radar (PR) are compared and systematic differences between TMI-derived rain rates and PR-derived rain rates are ...

Junji Ikai; Kenji Nakamura

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

The greenhouse effect and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons is increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Increased concentrations of these trace gases could lead to global warming, increased acid rain and increased UV radiation on the earth's surface; however, the actual impacts are still uncertain and are also the subject of great debate. Application of clean'' energy sources such as geothermal are obviously desirable for decreasing these effects and improving our overall general environment. This paper briefly summarizes the global environment concerns, providing a backdrop for the following papers which describe the geothermal role in future environmental considerations. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Traeger, R.K.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications...

1999-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

76

A Comparison of Total Column Ozone Values Derived from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), the Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparison of total column ozone data retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), the Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the years 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 is ...

Gary K. Corlett; Paul S. Monks

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Research and Extension Education Capabilities AgriLife Urban Solutions Center and associated County Extension Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Irrigation system design and management · Rainwater harvesting, rain gardens, porous pavements, green roofs Education program) · Turf management for park managers and landscape maintenance companies · Drought Extension Programs Water Management for Urban Landscapes · Lawn and landscape water conservation

79

Acid rain: discerning the change in waters and woodlands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research being done to establish the effects of acid rain on the earth's waters and woods is presented. It is pointed out that definitive answers cannot be possible because of the lack of scientifically credible, consistent, long-term data on trends. Various specific programs now under way to collect adequate data are highlighted. Researchers are not yet able to predict an area's susceptibility to acidic rain damage, but are more confident that acid rain is only a minimal threat to the earth's water and soil ecosystems. 13 figures.

Lihach, N.; Brocksen, R.; Goldstein, R.; Huckabee, J.; Kawaratani, R.; Mattice, J.; Murarka, I.; Perhac, R.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Solar Decathlon: Rain and Shine | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Decathlon: Rain and Shine Solar Decathlon: Rain and Shine Solar Decathlon: Rain and Shine October 20, 2009 - 7:00am Addthis Drew Bittner Web Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Friday marked the end of the Solar Decathlon competition. Team Germany won (for the second time) in a very competitive field, in a ceremony marked by gray skies, cold temperatures and rain. For all the bad weather, however, the mood in DC was very upbeat. This was the fourth Solar Decathlon, an event that has seen great strides since its launch in 2002. The mission of the event is to promote solar energy and energy efficiency in buildings, through innovative engineering and scholarly dedication. I would venture to say that this year might mark the event's greatest success, with TWO teams from Canada, as well as returning

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Solar Decathlon: Rain and Shine | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Decathlon: Rain and Shine Solar Decathlon: Rain and Shine Solar Decathlon: Rain and Shine October 20, 2009 - 7:00am Addthis Drew Bittner Web Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Friday marked the end of the Solar Decathlon competition. Team Germany won (for the second time) in a very competitive field, in a ceremony marked by gray skies, cold temperatures and rain. For all the bad weather, however, the mood in DC was very upbeat. This was the fourth Solar Decathlon, an event that has seen great strides since its launch in 2002. The mission of the event is to promote solar energy and energy efficiency in buildings, through innovative engineering and scholarly dedication. I would venture to say that this year might mark the event's greatest success, with TWO teams from Canada, as well as returning

82

ARM - Field Campaign - Rain Microphysics Study with Disdrometer and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsRain Microphysics Study with Disdrometer and Polarization govCampaignsRain Microphysics Study with Disdrometer and Polarization Radar Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Rain Microphysics Study with Disdrometer and Polarization Radar 2005.04.28 - 2005.06.30 Lead Scientist : Guifu Zhang For data sets, see below. Description Understanding rain microphysics is important for accurate rainfall rate estimation and for improving parameterization in numerical weather prediction (NWP). The NCAR video disdrometer was installed at the ARM site at the Kessler farm. The disdrometer was also put side-by-side with the NSSL disdrometer for comparison/calibration and to study sampling effects. The disdrometer observations were used to verify KOUN polarimeteric radar

83

The Effects of Rain on Topex Radar Altimeter Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain has long been categorized as a contaminant of altimeter data, but little has been done previously to ascertain the magnitude and frequency of its effect or its geographical distribution. Proceeding from recent analysis of ERS-1 data, and the ...

G. D. Quartly; T. H. Guymer; M. A. Srokosz

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Freezing Rain Simulations for Fixed, Unheated Conductor Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present paper reports on extensive experiments performed on short, fixed, unheated conductor samples in an outdoor freezing rain simulator. Their purpose is to relate the weight of ice (or, alternatively, the equivalent radial ice thickness) ...

M. L. Lu; N. Popplewell; A. H. Shah

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

ATLAS Self-Siphoning Rain Gauge Error Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes sampling and error characteristics of self-siphoning rain gauges used on moored buoys designed and assembled at NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) for deployment in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans ...

Yolande L. Serra; Patrick A'Hearn; H. Paul Freitag; Michael J. McPhaden

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A Rain-Rate Retrieval Algorithm for Attenuated Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamic regularization scheme for rain-rate retrievals from attenuated radar measurements is presented. Most regularization techniques, including the optimal estimation method, use the state-space parameters to regularize the problem, which ...

Prabhat K. Koner; Alessandro Battaglia; Clemens Simmer

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The Effects of Rain on ERS-1 Radar Altimeter Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An investigation into a potentially important, but little-studied effect on altimeter data—rain contamination—has been carried out using ERS-1. The method involves identifying large changes in the radar backscatter coefficient and relating these ...

Trevor H. Guymer; Graham D. Quartly; Meric A. Srokosz

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

A Climate Transect through Tropical Montane Rain Forest in Hawaii  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two years of climate data from a transect of three surface meteorological stations on the windward slopes of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, are analyzed. The stations constitute a transect between 700 and 1640 m through the wet, montane rain forest zone ...

James O. Juvik; Dennis Nullet

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Development of Drop Size Distributions in Light Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model of rain development based on the quasi-stochastic coalescence equation and including the sedimentation of drops has been used to study the formation of drop size distributions in conditions of weak updraft. Comparisons with “box model” ...

I. Zawadzki; E. Monteiro; F. Fabry

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

An Overview of Acid Rain Monitoring Activities in North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The various forms of acidic components that may be deposited from the atmosphere are reviewed. These components are classified into three categories: wet deposition (rain and snow), dry deposition (particles and gases), and special events (dews, ...

Joe Wisniewski; John D. Kinsman

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Variability of Space–Time Mean Rain Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mixed lognormal distribution is fit to rain-rate data for the purpose of estimating the space–time mean. Using Fisher information, the large sample variance is obtained for grouped and ungrouped data estimates. The asymptotic variance results ...

B. Kedem; R. Pfeiffer; D. A. Short

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Relative Performance of Automatic Rain Gauges under Different Rainfall Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six different types of automatic rain gauges, including tipping bucket, weighing, capacitance, optical, disdrometer, and acoustical sensors, were deployed for 17 months (September 1993–January 1995) at the NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and ...

Jeffrey A. Nystuen

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Estimating Rainfall in the Tropics Using the Fractional Time Raining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between the fractional time raining and tropical rainfall amount is investigated using raingage data and a point process model of tropical rainfall. Both the strength and the nature of the relationship are dependent upon the ...

Mark L. Morrissey; Witold F. Krajewski; Michael J. McPhaden

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Estimating the Uncertainty in Passive-Microwave Rain Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current passive-microwave rain-retrieval methods are largely based on databases built offline using cloud models. Since the vertical distribution of hydrometeors within the cloud has a large impact on upwelling brightness temperatures, a forward ...

Dorothée Coppens; Ziad S. Haddad; Eastwood Im

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Comparison of Dual-Polarization Radar Estimators of Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several polarimetric radar estimators of rain rate R and rainwater content M are examined. The accuracy of the estimators is analyzed using a gamma drop size distribution (DSD) simulation and a radar wavelength of 11 cm. The estimators that use ...

A. V. Ryzhkov; D. S. Zrni?

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Rain in Shallow Cumulus Over the Ocean: The RICO Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shallow, maritime cumuli are ubiquitous over much of the tropical oceans, and characterizing their properties is important to understanding weather and climate. The Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) field campaign, which took place during ...

Robert M. Rauber; Harry T. Ochs III; L. Di Girolamo; S. Göke; E. Snodgrass; Bjorn Stevens; Charles Knight; J. B. Jensen; D. H. Lenschow; R. A. Rilling; D. C. Rogers; J. L. Stith; B. A. Albrecht; P. Zuidema; A. M. Blyth; C. W. Fairall; W. A. Brewer; S. Tucker; S. G. Lasher-Trapp; O. L. Mayol-Bracero; G. Vali; B. Geerts; J. R. Anderson; B. A. Baker; R. P. Lawson; A. R. Bandy; D. C. Thornton; E. Burnet; J-L. Brenguier; L. Gomes; P. R. A. Brown; P. Chuang; W. R. Cotton; H. Gerber; B. G. Heikes; J. G. Hudson; P. Kollias; S. K. Krueger; L. Nuijens; D. W. O'Sullivan; A. P. Siebesma; C. H. Twohy

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Antarctic Ozone Transport and Depletion in Austral Spring 2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ozone budget in the Antarctic region during the stratospheric warming in 2002 is studied, using ozone analyses from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) ozone-transport and assimilation model called TM3DAM. The results show a ...

Peter Siegmund; Henk Eskes; Peter van Velthoven

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection plan  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 Plant staff is required by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) (formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems) standard ESS-EP-129 to develop and implement a Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program which will minimize emissions of ozone-depleting substances to the environment and maximize the use of ozone-safe alternatives in order to comply with Title VI of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments and the implementing regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This plan describes the requirements, initiatives, and accomplishments of the Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters. Title Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC...

100

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Iron catalysis in oxidation by ozone - Energy Innovation Portal  

Bookmark Iron catalysis in oxidation by ozone - Energy Innovation Portal on Google; Bookmark Iron catalysis in oxidation by ozone - Energy Innovation ...

102

Calibration of the Ogawa ozone passive sampler for aircraft cabins...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Calibration of the Ogawa ozone passive sampler for aircraft cabins. Title Calibration of the Ogawa ozone passive sampler for aircraft cabins. Publication Type Journal Article Year...

103

Test of the Specific Differential Propagation Phase Shift (KDP) Technique for Rain-Rate Estimation with a Ku-Band Rain Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variation in drop size distribution (DSD) and the attenuation at higher frequencies are the two major impairments for quantitative rain-rate estimation. The sensitivity of rain-rate estimators (such as reflectivity factor Z, differential ...

K. Isiah Timothy; Toshio Iguchi; Yuji Ohsaki; Hiroaki Horie; Hiroshi Hanado; Hiroshi Kumagai

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Understanding the Importance of Microphysics and Macrophysics for Warm Rain in Marine Low Clouds. Part II: Heuristic Models of Rain Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two simple heuristic model formulations for warm rain formation are introduced and their behavior explored. The first, which is primarily aimed at representing warm rain formation in shallow convective clouds, is a continuous collection model ...

Robert Wood; Terence L. Kubar; Dennis L. Hartmann

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Urban Water Conservation along the Rio Grande  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Not long ago, conversations on urban water demand were not only rare but dull. Today, especially in the West and Southwest, these conversations can turn into heated debates. The question of who has enough water for the future has pitted urban interests against agriculture and financial resources against cultural values. Water supply is finite, even if it is part of a cycle. Water may be plentiful in some places and scarce in others. Until we are ready to make water conservation a pattern of behavior to use less water, our demand will continue to grow as our population grows. Although water conservation is not an answer to all growth, it does offer an alternative to acquiring some new water supplies. Water conservation is almost always the least expensive water supply alternative. Water conservation can have two definitions. First and most often, conservation is considered a reduction in the amount of water used. Each person uses less. An alternative definition implies more efficient use of water. We waste less. Less waste can be attributed to best management practices, more efficient hardware or literally less water running into the streets from irrigation systems. Urban water conservation incorporates watersaving measures and incentives for the home, on the landscape and throughout the city water distribution system. It is easy to differentiate between water-saving measures and incentives. A water-saving measure such as a water-efficient toilet reduces the amount used each and every time it is flushed. Or, a rain sensor turns off a sprinkler system during rain showers. In contrast, incentives encourage the wise use of water through education, ordinances or scheduling. Educational programs suggest water reductions in the landscape, ordinances mandate how much turf is planted, and schedules tell homeowners when to irrigate. Combined, measures and incentives provide a water conservation program.

Silvey, Valeen; Kaiser, Ronald; Lesikar, Bruce; Runyan, Craig

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Optimal statistical model for forecasting ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to apply time series analysis and multiple regression method to ozone data in order to obtain the optimal statistical model for forecasting next day ozone level. The best estimated model is then used to produce one-step ... Keywords: ARMA (p, q), Durbin-Watson Statistic, MAPE, R-square, multiple regression

M. Abdollahian; R. Foroughi; N. Debnath

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Relation between hydrogen isotopic ratios of bone collagen and rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydrogen isotopic value ([delta]D) of deer bone collagen is related to both [delta]D of rain during the growing season and growing season relative humidity (RH). With correction for the effects of RH, bone [delta]D is related to growing season rain [delta]D in a simple manner with a slope of 1.0. This indicates that, with RH correction, there are no additional sources of bias in the [delta]D of bone due to unaccounted for biologic or climatic effects. Due to a low sensitivity of bone [delta]D to RH effects, both yearly and growing season rain [delta]D can be estimated with considerable accuracy (R = 0.97 and R = 0.96) from bone collagen [delta]D and [delta][sup 15]N. Here, [delta][sup 15]N is used to correct bone [delta]D for the effects of RH. From these estimates of rain [delta]D, it may then be possible to evaluate temperature since the [delta]D of rain primarily reflects local temperature. Therefore, the measurement of bone collagen [delta]D has good potential for evaluating paleoclimates.

Cormie, A.B.; Schwarcz, H.P. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)); Gray, J. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

New biology of red rain extremophiles prove cometary panspermia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports the extraordinary biology of the microorganisms from the mysterious red rain of Kerala, India. These chemosynthetic organisms grow optimally at an extreme high temperature of 300 degrees C in hydrothermal conditions and can metabolize inorganic and organic compounds including hydrocarbons. Stages found in their life cycle show reproduction by a special multiple fission process and the red cells found in the red rain are identified as the resting spores of these microbes. While these extreme hyperthermophiles contain proteins, our study shows the absence of DNA in these organisms, indicating a new primitive domain of life with alternate thermostable genetics. This new biology proves our earlier hypothesis that these microbes are of extraterrestrial origin and also supports our earlier argument that the mysterious red rain of Kerala is due to the cometary delivery of the red spores into the stratosphere above Kerala.

Godfrey Louis; A. Santhosh Kumar

2003-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

109

Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillats,from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillatsfrom Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillats

Destaillats, Hugo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Ozone, skin cancer, and the SST  

SciTech Connect

In 1971, the U.S. Congress cut off funding for development of supersonic transport aircraft prototypes when it was argued that the pollution created by SSTs could reduce the stratospheric ozone content and increase the incidence of skin cancer. At present, the theory of ozone depletion is in a rather uncertain state. Two examples of this are cited. First, ozone depletion may depend more on the availability of surfaces of aerosols and particles than on the content of chlorine. Second, it has been discovered that NO(x) can tie up active chlorine and thus reduce depletion from that source. We are therefore left with the paradoxical result that under certain circumstances SSTs flying in the lower stratospheric can actually counteract, at least partially, any ozone-depleting effects of CFCs. A recent study by scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory showed that melanoma rates would not be affected by changes in the ozone layer. If these results are confirmed, then much of the fear associated with ozone depletion disappears. It is difficult to tell how all this will affect a future supersonic transport program, since it is not clear whether a fleet of SSTs will increase or offset ozone depletion.

Singer, S.F.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Rain Gauge and Disdrometer Measurements during the Keys Area Microphysics Project (KAMP)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four impact disdrometers and 27 tipping bucket rain gauges were operated at 11 different sites during August and September 2001, as part of the Keys Area Microphysics Project. The rain gauge and disdrometer network was designed to study the range ...

Ali Tokay; David B. Wolff; Katherine R. Wolff; Paul Bashor

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Possible Misidentification of Rain Type by TRMM PR over Tibetan Plateau  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain-type statistics derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) standard product show that some 70% of raining pixels in the central Tibetan Plateau summer are stratiform—a clear contradiction to the common ...

Yunfei Fu; Guosheng Liu

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Incorporating Satellite Observations of “No Rain” in an Australian Daily Rainfall Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geostationary satellite observations can be used to distinguish potential rain-bearing clouds from nonraining areas, thereby providing surrogate observations of “no rain” over large areas. The advantages of including such observations are the ...

Elizabeth E. Ebert; Gary T. Weymouth

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

On a New Approach for Instantaneous Rain Area Delineation in the Midlatitudes Using GOES Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using satellite and weather radar data, a simple clustering analysis has been used in order to differentiate between raining and nonraining clouds. Based on these results, a scheme is proposed for instantaneous rain area delineation in the ...

A. A. Tsonis; G. A. Isaac

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Quantitative Measurements of Path-Integrated Rain Rate by an Airborne Microwave Radiometer over the Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data on the airborne microwave radiometer, which is one of the sensors of the airborne microwave rain-scatterometer/radiometer (AMRS) system, are analyzed to infer path-integrated rain rate measured from topside. The equation of radiative ...

Masaharu Fujita; Ken'ichi Okamoto; Harunobu Masuko; Takeyuki Ojima; Nobuyoshi Fugono

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Computer-Controlled Automated Rain Sampler (CCARS) for Rainfall Measurement and Sequential Sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Computer-Controlled Automated Rain Sampler (CCARS) is a combination rain gage and sequential sampler for precipitation chemistry measurements. The primary objectives of the design are low cost, versatility of operational mode, and remote ...

Stan D. Tomich; M. Terry Dana

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Estimation of Rain and Hail Rates in Mixed-Phase Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation comprising rain and hail is studied. Specifically, techniques to identify and quantify such precipitation in terms of rain and hail fall rates using dual polarized radar data, are presented. Included for consideration are ZH, the ...

N. Balakrishnan; D. S. Zrni?

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Observations of Precipitation Size and Fall Speed Characteristics within Coexisting Rain and Wet Snow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-based measurements of particle size and fall speed distributions using a Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer are compared among samples obtained in mixed precipitation (rain and wet snow) and rain in the Oregon Cascade ...

Sandra E. Yuter; David E. Kingsmill; Louisa B. Nance; Martin Löffler-Mang

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Optimal Thresholds for the Estimation of Area Rain-Rate Moments by the Threshold Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimization of the threshold method, achieved by determination of the threshold that maximizes the correlation between an area-average rain-rate moment and the area coverage of rain rates exceeding the threshold, is demonstrated empirically and ...

David A. Short; Kunio Shimizu; Benjamin Kedem

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

A Synoptic Overview of a Heavy Rain Event in Southern China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The meteorological events surrounding the heavy rains of 23–25 June 1983 in the Yangtze River Valley of China are investigated. The rains developed along a persistent quasi-stationary frontal boundary that separated warm, moist tropical air from ...

Kai-Yu Ma; Lance F. Bosart

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The Supercooled Warm Rain Process and the Specification of Freezing Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 30% of freezing precipitation cases are observed to occur in a subfreezing atmosphere (contrary to the classical melting ice model). We explain these cases with the concept of the “supercolled warm rain process” (SWRP): the warm rain ...

George J. Huffman; Gene Alfred Norman Jr.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Sensitivity of the Estimated Monthly Convective Rain Fraction to the Choice of Z–R Relation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the sensitivity of the estimated monthly convective rain fraction—that is, the percentage of the areal rain accumulation contributed by precipitation identified as convective—to variations of the Z–R parameters used in ...

Matthias Steiner; Robert A. Houze Jr.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Satellite Passive Microwave Rain Rate Measurement over Croplands during Spring, Summer and Fall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain rate algorithms for spring, summer and fall that have been developed from comparisons between the brightness temperatures measured by the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and rain rates derived from operational WSR-...

Roy W. Spencer

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Comparisons of Instantaneous TRMM Ground Validation and Satellite Rain-Rate Estimates at Different Spatial Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study provides a comprehensive intercomparison of instantaneous rain rates observed by the two rain sensors aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite with ground data from two regional sites established for long-term ...

David B. Wolff; Brad L. Fisher

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Comparison of Simulated Rain Rates from Disdrometer Data Employing Polarimetric Radar Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Disdrometer data collected during three spring days, with moderate to heavy rain in the Norman, Oklahoma region are used with various polarimetric radar algorithms to simulate rain rates. It is assumed that available measurables are 1) ...

N. Balakrishnan; Dúsan S. Zrni?; Julius Goldhirsh; John Rowland

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Is Virga Rain That Evaporates before Reaching the Ground?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The visual phenomenon called virga, a sudden change in the brightness of a precipitation shaft below a cloud, is commonly attributed to evaporation of raindrops. It is said to be rain that does not reach the ground. The optical thickness of an ...

Alistair B. Fraser; Craig F. Bohren

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

A Rain Gauge for the Measurement of Finescale Temporal Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rain gauge is described that quantizes rainwater collected by a funnel into equal-sized drops. Using a funnel of 150-mm diameter, the quantization corresponds to 1/160 mm of rainfall, enabling the measurement of low rainfall rates and the ...

C. David Stow; Stuart G. Bradley; Keith E. Farrington; Kim N. Dirks; Warren R. Gray

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Apparatus for the Simulation of Rain in the Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulated rains are produced by directing a jet of water toward the periphery of an automobile tire that rotates opposite to the flow of water. The air and mechanical turbulence created by the rotating tire surface break the jet up into a spray ...

David R. Derenzo; Bernard Vonnegut

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

The Effect of Rain in Calming the Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of rain in damping surface waves appears to be significant in the estimation of wind speed from the backscatter of radar signal from the sea surface. The radar backscatter depends on the small-scale roughness of the sea surface. This ...

M. N. Tsimplis

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Drop shapes and fall speeds in rain: two contrasting examples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two rain events are analyzed using two collocated 2D-video disdrometers (2DVD) and a C band polarimetric radar at 15 km distance. Both events had moderate-to-intense rainfall rates, but the second event had an embedded convective line. For the ...

M. Thurai; V. N. Bringi; W. A. Petersen; P. N. Gatlin

131

Probing Hurricanes with Stable Isotopes of Rain and Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain and water vapor were collected during flights in Hurricanes Olivia (1994), Opal (1995), Marilyn (1995), and Hortense (1995) and analyzed for their stable isotopic concentrations, or ratios, H218O:H2O and HDO:H2O. The spatial patterns and ...

Stanley Gedzelman; James Lawrence; John Gamache; Michael Black; Edward Hindman; Robert Black; Jason Dunion; Hugh Willoughby; Xiaoping Zhang

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Polarimetric Attenuation Correction in Heavy Rain at C Band  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of C-band polarimetric radar to account for strong attenuation/differential attenuation is demonstrated in two cases of heavy rain that occurred in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area on 5 August 2008 and in central Oklahoma on ...

Ji-Young Gu; A. Ryzhkov; P. Zhang; P. Neilley; M. Knight; B. Wolf; Dong-In Lee

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

The Impacts of Different Satellite Data on Rain Estimation Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain estimates for the Great Plains States were made for a one-month period, August 1979, using different combinations of satellite and other data. The data tested were as follows: 1) two satellite images per day without any other data, 2) four ...

Donald P. Wylie; Denise Laitsch

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

The Promise of Urban Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Promise of Urban Science. Purpose: ... Speakers: Steven E. Koonin Director NYU Center for Urban Science and Progress. Details: ...

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

135

Complete Urban Surface Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An observation program using ground and airborne thermal infrared radiometers is used to estimate the surface temperature of urban areas, taking into account the total active surface area. The authors call this the complete urban surface ...

J. A. Voogt; T. R. Oke

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Forcing Versus Feedback: Epidemic Malaria and Monsoon Rains in Northwest India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forcing Versus Feedback: Epidemic Malaria and Monsoon Rains in Northwest India Karina Laneri1 the monsoonal rains. Consideration of a more complex model with clinical immunity demonstrates the robustness Feedback: Epidemic Malaria and Monsoon Rains in Northwest India. PLoS Comput Biol 6(9): e1000898. doi:10

Pascual, Mercedes

137

Baseline Ozone Results from 1923 to 1955  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baseline total atmospheric ozone values have been derived, using the Chappuis band, from historical data for 11 Smithsonian sites, including both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The main baselines consist of 1194 and 970 days respectively for ...

Ronald J. Angione; Robert G. Roosen

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Climatological effects of atmospheric ozone: A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents some results of model estimates of ozone (O/sub 3/) climatological effects. Specific issues involved in O/sub 3/ climate study and future research needs are discussed. (ACR)

Wang, W.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Global Variation in Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone: An Update Through 1981  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total-ozone variations have been updated through 1981 for four regions in north temperate latitudes, the five climatic zones, both hemispheres, and the world. Also updated through 1981 are ozone values in height layers 32–48 km, 24–32 km, 16–24 ...

J. K. Angell; J. Korshover

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

OZONE PRECURSORS, SOURCE REGIONS, AND O(3) FORMATION DURING THE TEXAQS 2000 STUDY.  

SciTech Connect

The DOE G-1 aircraft made flights on 14 days during the TexAQS 2000 study. On 7 of those days, the aircraft encountered highly localized plumes exhibiting O{sub 3} concentrations in excess of 150 ppb; on some days, peak O{sub 3} concentrations were in excess of 200 ppb. These ozone plumes were rapidly formed with an efficiency (O{sub 3} per NO{sub x} molecule consumed) much higher (7-20) than observed in other urban areas (3-4), and were frequently associated with high concentrations (>20 ppb) of secondary hydrocarbon species such as formaldehyde. Back trajectory analysis showed that the plumes were invariably associated with emissions from one or more of the large industrial complexes clustered about the Houston Ship Channel and Galveston Bay. Very high hydrocarbon reactivities were found in the vicinity of these facilities during morning flights. These hydrocarbon reactivities, in combination with local NO{sub x} emissions, were large enough to support instantaneous O{sub 3} production rates as high as 200 ppb/h. It is hypothesized that the combination of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon emissions emanating from this complex of industries provided a potent mixture of chemicals that caused the rapid formation of very high concentrations of ozone which, depending on the prevailing meteorology, could cause exceedance of the NAAQS ozone standard anywhere in the Houston metropolitan area.

DAUM,P.H.; KLEINMAN,L.I.; BRECHTEL,F.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Effects of Ozone Heating on Forced Equatorial Kelvin Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An equatorial beta-plane model of the stratosphere is used to examine the effects of longwave radiational cooling, ozone photochemistry, and ozone advection on the linear spatial modulation of forced equatorial Kelvin waves. The model atmosphere ...

Robert S. Echols; Terrence R. Nathan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Determination of Total Ozone Amount from TIROS Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total ozone amounts are determined from atmospheric radiances measured by the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS). The retrieval procedure is one of linear regression where total ozone amounts derived from Dobson spectrophotometer ...

Walter G. Planet; David S. Crosby; James H. Lienesch; Michael L. Hill

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Vertical Structure of the Anomalous 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone estimates from observations by the NOAA-16 Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV/2) instrument and Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS-N) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) are used to describe the vertical structure of ozone ...

S. Kondragunta; L. E. Flynn; A. Neuendorffer; A. J. Miller; C. Long; R. Nagatani; S. Zhou; T. Beck; E. Beach; R. McPeters; R. Stolarski; P. K. Bhartia; M. T. DeLand; L.-K. Huang

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Surface Ozone During the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the last few years, increases in tropospheric ozone concentration have been detected and the need for more study has been recognized. There is very little knowledge about surface ozone background concentrations prior to the advent of ...

Rumen D. Bojkov

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Relations between Meteorology and Ozone in the Lake Michigan Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The field program phase of the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS) took place during the summer of 1991. Observed ozone concentrations and weather variables have been analyzed for the Lake Michigan region and the eastern United States for four 1991 ...

Steven R. Hanna; Joseph C. Chang

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Space and Time Scales in Ambient Ozone Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the characteristic space and time scales in time series of ambient ozone data. The authors discuss the need and a methodology for cleanly separating the various scales of motion embedded in ozone time series data, namely, ...

S. T. Rao; I. G. Zurbenko; R. Neagu; P. S. Porter; J. Y. Ku; R. F. Henry

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Computing a Probability Distribution for the Start of the Rains from a Markov Chain Model for Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The start of the rains is defined to be the first day, or two-day rain spell, in which greater than a specified total amount of rain occurs. A method of calculating the probability distribution of the start of the rains from a Markov chain model ...

R. D. Stern

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Industrial Technologies Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone Ames ...

149

Ozonization of humic acids in brown coal oxidized in situ  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the ozonization of humic acids in chloroform and glacial acetic acid media on the yield and component composition of the resulting products was studied. The high efficiency of ozonization in acetic acid was found. Water-soluble low-molecular-weight substances were predominant among the ozonization products.

S.A. Semenova; Yu.F. Patrakov; M.V. Batina [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russia). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Liquid-phase ozonation of fusainized components of SS coal  

SciTech Connect

Stepwise ozonation of leaning fusainized components of fossil coal of SS grade in acetic acid was studied. The dynamics of accumulation of oxygen-containing groups in the course of ozonation was examined, and the main pathways of the reaction of ozone with structural fragments of the coal substance were revealed.

Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Examination of the Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols on Southeast Texas Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite decades of study, we still do not fully understand aerosols and their interactions among gases or other aerosols in the atmosphere. Among their impacts, they influence radiative transfer in the atmosphere and contribute to cloud formation. There are many different types of aerosols, including dust particles, soot particles, and microscopic particles containing inorganic compounds such as sulfates. Most of these particles have natural origins, but many are anthropogenic. The eventual purpose of this research is to examine sea salt aerosols and their impact on polluted environments. Sea salt aerosols act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions. Such reactions have implications for trace gases such as ozone, reactive nitrogen, mercury, and sulfur containing compounds. Urban areas are most impacted by these trace gases, which is a concern because ozone especially affects the health of citizens. Experiments have three basic parts. First we generate mono-disperse 3 aerosols. That aerosol is then injected into the aerosol chambers with sea salt aerosols and prescribed concentrations of trace gases to characterize relevant interactions. However, those chambers are still under construction and not used during my study. The processed aerosols are then analyzed with a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) and other equipment. Different concentrations of sea salt aerosols, Cl, NOx, and other gases were planned to be introduced during the experiments. Concentrations of other gases and intensity of solar radiation would mimic those outside. Because these reactions have proved to increase localized concentrations of ozone in other work, this could have important implications. Future work will be designed to find study these interactions. This is important because the EPA has considered tightening the standards for both ozone and particulate matter. Industries would then need to reduce emissions or move farther from current sources of Cl or NOx pollution.

Benoit, Mark David

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Urban food waste composting.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, a study was undertaken on the premise that the world population living in urban centers is expected to increase from 3.8 billion… (more)

Adhikari, Bijaya K.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Title Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5889E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Walker, Iain S., and Max H. Sherman Journal Building and Environment Volume 59 Start Page 456 Pagination 456-465 Date Published 01/2013 Keywords ashrae standard 62,2, filtration, infiltration, mechanical ventilation, ozone, simulation Abstract Elevated outdoor ozone levels are associated with adverse health effects. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone of outdoor origin would lower population exposures and might also lead to a reduction in ozone---associated adverse health effects. In most buildings, indoor ozone levels are diminished with respect to outdoor levels to an extent that depends on surface reactions and on the degree to which ozone penetrates the building envelope. Ozone enters buildings from outdoors together with the airflows that are driven by natural and mechanical means, including deliberate ventilation used to reduce concentrations of indoor---generated pollutants. When assessing the effect of deliberate ventilation on occupant health one should consider not only the positive effects on removing pollutants of indoor origin but also the possibility that enhanced ventilation might increase indoor levels of pollutants originating outdoors. This study considers how changes in residential ventilation that are designed to comply with ASHRAE Standard 62.2 might influence indoor levels of ozone. Simulation results show that the building envelope can contribute significantly to filtration of ozone. Consequently, the use of exhaust ventilation systems is predicted to produce lower indoor ozone concentrations than would occur with balanced ventilation systems operating at the same air---exchange rate. We also investigated a strategy for reducing exposure to ozone that would deliberately reduce ventilation rates during times of high outdoor ozone concentration while still meeting daily average ventilation requirements.

154

EFFICIENCY OF OZONE PRODUCTION IN THE HOUSTON PLUME.  

SciTech Connect

Ozone levels observed during a field campaign in Houston were significantly higher than that observed in Phoenix or Philadelphia. An examination of the slope of O{sub x} versus NO{sub z} in the urban plumes shows that NO{sub x} is used 2 to 3 times more efficiently in Houston as compared with Phoenix and Philadelphia. Representative values of OPEx are 7-12, 3, and 4, in Houston, Phoenix, and Philadelphia. Aircraft observations have been used to calculate P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}). Values in Houston are significantly higher than in Phoenix and Philadelphia. We show that P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) is proportional to a VOC/NO{sub 2}-OH reactivity ratio. High values of P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) in Houston are due to emissions of reactive olefins from the ship channel region. It is significant that high values of P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) occur at NO{sub x} levels up to several 10's of ppb. Not only is the chemistry efficient but it will be long lasting. The occurrence of high NO{sub x} and high OPEx is fostered by the co-location of VOC and NO{sub x} sources in the Houston industrial areas.

KLEINMAN,L.I.; DAUM,P.H.; BRECHTEL,F.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Revealing the Winds Under the Rain. Part I. Passive Microwave Rain Retrievals Using a New, Observations-Based, Parameterization of Sub-Satellite Rain Variability and Intensity: Algorithm Description.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scatterometer ocean surface winds have been providing very valuable information to researchers and operational weather forecasters for over ten years. However, the scatterometer wind retrievals are compromised when rain is present. Merely flagging ...

S. M. Hristova-Veleva; P. S. Callahan; R. S. Dunbar; B. W. Stiles; S. H. Yueh; J. N. Huddleston; S. V. Hsiao; G. Neumann; M. H. Freilich; B. A. Vanhoff; R. W. Gaston; E. Rodriguez; D. E. Weissman

156

OBSERVATION-BASED METHODS (OBMS) FOR ANALYZING URBAN/REGIONAL OZONE PRODUCTION AND OZONE-NOx-VOC SENSITIVITY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and reduction ofFormation and reduction of NOxNOx during burner combustionduring burner combustion ·· LowLow NOxNOx gas treatment forFlue gas treatment for NOxNOx reduction: SCR, SNCR, otherreduction: SCR, SNCR, other OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Selective catalyticSelective catalytic reduction (SCR) ofreduction (SCR) of NOxNOx /1

Sillman, Sanford

157

Results of Seeding for Dynamic Effects on Rain-Cell Properties in FACE-2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volume scan radar studies incorporating the use of an elaborate method of defining and tracking convective rain cells through their lifetime have been used to

Abraham Gagin; Daniel Rosenfeld; William L. Woodley; Raul E. Lopez

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ozone Conservation and Entrainment in Cumulus Congestus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study demonstrates that ozone mixing ratio (O3) is conserved during moist convection and can be used as a tracer for cloud entrainment studies. The approach used is to apply mixing line analysis to pairs of liquid water potential temperature ...

R. Pearson Jr.; C. J. Weaver

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary o Regional nuclear war could cause global which traps pollutants o Nuclear weapons cause explosions, which then causes things around the vicinity to start burning, which in turn releases black carbon; it is not the nuclear material or fallout causing

Toohey, Darin W.

160

Fuzzy model in urban planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents application of a fuzzy logic in urban planning. Urban environment quality evaluation is an important part of environmental planning and management. Traditional theory does not give as good evaluation as the fuzzy set theory, which ... Keywords: GIS, fuzzy logic, urban evaluation, urban planning

Jasna Pleho; Zikrija Avdagic

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Flux Measurements of Pulsating Rain with a Disdrometer and Doppler Radar during Phase II of the Joint Tropical Rain Experiment in Malaysia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the Joint Tropical Rain Experiment of the Malaysian Meteorological Service and the University of Toronto, pulsating raindrop ensembles, hereafter pulses, were observed in and around Penang Island. Using a Doppler radar on 25 October 1990, ...

Greg M. McFarquhar; Roland List; David R. Hudak; Robert P. Nissen; J. S. Dobbie; N. P. Tung; T. S. Kang

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Temporal and Spatial Variations of Freezing Rain in the Contiguous United States: 1948–2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new freezing-rain-days database was used to define the spatial and temporal distributions of freezing-rain days across the contiguous United States. The database contained 988 stations, spanning the period 1948–2000. Areas averaging one or more ...

Stanley A. Changnon; Thomas R. Karl

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Processes Influencing Rain-Field Growth and Decay after Tropical Cyclone Landfall in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study measured rain-field sizes for tropical cyclones (TCs) after U.S. landfall and related changes in size to the diurnal cycle and extratropical transition (ET). For 45 TC landfalls, the spatial properties of the rain fields were calculated ...

Corene J. Matyas

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Heavy Rain Events over the South-Facing Slopes of Hawaii: Attendant Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heavy rain events (>100 mm day?1) over the southeast flank of Mauna Loa volcano on the island of Hawaii are examined using surface, rawinsonde, rain gauge, and satellite data. The events occur in the presence of four types of synoptic-scale ...

Kevin Kodama; Gary M. Barnes

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Stratiform Rain in the Tropics as Seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Across the Tropics (20°N–20°S), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) indicates that for reflectivities ?17 dBZ, stratiform precipitation accounts for 73% of the area covered by rain and 40% of the total rain ...

Courtney Schumacher; Robert A. Houze Jr.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Correcting Active Scatterometer Data for the Effects of Rain Using Passive Radiometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for the effects of rain on scatterometer data is proposed. Data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) and the SeaWinds scatterometer, both on the Midori-II satellite, are used. The model includes three basic rain effects: ...

K. A. Hilburn; F. J. Wentz; D. K. Smith; P. D. Ashcroft

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Properties of the Threshold Method on a Radar Rain Cluster Basis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The average rain rate R is estimated with radar data at the radar beam height by measuring the fractional area F(?) of pixels above a preset rain-rate threshold ?. This work applies the “threshold method” to smaller areas. The threshold method ...

L. Li; S. Sénési

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Interannual Variability and Trends of Extratropical Ozone. Part I: Northern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors apply principal component analysis (PCA) to the extratropical total column ozone from the combined merged ozone data product and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts assimilated ozone from January 1979 to August ...

Xun Jiang; Steven Pawson; Charles D. Camp; J. Eric Nielsen; Run-Lie Shia; Ting Liao; Varavut Limpasuvan; Yuk L. Yung

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Quality of Total Ozone Measured by the Focused Sun Method Using a Brewer Spectrophotometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strong ozone depletions and large natural variations in total ozone have been observed at high latitudes. Accurate measurements of total ozone are important so as not to misinterpret the involved processes and to track correctly the variations. ...

Weine Josefsson

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

NRC symposium explores links between greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone  

SciTech Connect

Two important climatic issues stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increase and the apparent connection between them led to the holding in March 1988 of a Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change. This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Assessing the Relative Performance of Microwave-Based Satellite Rain-Rate Retrievals Using TRMM Ground Validation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spaceborne microwave sensors provide critical rain information used in several global multisatellite rain products, which in turn are used for a variety of important studies, including landslide forecasting, flash flood warning, data assimilation,...

David B. Wolff; Brad L. Fisher

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Non-Rayleigh Scattering Effect in Rain Observations by an X- and Ka-band Dual-Wavelength Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of non-Rayleigh scattering appearing in a rain observation experiment using a dual-wavelength rain radar, is investigated. The non-Rayleigh scattering effect causes a small difference between the effective radar reflectivity factor and ...

Kenji Nakamura; Hideyuki Inomata

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Towards sustainable urban communities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Requirements for the assessment tools of buildings have increased, assessing of building components or separate buildings is not enough. Neighbourhoods, built environment, public transportations, and services, should be considered simultaneously. Number of population living in urban areas is high and increasing rapidly. Urbanisation is a major concern due to its detrimental effects on the environment. The aim of this study is to clarify the field of assessment tools for urban communities by analysing the current situation. The focus is on internationally well known assessment tools; BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development and LEED for Neigborhood Development. The interest towards certification systems is increasing amongst the authorities, and especially amongst the global investors and property developers. Achieved certifications are expected to bring measureable publicity for the developers. The assessment of urban areas enables the comparison of municipalities and urban areas, and notably supports decision making processes. Authorities, city planners, and designers would benefit most from the use of the tools during the decision making process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The urban assessment tools have strong linkage to the region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tools promote complementary building and retrofitting existing sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sharing knowledge and experiences is important in the development of the tools.

Haapio, Appu, E-mail: appu.haapio@vtt.fi

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Urban Electric Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Urban Electric Vehicles Toyota Urban Electric Vehicle Urban electric vehicles (UEVs) are regular passenger vehicles with top speeds of about 60 miles per hour (mph) and a...

175

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Urban Electric Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Urban Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Urban Electric Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Urban...

176

Ozone and UV for Grain Milling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recognizing the current concerns with food safety, First Energy Services and EPRI collaborated in a project to investigate the feasibility of using ozone as a substitute for chlorinated water to control bacteria and mold at the Harvest States Amber Milling facility in Huron, Ohio. Traditionally, chlorinated water is used to control bacteria and mold in grain processing. Since chlorine usage can be costly and because chlorine presents problems in storage and safe handling of chlorine gas, the project part...

2000-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

177

An Assessment of Tropospheric Ozone Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This assessment was prepared as an initiative of the North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone (NARSTO). The NARSTO partnership is a non-binding, tri-national public/private alliance, open to science agencies, regulatory agencies, regulated industries, academic institutions, environmentalists, and public interests groups in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The NARSTO mission is to plan, coordinate, and facilitate comprehensive, long-term, policy-relevant scientific research and assess...

2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

178

In-Situ Electrical Studies on Ozone Functionalization of Graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is found that the ozone molecules at 300 K are reversibly physisorbed on the surface of graphene and the physisorption bonding is removed immediately after  ...

179

The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L. (1982). Assessment of crop loss from ozone. Journal of1984). Assessing impacts of ozone on agricultural crops: II.crop yield functions and alternative exposure statistics.

Murphy, James; Delucchi, Mark; McCubbin, Donald; Kim, H.J.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Ozonated Laundry: An Analysis of Its Applications and Market Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric utilities can create value for their customers and revenues for themselves by promoting new energy-intensive technologies. This report focuses on one such electrotechnology, ozonated laundry. It describes the current state of the technology and its economic prospects and explores how utilities can benefit from increased marketplace acceptance of ozonated laundry.

1998-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict Michael J. Mills* , Owen B a chemistry-climate model and new estimates of smoke produced by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the impact on stratospheric ozone of a regional nuclear war between developing nuclear states involving 100

182

Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 31513160 Ozone removal by HVAC filters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 3151­3160 Ozone removal by HVAC filters P. Zhao, J.A. Siegel�, R May 2006; accepted 14 June 2006 Abstract Residential and commercial HVAC filters that have been loaded of the relative importance of HVAC filters as a removal mechanism for ozone in residential and commercial

Siegel, Jeffrey

183

Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 OZONE REMOVAL BY RESIDENTIAL HVAC FILTERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 2366 OZONE REMOVAL BY RESIDENTIAL HVAC FILTERS P Zhao1,2 , JA Siegel1, Austin, Texas 78758, USA ABSTRACT HVAC filters have a significant influence on indoor air quality% for Filter #2 at a face velocity of 0.81 cm/s. The potential for HVAC filters to affect ozone concentrations

Siegel, Jeffrey

184

The 1983 and 1985 Anomalies in Ozone Distribution in Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of the amount of total ozone at many observatories show that the negative 1983 deviation from the long-term average exceeded 2?, and was the greatest in magnitude for an annual deviation in their entire record., the total ozone in ...

Rumen D. Bojkov

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Autoregressive forecast of monthly total ozone concentration: A neurocomputing approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study endeavors to generate autoregressive neural network (AR-NN) models to forecast the monthly total ozone concentration over Kolkata (22^o34', 88^o22'), India. The issues associated with the applicability of neural network to geophysical ... Keywords: Autoregressive moving average, Autoregressive neural network, Monthly total ozone, Predictive model

Goutami Chattopadhyay; Surajit Chattopadhyay

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

An Analysis of Tropopause Pressure and Total Ozone Correlations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between total ozone and tropopause pressure is analyzed using 4 years (1979–82) of Nimbus-7 total ozone data and NMC global analyses of tropopause on a 5° by 5° grid. The fields are separated into medium (synoptic) and large ...

Siegfried D. Schubert; Marie-Jeanne Munteanu

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Urban Song Paths: place resounding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project Urban Song Paths took a traditional musical form, the Kaluli song path from Papua, New Guinea, and translated it for a contemporary urban situation. The Two Rivers Project explored a classic song path subject, the route of a ...

Viv Corringham

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

A sustainable urban center refurbishment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the last century a vast new building construction activity was verified. The old urban centers were abandoned and new housing areas grew up without comply with sustainable principles. The great architectural and urban value of these centers led ... Keywords: indicators, refurbishment, sustainability, urban center

Ana Karina Lopes; Fernanda Rodrigues; Victor M. Ferreira; Romeu Vicente

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

An Update through 1985 of the Variations in Global Total Ozone and North Temperate Layer-Mean Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total-ozone variations in five climatic zones and the world as a whole, as well as ozone variations in tropospheric and stratospheric layers of the north temperate zone, have been updated through 1985 by means of Dobson, ozonesonde and Umkehr ...

J. K. Angell

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Experimental 4D-Var Assimilation of SYNOP Rain Gauge Data at ECMWF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) experiments with 6-hourly rain gauge accumulations observed at synoptic stations (SYNOP) around the globe have been run over several months, both at high resolution in an ECMWF operations-...

Philippe Lopez

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Australian Heavy-Rain Days and Associated East Coast Cyclones: 1958–92  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present a comprehensive climatology of heavy rain and east coast cyclones from January 1958 to September 1992. A total of 80 cyclones, including nondeveloping systems, were objectively identified from daily rainfall and surface wind ...

Linda C. Hopkins; Greg J. Holland

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Rain Enhancement and Fog Elimination by Seeding with Charged Droplets. Part I: Theory and Numerical Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method of droplet collision acceleration, with the purpose of rain enhancement and fog elimination, is proposed. According to the method, some fraction of the droplets is taken from clouds (or fog) themselves, charged, and then injected ...

A. Khain; V. Arkhipov; M. Pinsky; Y. Feldman; Ya Ryabov

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Analysis of Short Space–Time-Scale Variability of Oceanic Rain Using TOPEX/Jason  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information on the spatial and temporal variability of rain rate is important not only for meteorology and hydrology but also for the design of remote sensing and in situ measuring or of millimeter wave communication systems. The Ocean Topography ...

J. Tournadre; S. Bhandari

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Drop Shapes, Model Comparisons, and Calculations of Polarimetric Radar Parameters in Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drop shapes derived from a previously conducted artificial rain experiment using a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) are presented. The experiment involved drops falling over a distance of 80 m to achieve their terminal velocities as well ...

M. Thurai; G. J. Huang; V. N. Bringi; W. L. Randeu; M. Schönhuber

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

On the Shape–Slope Relation of Drop Size Distributions in Convective Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relation between the slope and shape parameters of the raindrop size distribution parameterized by a gamma distribution is examined. The comparison of results of a simple rain shaft model with an empirical relation based on disdrometer ...

Axel Seifert

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Infrared and Visible Satellite Rain Estimation. Part II: A Cloud Definition Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the relationships between satellite infrared clouds and rainfall, and infrared-threshold visible clouds and rainfall. Clouds are defined by the outline of the 253 K isotherm. Cloud infrared area was highly correlated with rain ...

Andrew J. Negri; Robert F. Adler

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

A Physically Based, Nondimensional Parameter for Discriminating between Locations of Freezing Rain and Ice Pellets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nondimensional parameter is presented that can he used to help distinguish between conditions favorable for the occurrence of freezing rain and ice pellets. The parameter was derived from the well-established condition that most incidents of ...

Robert R. Czys; Robert W. Scott; K. C. Tang; Ronald W. Przybylinski; Michael E. Sabones

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Satellite and Numerical Model Investigation of Two Heavy Rain Events over the Central Mediterranean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two heavy rain events over the Central Mediterranean basin, which are markedly different by genesis, dimensions, duration, and intensity, are analyzed. Given the relative low frequency of this type of severe storms in the area, a synoptic analysis ...

Sante Laviola; Agata Moscatello; Mario Marcello Miglietta; Elsa Cattani; Vincenzo Levizzani

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Rain Shedding and Rainwater Runoff Tests on Cast Iron Vented Manhole Covers for Con Edison  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents work EPRIsolutions performed for Con Edison that compares water penetration characteristics of two types of vented manhole covers with a solid cover and a manhole with no cover under typical and very heavy rain conditions.

2007-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

200

Influence of Rain-Rate Initialization, Cloud Microphysics, and Cloud Torques on Hurricane Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the impact of rain-rate initialization (RINIT), microphysical modifications, and cloud torques (in the context of angular momentum) on hurricane intensity forecasts using a mesoscale model [the Advanced Research Weather ...

S. Pattnaik; C. Inglish; T. N. Krishnamurti

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The Role of Giant and Ultragiant Aerosol Particles in Warm Rain Initiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Giant and ultragiant aerosol particles can play an important role in warm rain initiation. Recent aerosol measurements have established that particles as large as 100 ?m are a regular part of the atmospheric aerosol. When ingested in growing ...

David B. Johnson

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Model Rain and Clouds over Oceans: Comparison with SSM/I Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparison of global model cloud and rain parameterization output with satellite observed radiances was carried out. Hydrometeor profiles from ECMWF operational short-range forecasts were combined with a microwave radiative transfer model to ...

Frédéric Chevallier; Peter Bauer

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

An Investigation of the Consistency of TAO–TRITON Buoy-Mounted Capacitance Rain Gauges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The common use of remotely located, buoy-mounted capacitance rain gauges in the tropical oceans for satellite rainfall verification studies provides motivation for an in situ gauge bias assessment. A comparison of the biases in rainfall catchment ...

Mark L. Morrissey; Howard J. Diamond; Michael J. McPhaden; H. Paul Freitag; J. Scott Greene

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

The Second-Moment Climatology of the GATE Rain Rate Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first part of this paper presents the description of the GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Atlantic Tropical Experiment 1 rain-rate data and its two-dimensional spectral and correlation characteristics, which have made it possible to ...

Ilya Polyak; Gerald North

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

High-Resolution Imaging of Rain Systems with the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) has been developed and flown in the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft for imaging various atmospheric and surface processes, primarily the internal structure of rain clouds. The AMPR is a ...

Roy W. Spencer; Robbie E. Hood; Frank J. Lafontaine; Eric A. Smith; Robert Platt; Joe Galliano; Vanessa L. Griffin; Elena Lobl

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Improving Estimates of Heavy and Extreme Precipitation Using Daily Records from European Rain Gauges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long-term variability in heavy precipitation characteristics over Europe for the period 1950–2000 is analyzed using high-quality daily records of rain gauge measurements from the European Climate Assessment (ECA) dataset. To improve the ...

Olga Zolina; Clemens Simmer; Konstantin Belyaev; Alice Kapala; Sergey Gulev

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Rain Attenuation of Radar Echoes Considering Finite-Range Resolution and Using Drop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The classical rain attenuation correction scheme of Hitschfeld and Bordan (HIBO) and the newer iterative approach by Hildebrand (HL) are reconsidered. Although the motivation for the HL algorithm was an extension into ranges, where HIBO tends to ...

Gerhard Peters; Bernd Fischer; Marco Clemens

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Real-Time Correction of Spatially Nonuniform Bias in Radar Rainfall Data Using Rain Gauge Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A procedure for real-time correction of spatially nonuniform bias in radar rainfall data using rain gauge measurements is described. Developed to complement the existing gauge-based bias correction procedures used in the National Weather Service (...

Dong-Jun Seo; J. P. Breidenbach

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Evaluating Light Rain Drop Size Estimates from Multi-Wavelength Micropulse Lidar Network Profiling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate multi-wavelength retrievals of median equivolumetric drop diameter, D0, suitable for drizzle and light rain, through collocated 355/527 nm Micro Pulse Lidar NETwork (MPLNET) observations collected during precipitation occurring 9 ...

Simone Lolli; Ellsworth J. Welton; James. R. Campbell

210

How Does Rain Affect Surface Pressure in a One-Dimensional Framework?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process of hydrostatic adjustment in a vertical column is discussed in the context of rain formation and sedimentation. The authors assume an event of instantaneous condensation in a midatmospheric layer that removes mass from the gas phase ...

Thomas Spengler; Joseph Egger; Stephen T. Garner

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Intercomparison of Rain Gauge, Radar, and Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimates with Emphasis on Hydrologic Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study compares mean areal precipitation (MAP) estimates derived from three sources: an operational rain gauge network (MAPG), a radar/gauge multisensor product (MAPX), and the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using ...

Koray K. Yilmaz; Terri S. Hogue; Kuo-lin Hsu; Soroosh Sorooshian; Hoshin V. Gupta; Thorsten Wagener

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Uncertainties in Oceanic Radar Rain Maps at Kwajalein and Implications for Satellite Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) ground validation radar has provided a multiyear three-dimensional radar dataset at an oceanic site. Extensive rain gauge networks are not feasible over the ocean and, ...

Robert A. Houze Jr; Stacy Brodzik; Courtney Schumacher; Sandra E. Yuter; Christopher R. Williams

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Climatologically Tuned Reflectivity-Rain Rate Relations and Links to Area-Time Integrals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relations between either the point- or beam-averaged effective reflectivity, Ze, and surface rain rate, R, are determined by a probability matching method similar to that of Calheiros and Zawadzki, and Rosenfeld. The cumulative density functions (...

David Atlas; Daniel Rosenfeld; David B. Wolff

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

A Remote-Sensing View of a Freezing-Rain Storm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A destructive freezing-rain storm on 15 February 1990 was observed intensively with advanced ground-based remote sensors and conventional instruments by the Lake Ontario Winter Storms (LOWS) project in upstate New York. A deep layer of warm, ...

Brooks E. Martner; Jack B. Snider; Robert J. Zamora; Gregory P. Byrd; Thomas A. Niziol; Paul I. Joe

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Analyses of 1-min Rain Rates Extracted from Weighing Raingage Recordings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for extracting 1-min rain rates from original weighing raingage recordings is described. The method allows the retrieval of rates for long periods at approximately 300 United States weather stations. The process combines magnification of ...

Paul Tattelman; Richard W. Knight

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Monsoon variation and vegetative drought patterns in the Luni Basin in the rain-shadow zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drought has a significant impact on agricultural, ecological and socio-economic spheres. Poor and delayed monsoon, high temperature and insufficient water resources lead to recurrent drought in the Luni River basin located in the rain-shadow zone of ...

C. Bhuiyan; F. N. Kogan

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Intercalibrated Passive Microwave Rain Products from the Unified Microwave Ocean Retrieval Algorithm (UMORA)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Unified Microwave Ocean Retrieval Algorithm (UMORA) simultaneously retrieves sea surface temperature, surface wind speed, columnar water vapor, columnar cloud water, and surface rain rate from a variety of passive microwave radiometers ...

K. A. Hilburn; F. J. Wentz

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Regional and Local Influences on Freezing Drizzle, Freezing Rain,and Ice Pellet Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional and local influences on frequency and type of freezing precipitation (freezing drizzle, freezing rain, and ice pellets) are investigated via in-depth climatologies of six continental United States (CONUS) sounding sites. For each site, ...

Ben C. Bernstein

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Can a Descending Rain Curtain in a Supercell Instigate Tornadogenesis Barotropically?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates whether the descending rain curtain associated with the hook echo of a supercell can instigate a tornado through a purely barotropic mechanism. A simple numerical model of a mesocyclone is constructed in order to rule out ...

Robert Davies-Jones

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Rain-Related Impacts on Selected Transportation Activities and Utility Services in the Chicago Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An intensive meteorological study of summer precipitation in the Chicago area during 1976–78 furnished detailed data needed to perform a study of the impacts of rain on selected transportation-related activities and on certain utility services. ...

Jan Bertness

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A Climatology of Freezing Rain in the Great Lakes Region of North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 15-yr climatology of freezing rain surrounding the Great Lakes region of North America has been constructed using data from rawinsondes, surface stations, and gridded reanalyses from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. This ...

John Cortinas Jr.

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

A Numerical Study of the Warm Rain Process in Orographic Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for numerical simulation of a stationary, two-dimensional laminar flow process is described. Based on this technique, a model for warm rain microphysics in an orographic cloud was developed. The model includes condensation, ...

Naihui Song; John Marwitz

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Intrinsic Ambiguities in the Retrieval of Rain Rates from Radar Returns at Attenuating Wavelengths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known that there are significant deterministic ambiguities inherent in trying to determine the particular rain-rate profile that produced some given sequence of air- or spaceborne radar echo powers at a single attenuating frequency. ...

Ziad S. Haddad; Eastwood Im; Stephen L. Durden

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Convective Rain Rates and their Evolution during Storms in a Semiarid Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain rates and their evolution during summertime convective storms were analyzed for the semiarid climate of the northern High Plains. Radar data from a total of 750 radar echo clusters from the 1980 and 1981 summer cloud seeding operations of ...

AndréA. Doneaud; Stefano Ionescu-Niscov; James R. Miller Jr.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

The Role of Visible Data in Improving Satellite Rain-Rate Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from the first Algorithm Intercomparison Project(AIP/1) collected over Japan and surrounding waters in June, July, and August 1989 are used in this study to assess the importance of visible data in satellite rain estimation techniques. The ...

Patrick W. S. King; William D. Hogg; Philip A. Arkin

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Use of Numerical Forecasts for Improving TMI Rain Retrievals over the Mountainous Area in Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topographical influences on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) rain retrievals over the terrain area of the Korean peninsula were examined using a training dataset constructed from numerical mesoscale model ...

Eun-Han Kwon; Byung-Ju Sohn; Dong-Eon Chang; Myoung-Hwan Ahn; Song Yang

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Rain Retrieval from TMI Brightness Temperature Measurements Using a TRMM PR–Based Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focuses on improving the retrieval of rain from measured microwave brightness temperatures and the capability of the retrieved field to represent the mesoscale structure of a small intense hurricane. For this study, a database is ...

Nicolas Viltard; Corinne Burlaud; Christian D. Kummerow

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings : evidence from the U.S. Acid Rain Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate ...

Bailey, Elizabeth M.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings : evidence from the U.S. Acid Rain Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate ...

Bailey, Elizabeth M.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

An Examination of Radar and Rain Gauge–Derived Mean Areal Precipitation over Georgia Watersheds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compared to conventional rain gauge networks, the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler provides precipitation estimates at enhanced spatial and temporal resolution that River Forecast Centers can use to improve streamflow forecasts. This study ...

Keith M. Stellman; Henry E. Fuelberg; Reggina Garza; Mary Mullusky

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Doppler Polarimetric Radar Measurements of the Gamma Drop Size Distribution of Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conversion of radar reflections into rain intensities is dependent upon assumptions regarding the drop size distribution. The gamma drop size distribution contains three unknown parameters; the number of parameters that can be obtained ...

H. W. J. Russchenberg

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Nimbus-7 37 GHz Radiances Correlated with Radar Rain Rates over the Gulf of Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a comparison between 37 GHz brightness temperatures from the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer and rain rates derived from the WSR-57 radars at Galveston, Texas and Apalachicola, Florida, it was found that the brightness ...

Roy W. Spencer; Barry B. Hinton; William S. Olson

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Correction of Polarimetric Radar Reflectivity Measurements and Rainfall Estimates for Apparent Vertical Profile in Stratiform Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for correcting the vertical profile of reflectivity measurements and rainfall estimates (VPR) in plan position indicator (PPI) scans of polarimetric weather radars in the melting layer and the snow layer during stratiform rain is ...

John Kalogiros; Marios N. Anagnostou; Emmanouil N. Anagnostou; Mario Montopoli; Errico Picciotti; Frank S. Marzano

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Climatological Characterization of Three-Dimensional Storm Structure from Operational Radar and Rain Gauge Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three algorithms extract information on precipitation type, structure, and amount from operational radar and rain gauge data. Tests on one month of data from one site show that the algorithms perform accurately and provide products that ...

Matthias Steiner; Robert A. Houze Jr.; Sandra E. Yuter

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Probabilistic Parameterizations of Visibility Using Observations of Rain Precipitation Rate, Relative Humidity, and Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study analyzes the occurrence of the visibility (Vis) versus precipitation rates (PR) for rain and versus relative humidity (RH) from surface observations that were collected during the Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) field project, ...

I. Gultepe; J. A. Milbrandt

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

General Probability-matched Relations between Radar Reflectivity and Rain Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of deriving the relation between radar-observed reflectivities Ze and gauge-measured rain intensity, R is presented. It is based on matching the probabilities of the two variables. The observed reflectivity is often very different from ...

Daniel Rosenfeld; David B. Wolff; David Atlas

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Bayesian Retrieval of Complete Posterior PDFs of Oceanic Rain Rate from Microwave Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new Bayesian algorithm for retrieving surface rain rate from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) over the ocean is presented, along with validations against estimates from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR). The ...

J. Christine Chiu; Grant W. Petty

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Data Transformation and Uncertainty in Geostatistical Combination of Radar and Rain Gauges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geostatistics provides a popular framework for deriving high-resolution quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) by combining radar and rain gauge data. However, the skewed and heteroscedastic nature of precipitation is in contradiction to ...

Rebekka Erdin; Christoph Frei; Hans R. Künsch

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

An Automated Synoptic Typing Procedure to Predict Freezing Rain: An Application to Ottawa, Ontario, Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Freezing rain is a major weather hazard that can compromise human safety, significantly disrupt transportation, and damage and disrupt built infrastructure such as telecommunication towers and electrical transmission and distribution lines. In ...

Chad Shouquan Cheng; Heather Auld; Guilong Li; Joan Klaassen; Bryan Tugwood; Qian Li

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Synoptic-Scale Analysis of Freezing Rain Events in Montreal, Quebec, Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Freezing rain is a major environmental hazard that is especially common along the St. Lawrence River valley (SLRV) in southern Quebec, Canada. For large cities such as Montreal, severe events can have a devastating effect on people, property, and ...

Gina M. Ressler; Shawn M. Milrad; Eyad H. Atallah; John R. Gyakum

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Satellite Cloud Classification and Rain-Rate Estimation Using Multispectral Radiances and Measures of Spatial Texture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Twelve months of Southern Hemisphere (maritime) midlatitudes Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer local area coverage data at full radiometric and spatial resolution have been collocated with rain-rate data from three Doppler weather radars.

Michael J. Uddstrom; Warren R. Gray

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Computationally unifying urban masterplanning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Architectural design, particularly in large scale masterplanning projects, has yet to fully undergo the computational revolution experienced by other design-led industries such as automotive and aerospace. These industries use computational frameworks ... Keywords: architectural analysis, architectural design, engineering analysis, unification, urban masterplanning

David Birch; Paul H. J. Kelly; Anthony J. Field; Alvise Simondetti

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The urban coffee shop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis is an investigation of the role of the coffee shop in the urban environment throughout history. Coffee shops spread from the Arab world to Europe and then to the U.S. at the end of the seventeenth century. ...

Chadios, Konstantinos

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Title Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2009 Authors Destaillats, Hugo, Wenhao Chen, Michael G. Apte, Nuan Li, Michael Spears, Jérémie Almosni, Jianshun Zheng, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Proceedings of the Healthy Buildings 2009 Conference Conference Location Syracuse, NY Keywords building-related symptoms, hvac filter, ozone, ptr-ms, secondary pollutants Abstract We used Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional sampling methods to monitor and identify trace level organic pollutants formed in heterogeneous reactions between ozone and HVAC filters in real time. Experiments were carried out using a bench-scale flow tube reactor operating with dry air and humidified air (50% RH), at realistically high ozone concentrations (150 ppbv). We explored different filter media (i.e., fiberglass and cotton/polyester blends) and different particle loadings (i.e., clean filter and filters loaded with particles for 3 months at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Port of Oakland, CA). Detailed emission dynamics of very low levels of certain organic pollutants from filter media upon ozone exposure in the presence of moisture have been obtained and analyzed.

245

Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations in these proceedings review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere. Some of the questions and answers that followed the presentations have been included when they highlight noteworthy points that were not covered in the presentation itself. The request by the National Climate Program Office for a symposium on the above related issues is included. The symposium agenda and participants are given. As well as a glossary of special terms and abbreviations. In summary, the Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases, and Climate Change reviewed the magnitude and causes of stratospheric ozone depletion and examined the connections that exist between this problem and the impending climate warming to increasing greenhouse gases. The presentations of these proceedings indicate that the connections are real and important, and that the stratospheric ozone depletion and tropospheric greenhouse warming problems must be studied as parts of an interactive global system rather than as more or less unconnected events.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central California Air Pollution Episode Title Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central California Air Pollution Episode Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Jin, Ling, Shaheen R. Tonse, Daniel S. Cohan, Xianglei Mao, Robert A. Harley, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Environmental Science & Technology Volume 42 Start Page 3683 Issue 10 Pagination 3683-3689 Date Published 05/2008 Abstract We developed a first- and second-order sensitivity analysis approach with the decoupled direct method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a 5 day ozone episode (Jul 29th to Aug 3rd, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8 h ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1 h ozone standard. Interbasin source contributions of NOx emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NOx and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO2 termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NOx emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

247

Determination of total ozone from DMSP multichannel filter radiometer measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) infrared sensor was first flown in 1977 on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series satellite operated by the US Air Force. The first four satellites in this series carried MFR sensors from which total atmospheric column ozone amounts may be derived. The last MFR sensor ceased operating on February 16, 1980. The series of four sensors spans a data period of nearly three years. The MFR sensor measures infrared radiances for 16 channels. Total ozone amounts are determined from sets of radiance measurements using an empirical relationship that is developed using linear regression analysis. Total ozone is modeled as a linear combination of terms involving functions of the MFR radiances for four channels (1, 3, 7 and 16) and the secant of the zenith angle. The ozone retrieval methodology is described schematically. The ozone retrieval model is developed through regression analysis using sets of simulated MFR radiances derived from detailed radiative transfer calculations. The MFR total ozone data are compared with independent ground-based Dobson measurements in order to evaluate the ozone retrieval methodology. Many Dobson observatories have been providing their daily measurements of total ozone which are taken close in time to DMSP overpass times. MFR total ozone data are compared with Dobson measurements taken between January 1 and February 15, 1979, and the results are summarized. Comparisons were made where the MFR and Dobson measurements are within 300 km and 300 minutes of each other. Percentages are computed with respect to the Dobson values. The MFR data were processed using a preliminary methodology, and the data will be reprocessed in the near future.

Luther, F.M.; Weichel, R.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Sensitivity of WSR-88D Rainfall Estimates to the Rain-Rate Threshold and Rain Gauge Adjustment: A Flash Flood Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A strong thunderstorm produced a flash flood on the evening of 12 July 1996 in Buffalo Creek, Colorado, that caused two deaths and significant property damage. Most of the rain fell in a 1-h time period from 2000 to 2100 MDT. The performance of ...

Richard A. Fulton

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter defining the roles of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency gives specific detail on the regulation point-source air pollution for a variety of industries and pollutants.

250

Effect of ozone on growth and assimilate partitioning in parsley  

SciTech Connect

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. cv. Banquet) incurred leaf injury, reduced growth, and altered assimilate partitioning after exposures to 20 pphm ozone. Total plant dry weight and root dry weight were decreased 23% and 43% respectively, with little effect on leaves. The relative growth rate of fumigated plants was reduced after the initial ozone exposure but leveled off at a steady state above that of the control plants when plant dry weights reached about 4.5 g. Ozone appeared to have its greatest effect on growth during initial exposures. 15 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Oshima, R.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Braegelmann, P.K.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces  

SciTech Connect

Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

Coleman, Beverly Kaye

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Ozone generation by rock fracture: Earthquake early warning?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the production of up to 10 ppm ozone during crushing and grinding of typical terrestrial crust rocks in air, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure, but not in helium or nitrogen. Ozone is formed by exoelectrons emitted by high electric fields, resulting from charge separation during fracture. The results suggest that ground level ozone produced by rock fracture, besides its potential health hazard, can be used for early warning in earthquakes and other catastrophes, such as landslides or land shifts in excavation tunnels and underground mines.

Baragiola, Raul A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Hedges, Dawn [Engineering Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Study on the Planetary Wave Transport of Ozone during the Late February 1979 Stratospheric Warming Using the SAGE Ozone Observation and Meteorological Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) have been used in conjunction with meteorological information to study the ozone transport near 55°N due to planetary waves during the late February 1979 stratospheric warming. ...

Pi-Huan Wang; M. P. McCormick; W. P. Chu

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

HETEROGENEOUS NOX CHEMISTRY IN POLLUTED URBAN ATMOSPHERES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF PARTICLES AND OZONE AND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Gillette, 1997; Perry et al., 1997; Zhang et al., 1997; Prospero, 1999; Zhang and Carmichael, 1999; deReus

Dabdub, Donald

255

Urban Network Practices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the findings of an underground distribution practices immersion conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with Duke Energy Ohio. This immersion was conducted as part of a multiyear effort by EPRI to identify noteworthy practices in managing urban network systems. More specifically, this report profiles the practices (people, processes, and technology) in place at Duke Energy Ohio, a company serving the Cincinnati, Ohio, metropolitan area. In addition, this report hig...

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Urban Network System Practices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of Phase I of a multi-year effort to identify noteworthy practices in managing urban network systems. The report profiles the practices (people, processes, and technology) in place at two host utilities: Seattle City Light (SCL), a small (375,000 customers) municipal utility, and Consolidated Edison (Con Edison), a large (3.2 million customers) investor-owned utility. The results illustrate the similarities and differences between the two utilities, describe the challeng...

2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

257

Urban Network Practices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the findings of an underground distribution practices immersion conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with National Grid. This immersion was conducted as part of a multiyear effort by EPRI to identify noteworthy practices in managing urban network systems. National Grid's U.S. operations, headquartered in Waltham, Massachusetts, serves customers through secondary network systems in multiple cities in New York and New England. This report profiles the practices (p...

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

258

Urban Network Systems Practices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the findings of an underground distribution practices immersion conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with CenterPoint Energy (CenterPoint). This immersion was conducted as part of a multiyear effort by EPRI to identify noteworthy practices in managing urban network systems. The report profiles the practices (that is, people, processes, and technology) in place at CenterPoint, a company serving the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. This report is one of a serie...

2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

259

Evaluation of a Fast-Running Urban Dispersion Modeling System Using Joint Urban 2003 Field Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An urban dispersion modeling system was evaluated using the Joint Urban 2003 field data. The system consists of a fast-running urban airflow model (RUSTIC, for Realistic Urban Spread and Transport of Intrusive Contaminants) that is coupled with a ...

Eric A. Hendricks; Steve R. Diehl; Donald A. Burrows; Robert Keith

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Sensitivity of Surface Ozone Simulation to Cumulus Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different cumulus schemes cause significant discrepancies in simulated precipitation, cloud cover, and temperature, which in turn lead to remarkable differences in simulated biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and surface ozone ...

Zhining Tao; Allen Williams; Ho-Chun Huang; Michael Caughey; Xin-Zhong Liang

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Indoor Surface Chemistry: Ozone Reaction with Nicotine Sorbed...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indoor Surface Chemistry: Ozone Reaction with Nicotine Sorbed to Model Materials Speaker(s): Hugo Destaillats Date: May 19, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 During this seminar,...

262

Isentropic Cross-Tropopause Ozone Transport in the Northern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates isentropic ozone exchange between the extratropical lower stratosphere and the subtropical upper troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere. The quantification method is based on the potential vorticity (PV) mapping of ...

P. Jing; D. M. Cunnold; H. J. Wang; E-S. Yang

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Total Ozone Determination from the Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The algorithm used to derive total ozone from the Nimbus 4 Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) experiment is described. A seven-year global data set with more than one million retrievals has been produced and archived using this algorithm. The ...

K. F. Klenk; P. K. Bhartia; V. G. Kaveeshwar; R. D. McPeters; P. M. Smith; A. J. Fleig

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Ozone-initiated chemistry in an occupied simulated aircraft cabin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nonanal, decanal, 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (6-MHO), formic acid and acetic acid, with 0.25 to 0.30 moles of quantified product volatilized per mole of ozone...

265

Mesoscale Meteorology and High Ozone in the Northeast United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the relationship between mesoscale meteorological conditions and high-ozone days in the northeastern United States. It is proposed that the leeside trough and the sea-breeze front are two mesoscale features that can be ...

Robert S. Gaza

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

The Ozone Dilemma: a reference handbook (Contemporary World Issues Series)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dilemma: a reference handbook By David E. Newton Reviewed byDilemma: a reference handbook (Contemporary World IssuesThe Ozone Dilemma: a reference handbook is targeted at both

Li, Haipeng

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

An Intercomparison of Ground-Based Total Ozone Instruments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five ground-based total ozone spectrophotometers were intercompared at Wallops Island, Virginia between October 1979 and January 1981. The tests were conducted to evaluate the stability and accuracy of each instrument over an extended time ...

C. L. Parsons; J. C. Gerlach; M. E. Williams

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Global Health and Economic Impacts of Future Ozone Pollution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis-Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the ...

Webster, Mort D.

269

Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, part 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the first part of a 2-part Conference Publication. This document contains papers presented at the 1992 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium held at the Charlottesville, Virginia, from June 4-13, 1992. The papers cover topics in both Tropospheric and Stratospheric research. These topics include ozone trends and climatology, ground based, aircraft, balloon, rocket and satellite measurements, Arctic and Antarctic research, global and regional modeling, and volcanic effects. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

Hudson, R.D.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere, part 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second of a 2-part Conference Publication. This document contains papers presented at the 1992 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium held at Charlottesville, Virginia, from June 4-13, 1992. The papers cover topics in both Tropospheric and Stratospheric research. These topics include ozone trends and climatology, ground based, aircraft, balloon, rocket and satellite measurements, Arctic and Antarctic research, global and regional modeling, and volcanic effects. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

Hudson, R.D.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Biofouling Control With Ozone at the Bergen Generating Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone as an alternative to chlorine for condenser biofouling control in a once-through cooling system. A pilot-scale test facility with three model condensors simulated condenser operation and conditions at the Bergen station. Both ozone and chlorine were tested. The minimum effective level of each was determined by daily measurements of heat transfer coefficients across model condenser tubes and/or water-side pressure drop. Final evaluation was based...

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Probabilistic aspects of meteorological and ozone regional ensemble forecasts  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates whether probabilistic ozone forecasts from an ensemble can be made with skill; i.e., high verification resolution and reliability. Twenty-eight ozone forecasts were generated over the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada, for the 5-day period 11-15 August 2004, and compared with 1-hour averaged measurements of ozone concentrations at five stations. The forecasts were obtained by driving the CMAQ model with four meteorological forecasts and seven emission scenarios: a control run, {+-} 50% NO{sub x}, {+-} 50% VOC, and {+-} 50% NO{sub x} combined with VOC. Probabilistic forecast quality is verified using relative operating characteristic curves, Talagrand diagrams, and a new reliability index. Results show that both meteorology and emission perturbations are needed to have a skillful probabilistic forecast system--the meteorology perturbation is important to capture the ozone temporal and spatial distribution, and the emission perturbation is needed to span the range of ozone-concentration magnitudes. Emission perturbations are more important than meteorology perturbations for capturing the likelihood of high ozone concentrations. Perturbations involving NO{sub x} resulted in a more skillful probabilistic forecast for the episode analyzed, and therefore the 50% perturbation values appears to span much of the emission uncertainty for this case. All of the ensembles analyzed show a high ozone concentration bias in the Talagrand diagrams, even when the biases from the unperturbed emissions forecasts are removed from all ensemble members. This result indicates nonlinearity in the ensemble, which arises from both ozone chemistry and its interaction with input from particular meteorological models.

Monache, L D; Hacker, J; Zhou, Y; Deng, X; Stull, R

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

A Study of the Urban Boundary Layer Using Different Urban Parameterizations and High-Resolution Urban Canopy Parameters with WRF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the last two decades, mesoscale models (MMs) with urban canopy parameterizations have been widely used to study urban boundary layer processes. Different studies show that such parameterizations are sensitive to the urban canopy parameters (...

Francisco Salamanca; Alberto Martilli; Mukul Tewari; Fei Chen

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Interannual Variability of the Antarctic Ozone Hole in a GCM. Part I: The Influence of Tropospheric Wave Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To study the interannual variability of the Antarctic ozone hole, a physically realistic parameterization of the chemistry responsible for severe polar ozone loss has been included in the GISS GCM. The ensuing ozone hole agrees well with ...

Drew T. Shindell; Sun Wong; David Rind

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Delayed Southern Hemisphere climate change induced by stratospheric ozone recovery, as projected by the CMIP5 models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stratospheric ozone is expected to recover by the end of this century due to the regulation of ozone depleting substances by the Montreal Protocol. Targeted modeling studies have suggested that the climate response to ozone recovery will greatly ...

Elizabeth A. Barnes; Nicholas W. Barnes; Lorenzo M. Polvani

276

Local Climate Zones for Urban Temperature Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of urban development on local thermal climate is widely documented in scientific literature. Observations of urban–rural air temperature differences—or urban heat islands (UHIs)—have been reported for cities and regions worldwide, often with ...

I. D. Stewart; T. R. Oke

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Photo of the Week: Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane Season |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane Season Photo of the Week: Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane Season May 15, 2013 - 1:16pm Addthis President Barack Obama listens to Acting Energy Secretary Daniel B. Poneman during a meeting with electric utility CEOs and trade association representatives at the Department of Energy in Washington, D.C., May 8, 2013. The group met to discuss lessons learned during the response to Hurricane Sandy, as well as the ongoing preparations for 2013 hurricane season, which begins June 1. | Official White House Photo by Pete Souza. President Barack Obama listens to Acting Energy Secretary Daniel B. Poneman during a meeting with electric utility CEOs and trade association representatives at the Department of Energy in Washington, D.C., May 8,

278

Watch Out for the Snakes! 21 Biologists and one Physicist in a Rain Forest  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Watch Out for the Snakes! 21 Biologists and one Physicist in a Rain Forest Watch Out for the Snakes! 21 Biologists and one Physicist in a Rain Forest in Nicaragua Speaker(s): Donald Grether Date: June 29, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Don, his wife Becky, and their granddaughter Briana recently returned from spending almost three weeks at a field station in a rain forest in Nicaragua, along with UCLA faculty members, graduate students, and undergraduates. Our location was way off the beaten track, even for "eco-tourists", and could only be reached by a three-hour boat trip on Rio San Juan. No hot water or space heating or cooling, running water most but not all of the time, no electricity in our rooms, no windows, and no Internet. Sort of like a near-zero energy building. Don's presentation will include photos that give some sense of why we went, what it took to

279

APRIL 2006 F A LKOVICH ET AL. 591 Rain Initiation Time in Turbulent Warm Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mean field model is presented that describes droplet growth resulting from condensation and collisions and droplet loss resulting from fallout. The model allows for an effective numerical simulation. The numerical scheme that is conservative in water mass and keeps accurate count of the number of droplets is applied, and the way in which the rain initiation time depends on different parameters is studied. In particular, it is shown that the rain initiation time depends nonmonotonically (has a minimum) on the number of cloud condensation nuclei. Also presented is a simple model that allows one to estimate the rain initiation time for turbulent clouds with an inhomogeneous concentration of cloud condensation nuclei. It is argued that by overseeding even a part of a cloud by small hygroscopic nuclei one can substantially delay the onset of precipitation. 1.

Gregory Falkovich; Mikhail; G. Stepanov

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Macroeconomic impacts of clean coal technologies and acid rain legislation: A comparative analysis  

SciTech Connect

In 1987, the National Association of Manufacturers published a study documenting the negative macroeconomic impacts that could occur if proposed acid rain legislation were passed (NAM 1987). These negative impacts would result from the substantially higher electricity rates that would be needed to finance conventional pollution-control retrofits. The US Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) wanted to evaluate the macroeconomic impacts of nonregulatory approaches to reduce the emissions of acid rain precursors. DOE/FE therefore directed Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to determine the potential for clean coal technologies (CCTs) to satisfy future electric load growth and achieve greater long-term reductions in emissions at a lower cost than could be achieved through a legislative mandate. This study documents the macroeconomic impacts of CCT deployment without acid rain legislation and compares these results with the corresponding impacts of using conventional technologies and meeting mandatory emission reductions. The Argonne Utility Simulation (ARGUS) model was used to determine the least-cost solution and incremental levelized system costs* over the period 1995-2030 for three scenarios: (1) a baseline scenario, in which no acid rain controls are mandated and no CCTs are deployed; (2) an acid rain (AR) scenario, in which legislation (S. 1894, 100th Congress) is mandated but no CCTs are deployed; and (3) a CCT scenario, in which maximum CCT deployment (specifically, integrated gasification combined-cycle or IGCC technology in repowering and new or greenfield'' applications) occurs but no acid rain legislation is mandated. The Data Resources Inc. (DRI) annual macroeconomic model (which was extended from 2010 to 2030) was used to compute the macroeconomic impacts of the AR and CCT scenarios. 2 refs., 28 figs.

Edwards, B.K.; South, D.W.; Veselka, T.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Gault, N.J. (DRI/McGraw-Hill Energy Service, Lexington, MA (USA))

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing dissolution equilibrium, and then decomposed to {le} 100 Parts per Million (ppm) oxalate. Since AOP technology largely originated on using ultraviolet (UV) light as a primary catalyst, decomposition of the spent oxalic acid, well exposed to a medium pressure mercury vapor light was considered the benchmark. However, with multi-valent metals already contained in the feed, and maintenance of the UV light a concern; testing was conducted to evaluate the impact from removing the UV light. Using current AOP terminology, the test without the UV light would likely be considered an ozone based, dark, ferrioxalate type, decomposition process. Specifically, as part of the testing, the impacts from the following were investigated: (1) Importance of the UV light on the decomposition rates when decomposing 1 wt% spent oxalic acid; (2) Impact of increasing the oxalic acid strength from 1 to 2.5 wt% on the decomposition rates; and (3) For F-area testing, the advantage of increasing the spent oxalic acid flowrate from 40 L/min (liters/minute) to 50 L/min during decomposition of the 2.5 wt% spent oxalic acid. The results showed that removal of the UV light (from 1 wt% testing) slowed the decomposition rates in both the F & H testing. Specifically, for F-Area Strike 1, the time increased from about 6 hours to 8 hours. In H-Area, the impact was not as significant, with the time required for Strike 1 to be decomposed to less than 100 ppm increasing slightly, from 5.4 to 6.4 hours. For the spent 2.5 wt% oxalic acid decomposition tests (all) without the UV light, the F-area decompositions required approx. 10 to 13 hours, while the corresponding required H-Area decompositions times ranged from 10 to 21 hours. For the 2.5 wt% F-Area sludge, the increased availability of iron likely caused the increased decomposition rates compared to the 1 wt% oxalic acid based tests. In addition, for the F-testing, increasing the recirculation flow rates from 40 liter/minute to 50 liter/minute resulted in an increased decomposition rate, suggesting a better use of ozone.

Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

282

OPPORTUNITY COST OF LAND AND URBAN GROWTH.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study examines the impact of the opportunity cost of urban land on urban growth. Based on prices, costs and productivity data on agricultural commodities… (more)

Jiang, Bo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Waste Landscapes: [Re]valuing Urban Marginalia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cities in North America are undergoing an organizational shift as urbanization increasingly expands outward, horizontally and diffusely. Left in the wake of decentralization and urban… (more)

Claus, Eric R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Sampling Rate and Ozone Interference for Passive Deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure Samplers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde Investigation of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde Sampling Rate and Ozone Interference for Passive Deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure Samplers Nasim A. Mullen, Marion L. Russell, Melissa M. Lunden, Brett C. Singer Environmental Energy Technologies Division Indoor Environment Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California, USA August 2013 Funding was provided by the California Energy Commission through Contract 500-09-042, by the U.S. Dept. of Energy Building America Program under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231; by the U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control through Agreement I-PHI-01070; and by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Indoor Environments Division through

285

Frequency of Heavy Rainstorms on Areas from 10 to 10 000 km2, Defined Using Dense Rain Gauge Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operation in Illinois of eight dense rain gauge networks of varying sizes, with each operating for 5–22 yr, provided data used to assess the temporal frequency of very heavy rain events on small- to moderate-sized areas. Initial testing reveals ...

Stanley A. Changnon

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Validation of the Rain Profiling Algorithm “ZPHI” from the C-Band Polarimetric Weather Radar in Darwin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive application of a rain profiling algorithm (ZPHI) employing a C-band polarimetric radar (the C-POL radar of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre in Darwin) is presented. ZPHI belongs to the class of rain profiling ...

Erwan Le Bouar; Jacques Testud; Tom D. Keenan

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

An Approach to Estimate the Areal Rain-Rate Distribution from Spaceborne Radar by the Use of Multiple Thresholds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of rain rate derived from a spaceborne weather radar will be most reliable over an intermediate range of values. At light or heavy rain rates, where the signal-to-noise ratios are degraded either by small values of the backscattered ...

R. Meneghini; J. A. Jones

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Longitude-Dependent Decadal Changes of Total Ozone in Boreal Winter Months during 1979–92  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical analysis shows that the decadal change of zonally asymmetric total ozone (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer data) has a distinct spatial similarity with the decadal change of the 300-hPa geopotential patterns during December–February ...

Dieter Peters; Günter Entzian

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

A Process-Analysis Based Study of the Ozone Weekend Effect  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Process-Analysis Based Study of the Ozone Weekend Effect Title A Process-Analysis Based Study of the Ozone Weekend Effect Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication...

290

Predicting Total Ozone Based on GTS Data: Applications for South American High-Latitude Populations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A regular occurrence during the 1990s has been the excursion of the edge of the springtime Antarctic ozone hole over the southernmost region of the South American continent. Given the essential role of atmospheric ozone in absorbing incoming ...

Anna E. Jones; Tanya Bowden; John Turner

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Stratospheric Temperature and Radiative Forcing Response to 11-Year Solar Cycle Changes in Irradiance and Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 11-yr solar cycle temperature response to spectrally resolved solar irradiance changes and associated ozone changes is calculated using a fixed dynamical heating (FDH) model. Imposed ozone changes are from satellite observations, in contrast ...

L. J. Gray; S. T. Rumbold; K. P. Shine

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

On the Role of Ozone in the Stability of Rossby Normal Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of ozone in the linear stability of Rossby normal modes is examined in a continuously stratified, extratropical baroclinic atmosphere. The flow is described by coupled equations for the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity and ozone ...

Terrence R. Nathan

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Comparison of three vertically resolved ozone data sets: climatology, trends and radiative forcings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate models that do not simulate changes in stratospheric ozone concentrations require the prescription of ozone fields to accurately calculate UV fluxes and stratospheric heating rates. In this study, three different ...

Hassler, B.

294

Association of the Laminated Vertical Ozone Structure with the Lower-Stratospheric Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the examination of the role of the atmospheric circulation in the lower stratosphere in relation to the laminated structure of ozone in the subtropical atmosphere is attempted. This analysis is based on the vertical ozone profile ...

C. Varotsos; P. Kalabokas; G. Chronopoulos

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Total Ozone Variations 1970-74 Using Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) and Ground-Based Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The most long-lived satellite set of ozone observations, to date, is that derived from the Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) ozone sensor on Nimbus 4 and extends from April 1970 through 1976. Unfortunately, this experiment suffered spacecraft power ...

A. J. Miller; R. M. Nagatani; T. G. Rogers; A. J. Fleig; D. F. Heath

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Impact of Surfaces on Ozone-Terpene Conversion Rates in Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of Surfaces on Ozone-Terpene Conversion Rates in Buildings Speaker(s): Glenn Morrison Date: March 5, 2007 - 4:00pm Location: 90-3122 Indoor surface reactions of ozone with...

297

Transport, Radiative, and Dynamical Effects of the Antarctic Ozone Hole: A GFDL “SKYHI” Model Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GFDL “SKYHI” general circulation model has been used to simulate the effect of the Antarctic “ozone hole” phenomenon on the radiative and dynamical environment of the lower stratosphere. Both the polar ozone destruction and photochemical ...

J. D. Mahlman; L. J. Umscheid; J. P. Pinto

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Climate Change and the Middle Atmosphere. Part IV: Ozone Response to Doubled CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parameterized stratospheric ozone photochemistry has been included in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM to investigate the coupling between chemistry and climate change for the doubled CO2 climate. The chemical ozone response is ...

Drew T. Shindell; David Rind; Patrick Lonergan

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Global Ozone Observations from the UARS MLS: An Overview of Zonal-Mean Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations ...

Lucien Froidevaux; Joe W. Waters; William G. Read; Lee S. Elson; Dennis A. Flower; Robert F. Jarnot

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Isolation of the Ozone QBO in SAGE II Data by Singular-Value Decomposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed structure of the global quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in ozone is analyzed using Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II ozone and nitrogen dioxide data. Emphasis is placed on the midlatitude QBO, in particular its vertical ...

William J. Randel; Fei Wu

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

IMPROVING ANTARCTIC TOTAL OZONE PROJECTIONS BY A PROCESS-ORIENTED MULTIPLE DIAGNOSTIC ENSEMBLE REGRESSION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate projections of stratospheric ozone are required, because ozone changes impact on exposures to ultraviolet radiation and on tropospheric climate. Unweighted multi-model ensemble mean (uMMM) projections from chemistry-climate models (CCMs) ...

Alexey Yu. Karpechko; Douglas Maraun; Veronika Eyring

302

The Role of Vertical Mixing in the Temporal Evolution of Ground-Level Ozone Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft measurements taken during the North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone-Northeast field study reveal the presence of ozone concentration levels in excess of 80 ppb on a regional scale in the nocturnal residual layer during ...

Jian Zhang; S. Trivikrama Rao

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Interannual Variations of Total Ozone at Northern Midlatitudes Correlated with Stratospheric EP Flux and Potential Vorticity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At northern midlatitudes over the 1979–2002 time period, column ozone trends are observed to have maximum negative amplitudes in February and March. Here, the portion of the observed ozone interannual variability and trends during these months ...

L. L. Hood; B. E. Soukharev

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Reconstruction and Simulation of Stratospheric Ozone Distributions during the 2002 Austral Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-based solar occultation measurements during the 2002 austral winter have been used to reconstruct global, three-dimensional ozone distributions. The reconstruction method uses correlations between potential vorticity and ozone to derive ...

C. E. Randall; G. L. Manney; D. R. Allen; R. M. Bevilacqua; J. Hornstein; C. Trepte; W. Lahoz; J. Ajtic; G. Bodeker

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Ozone reduces crop yields and alters competition with weeds such as yellow nutsedge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DT (eds. ). Assessment of Crop Loss from Air Pollutants:Ambient ozone and adverse crop re- sponse: An evaluation ofthe effects of ozone on crops and trees. In: Lefohn AS (

Grantz, David A.; Shrestha, Anil

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber study Title Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber study Publication Type Journal...

307

Demonstration of an Ozone System at a Hospital Laundry Facility: Long Beach Medical Center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In its role as a powerful oxidant and biocide, ozone works in the context of laundry facilities to boost the cleaning activity of the various chemicals and chemical compounds. To be used in laundry operations, ozone must be introduced into the wash water via one of the ozone laundry systems available on the market today. This report highlights and quantifies the benefits of an ozone laundry system at the 134-bed Long Beach Medical Center (LBMC) in Long Beach, New York.

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

The Use of Ozone as an Antimicrobial Agent: Agricultural and Food Processing Technical Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone treatment, a highly effective disinfectant long used in Europe, deactivates even the most stubborn organisms. Food processors can use ozone to disinfect raw fruits and vegetables during processing or to disinfect water used for washing foods and food plant equipment. Food researchers and regulators have confirmed ozone as safe. In 1997, EPRI convened an expert panel that submitted a Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) affirmation of ozone in food applications to the U.S. Food and Drug Administratio...

2001-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

309

Development of an ozone climatology for Harris County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Houston Regional Monitoring Corporation (HRM) has performed continuous ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring in the Ship Channel area of east Harris County since August 1981. The HRM monitoring network is one of the largest Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) monitoring network in the United States operated by an industrial group. As an adjunct to its monitoring. HRM has funded extensive meteorological and statistical analyses of ozone monitoring data in Harris County. One of the goals of these studies was to determine those meteorological conditions responsible for the formation of elevated ozone concentrations in Harris County. The analyses performed included the use of principal component analysis and cluster analysis. These analysis techniques have individually been applied to ozone and air quality research problems. The combined use of these techniques in this analysis, however, is a unique application of these statistical tools to an ozone air quality analysis. As a result of these analyses, a climatology of those episodes conducive to elevated ozone formation in Harris County was developed.

Balentine, H.W.; Carter, J.C. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (USA)); Preston, J. (Tenneco Polymers, Houston, TX (US))

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

A Comparison of NEXRAD WSR-88D Radar Estimates of Rain Accumulation with Gauge Measurements for High- and Low-Reflectivity Horizontal Gradient Precipitation Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radar-estimated rainfall amounts from the NEXRAD Weather Surveillance Radar precipitation accumulation algorithm were compared with measurements from numerous rain gauges (1639 radar versus gauge comparisons). Storm total rain accumulations from ...

Gerard E. Klazura; Jessica M. Thomale; D. Scott Kelly; Paul Jendrowski

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Dynamics and Prediction of a Mesoscale Extreme Rain Event in the Baiu Front over Kyushu, Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-resolution version of the limited-area primitive equations model of the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre is used to investigate the dynamics and prediction of the mesoscale, extreme rain event of 1 August 1993 over Kyushu. The model ...

Noel E. Davidson; Kazuo Kurihara; Teruyuki Kato; Graham Mills; Kamal Puri

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

The Heavy Rain Event of 29 October 2000 in Hana, Maui  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 29 October 2000, the Hana region of Maui received 700 mm of rain in 7 h. Radar analyses revealed that the storm consisted of seven cells that were initiated along the southeast slope of Haleakala volcano. One of these cells survived for nearly ...

Ryan E. Lyman; Thomas A. Schroeder; Gary M. Barnes

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Measurements of the Transmission Loss of a Radome at Different Rain Intensities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results on the transmission loss of a dry and a wet C-band weather radar radome at different rain intensities are presented. Two methods were used in the study, both carried out under laboratory conditions. In the first method, the complex ...

Mikko Kurri; Asko Huuskonen

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Torrential Rains on the Spanish Mediterranean Coast: Modeling the Effects of the Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Torrential rains are a frequent meteorological risk in the Mediterranean Basin, and the work reported here is part of a long-term study that includes the analysis of the synoptic conditions involved in their genesis. This paper studies the role ...

Francisco Pastor; MarÍa J. Estrela; David Peñarrocha; Millán M. Millán

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Comparison of Bulk and Bin Warm-Rain Microphysics Models Using a Kinematic Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the development and testing of a bulk warm-rain microphysics model that is capable of addressing the impact of atmospheric aerosols on ice-free clouds. Similarly to previous two-moment bulk schemes, this model predicts the ...

Hugh Morrison; Wojciech W. Grabowski

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Polarimetric Estimates of a 1-Month Accumulation of Light Rain with a 3-cm Wavelength Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors evaluate rainfall estimates from the new polarimetric X-band radar at Bonn, Germany, for a period between mid-November and the end of December 2009 by comparison with rain gauges. The emphasis is on slightly more than 1-month ...

L. Borowska; D. Zrni?; A. Ryzhkov; P. Zhang; C. Simmer

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

The Ground-Truth Problem for Satellite Estimates of Rain Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a scheme is proposed to use a point raingage to compare contemporaneous measurements of rain rate from a single-field-of-view estimate based on a satellite remote sensor such as a microwave radiometer. Even in the ideal case the ...

Gerald R. North; Juan B. Valdés; Eunho Ha; Samuel S. P. Shen

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Measurements of 7Be and 210Pb in Rain, Snow, and Hail  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the levels of 7Be and 210Pb are reported for rain, snow, and hail samples taken at Argonne, Illinois, and Socorro, New Mexico. These natural radioisotopes are indicators of the sources of the aerosols contributing materials to the ...

Jeffrey S. Gaffney; Kent A. Orlandini; Nancy A. Marley; Carl J. Popp

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Long-Lasting Trade-Wind Rain Showers in a Three-Dimensional Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional warm rain model that included microphysics was used to study the reasons for ease of rainfall in Hawaiian clouds and the long-lasting rainfall from certain rainbands. It was found that drop recirculation occurs within these ...

Tsutomu Takahashi

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Local and Synoptic Environments Associated with Freezing Rain in the Contiguous United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Local and synoptic conditions associated with freezing-rain events in the continental United States, as well as the temporal and spatial variability of these conditions, have been documented for the period 1976–90. It had been postulated that the ...

Chris C. Robbins; John V. Cortinas Jr.

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Climatology of Heavy Rain Events in the United States from Hourly Precipitation Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flash flooding is frequently associated with heavy precipitation (defined here as ?1 in. h?1) occurring over a short period of time. To begin a study of flash flood–producing rain events, the Hourly Precipitation Dataset (HPD) is used to develop ...

Harold E. Brooks; David J. Stensrud

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Heavy Rains and Flooding in Montana: A Case for Operational Use of Symmetric Instability Diagnosis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A strongly developing cyclone east of the Rockies moved northward along the Montana/North Dakota border between 24–26 September 1986 and deposited over 1 in. of rain throughout much of eastern Montana. Included in this area of precipitation was ...

Glenn R. Lussky

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Study of a Heavy Rain Vortex Formed over the Eastern Flank of the Tibetan Plateau  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case of the heavy rain vortex which occurred during the period 14–15 July 1979 is studied using a limited-area mesoscale numerical model. This is a representative example of a group of warm southwest vortices that often form over the eastern ...

Bin Wang; Isidoro Orlanski

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Soil Thermal and Ecological Impacts of Rain on Snow Events in the Circumpolar Arctic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain on snow (ROS) events are rare in most parts of the circumpolar Arctic, but have been shown to have great impact on soil surface temperatures and serve as triggers for avalanches in the midlatitudes, and they have been implicated in ...

Kevin J. Rennert; Gerard Roe; Jaakko Putkonen; Cecilia M. Bitz

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

The combined effect of rain and wind on airwater gas exchange: A feasibility study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rights reserved. 1. Introduction Air­water gas exchange is an important process on local, regional, and cycling of biogeochemically important trace gases. Gas exchange for slightly soluble gases is thought of the reduction. In order to examine the systematic effects of rain and wind on gas exchange in the natural

Ho, David

326

Synoptic and Mesoscale Structure of a Severe Freezing Rain Event: The St. Valentine's Day Ice Storm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A severe freezing rainstorm produced as much as 4.5 cm of freezing rain during an 18-h period at Champaign, Illinois, on 14–15 February 1990, resulting in over $12 million in damage, week-long power outages, and a federal disaster declaration. ...

Robert M. Rauber; Mohan K. Ramamurthy; Ali Tokay

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Organization and Environmental Properties of Extreme-Rain-Producing Mesoscale Convective Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the radar-indicated structures and other features of extreme rain events in the United States over a 3-yr period. A rainfall event is defined as “extreme” when the 24-h precipitation total at one or more stations surpasses the ...

Russ S. Schumacher; Richard H. Johnson

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Analysis of Video Disdrometer and Polarimetric Radar Data to Characterize Rain Microphysics in Oklahoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, data from three 2-dimensional video disdrometers (2DVDs) and an S-band polarimetric radar are used to characterize rain microphysics in Oklahoma. Sampling errors from the 2DVD measurements are quantified through side-by-side ...

Qing Cao; Guifu Zhang; Edward Brandes; Terry Schuur; Alexander Ryzhkov; Kyoko Ikeda

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Proposal for a Spaceborne Dual-Beam Rain Radar with Doppler Capability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential characteristics and performances of a spaceborne dual-beam radar (or stereo radar) operating at 24 GHz, and devoted primarily to the retrieval of rain-rate structure by using the stereo-radar analysis, were presented in a previous ...

Paul Amayenc; Jacques Testud; Mongi Marzoug

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Operations Evaluation Report -- Pressurized Ozonation System, North Mississippi Medical Center Laundry Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes ozone and its benefits in healthcare laundry operations. In particular, case studies of two ozone applications -- one in a 650-bed regional medical center and another in a 131-bed skilled nursing and rehabilitation facility -- highlight and quantify ozone's benefits.

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

331

Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and degradation of filter media additives Title Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and degradation of filter media additives Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Destaillats, Hugo, Wenhao Chen, Michael G. Apte, Nuan Li, Michael Spears, Jérémie Almosni, Gregory Brunner, Jianshun(Jensen) Zhang, and William J. Fisk Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 45 Start Page 3561 Issue 21 Pagination 3561-3568 Keywords commercial building ventilation & indoor environmental quality group, commercial building ventilation and indoor environmental quality group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, indoor environment department, indoor environment group

332

Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone interference for passive deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure samplers Title Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone interference for passive deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure samplers Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Mullen, Nasim A., Marion L. Russell, Melissa M. Lunden, and Brett C. Singer Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 80 Pagination 184-189 Date Published 12/2013 Keywords aldehyde; exposure; indoor air quality; passive sampler; residential Abstract This study investigated formaldehyde and acetaldehyde passive sampling rates and ozone interference for the DNPH-based Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure sampler. Previous studies have shown that ozone interferes with active sampling by this cartridge. Our study included one laboratory and six field experiments conducted in Northern California homes. Passive sampling rates of 1.10 ± 0.09 and 0.86 ± 0.10 mL/min determined for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are lower than previously reported. In a controlled laboratory experiment there were small, statistically insignificant impacts of subsequent ozone exposure on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde mass passively collected on the samplers. This sampler is inexpensive, easy to deploy and to transport by mail, and has a high sampling capacity when used passively; it is suitable for a wide-range of monitoring applications. However, the passive sampling rate remains in question given the internally consistent, but different results obtained in our study and the previous study.

333

Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban and a suburban area of Korea from 2002 to 2004  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric bulk samples (wet and dry) were collected monthly during 2002 to 2004 from an urban and a suburban area in Korea for assessment of depositional flux and seasonal variations in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH depositional flux ranged from 64.1 to 610 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the urban area and from 65 to 460 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the suburban area. The fluxes of PAHs measured in this study were comparable with those reported for urban and suburban areas in other countries. The fluxes of particulates and PAHs were higher in winter than in summer, consistent with the greater per capita consumption of fossil fuel in winter than in summer. Ambient temperature played a major role in the seasonal variability in PAH fluxes. Photochemical degradation of PAHs appears to occur during the summer months. The relationship of PAH depositional fluxes with major air pollutants, such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and presence of particulate matter up to 10 {mu} m in size (PM10), was also investigated. Dominant PAH compounds in both the urban and the suburban locations were benzo(g,h,i)perylene, pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Based on the PAH diagnostic ratios and a factor analysis, the major sources of PAHs in the urban and the suburban regions were found to be similar. Diesel exhaust, coal combustion, and gasoline emissions contributed predominantly to atmospheric PAH contamination.

Moon, H.B.; Kannan, K.; Lee, S.J.; Ok, G. [National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Pusan (Republic of Korea)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Analysis, anaerobic treatment and ozonation of wool scouring wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Wool scouring effluents (WSE) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS), and then exposed to anaerobic biological treatment using laboratory scale fixed-bed filters. This resulted in a nearly 50% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD). Ozonation of the effluent from the biological step led to an even further decrease in total organic carbon (TOC). The fatty acid content of the WSE was affected by both biological treatment and ozonation. Finally, steroids in the WSE underwent reduction reactions when exposed to the anaerobic biological treatment.

Monteverdi, A.; Rindone, B.; Sorlini, C. (Univ. di Milano (Italy)); Andreoni, V. (Univ. di Torino (Italy)); Rozzi, A. (Inst. di Ingegneria Sanitaria del Politechnico di Milano (Italy))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Scale-up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is the first large pilot scale test of a new process to passivate the carbon in ash so that it can be used in concrete without physically removing the carbon from the ash. The tests were conducted at PPL's Montour SES, sponsored by DOE and supported by EPRI. Near full-scale industrial equipment was used to expose fly ash, carbon mixtures to ozone to see if ozone would passivate the surface of carbon so that it would not react with air entraining agents that are used by concrete manufacturers...

2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

336

Building Technology and Urban Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office building exterior and infrared thermograph Office building exterior and infrared thermograph Building Technology and Urban Systems Building Technology and Urban Systems application/pdf icon btus-org-chart-03-2013.pdf In the areas of Building Technology and Urban Systems, EETD researchers conduct R&D and develop physical and information technologies to make buildings and urban areas more energy- and resource-efficient. These technologies create jobs and products for the marketplace in clean technology industries. They improve quality of life, and reduce the emissions of pollutants, including climate-altering greenhouse gases. BTUSD's goal is to provide the technologies needed to operate buildings at 50 to 70 percent less energy use than average today. BTUS develops, demonstrates and deploys: Information technologies for the real-time monitoring and control of

337

Virtual urban traffic network simulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this project, I designed and implemented a virtual urban traffic network simulator. The simulator serves as a testbed for human-subject experiments to determine driver behavior in road networks and also as a platform ...

Uh, Jason (Jason J.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Analysis of large urban fires  

SciTech Connect

Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures.

Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Urban Reclamation in São Paulo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The urbanized terrain of São Paulo is characterized by wasteful landscapes on peripheral areas of the metropolitan agglomeration, and decaying landscapes of waste in the core of the city. If on the one hand, the increasingly ...

Eskinazi, Victor

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Claiming the urban industrial landscape  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a propositIOn about a prevalent urban condition, that of marginal, left over, or disused space. It contends that these spaces, generally viewed as negative attributes by their communities have inherent ...

Linton, Cynthia Mayhew

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Ozone removal capability of a welding fume respirator containing activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Development of air purifying respirators for protection against ozone has been slowed by concerns about oxidation of charcoal and other available sorbents. The suitability of a charcoal sorbent for low concentrations of ozone was evaluated as a part of the development of a half-mask air purifying respirator designed for welding fumes and ozone. Testing of the respirator confirmed that charcoal can be a suitable sorbent for low levels of ozone. Where the respirator is properly selected, fit tested, and worn, respirator use against welding fumes and ozone at concentrations not exceeding 10 times the permissible exposure limit had been recommended.

Johnston, A.R.; Dyrud, J.F.; Shih, Y.T. (Occupational Health and Environmental Safety Division, St. Paul, MN (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Meteorology-induced variations in the spatial behavior of summer ozone pollution in Central California  

SciTech Connect

Cluster analysis was applied to daily 8 h ozone maxima modeled for a summer season to characterize meteorology-induced variations in the spatial distribution of ozone. Principal component analysis is employed to form a reduced dimension set to describe and interpret ozone spatial patterns. The first three principal components (PCs) capture {approx}85% of total variance, with PC1 describing a general spatial trend, and PC2 and PC3 each describing a spatial contrast. Six clusters were identified for California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV) with two low, three moderate, and one high-ozone cluster. The moderate ozone clusters are distinguished by elevated ozone levels in different parts of the valley: northern, western, and eastern, respectively. The SJV ozone clusters have stronger coupling with the San Francisco Bay area (SFB) than with the Sacramento Valley (SV). Variations in ozone spatial distributions induced by anthropogenic emission changes are small relative to the overall variations in ozone amomalies observed for the whole summer. Ozone regimes identified here are mostly determined by the direct and indirect meteorological effects. Existing measurement sites are sufficiently representative to capture ozone spatial patterns in the SFB and SV, but the western side of the SJV is under-sampled.

Jin, Ling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

343

An Analysis of the Power Spectra of Total Ozone Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis is made of the power spectrum of total ozone data using the window closing procedure of Jenkins and Watts (1968). It is concluded that it is presently difficult to distinguish statistically between true periodicities in the data and a ...

Paul V. Rigterink

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

On the Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Sunspot Number  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on data from the Dobson network, between 1960 and 1987 there has been a zero-lag correlation of 0.48 between the 112 unsmoothed seasonal values of sunspot number and global total ozone, significant at the 1% level taking into account the ...

J. K. Angell

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Ozone Destruction in Continental Stratus Clouds: An Aircraft Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparent depletion of ozone in a cold (0°C), continental stratus cloud system was observed during in situ data collection on 30 April 1994 at the Department of Energy Clouds and Radiation Test Bed site in northern Oklahoma. Analyses of the ...

Zhien Wang; Kenneth Sassen

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Lake Michigan Membrane/Ozone Research and Demonstration Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drinking water standards in the United States have become increasingly stringent. The recently-promulgated Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (ESWTR) requires controlling for Cryptosporidium, a pathogen that is resistant to chlorine. This report evaluates the effectiveness of membrane and ozone technologies for reducing Cryptosporidium risks.

1999-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

Ozone injury to tobacco plants in South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Ozone injury symptoms appeared on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Turkish in the greenhouse and on Wisconsin 38 in field plots at Brookings, South Dakota in 1970. In 1971, ozone injury appeared on greenhouse and field-grown plants of Bel-W3, Bel-C, and Turkish. Ozone fleck was most severe in southeast and east-central South Dakota. A decreasing amount of injury was observed in northeast, central, west-central and southwest South Dakota. Bel-W3 showed injury at eight locations while Turkish, Bel-C and Bel-B were injured only in the eastern parts of the State. Bel-W3 was a reliable monitor of air pollution episodes when plants were continuously produced and observed in the greenhouse at Brookings. New injury appeared on newly matured leaves and older leaves as dark gray to black flecks that turned brown to tan to white with age. Periodic ozone occurrences were recorded by new flecks appearing generally on tissue of younger age. Plant indicators for the pollutants peroxyacetyl-nitrate, fluoride and sulfur dioxide showed no injury in South Dakota. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Gardner, W.S.

1973-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Acid Rain Program is divided into two time periods; Phase I, from 1995 through 1999, and Phase II, starting in 2000. Phase I mostly affects power plants that are the largest sources of SO2 and NOx . Phase II affects virtually all electric power producers, including utilities and nonutilities. This report is a study of the effects of compliance with Phase I regulations on the costs and operations of electric utilities, but does not address any Phase II impacts.

Information Center

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Ozone effects on inhibitors of human neutrophil proteinases  

SciTech Connect

The effects of ozone on human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (A-1-PI), alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (A-1-Achy), bronchial leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (BLPI), and Eglin C were studied using in vitro exposures in phosphate-buffered solutions. Following ozone exposure, inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and/or cathepsin G (Cat G) were measured. Exposure of A-1-PI to 50 mol O3/mol protein resulted in a complete loss of HNE inhibitory activity, whereas A-1-Achy lost only 50% of its Cat G inhibitory activity and remained half active even after exposure to 250 mol of O3. At 40 mol O3/mol protein, BLPI lost 79% of its activity against HNE and 87% of its Cat G inhibitory activity. Eglin C, a leech-derived inhibitor, lost 81% of its HNE inhibitory activity and 92% of its ability to inhibit Cat G when exposed to 40 mol O3/mol. Amino acid analyses of ozone-exposed inhibitors showed destruction of Trp, Met, Tyr, and His with as little as 10 mol O3/mol protein, and higher levels of O3 resulted in more extensive oxidation of susceptible residues. The variable ozone susceptibility of the different amino acid residues in the four proteins indicated that oxidation was a function of protein structure, as well as the inherent susceptibility of particular amino acids. Exposure of A-1-PI and BLPI in the presence of the antioxidants, Trolox C (water soluble vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), showed that antioxidant vitamins may protect proteins from oxidative inactivation by ozone. Methionine-specific modification of BLPI reduced its HNE and Cat G inhibitory activities. Two moles of N-chlorosuccinimide per mole of BLPI methionine caused an 80% reduction in activity against Cat G, but only a 40% reduction in HNE inhibitory activity.

Smith, C.E.; Stack, M.S.; Johnson, D.A.

1987-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Further Experiments on the Effect of Tropical Atlantic Heating Anomalies upon GCM Rain Forecasts over the Americas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of real-data experiments is performed with a general circulation model to study the sensitivity of extended range rain forecasts over the Americas to the structure and magnitude of tropical beating anomalies. The emphasis is upon heat ...

Julio Buchmann; Lawrence E. Buja; Jan Paegle; Robert E. Dickinson

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Correction of the High-Latitude Rain Day Anomaly in the NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis for Land Surface Hydrological Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spurious wavelike pattern in the monthly rain day statistics exists within the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis precipitation product. The anomaly, which is an ...

Justin Sheffield; Alan D. Ziegler; Eric F. Wood; Yangbo Chen

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Correction of Drop Shape-Induced Errors on Rain Rates Derived from Radar-Measured Doppler Spectra at Vertical Incidence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape of larger raindrops shows a deviation from spheres. This leads to a radar backscatter cross section different from the Rayleigh cross section. The drop shape-induced error for deducing rain rates is calculated. The resulting correction ...

Dirk Klugmann; Carolin Richter

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Analysis of 2002 and 2003 Warm-Season Precipitation from the North American Monsoon Experiment Event Rain Gauge Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of rainfall characteristics and their linkage to physiographic features are made from the North American monsoon experiment (NAME) Event Rain Gauge Network (NERN) in northwest Mexico. The findings are based on the network configuration ...

David J. Gochis; Alejandro Jimenez; Christopher J. Watts; Jaime Garatuza-Payan; W. James Shuttleworth

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

APHRODITE: Constructing a Long-Term Daily Gridded Precipitation Dataset for Asia Based on a Dense Network of Rain Gauges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A daily gridded precipitation dataset covering a period of more than 57 yr was created by collecting and analyzing rain gauge observation data across Asia through the activities of the Asian Precipitation—Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration ...

Akiyo Yatagai; Kenji Kamiguchi; Osamu Arakawa; Atsushi Hamada; Natsuko Yasutomi; Akio Kitoh

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Intercomparison of Single-Frequency Methods for Retrieving a Vertical Rain Profile from Airborne or Spaceborne Radar Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper briefly reviews several single-frequency rain profiling methods for an airborne or spaceborne radar. The authors describe the different methods from a unified point of view starting from the basic differential equation. This ...

Toshio Iguchi; Robert Meneghini

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

On the Differences in Storm Rainfall from Hurricanes Isidore and Lili. Part I: Satellite Observations and Rain Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been well known for years that the heavy rain and flooding of tropical cyclones over land bear a weak relationship to the maximum wind intensity. The rainfall accumulation history and rainfall potential history of two North Atlantic ...

Haiyan Jiang; Jeffrey B. Halverson; Joanne Simpson

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

The Improved AMSU Rain-Rate Algorithm and Its Evaluation for a Cool Season Event in the Western United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain-rate retrievals from passive microwave sensors are useful for a number of applications related to weather forecasting. For example, in the United States, such estimates are useful for offshore rainfall systems approaching land and in regions ...

Shuang Qiu; Paul Pellegrino; Ralph Ferraro; Limin Zhao

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

A Robust Error-Based Rain Estimation Method for Polarimetric Radar. Part I: Development of a Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The algorithms used to estimate rainfall from polarimetric radar variables show significant variance in error characteristics over the range of naturally occurring rain rates. As a consequence, to improve rainfall estimation accuracy using ...

Acacia S. Pepler; Peter T. May; Merhala Thurai

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Diagnosis of the Warm Rain Process in Cloud-Resolving Models Using Joint CloudSat and MODIS Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the warm rain formation process in global and regional cloud-resolving models. Methodologies developed to analyze CloudSat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations are employed to ...

Kentaroh Suzuki; Graeme L. Stephens; Susan C. van den Heever; Takashi Y. Nakajima

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

An Observational Study of the Relationship between Excessively Strong Short Rains in Coastal East Africa and Indian Ocean SST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Composites of SST, wind, rainfall, and humidity have been constructed for years of high rainfall during September, October, and November (SON) in equatorial and southern-central East Africa. These show that extreme East African short rains are ...

Emily Black; Julia Slingo; Kenneth R. Sperber

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Relationships between Radar Properties at High Elevations and Surface Rain Rate: Potential Use for Spaceborne Rainfall Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-based radar data have been used to investigate the relationship between reflectivity at high elevations and surface rain rates. Such relations are useful for rainfall measurements by spaceborne radars at attenuating wavelength such as the ...

Eyal Amitai

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Application of an Apple-II Computer in Real-Time Data Processing of Microwave Radiation Attenuation by Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using an Apple-II microcomputer, real-time data acquisition, processing, staring and display of 12 GHz microwave radiation attenuation by rain have been implemented. The computer-radiometer interface consists of an address decoder, two three-...

Song Qian

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Characteristics of the Vertical Profiles of Dual-Frequency, Dual-Polarization Radar Data in Stratiform Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne dual-wavelength and dual-polarization radar data are analyzed for measurements taken in stratiform rain in the western Pacific during September 1990. The focus of the paper is on the vertical profiles of the linear depolarization ratio, ...

R. Meneghini; H. Kumagai

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Characteristic Features of Warm-Type Rain Producing Heavy Rainfall over the Korean Peninsula Inferred from TRMM Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In contrast to the view that deep convection causes heavy rainfall, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) measurements demonstrate that heavy rainfall (ranging from moderate to extreme rain rate) over the Korean peninsula is associated more ...

B. J. Sohn; Geun-Hyeok Ryu; Hwan-Jin Song; Mi-Lim Ou

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Numerical Simulation of a Rain Shower Affected by Waste Energy Released from a Cooling Tower Complex in a Calm Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An axisymmetric cloud model is used to investigate the evolution of convective cells and associated rain showers that develop due to the sensible and latent heat released into a calm atmosphere from an industrial cooling complex. The simulated ...

S. Guan; G. W. Reuter

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

CPOL Radar-Derived Drop Size Distribution Statistics of Stratiform and Convective Rain for Two Regimes in Darwin, Australia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note builds on prior technique development related to the classification of rain types utilizing C-band polarimetric (CPOL) radar measurements. While the prior work was preliminary and limited in scope, the authors elaborate here on the ...

M. Thurai; V. N. Bringi; P. T. May

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

A Comparison of Gamma and Lognormal Distributions for Characterizing Satellite Rain Rates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the spatial characteristics of nonzero rain rates to develop a probability density function (PDF) model of precipitation using rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The minimum ?2 ...

Hye-Kyung Cho; Kenneth P. Bowman; Gerald R. North

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

An Analysis of Freezing Rain, Freezing Drizzle, and Ice Pellets across the United States and Canada: 1976–90  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive analysis of freezing rain, freezing drizzle, and ice pellets was conducted using data from surface observations across the United States and Canada. This study complements other studies of freezing precipitation in the United ...

John V. Cortinas Jr.Ben C. Bernstein; Christopher C. Robbins; J. Walter Strapp

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Characteristic features of warm-type rain producing heavy rainfall over the Korean peninsula inferred from TRMM measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In contrast to the view that deep convection causes the heavy rainfall, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) measurements demonstrate that heavy rainfall (ranging from moderate to extreme rain rate) over the Korean peninsula is associated ...

B.J. Sohn; Geun-Hyeok Ryu; Hwan-Jin Song; Mi-Lim Ou

370

Voluntary compliance with market-based environment poliy [sic] : evidence from the U.S. acid rain program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. acid rain program, Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, is a pioneering experience in environmental regulation by setting a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and by including ...

Montero, Juan Pablo

371

Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

Y. Wei; D. J. Durian

2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

372

Essays on rural-urban migration in hinterland China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Marriage Rates in Rural China . . . . . . . . . . .Urban Migration in Hinterland China . . . . . . . . . .and Rural-Urban Migration in Hinterland China . . . . . 1.

Meng, Lei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Observed and WRF-Simulated Low-Level Winds in a High-Ozone Episode during the Central California Ozone Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case study is carried out for the 29 July–3 August 2000 episode of the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS), a typical summertime high-ozone event in the Central Valley of California. The focus of the study is on the low-level winds that ...

J-W. Bao; S. A. Michelson; P. O. G. Persson; I. V. Djalalova; J. M. Wilczak

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

A transformation of Shanghai's urban fabric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to rapid development of the city, Shanghai has become characterized by drastic juxtapositions of building typologies and urban forms. Entire sections of the urban center are being replaced with large scale developments ...

Caine, Christine (Christine M.)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Case Studies in Urban Energy Planning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

present a few case studies on urban energy planning for Chinese cities, with the focus on district heating systems. Questions and challenges in urban energy research will be raised...

376

Director Position Center for Urban Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Director Position Center for Urban Transportation The Center for Urban Transportation Research for state policymakers, transportation agencies, transportation professionals and the public. CUTR conducts of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration and Federal Highway Administration, the Florida Department

Arslan, Hüseyin

377

in development and the urban environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

woodland The Queen's Inclosure, Havant, Hants Peri-urban Waterhayes, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffs Rural costs. 15 PERI-URBAN Waterhayes, Newcastle-under-Lyme RURALURBAN Environmental advantages Improved

378

BIDDING ON URBANITY WITH BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS: .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??BIDDING ON URBANITY WITH BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS: RE-MAKING URBAN PLACES IN WASHINGTON, DC Susanna Francesca Schaller, Ph.D. Cornell University 2007 ?The livable city,? one that… (more)

Schaller, Susanna

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Urban regeneration : enabled by mobility centric architecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary goal of this thesis is to develop a new urban architectural prototype to reinvigorate the British New Town. New models of adaptable, sustainable, architecture and urban design are explored with the ultimate ...

Higgins, Wayne Charles

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

National Urban Database and Access Portal Tool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the need for advanced treatments of high-resolution urban morphological features (e.g., buildings and trees) in meteorological, dispersion, air quality, and human-exposure modeling systems for future urban applications, a new project was ...

Jason Ching; Michael Brown; Timothy McPherson; Steven Burian; Fei Chen; Ron Cionco; Adel Hanna; Torrin Hultgren; David Sailor; Haider Taha; David Williams

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The urban heat island Mitigation Impact Screening Tool (MIST)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A web-based software tool has been developed to assist urban planners and air quality management officials in assessing the potential of urban heat island mitigation strategies to affect the urban climate, air quality, and energy consumption within their ... Keywords: Air quality, Albedo, Atmospheric modeling, Urban climate, Urban forestry, Urban heat islands

David J. Sailor; Nikolaas Dietsch

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

An Acid Rain Study in the Washington, D.C. Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field study in the Washington, D.C. area explored the impact of urban emissions and mesoscale meteorology on precipitation chemistry. The study was a follow-up to an earlier, considerably more industrialized, study in the Philadelphia area; ...

A. A. N. Patrinos; M. J. Leach; R. M. Brown; R. L. Tanner; F. S. Binkowski

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Ozone (o3) efficacy on reduction of phytophthora capsici in recirculated horticultural irrigation water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microorganisms that cause plant disease have been isolated in recirculated irrigation water and increase the risks of disease incidence in horticultural operations. Ozone is an effective oxidizer used to disinfect drinking water supplies and treat industrial wastewater. The objective of this research was to investigate using ozone gas as part of a strategy to reduce the incidence of Phytophthora deBary in recirculated irrigation water. An isolate of Phytophthora capsici Leonian was cultured to induce sporulation. Spore dilutions were placed in aliquots of reverse osmosis water and bubbled with ozone gas (O3) to concentrations of 0 to 1.5 mg·L-1. Ozonated samples were plated and observed for colony forming units. Increasing ozone concentrations reduced the number of colony forming units to 0 at 1.5 mg· L-1 03. Turbidity effects on efficacy on Phytophthora capsici were tested using bentonite clay at 0 to 2.0 nephelometric turbidity units and ozone concentrations of 0 to 1.5 mg· L-1. Increasing bentonite did not affect the efficacy of increasing ozone concentrations on reducing colony formation to 0 at 1.5 mg·L-1 O3. Bioassays using Phytophthora capsici on Capsicum annuum L. seedlings confirmed apparent pathogenicity. Reverse osmosis water, containing a soluble fertilizer at 0 to 300 mg· L-1 N, was ozonated to concentrations of 0 to 1.5 mg·L-1 O3 and used to irrigate Chrysanthemum x morifolium T. de Romatuelle. Increasing ozone concentrations did not interact with increasing fertilizer levels to affect the final growth parameters. Chrysanthemum exposed to ozone gas concentrations of 0.5 to 1.5 mg·L-1 showed symptomatic ozone damage. Complete soluble fertilizer solutions with micronutrients were ozonated from 0 to 1.5 mg·L-1 O3 and analysed for nutrient content. Increasing ozone levels did not interact with fertilizers to affect macronutrients. Increasing ozone interacted with iron at a high fertilizer level. Ozone did not affect the efficacy of paclobutralzol in controlling growth in Viola x wittrockiana. Ozone was effective in controlling Phytophthora capsici in recirculated irrigation water with minimum impact on plant growth. Adjustments in fertility regiemes may be needed to counteract the oxidizing affect of ozone on micronutrients.

McDonald, Garry Vernon

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

The development of Urban Crime Simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on routine activities theory, deviant places theory, and neighborhood life cycle concepts, this paper describes the development of an Urban Crime Simulator (UCS) that was developed to allow estimation for changes in property crime rates in urban ... Keywords: crime, deviant places theory, neighborhood life cycle, routine activities theory, simulation, urban growth

Jay Lee; Chaoqing Yu

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

A two-dimensional model study of past trends in global ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions and atmospheric concentrations of several trace gases important to atmospheric chemistry are known to have increased substantially over recent decades. Solar flux variations and the atmospheric nuclear test series are also likely to have affected stratospheric ozone. In this study, the LLNL two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere has been applied to an analysis of the effects that these natural and anthropogenic influences may have had on global ozone concentrations over the last three decades. In general, model determined species distributions and the derived ozone trends agree well with published analyses of land-based and satellite-based observations. Also, the total ozone and ozone distribution trends derived from CFC and other trace gas effects have a different response with latitude than the derived trends from solar flux variations, thus providing a ''signature'' for anthropogenic effects on ozone. 24 refs., 5 figs.

Wuebbles, D.J.; Kinnison, D.E.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

CF[sub 3] chemistry: Potential implications for stratospheric ozone  

SciTech Connect

The authors address questions about the chemistry of CF[sub 3] bearing compounds in the atmosphere, and the impact that the existence of and reaction rate constants for such species may have on stratospheric ozone. Species considered include CF[sub 3], CF[sub 3]O, CF[sub 3]O[sub 2], CF[sub 3]OH, CF[sub 3]OOH, CF[sub 3]ONO[sub 2], CF[sub 3]O[sub 2]NO[sub 2], and CF[sub 3]OOCl. Based on their calculational results, the authors suggest a number of experimental measurements which should substantially decrease uncertainties associated with the role of CF[sub 3] species in atmospheric chemistry related to ozone.

Ko, M.K.W.; Sze, N.D.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Weistenstein, D.K.; Heisey, C.W. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Wayne, R.P.; Biggs, P.; Canosa-Mas, C.E. (Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Sidebottom, H.W.; Treacy, J. (Univ. College, Dublin (Ireland))

1994-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

Wiltsee, G.

1998-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

390

Adaptive Urban Dispersion Integrated Model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerical simulations represent a unique predictive tool for understanding the three-dimensional flow fields and associated concentration distributions from contaminant releases in complex urban settings (Britter and Hanna 2003). Utilization of the most accurate urban models, based on fully three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that solve the Navier-Stokes equations with incorporated turbulence models, presents many challenges. We address two in this work; first, a fast but accurate way to incorporate the complex urban terrain, buildings, and other structures to enforce proper boundary conditions in the flow solution; second, ways to achieve a level of computational efficiency that allows the models to be run in an automated fashion such that they may be used for emergency response and event reconstruction applications. We have developed a new integrated urban dispersion modeling capability based on FEM3MP (Gresho and Chan 1998, Chan and Stevens 2000), a CFD model from Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The integrated capability incorporates fast embedded boundary mesh generation for geometrically complex problems and full three-dimensional Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Parallel AMR and embedded boundary gridding support are provided through the SAMRAI library (Wissink et al. 2001, Hornung and Kohn 2002). Embedded boundary mesh generation has been demonstrated to be an automatic, fast, and efficient approach for problem setup. It has been used for a variety of geometrically complex applications, including urban applications (Pullen et al. 2005). The key technology we introduce in this work is the application of AMR, which allows the application of high-resolution modeling to certain important features, such as individual buildings and high-resolution terrain (including important vegetative and land-use features). It also allows the urban scale model to be readily interfaced with coarser resolution meso or regional scale models. This talk will discuss details of the approach and present results for some example calculations performed in Manhattan in support of the DHS Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) using some of the tools developed as part of this new capability.

Wissink, A; Chand, K; Kosovic, B; Chan, S; Berger, M; Chow, F K

2005-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

391

Ozone Alternative Disinfection Study for a Large-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a feasibility study for the use of an ozonation disinfection system for the treatment of wastewater in the Passaic Valley.

1999-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

392

The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. T. Tingey, Assessment of Crop Loss From Air Pollutants,,Assessing Impacts of Ozone on Agricultural Crops: II.Crop Yield Functions and Alternative Exposure Statistics",

Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James; Kim, Jin; McCubbin, Donald R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis of competition between aerosol particle removal andof secondary organic aerosol. Part I: ?-pinene/ozone system.data when measuring ambient aerosol. Aerosol Science and

Coleman, Beverly K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Development of inexpensive continuous emission monitors for feedback control of combustion devices that minimize greenhouse gases, toxic emissions, and ozone damaging products  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combustion is the major cause of poor urban air quality, of depletion of the ozone layer, and a major source of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Careful control of combustor conditions is important for minimizing the effects of combustion on the environment. The authors have developed sensitive, inexpensive continuous emission monitors that will assist in direct feedback of turbine power systems and provide assurance to the public and the operators of the facilities that their facility emissions lie within the accepted bounds. These include a robust solid-state Fourier transform spectrometer for rapid gas analysis, based on the use of ferroelectric liquid crystal technology, and an infrared helium-neon probe for real time measurement of combustor air-to-fuel ratios.

Funk, D.J.; Moore, D.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Mongia, R.K.; Tomita, E.; Hsu, F.K.; Talbot, L.; Dibble, R.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US); Lovett, J. [Pratt and Whitney (US); Yamazaki, Akira [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Sources of ozone and sulfate in northeastern United States. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Ozone observed at Whiteface Mountain, NY, may be derived from the stratosphere, photochemical production from pollutant NO/sub x/ and hydrocarbons emitted in urban/industrial areas, with subsequent transport of O/sub 3/ to Whiteface Mountain, and/or photochemical production from NO/sub x/ and hyodrocarbons including terpenes, etc., emitted from vegetation in the vicinity of Whiteface Mountain. The principal objective of this work was to assess /sup 7/Be and /sup 32/P as stratospheric tracers and, if possible, use them to quantify stratospheric O/sub 3/. Other objectives of this program were: to study the relationship between O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, use SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ as an indicator of photochemical production originating in urban areas, to study the long-range transport of pollutants and try to identify emission sources and establish daily, monthly, and seasonal variations of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and trace elements thus generating a data base to study long-term trends. The salient features of this study were the first determinations of /sup 7/Be/O/sub 3/ ratios in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere and gathering continuous data of radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, and /sup 33/P along with O/sub 3/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and several trace elements. Some of the significant accomplishments of this study are: a quantitative relationships between /sup 7/Be and O/sub 3/ in the stratosphere was established, and it is applied to estimate stratospheric O/sub 3/ on a global and episodic basis; global /sup 7/Be measurements suggest that the stratospheric influx in the northern hemisphere is twice that in the southern; and, the /sup 7/Be//sup 32/P ratios yield an average transport time of approx. 7 days during spring and summer for stratospheric air from tropopause to Whiteface Mountain, supporting tropopause folding as the predominant mechanism of stratospheric-tropospheric exchange during spring and summer. (JGB)

Husain, L.

1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

A Large Annual Cycle in Ozone above the Tropical Tropopause Linked to the Brewer–Dobson Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near-equatorial ozone observations from balloon and satellite measurements reveal a large annual cycle in ozone above the tropical tropopause. The relative amplitude of the annual cycle is large in a narrow vertical layer between 16 and 19 km, ...

William J. Randel; Mijeong Park; Fei Wu; Nathaniel Livesey

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Terannual Wave in the Ozone and Temperature in the Strato–Mesosphere as Deduced from Satellite Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two recent reference atmosphere models for ozone and temperature, which are deduced from satellite data, are employed to detect the existence and the behavior of a terannual wave both in ozone and temperature.

C. Varotsos; N. Dris; D. Asimakopoulos

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause-Based Climatology and Optimal Estimation Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivated by a significant potential for retrieving atmospheric ozone profile information from advanced satellite infrared sounders, this study investigates various methods to optimize ozone retrievals. A set of retrieval experiments has been ...

Jennifer C. Wei; Laura L. Pan; Eric Maddy; Jasna V. Pittman; Murty Divarkarla; Xiaozhen Xiong; Chris Barnet

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

A Comparative Study of O3 Formation in the Houston Urban and Industrial Plumes During the 2000 Texas Air Quality Study  

SciTech Connect

Photochemical box model calculations constrained by observations of NOx, VOCs, O3 and other stable species indicate that the instantaneous ozone formation rate was much lower over downtown Houston than it was over the Ship Channel. The much faster O3 formation rates and higher concentrations observed over the Ship Channel are attributed to the much higher hydrocarbon reactivity, the majority of which was contributed by low molecular weight alkenes. These high hydrocarbon reactivities also caused O3 over the ship Channel to be produced with much higher efficiency than over urban Houston.

Daum, Peter H.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, Stephen R.; Nunnermacker, L. J.; Lee, Y.- N.; Weinstein-Lloyd, Judy; Zheng, J.; Berkowitz, Carl M.

2003-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

400

District Level Analysis of Urbanization from Rural-to-Urban Migration in the Rajasthan State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Migration has various dimensions; urbanization due to migration is one of them. In Rajasthan State, district level analysis of urbanization due to migrants shows trend invariably for all districts of the state, though the contribution in urbanization by migrants varies from district to district. In some districts the share of migrants moving to urban areas is very impressive, in others it is not that much high. The migrants' contribution is on the raising over the decades. In this paper, the district level migration in the Rajasthan State is examined in relation to total urbanization and urbanization due to migration.

Jayant Singh; Hansraj Yadav; Florentin Smarandache

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Using biodiversity methods to assess the impacts of oil and gas development in tropical rain forests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil and gas development in tropical rain forests has attracted international attention because of the potentially adverse effects on the forest ecosystems. Biodiversity is a topic of particular concern, but is difficult to assess for small areas of disturbance. In July 1992 we used light traps to compare insect diversity at canopy and ground level as a means of detecting the impacts of an exploratory well site and related facilities within mature Amazonian rain forest in the Oriente Province of Ecuador. Replicate samples were collected at the well site, in a nearby area of agricultural development, and in a reference site within mature forest. Species richness was determined, and diversity indices were calculated for each set of samples. Results indicated that changes in diversity could be detected in the canopy and at ground level at the well site, but that the reduction in diversity was small. Biological diversity was substantially reduced in the area of agricultural development. Limitations and possible applications of this approach are discussed.

Reagan, D.P.; Silva del Poso, X. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Denver, CO (United States)]|[Sociedad Entomologica Ecuatoriana, Quito (Ecuador)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Core hole drilling and the ''rain current'' phenomenon at Newberry Volcano, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Two core holes have been completed on the flanks of Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Core hole Geo N-1 has a heat flow of 180 mW m/sup -2/, reflecting subsurface temperatures, sufficient for commerical exploitation of geothermally generated electricity. GEO N-3, which has a heat flow of 86 mW m/sup -2/, is less encouraging. We emphasize the ''rain curtain'' effect with the hope that a detailed discussion of this phenomenon at two distinct localities will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes in operation. Cole hole GEO N-1 was cored to a depth of 1387 m at a site located 9.3 km south of the center of the volcano. Core hole GEO N-3 was cored to a depth of 1220 m at a site located 12.6 km north of the center of the volcano. Both core holes penetrated interbedded pyroclastic lava flows and lithic tuffs ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite, basaltic andesite being the most common rock type. Potassium-argon age dates range up to 2 Ma. Caving and sloughing were encountered in both core holes at depths near the regional water table. Both core holes penetrate three distinct thermal regimes. The uppermost regime is isothemal at mean air temperature down to about 900-1000 m (the rain curtain).

Swanberg, C.A.; Walkey, W.C.; Combs, J.

1988-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

403

Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Blessinger, Christopher S [ORNL; Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Overview of the oxidation and scavenging characteristics of April rains (OSCAR) experiment  

SciTech Connect

The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) field experiment was conducted in April, 1981, as part of the MAP3S/RAINE program. The OSCAR study was designed to provide detailed characterizations of the physicochemical and dynamical features of selected cyclonic storm systems as they traversed the eastern U.S. Major experiment components included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements, aircraft measurements both in cloud and in clear air in storm inflow regions, surface-level air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. The precipitation chemisty network consisted of an intermediate-density network with 37 sampling sites covering the region from southern Ontario to Tennessee and from Illinois to New Hampshire, and a high-density network with 47 sampling sites located in a 100 by 100 km area in northeast Indiana. A total of four storm events were studied during the experiment. The report describes the design and operational aspects for the high-density and intermediate-density components of the experiment, and the composition of the integrated OSCAR data set which has been developed. A synoptic meteorological description of the four storm events studied during OSCAR is also provided. 17 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

Easter, R.C.; Dana, M.T.; Thorp, J.M.; Busness, K.M.; Hales, J.M.; Raynor, G.S.; Benkovitz, C.M.; Tanner, R.L.; Shannon, J.D.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Ozone-surface interactions: Investigations of mechanisms, kinetics, mass transport, and implications for indoor air quality  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation, results are presented of laboratory investigations and mathematical modeling efforts designed to better understand the interactions of ozone with surfaces. In the laboratory, carpet and duct materials were exposed to ozone and measured ozone uptake kinetics and the ozone induced emissions of volatile organic compounds. To understand the results of the experiments, mathematical methods were developed to describe dynamic indoor aldehyde concentrations, mass transport of reactive species to smooth surfaces, the equivalent reaction probability of whole carpet due to the surface reactivity of fibers and carpet backing, and ozone aging of surfaces. Carpets, separated carpet fibers, and separated carpet backing all tended to release aldehydes when exposed to ozone. Secondary emissions were mostly n-nonanal and several other smaller aldehydes. The pattern of emissions suggested that vegetable oils may be precursors for these oxidized emissions. Several possible precursors and experiments in which linseed and tung oils were tested for their secondary emission potential were discussed. Dynamic emission rates of 2-nonenal from a residential carpet may indicate that intermediate species in the oxidation of conjugated olefins can significantly delay aldehyde emissions and act as reservoir for these compounds. The ozone induced emission rate of 2-nonenal, a very odorous compound, can result in odorous indoor concentrations for several years. Surface ozone reactivity is a key parameter in determining the flux of ozone to a surface, is parameterized by the reaction probability, which is simply the probability that an ozone molecule will be irreversibly consumed when it strikes a surface. In laboratory studies of two residential and two commercial carpets, the ozone reaction probability for carpet fibers, carpet backing and the equivalent reaction probability for whole carpet were determined. Typically reaction probability values for these materials were 10{sup {minus}7}, 10{sup {minus}5}, and 10{sup {minus}5} respectively. To understand how internal surface area influences the equivalent reaction probability of whole carpet, a model of ozone diffusion into and reaction with internal carpet components was developed. This was then used to predict apparent reaction probabilities for carpet. He combines this with a modified model of turbulent mass transfer developed by Liu, et al. to predict deposition rates and indoor ozone concentrations. The model predicts that carpet should have an equivalent reaction probability of about 10{sup {minus}5}, matching laboratory measurements of the reaction probability. For both carpet and duct materials, surfaces become progressively quenched (aging), losing the ability to react or otherwise take up ozone. He evaluated the functional form of aging and find that the reaction probability follows a power function with respect to the cumulative uptake of ozone. To understand ozone aging of surfaces, he developed several mathematical descriptions of aging based on two different mechanisms. The observed functional form of aging is mimicked by a model which describes ozone diffusion with internal reaction in a solid. He shows that the fleecy nature of carpet materials in combination with the model of ozone diffusion below a fiber surface and internal reaction may explain the functional form and the magnitude of power function parameters observed due to ozone interactions with carpet. The ozone induced aldehyde emissions, measured from duct materials, were combined with an indoor air quality model to show that concentrations of aldehydes indoors may approach odorous levels. He shows that ducts are unlikely to be a significant sink for ozone due to the low reaction probability in combination with the short residence time of air in ducts.

Morrison, Glenn C.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Urban Network Practices: Ameren Missouri  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the findings of an underground distribution practices immersion conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with Ameren Missouri. This immersion was conducted as part of a multiyear effort by EPRI to identify noteworthy practices in managing urban network systems. More specifically, this report profiles the practices (people, processes, and technology) in place at Ameren Missouri, a St. Louis, Missouri, based utility serving customers through secondary network ...

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

407

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Ozone Ensemble Forecast with Machine Learning Algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Ozone Ensemble Forecast with Machine learning algorithms to perform sequential aggregation of ozone forecasts. The latter rely on a multimodel ensemble built for ozone forecasting with the modeling system Polyphemus. The ensemble simulations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

408

Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American and transoceanic routes Title Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American and transoceanic routes Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Bhangar, Seema, Shannon Cowlin, Brett C. Singer, Richard G. Sextro, and William W. Nazaroff Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 42 Issue 11 Pagination 3938-43 Abstract Ozone levels in airplane cabins, and factors that influence them, were studied on northern hemisphere commercial passenger flights on domestic U.S., transatlantic, and transpacific routes. Real-time data from 76 flights were collected in 2006-2007 with a battery-powered UV photometric monitor. Sample mean ozone level, peak-hour ozone level, and flight-integrated ozone exposures were highly variable across domestic segments (N = 68), with ranges of 100 ppbv) ozone levels on domestic flights were associated with winter-spring storms that are linked to enhanced exchange between the lower stratosphere and the upper troposphere.

409

Effects of the Water Quality Maintained by Ozonation Enhanced Ecosystem in the Landscape of Reclaimed Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the landscape of reclaimed water always broke out water bloom because of containing high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The TP and TN of the landscape decreased to 0.04mg/L and 2.27mg/L respectively with recycling ozonation at the end of ... Keywords: ozonation, algae, nutrient removal, ecosystem, landscape of reclaimed water

Yu Demiao; Ma Jun; Bai Yu; Gan Yiping

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Seasonal Differences in the Trend of Total Ozone and Contributions from Tropospheric and Stratospheric Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on an average of the total-ozone changes determined by means of linear regression at individual Dobson stations within climatic zones, trends of total ozone for each of the four seasons have been evaluated for five climatic zones, and the ...

J. K. Angell

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Ozone Forecasts of the Stratospheric Polar Vortex–Splitting Event in September 2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Southern Hemisphere major warming event in September 2002 has led to a breakup of the vortex in the middle and higher stratosphere and to a corresponding splitting of the ozone hole. Daily 3D ozone forecasts, produced at the Royal Netherlands ...

Henk Eskes; Arjo Segers; Peter van Velthoven

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

An Improved Quality Control for AIRS Total Column Ozone Observations within and around Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) provides twice-daily global observations from which total column ozone data can be retrieved. However, 20% ~ 30% of AIRS ozone data are flagged to be of bad quality. Most of the flagged data were identified to ...

H. Wang; X. Zou; G. Li

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

A Statistical Analysis of Total Ozone Data from the Nimbus-4 BUV Satellite Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total ozone data from the Nimbus-4 BUV satellite experiment for the period April 1970–April 1977 is analyzed to: 1) provide a better appreciation and-understanding of the global distribution and behavior of total ozone, with emphasis on any ...

G. Reinsel; G. C. Tiao; R. Lewis

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Preparation of oxygen-containing organic products from bed-oxidized brown coal by ozonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of modifying the functional composition of humic acids by gas-phase ozonation of bed-oxidized brown coal was examined. About 90% of the organic matter of brown coal was converted to low-molecular weight soluble oxygen-containing products by stepwise liquid-phase ozonation (in chloroform and acetic acid).

Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.; Batina, M.V. [National Academy of Science Belarus, Minsk (Byelarus)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

The Ozone Weekend Effect in California: Evidence Supporting NOx Emission Reductions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ozone is typically higher on weekends (WE) than on weekdays (WD) at many of California’s air-monitoring stations. Sometimes called the “ozone WE effect, ” this phenomenon occurs despite substantially lower estimates of WE emissions for the major ozone precursors – volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Compared to WD emissions, WE emissions of NOx decrease more (proportionally) than do the WE emissions of VOC. Because the WE increases in ozone coincide with the relatively large WE reductions in NOx, some conclude that regulations that would reduce NOx emissions on all days would undermine ozone attainment efforts by causing ozone to decrease more slowly (or even to increase). At this time, public discussion of the ozone WE effect has mostly reflected the viewpoint that NOx emission reductions would not help reduce ambient ozone levels. A large body of published research from this perspective has accumulated over the last 10 to 20 years. Nevertheless, the presently available scientific evidence can also lead to the conclusion that NOx emission reductions may be needed to maintain or even to expedite progress toward attainment

Lawrence C. Larsen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

New Ozone Measurement Systems for Autonomous Operation on Ocean Buoys and Towers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two autonomous ozone measurement systems for use on ocean buoys and towers have been built and are discussed herein. They are based on low-power atmospheric ozone sensors from Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and 2B Technologies. The PSI sensor ...

E. J. Hintsa; G. P. Allsup; C. F. Eck; D. S. Hosom; M. J. Purcell; A. A. Roberts; D. R. Scott; E. R. Sholkovitz; W. T. Rawlins; P. A. Mulhall; K. Lightner; W. W. McMillan; J. Song; M. J. Newchurch

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Comparison between the TOPAZ Airborne Ozone Lidar and In Situ Measurements during TexAQS 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NOAA airborne ozone lidar system [Tunable Optical Profiler for Aerosol and Ozone (TOPAZ)] is compared with the fast-response chemiluminescence sensor flown aboard the NOAA WP-3D during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS). TOPAZ ...

A. O. Langford; C. J. Senff; R. J. Alvarez II; R. M. Banta; R. M. Hardesty; D. D. Parrish; T. B. Ryerson

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Elevated Ozone Layers over the Seoul Metropolitan Region in Korea: Evidence for Long-Range Ozone Transport from Eastern China and Its Contribution to Surface Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elevated layers of high ozone concentration were observed over the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR) in Korea by ozonesonde measurements during 6–9 June 2003. An analysis of the synoptic-scale meteorological features and backward trajectories ...

In-Bo Oh; Yoo-Keun Kim; Mi-Kyung Hwang; Cheol-Hee Kim; Soontae Kim; Sang-Keun Song

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Overview of URBAN 2000: A Multiscale Field Study of Dispersion through an Urban Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major urban tracer and meteorological field campaign (URBAN 2000) was conducted in Salt Lake City, Utah, during October 2000. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Chemical and Biological National Security Program, the month-long ...

K. J. Allwine; J. H. Shinn; G. E. Streit; K. L. Clawson; M. Brown

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Impact of Upstream Urbanization on the Urban Heat Island Effects along the Washington–Baltimore Corridor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although there has been considerable research on urban heat island (UHI) effects, most of the previous studies have attributed UHI effects to localized, surface processes. In this study, the impact of upstream urbanization on enhanced UHI effects ...

Da-Lin Zhang; Yi-Xuan Shou; Russell R. Dickerson; Fei Chen

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Consequences of Urban Stability Conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Urban Dispersion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The validity of omitting stability considerations when simulating transport and dispersion in the urban environment is explored using observations from the Joint Urban 2003 field experiment and computational fluid dynamics simulations of that ...

Julie K. Lundquist; Stevens T. Chan

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Urban settlement issues : observations from 181 surveys of urban dwelling environments in developing countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations and summaries were made on 181 surveys of urban dwelling environments in developing countries, carried out by members of the Urban Settlement Design Program (U.S.D.P.), at MIT. The focus of this study is in ...

Wang, Chih-chien, M.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Evaluation of an Urban Canopy Parameterization in a Mesoscale Model Using VTMX and URBAN 2000 Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified urban canopy parameterization (UCP) is developed and evaluated in a three-dimensional mesoscale model to assess the urban impact on surface and lower-atmospheric properties. This parameterization accounts for the effects of building ...

Hung-Neng S. Chin; Martin J. Leach; Gayle A. Sugiyama; John M. Leone Jr.; Hoyt Walker; J. S. Nasstrom; Michael J. Brown

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

An urban weather generator coupling a building simulation program with an urban canopy model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increase in air temperature observed in urban environments compared to the undeveloped rural surroundings, known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, is being intensely studied, due to its adverse environmental and ...

Bueno Unzeta, Bruno

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra P. F. Fogal and F. J. Murcray Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Denver Denver, Colorado Introduction The University of Denver Atmospheric Emission Radiometric Interferometer-Extended (AERI-X) has been in regular operation at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program site, conditions permitting, since the mid-1990s. We present here the analysis of several spectra from May 10, 1999, and demonstrate the ability to retrieve the tropospheric ozone profile at the ARM site. While the presence of ozone in the stratosphere is of vital importance for several reasons, in the troposphere, ozone is a pollutant and a powerful oxidizer. For these reasons, it is

426

Variables effecting ozone treatment of physical-chemical effluent  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of raw sewage from an on-site apartment area was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments in which changes in turbidity, pH, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and, in some cases, biochemical oxygen demands were determined. Raw sewage, but mainly the effluent following physical-chemical treatment, was examined for improvement in discharge quality by ozone treatment in combination with oxygen sparging, ionizing gamma radiation from /sup 60/Co heating, acidifying, and several other variables. The average composition of the raw sewage was a TOC of 125 ppM (range from 65 to 240), COD of 190 ppM (range from 85 to 475), turbidity of 145 J. U. (range from 60 to 350), and pH of 7.3 (range from 6.5 to 8.4). Physical chemical treatment usually consisted of the addition of CaO (to pH 11) and FeCl/sub 3/ as a coagulant aid in an inclined tube followed by course filtration; typical treatment time was 15 minutes giving an average reduction in TOC and COD of 40 to 60%. Subsequent treatment was usually performed with 200 cm/sup 3/ samples of the effluent in fine and course fritted bubblers. The combination of radiation plus ozone gave the largest reduction of TOC and COD. In one experiment, 15 minutes of treatment followed by 30 minutes of irradiation and ozonation reduced the raw sewage TOC from 95 to 14 ppM carbon and COD from 150 to 6 ppM oxygen. (auth)

Dietz, R.N.; Pruzansky, J.; Steinberg, M.

1973-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Establishment and persistence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in disturbed soil as a function of an urban-rural macro-enviornment.  

SciTech Connect

No data are available on whether rising carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] or increased air temperature can alter the establishment and persistence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) within a plant community following soil disturbance. To determine ragweed longevity, we exposed disturbed soil with a common seed bank population to an in situ temperature and [CO2] gradient along an urban-rural transect beginning in early 2002. No other consistent differences in meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed, humidity, PAR, tropospheric ozone) as a function of urbanization were documented over the course of the study (2002-2005). Above-ground measurements of biomass over this period demonstrated that ragweed along the transect responded to urban induced increases in [CO2]/temperature with peak biomass being observed at this location by the end of 2003. However, by the Fall of 2004, and continuing through 2005, urban ragweed populations had dwindled to a few plants. The temporal decline in ragweed populations was not associated with increased disease, herbivory or auto-allelopathy, but was part of a demographic reduction in the total number of annual plant species observed for the urban location. In a separate experiment, we showed that such a demographic shift is consistent with CO2/temperature induced increases in biomass and litter accumulation, with a subsequent reduction in germination / survival of annual plant species. Overall, these data indicate that [CO2]/temperature differences associated with urbanization may increase initial ragweed productivity and pollen production, but suggest that long-term, multi-year persistence of ragweed in the urban macro-environment may be dependent on other factors.

Lewis H. Ziska, Kate George, David A. Frenz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Disparity between rural and urban education.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??By asking two groups of students respectively from a rural school and an urban school in Yunnan Province in Southwest region of China, this research… (more)

Zhang, Li

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in urban soils ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

yards, coking plants, power plants, chemical plants, urban parks, university ...... Barrie LA, Gregor DJ, Hargrave B, Lake R, Muir D, Shearer R, Tracy. B, Bidleman  ...

430

High-resolution urban thermal sharpener (HUTS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of zoning in urban ecosystems with remote sensing, Remote Sensing of Environment  Yaghoobian, N. , J.  of thermal imagery.  Remote Sensing of Environment 107 , 

Dominguez, Anthony; Kleissl, Jan; Luvall, Jeffrey C; Rickman, Douglas L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Strategies for systemic urban constructed wetlands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a result of ubiquitous impermeable surfaces, conventional water management and stormwater infrastructure, and the resultant degradation of natural hydrologic networks, most American urban areas have suffered severely ...

Balderas-Guzmán, Celina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

The Block: Enabler of Urban Architecture [Forum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Urban Architecture Vermont Village Plaza, a multifamilyin the midblock. Below: Vermont Avenue streetscape. Photos:Berkeley. Project: Vermont Village Plaza Architect: Solomon

Solomon, Daniel

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

nissan hypermini urban electric vehicle testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Department of Energy FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program Nissan Hypermini Urban Electric Vehicle Testing TECHNICAL REPORT Roberta Brayer James Francfort January 2006...

434

Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity - Urban Electric Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are designed to carry two or four passengers. Click here for more information About Urban Electric Vehicles (PDF 128KB) Vehicle Testing Reports Ford THINK City Ford Thnk...

435

Chapter 1 Urban development patterns in China: The new, the renewed, and the ignored urban space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1 Urban development patterns in China: The new, the renewed, and the ignored urban space Tingwei Zhang In Urbanization in China: Critical Issues in an Era of Rapid growth, 2007, Edited by Song, Y. Lincoln Institute of Land Use Policy, 3-27 The world witnesses impressive changes in China since

Illinois at Chicago, University of

436

Theoretical Analysis and Meteorological Interpretation of the Role of Raindrop Shape on Microwave Attenuation and Propagation Phase Shifts: Implication for the Radar Measurement of Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In rain radars can measure various powers of the drop diameter averaged over the drop size distribution. These averages can then be used to infer rain water content (W) or the rainfall rate in still air (R0). Besides being sensitive to drop sizes ...

A. R. Jameson

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

The U.S. Acid rain program: Key insights from the design, operation, and assessment of a Cap-and-Trade program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors' 15 years of experience with the Acid Rain Program suggests that for regional or larger-scale air pollution problems, such as acid rain and pollution transport, a well-designed cap-and-trade program can be cost-effective, flexible, and easy to implement with clear benefits that can be sustained into the future. (author)

Napolitano, Sam; Schreifels, Jeremy; Stevens, Gabrielle; Witt, Maggie; LaCount, Melanie; Forte, Reynaldo; Smith, Kenon

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Urban Dispersion Modeling: Comparison with Single-Building Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two models have been developed to predict airflow and dispersion in urban environments. The first model, the Realistic Urban Spread and Transport of Intrusive Contaminants (RUSTIC) model, is a fast-running urban airflow code that rapidly ...

Steve R. Diehl; Donald A. Burrows; Eric A. Hendricks; Robert Keith

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Isolation and characterization of five ozone-inductible cDNA clones from Atriplax canescens (saltbush)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prolonged exposure of plants to ozone inhibits growth and development and produces visible signs of damage. Within a few hours of exposure, certain biochemical alterations have been observed with the induction of several stress-related proteins. accumulation of several polya RNAS. CDNA clones derived from five different polya RNAs which accumulate in ozone-stressed shrub leaves were isolated by differential screening methods. Alteration in gene expression which occurs with ozone, sulfur dioxide and water deficit were examined, and those cDNAs were sequenced. Clone 012-1, hybridized with three RNA species, is initially induced in response to both ozone and water deficit stress, but is repressed to prolonged ozone and sulfur dioxide exposure. Clone 012-1 has strong homology with small subunit RRNA. Northern blots suggest that transcripts hybridized to 012-1 are a naked species (about 1.45 kb) and are subfragments (1.0 and 0.45 kb) of 1.4 kb species. 0112A-3 showed an increase in response to two pollutants, but not to water deficit. 0112A-3 encodes a polypeptide which has homology with wound-inducible protein inhibitors. MRNA species corresponding to 018-3 are transiently induced in response to sulfur dioxide and water deficit stress, and are late-induced by ozone stress. The 018-3 protein is Ozone fumigation to Atriplex canescens (saltbush) caused the homologous to thiol proteases. Clone OID2-2 and OIS14-3 show similar patterns in gene expression Transcript levels of the two genes rise rapidly and remain at a high level by seven days after ozone fumigation, and rise steadily in response to water deficit and sulfur dioxide stress. The deduced amino acids of both clones are glycine-rich proteins, and they have repeated motifs, (G-G-G-Y-G-H)n, and putative cell wall-targeting signal peptides. Northern analyses indicate that plant cells respond to ozone stress by increasing transcription of several genes. Furthermore, the expression of ozone-inducible genes varies with respect to the time course of induction and different stresses such as water-deficit and sulfur dioxide stress. The encoded proteins suggest that: first, ozone stress may generate wounding damage to increase the expression of the proteinase inhibitor (0112A-3) and the protease (018-3); second, ozone stress may change the cell wall components by increasing the amount of glycine-rich proteins (OID2-2 and OIS14-3); and third, ozone stress may change the cell wall structure with tyrosine-mediated cross-linking, which may use oxyradical-scavenging effects to relieve cellular stress.

No, Eun-Gyu

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-079 Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Handbook MJ Bartholomew December 2009 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Microsoft PowerPoint - 16.0855_Raines Draft Rev 4  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Management Update Management Update Project Management Update Bob Raines Director, Project Management Systems and Assessments * Everybody's Favorite Subject Cost Estimating * Cost Estimating * EVMS * Metrics * Take Aways Agenda 2 Agenda * Ahead of Schedule On Budget - S-2's Stretch Goal 177 Projects $92B TPC - 177 Projects, $92B TPC * Front End Planning - User Acceptance Testing - Comprehensive Training - System Documentation - Capacity/Throughput Testing Capacity/Throughput Testing - Communications via ESC * Thank You For Your Support! * Ensure New Contracts Include PARS II Requirement PARS II Everyone's Favorite Subject 3 PARS II : Everyone s Favorite Subject * DOE is Taking Advantage of PARS II Taking Advantage of PARS II Taking Advantage of PARS II Taking Advantage of PARS II - SC is Using PARS II For an IT Project

442

Managing nontechnical risks associated with seismic operations in the tropical rain forests of Ecuador  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Companies operating in sensitive areas are being challenged to address the environmental and social issues while preserving these areas for future generations. This increased international attention on environmental and sociocultural issues has led Amoco to focus efforts on developing new ideas and strategies to facilitate environmental and cultural management. In Ecuador, the major oil producing region is the Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, referred to locally as the Oriente. Amoco Ecuador BV recently completed a seismic acquisition program in the Oriente with minimum impact to the environment and the communities within the project area. The goal of this article is to describe Amoco`s experience in managing environmental, social, and public perception issues associated with seismic operations in the rain forests of Ecuador.

Barker, G.; Smith, G.R.; Vacas, F.J. [Amoco Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Swingholm, E.K.; Yuill, R.M.; Aleman, M.A.

1997-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

443

The Influence of Entrainment and Mixing on the Initial Formation of Rain in a Warm Cumulus Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to address the problem of the production of rain in warm cumulus clouds that has been observed to occur within about 20 min. A hybrid model approach is used where a microphysical parcel model is run along ...

William A. Cooper; Sonia G. Lasher-Trapp; Alan M. Blyth

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Tests of Rain Profiling Algorithms for a Spaceborne Radar Using Raincell Models and Real Data Precipitation Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares the performances of several algorithms for profiling the rain rate from a spaceborne radar. Three techniques are considered: single frequency (or SF) at 13.8, or 24 GHz; dual frequency (or DF) at 13.8 and 24 GHz; and dual beam ...

Jacques Testud; Paul Amayenc; Xiankang Dou; Taoufix Tani

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

The Use of Partial Cloudiness in a Warm-Rain Parameterization: A Subgrid-Scale Precipitation Scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is proposed on how to handle the effects of partial cloudiness in a warm-rain microphysical scheme and how to generate subgrid-scale precipitation. The method is simple and concerns essentially two ideas: the use of the vertical ...

Peter Bechtold; Jean Pierre Pinty; Patrick Mascart

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Correction of Radar Reflectivity and Differential Reflectivity for Rain Attenuation at X Band. Part I: Theoretical and Empirical Basis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this two-part paper, a correction for rain attenuation of radar reflectivity (ZH) and differential reflectivity (ZDR) at the X-band wavelength is presented. The correction algorithm that is used is based on the self-consistent method with ...

S-G. Park; V. N. Bringi; V. Chandrasekar; M. Maki; K. Iwanami

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

The Relation of Radar to Cloud Area-Time Integrals and Implications for Rain Measurements from Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we determine the relationships between satellite-based and radar-measured area-time integrals (ATI) for convective storms and show how both depend upon the climatological conditional mean rain rate Rc, and the ratio of the measured ...

David Atlas; Thomas L. Bell

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Rain versus Snow in the Sierra Nevada, California: Comparing Doppler Profiling Radar and Surface Observations of Melting Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maritime mountain ranges of western North America span a wide range of elevations and are extremely sensitive to flooding from warm winter storms, primarily because rain falls at higher elevations and over a much greater fraction of a basin’s ...

Jessica D. Lundquist; Paul J. Neiman; Brooks Martner; Allen B. White; Daniel J. Gottas; F. Martin Ralph

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

CAMS–OPI: A Global Satellite–Rain Gauge Merged Product for Real-Time Precipitation Monitoring Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method has been developed to produce real-time rain gauge–satellite merged analyses of global monthly precipitation. A dataset of these analyses spans the period from January 1979 to the present, which is sufficiently long to allow the ...

John E. Janowiak; Pingping Xie

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Simple laws of urban growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By analysing the evolution of the street network of Greater London from the late 1700s to the present, we are able to shed light on the inner mechanisms that lie behind the growth of a city. First we define an object called a city as a spatial discontinuous phenomena, from clustering the density of street intersections. Second, we find that the city growth mechanisms can be described by two logistic laws, hence can be determined by a simple model of urban network growth in the presence of competition for limited space.

Masucci, Paolo; Batty, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Future aircraft and potential effects on stratospheric ozone and climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to extend the recent research examining the global environmental effects from potential fleets of subsonic and supersonic commercial aircraft. Initial studies with LLNL models of global atmospheric chemical, radiative, and transport processes have indicated that substantial decreases in stratospheric ozone concentrations could result from emissions of NO{sub x} from aircraft flying in the stratosphere, depending on fleet size and magnitude of the engine emissions. These studies used homogeneous chemical reaction rates (e.g. gas-phase chemistry). Recent evidence indicates that reactions on particles in the stratosphere may be important. Heterogeneous chemical reactions, for instance, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}and ClONO{sub 2} on background sulfuric acid aerosols, convert NO{sub x}(NO and NO{sub 2}) molecules to HNO{sub 3}. This decreases the odd oxygen loss from the NO{sub x} catalytic cycle and increases the odd oxygen loss from the Cl{sub x} catalytic cycle. By including these heterogeneous reactions in the LLNL model, the relative partitioning of odd oxygen loss between these two families changes, with the result that emissions of NO{sub x} from proposed aircraft fleets flying in the stratosphere now increase zone. Having these heterogeneous processes present also increases ozone concentration in the troposphere relative to gas-phase only chemistry calculations for emissions of NO{sub x} from subsonic aircraft. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Kinnison, D.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Imaging Spectrometry of Tropospheric Ozone and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Imaging spectrometry has the potential of remotely detecting atmospheric trace gases on the basis of their absorption of radiation. Ozone absorbs particulary in the ultraviolet and visible range of the spectrum, whereas water vapor has strong absorption features in the near infrared. Hence, spectrometry is expected to be a promising tool to extract these trace gas contents in a given air column by using the correlation between cumulative trace gas amount and absorption strength in the sensor channels located in the absorption bands. New mathematical methods of channel selection and method evaluation for measuring atmospheric trace gases are presented. Three already known and four new differential absorption techniques are evaluated by using MODTRAN2 simulations of the radiance spectrum at the sensor level and an analytical error propagation analysis. Finally, the best methods and channel combinations are selected and applied to AVIRIS data of Central Switzerland. The spatial ozone distribution could be estimated over water in a qualitative manner, whereas the total column water vapor content could be quantified over land with an accuracy of about 6%.

Daniel Schläpfer; Klaus I. Itten; Johannes Keller

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan  

SciTech Connect

Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Interaction of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets with Urban Geometries as Seen in Joint Urban 2003 Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because accurate modeling of atmospheric flows in urban environments requires sophisticated representation of complex urban geometries, much work has been devoted to treatment of the urban surface. However, the importance of the larger-scale flow ...

Julie K. Lundquist; Jeffrey D. Mirocha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Essays on rural-urban migration in hinterland China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table 1.5: Rural to Urban Migration2. Land in the Rural-Urban MigrationMarriage Rates in Rural China . . . . . . . . . . .

Meng, Lei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Gauging Improvements in Urban Building Energy Policy in India  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gauging Improvements in Urban Building Energy Policy in India Title Gauging Improvements in Urban Building Energy Policy in India Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of...

457

Joint Urban 2003: Indoor Measurements Final Data Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Joint Urban 2003: Indoor Measurements Final Data Report Title Joint Urban 2003: Indoor Measurements Final Data Report Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2004 Authors...

458

Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban Water Conservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bene?ts of Urban Water Conservation LBNL-61011 1 Katiethe California Urban Water Conservation Council, LNBL Awardwww.irwd.com/Conservation/water conservation research.php#=

Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Sustainable Urban Development Priorities - Development of a Rapid...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Development Priorities - Development of a Rapid Assessment Tool for Urban Mobility in Cities with Data Scarcity Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Sustainable Urban...

460

Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport Development in Medium Sized Cities in India Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Guidelines and Toolkits for Urban Transport...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

GIS spatial analysis for the design of urban open space.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Urban design in the landscape architectural tradition has a unique set of users and uses due to the nature of urban sites in densely developed… (more)

Howard, Michael Isaac

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Energy Department Announces the SUN Project, Empowering Urban...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Department Announces the SUN Project, Empowering Urban Native Youth in STEM Education Energy Department Announces the SUN Project, Empowering Urban Native Youth in STEM...

463

DOE News Release - DOE Conducts Urban Electric Vehicle Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

program include: * Enhancing public awareness of Urban EVs * Defining the unique Urban EV market and niche applications * Enhancing EV infrastructure * Investigating the economic...

464

Indonesia-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in Emerging Economy Countries (URBAN-LEDS) Jump to: navigation, search Name Indonesia-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies in Emerging Economy Countries...

465

Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Wind Energy in Urban...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stories: Wind Energy in Urban Environments Webinar (text version) Community Renewable Energy Success Stories: Wind Energy in Urban Environments Webinar (text version) Below is the...

466

Sensitivity analysis of ozone formation and transport for a Central California air pollution episode  

SciTech Connect

CMAQ-HDDM is used to determine spatial and temporal variations in ozone limiting reagents and local vs upwind source contributions for an air pollution episode in Central California. We developed a first- and second- order sensitivity analysis approach with the Decoupled Direct Method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a five-day ozone episode (29th July-3rd Aug, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8-hr ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1-hr ozone standard. Inter-basin source contributions of NO{sub x} emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NO{sub x} and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO{sub 2} termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NO{sub x} emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

Jin, Ling; Tonse, Shaheen; Cohan, Daniel S.; Mao, Xiaoling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

Innovative Manufactured Housing Urban Design Demonstration Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One quarter of the new houses sold in the United States in 1999 were manufactured homes, and manufactured housing represents an important and growing market for power producers. One niche market opportunity for manufactured homes is in urban areas. EPRI facilitated the completion of two limited demonstrations of energy efficient manufactured homes designed specifically for urban neighborhoods.

2000-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

468

Source to tap urban water cycle modelling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The continuous expansion of urban areas is associated with increased water demand, both for domestic and non-domestic uses. To cover this additional demand, centralised infrastructure, such as water supply and distribution networks tend to become more ... Keywords: Metabolism models, Optimisation, Urban water cycle, Water demand management

Evangelos Rozos; Christos Makropoulos

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Study of Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-17 June, University of Osnabruck, Germany. 9. Simonite, T., 2005, Anti-terror study tracks gas dispersalStudy of Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Environments Razvan Corneliu Carbunescu Center head: Study of pollutant dispersion in urban environments #12;Abstract Computational simulations can

Allen, Gabrielle

470

Maximum Urban Heat Island Intensity in Seoul  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Seoul, Korea, is investigated using data measured at two meteorological observatories (an urban site and a rural site) during the period of 1973–96. The average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and ...

Yeon-Hee Kim; Jong-Jin Baik

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

NONE

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate Change in Twentieth Century Zuev, V Institute of Atmospheric Optics Zueva, N. Institute of Atmospheric Optics Bondarenko, S Institute of Atmospheric Optics Category: Atmospheric State and Surface It is shown that during long-term total ozone decrease everywhere at middle and high latitudes there takes place the destruction of balance in global carbon cycle first of all due to reduction of photosynthetical СО2 sink in consequence of UV-B radiation stress of vegetable biota. As a result, СО2 concentrations in the atmosphere considerably increase, enhancing the "greenhouse effect." Based on reconstruction of behavior of stratospheric ozone between 1600 and 2000 from dendrochronologic data, it is shown that

473

Upper-Level Atmospheric Circulation Patterns and Ground-Level Ozone in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to identify middle-troposphere circulation patterns associated with high ozone concentrations during June–August of 2000–07 in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan statistical area (MSA), which is located in the ...

Jeremy E. Diem; Melissa A. Hursey; Imani R. Morris; Amanda C. Murray; Ricardo A. Rodriguez

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

An Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Losses during the 1980s  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to study the potential climatic effects of the ozone hole more directly and to assess the validity of previous lower resolution model results, the latest high spatial resolution version of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.,...

Robert M. MacKay; Malcolm K. W. Ko; Run-Lie Shia; Yajaing Yang; Shuntai Zhou; Gyula Molnar

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

UV Sensitivity to Changes in Ozone, Aerosols and Clouds in Seoul, Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total ozone (O3) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 320 nm have been observed from the ultraviolet (UV) measurements made at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea with Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers, respectively, during 2004-2010. The daily ...

Woogyung Kim; Jhoon Kim; Sang Seo Park; Hi-Ku Cho

476

A Two-Dimensional Model of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation of Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in zonal wind, temperature and column ozone has been successfully modeled in a two-dimensional dynamical/chemical model by the introduction of a parameterization scheme to model the transfer of ...

L. J. Gray; J. A. Pyle

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Greenhouse gases and future long-term changes in the stratospheric temperature and the ozone layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical two-dimensional (2D) interactive dynamical-radiative-photochemical model including aerosol physics is used to examine the expected long-term changes in stratospheric temperature and the Earth's ozone layer due to anthropogenic pollution of ...

I. G. Dyominov; A. M. Zadorozhny

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Separating the Dynamical Effects of Climate Change and Ozone Depletion. Part II: Southern Hemisphere Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The separate effects of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) on forcing circulation changes in the Southern Hemisphere extratropical troposphere are investigated using a version of the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (...

Charles McLandress; Theodore G. Shepherd; John F. Scinocca; David A. Plummer; Michael Sigmond; Andreas I. Jonsson; M. Catherine Reader

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Climatology and trends in the forcing of the stratospheric ozone transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thorough analysis of the ozone transport was carried out using the Transformed-Mean Eulerian (TEM) tracer continuity equation and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40). In ...

Monier, Erwan

480

Climatology and Trends in the Forcing of the Stratospheric Ozone Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thorough analysis of the ozone transport was carried out using the Transformed-Mean Eulerian (TEM) tracer transport equation and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re- Analysis (ERA-40). In ...

Monier, Erwan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "rain urban ozone" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

The effect of variability in industrial emissions on ozone formation in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ambient observations have indicated that high concentrations of ozone observed in the Houston/Galveston area are associated with plumes of highly reactive hydrocarbons, mixed with NOx, from industrial facilities. Ambient ...

Webster, Mort David

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Missing Stratospheric Ozone Decrease at Southern Hemisphere Middle Latitudes after Mt. Pinatubo: A Dynamical Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although large total ozone decreases occurred in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics in the years after the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo that are generally attributed to the eruption, comparable decreases did not emerge in the Southern ...

C. Schnadt Poberaj; J. Staehelin; D. Brunner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Modeling Ozone Formation and Transport in the Cascadia Region of the Pacific Northwest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rapidly growing Cascadia region of the Pacific Northwest, consisting of western Washington, Oregon, and southwestern British Columbia, has experienced surface ozone concentrations that exceed federally mandated standards. A modeling system ...

Mike Barna; Brian Lamb; Susan O’Neill; Hal Westberg; Cris Figueroa-Kaminsky; Sally Otterson; Clint Bowman; Jennifer DeMay

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Short-Range Prediction of Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations and Exceedances for Baton Rouge, Louisiana  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous research has been focused on improving forecasts of the daily maximum 1-h concentration of tropospheric ozone, which was based on criteria used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, in 2001, EPA began implementing ...

Robert V. Rohli; S. A. Hsu; Brian W. Blanchard; R. L. Fontenot

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Mesoscale Meteorological Structure of a High-Ozone Episode during the 1995 NARSTO-Northeast Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations and numerical model fields were analyzed to study the meteorological structures contributing to high concentrations of lower-tropospheric ozone over the northeastern United States on 14–15 July 1995. It was found that the episode is ...

Nelson L. Seaman; Sara A. Michelson

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Trends in Stratospheric Ozone: Lessons Learned from a 3D Chemical Transport Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stratospheric ozone is affected by external factors such as chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs), volcanoes, and the 11-yr solar cycle variation of ultraviolet radiation. Dynamical variability due to the quasi-biennial oscillation and other factors also ...

Richard S. Stolarski; Anne R. Douglass; Stephen Steenrod; Steven Pawson

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Trends in ozone and temperature structure: comparison of theory and measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparison of model calculated trends in ozone and temperature due to inferred variations in trace gas concentrations and solar flux, is made with available analyses of observations. In general, the calculated trends in total ozone and the vertical ozone distribution agree well with the measured trends. However, there are too many remaining theoretical and sampling uncertainties to establish causality. Although qualitatively in agreement, the observed temperature decrease in the upper stratosphere is significantly larger than that calculated. Theoretical results suggest a significant influence on stratospheric ozone from solar flux variations, but observational evidence is at best inconclusive. Overall, the trend comparisons tend to be consistent with the hypothesis that several different anthropogenic influences are affecting the present global atmosphere. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Wuebbles, D.J.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

The Characterization of an Air Pollution Episode Using Satellite Total Ozone Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case study is presented which demonstrates that measurements of total ozone from a space platform can be used to study a widespread air pollution episode over the southeastern United States. In particular the synoptic-scale distribution of ...

Jack Fishman; Fred M. Vukovich; Donald R. Cahoon; Mark C. Shipham

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Characterization of the Nimbus-7 SBUV Radiometer for the Long-Term Monitoring of Stratospheric Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precise knowledge of in-orbit sensitivity change is critical for the successful monitoring of stratosphere ozone by satellite-based remote sensors. This paper evaluates those aspects of the in-flight operation that influence the long-term ...

R. P. Cebula; H. Park; D. F. Heath

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Global Normal-Mode Rossby Waves Observed in Stratospheric Ozone Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Westward-propagating Rossby normal-mode planetary waves are documented in stratospheric ozone data using Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) satellite measurements. These modes are evidenced by enhanced spectral power and near-global coherence ...

William J. Randel

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Calculated Influence of Temperature-Related Factors on Ozone Formation Rates in the Lower Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using an atmospheric chemical reaction mechanism applied to air parcels near the earth's surface, the sensitivities ozone (O3) formation rates are quantified for changes in four meteorologically controlled parameters: temperature, sunlight ...

Chris J. Walcek; Hong-H. Yuan

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Application of gaseous disinfectants ozone and chlorine dioxide for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An assessment of ozone and chlorine dioxide for treatment ofAston, R. ; Synan, J. , “Chlorine dioxide as a bactericide62, 80. 14. Keane, T. , “ Chlorine dioxide – why all the

Aydogan, Ahmet

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Interannual Variations of Total Ozone and Their Relationship to Variations of Planetary Wave Activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interannual variations of total ozone at midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are shown to operate coherently with variations of upwelling planetary wave activity from the troposphere. Variations of upwelling wave activity, which modulate ...

Andrew C. Fusco; Murry L. Salby

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Reductions in ozone concentrations due to controls on variability in industrial flare emissions in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High concentrations of ozone in the Houston/Galveston area are associated with industrial plumes of highly reactive hydrocarbons, mixed with NOx. The emissions leading to these plumes can have significant temporal variability, ...

Nam, Junsang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

An Automated Classification Scheme Designed to Better Elucidate the Dependence of Ozone on Meteorology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper utilizes a two-stage (average linkage then convergent k means) clustering approach as part of an automated meteorological classification scheme designed to better elucidate the dependence of ozone on meteorology. When applied to 10 ...

Brian K. Eder; Jerry M. Davis; Peter Bloomfield

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Ground-level ozone in eastern North America : its formation and transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ozone (Os), a natural component of the troposphere, is augmented by photochemical processes involving manmade emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Sufficiently high concentrations of ...

Zemba, Stephen G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

A Novel Lightweight Low-Power Dual-Beam Ozone Photometer Utilizing Solid-State Optoelectronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advances in semiconductor materials and fabrication techniques have allowed the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with wavelengths extending down into the UV-C region (? < 280 nm). A new ozone photometer has been developed ...

Lars E. Kalnajs; Linnea M. Avallone

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Stratospheric Ozone Decrease Due to Chlorofluoromethane Photolysis: Predictions of Latitude Dependence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional model is used to predict the 1990 reduction in ozone due to the chlorine compounds formed by chlorofluoromethane (CFM) photolysis when the CFM release rate is held constant at the 1975 value. The predicted globally averaged ...

W. J. Borucki; R. C. Whitten; H. T. Woodward; L. A. Capone; C. A. Riegel; S. Gaines

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

An Approach to the Detection of Long-Term Trends in Upper Stratospheric Ozone from Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A central problem in the detection of long-term trends in upper stratospheric ozone from orbiting remote sensors involves the separation of instrument drifts from true geophysical changes. Periodic flights of a Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet ...

John E. Frederick; Xufeng Niu; Ernest Hilsenrath

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Ozone Cycles in the Western Mediterranean Basin: Interpretation of Monitoring Data in Complex Coastal Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In summer, the complex layout of the coasts and mountains surrounding the western Mediterranean basin favors the development of mesoscale atmospheric recirculations and the formation of ozone reservoir layers above the coastal areas and the sea. ...

Millán M. Millán; Enrique Mantilla; Rosa Salvador; Adoración Carratalá; Maria José Sanz; Lucio Alonso; Gotzon Gangoiti; Marino Navazo

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z