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Sample records for rain disdrometer disdrometer

  1. Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew. MJ

    2009-12-01

    The Distromet disdrometer model RD-80 and NovaLynx tipping bucket rain gauge model 260-2500E-12 are two devices deployed a few meters apart to measure the character and amount of liquid precipitation. The main purpose of the disdrometer is to measure drop size distribution, which it does over 20 size classes from 0.3 mm to 5.4 mm. The data from both instruments can be used to determine rain rate. The disdrometer results can also be used to infer several properties including drop number density, radar reflectivity, liquid water content, and energy flux. Two coefficients, N0 and ?, from an exponential fit between drop diameter and drop number density, are routinely calculated. Data are collected once a minute. The instruments make completely different kinds of measurements. Rain that falls on the disdrometer sensor moves a plunger on a vertical axis. The disdrometer transforms the plunger motion into electrical impulses whose strength is proportional to drop diameter. The rain gauge is the conventional tipping bucket type. Each tip collects an amount equivalent to 0.01 in. of water, and each tip is counted by a data acquisition system anchored by a Campbell CR1000 data logger.

  2. Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    Original and dead-time corrected disdrometer results for observations made at SGP and TWP. The correction is based on the technique discussed in Sheppard and Joe, 1994. In addition, these files contain calculated radar reflectivity factor, mean Doppler velocity and attenuation for every measurement for both the original and dead-time corrected data at the following wavelengths: 0.316, 0.856, 3.2, 5, and 10cm (W,K,X,C,S bands). Pavlos Kollias provided the code to do these calculations.

  3. Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    2008-03-05

    Original and dead-time corrected disdrometer results for observations made at SGP and TWP. The correction is based on the technique discussed in Sheppard and Joe, 1994. In addition, these files contain calculated radar reflectivity factor, mean Doppler velocity and attenuation for every measurement for both the original and dead-time corrected data at the following wavelengths: 0.316, 0.856, 3.2, 5, and 10cm (W,K,X,C,S bands). Pavlos Kollias provided the code to do these calculations.

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Rain Microphysics Study with Disdrometer and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design togovCampaignsMASRAD: Pt.CampaignSTations2008)Polarization Radar

  5. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  6. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Parcivel Disdrometer (williams-disdro)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  7. ARM - Datastreams - disdrometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  8. ARM - Instrument - disdrometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  9. ARM - Campaign Instrument - disdrometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday,air Comments? We would love to hear fromgovInstrumentsdisdrometer

  10. Capture and Characterization of Wind-Driven Rain during Tropical Cyclones and Supercell Thunderstorms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    disdrometers measure the induced voltage from the displacement of an aluminum covered styrofoam sensor

  11. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-079 Disdrometer and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2 DOE HQSiteo n n e v i2 ARM Climate16233

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - AMIE-Gan Ancillary Disdrometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve4AJ01) (See22, 2012III ARM Data Discovery Browse

  13. ARM - PI Product - Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSA RelatedInhibition (CIN) Product

  14. Evaluation of Cloud-resolving and Limited Area Model Intercomparison Simulations using TWP-ICE Observations. Part 2: Rain Microphysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam; Zipser, Edward J.; Fridlind, Ann; Zhu, Ping; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; Shipway, Ben; Williams, Christopher R.

    2014-12-27

    Ten 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations and four 3D limited area model (LAM) simulations of an intense mesoscale convective system observed on January 23-24, 2006 during the Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) are compared with each other and with observations and retrievals from a scanning polarimetric radar, co-located UHF and VHF vertical profilers, and a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer in an attempt to explain published results showing a low bias in simulated stratiform rainfall. Despite different forcing methodologies, similar precipitation microphysics errors appear in CRMs and LAMs with differences that depend on the details of the bulk microphysics scheme used. One-moment schemes produce too many small raindrops, which biases Doppler velocities low, but produces rain water contents (RWCs) that are similar to observed. Two-moment rain schemes with a gamma shape parameter (?) of 0 produce excessive size sorting, which leads to larger Doppler velocities than those produced in one-moment schemes, but lower RWCs than observed. Two moment schemes also produce a convective median volume diameter distribution that is too broad relative to observations and thus, may have issues balancing raindrop formation, collision coalescence, and raindrop breakup. Assuming a ? of 2.5 rather than 0 for the raindrop size distribution improves one-moment scheme biases, and allowing ? to have values greater than 0 may improve two-moment schemes. Under-predicted stratiform rain rates are associated with under-predicted ice water contents at the melting level rather than excessive rain evaporation, in turn likely associated with convective detrainment that is too high in the troposphere and mesoscale circulations that are too weak. In addition to stronger convective updrafts than observed, limited domain size prevents a large, well-developed stratiform region from developing in CRMs, while a dry bias in ECMWF analyses does the same to the LAMs.

  15. Winter Precipitation Microphysics Characterized by Polarimetric Radar and Video Disdrometer Observations in Central Oklahoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    Observations in Central Oklahoma GUIFU ZHANG AND SEAN LUCHS School of Meteorology, and Atmospheric Radar Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma ALEXANDER RYZHKOV Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies, Norman, Oklahoma MING XUE School of Meteorology, and Center for Analysis

  16. investigate the effects of cloud composition, such as ice particle shape and orientation, on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperature · disdrometers for measuring the drop size distribution of rain · visible and infrared radiation sensors · meteorological sensors The Chilbolton Observatory provides a versatile site with excellent in orbit testing (IOT) of satellites. It can measure and evaluate transmissions from global navigation

  17. Rain sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, D.A.; Tomich, S.D.; Glover, D.W.; Allen, E.V.; Hales, J.M.; Dana, M.T.

    1991-05-14

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of the precipitation from the chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device. 11 figures.

  18. Rain sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Danny A. (Richland, WA); Tomich, Stanley D. (Richland, WA); Glover, Donald W. (Prosser, WA); Allen, Errol V. (Benton City, WA); Hales, Jeremy M. (Kennewick, WA); Dana, Marshall T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of said precipitation from said chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device.

  19. West Texas Rain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    Commission, Culberson County Underground Water District and county officials to install a 2,500-gallon rainwater harvesting tank at the Culberson County Courthouse. West Texas Rain Rainwater harvesting demonstration sites save water and money (Above... Left) One of the three rainwater harvesting demonstrations is located at the Culberson County Courthouse in Van Horn. This 2,500-gallon tank has been installed to catch and store the rainwater. (Above Right) Landscape irrigation using the harvested...

  20. Controlling acid rain : policy issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    The policy and regulatory ramifications of U.S. acid rain control programs are examined; particularly, the alternative of a receptor-oriented strategy as constrasted to emission-oriented proposals (e.g., the Mitchell bill) ...

  1. Optical Rain Gauge and Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Comparisons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996TechnologiesDistribution, and FilmRain Gauge and

  2. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  3. Rain, Rain, Don't Go Away Taking a 360-Degree View of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    Rain, Rain, Don't Go Away Taking a 360-Degree View of Water The Science of Photography National Flood Studies Field Campaign ­ 6 Taking a 360-Degree View of Water ­ 8 From GLOBE Star Student to GLOBE

  4. The Effect of Rain on ERS Scatterometer Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    measurements in rainy conditions [1] [2]. In a raining area, rain striking the water surface creates splashThe Effect of Rain on ERS Scatterometer Measurements Congling Nie and David G. Long Department evidence of rain surface per- turbation in recent studies of surface radar backscatter, the rain effects

  5. DISCLAIMER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7.1.2.2 Firmware Overview This section is not applicable to this instrument. 7.1.2.3 Processing Received Signals The disdrometer's manufacturer provided software for data...

  6. Long range transport of acid rain precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A model of the long range transport of primary and secondary pollutants derived by Fay and Rosenzweig (1) is applied to the problem of the transport of acid rain precursors. The model describes the long term average (annual ...

  7. Why we started a Volunteer Rain Gauge Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    in their backyards #12;4-inch diameter High capacity rain gauges Aluminum foil-wrapped Styrofoam hail pads Snow

  8. Sediment detachment by rain power Emmanuel J. Gabet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabet, Emmanuel "Manny"

    , washload, kinematic wave Citation: Gabet, E. J., and T. Dunne, Sediment detachment by rain power, Water, detaching soil particles and displacing water. We use the term, rain power, to describe the rate at whichSediment detachment by rain power Emmanuel J. Gabet Department of Geological Sciences, University

  9. Berry Brook Watershed 2011 Rain Barrel Sale for Dover Residents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Allowing rain water to soak into the soil decreases stormwater runoff and helps recharge your groundwaterBerry Brook Watershed 2011 Rain Barrel Sale for Dover Residents Order Online: www Road Dover, NH 03824 Final day to ORDER: Orders must reach SkyJuice by June 18 Pick up your Rain Barrel

  10. Heavy rains hamper Louisiana gas line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, C.

    1983-06-01

    Despite heavy rains and flooding a 36-mile gas pipeline loop for Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp. was completed from north of Starks (at the end of Transco's south Louisiana lateral) to the Lake Charles area. Somastic-coated, 42-in. grade X-60 pipe comprises 90% of the route. The contract included multiple 30-42 in. fabrications, installation of six 42-in. gate valves, and expansion of the Gillis compressor station.

  11. Rain Machine (Solar Still) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7,DOE HDBK-1113-2008 April 2008 DOE98Rain Machine (Solar

  12. Jack Rains | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing theActivation byIs aItemPolarTool andJack Rains

  13. GARDENSA RAIN GARDEN MANUAL FOR SOUTH CAROLINA As development increases, so

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    #12;Rain gardens should be located in an area to which rain water typically flows. If a depression a storm will produce more than 1 inch of rain in 24 hours, excess water should be able to leave the rain an overflow so that excess water from larger storms can be diverted out of the rain garden. To prevent

  14. Acid rain - A further look at the evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katzenstein, A.W.

    1986-03-01

    There is widespread belief that acid rain is damaging lakes and forests in eastern North America, and that the threat of further damage is severe enough to warrant prompt remedial action. The cause of acid rain, hence ecological damage, is popularly held to be the sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) created by the combustion of fossil fuels. This popular belief rests on a narrow selection of data, and is not substantiated by the broader body of knowledge which is available. Nevertheless, numerous bills have been introduced in Congress proposing large reductions in SO/sub 2/ emissions. For example, the first bill introduced in 1985 was S.52, ''The Acid Rain Control Act of 1985.'' It calls for reducing SO/sub 2/ emissions by 10 million tons annually. While the language of S.52 and similar bills is not specific on causes and effects of acid rain, the testimony before Congressional committees made it clear that the concerns focus on the actual or potential acidification of lakes and soils by acid rain, and actual or potential impacts of acid rain on fish, other aquatic life, trees, crops, and human health. This article assesses the merits of these contentions about acid rain by examining technical evidence that relates SO/sub 2/ emissions to the acidity of rain to actual or potential environmental impacts.

  15. Sulfur controls edge closer in acid-rain debate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-10-04

    The role of airborne sulfur emissions from midwestern and southern coal-fired power plants in exacerbating the acid rain problem is discussed. This problem is discussed from the standpoint of legislation, compliance costs, scrubber performance and cost, and chemistry of acid rains.

  16. Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Simultaneous Wind and Rain Retrieval for ERS Scatterometer Measurements Congling Nie and David G on the ESCAT wind-only retrieval has been evaluated. For high incidence angle measurements, the additional scattering of rain causes estimated wind speeds to appear higher than expected. It is also noted

  17. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Karl Kong, Pei Wen Lei, Yabo Li, Rain Yuan Rain Tian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that are currently used to collect food scraps at UBC are cleaned at the Composting Facility located at the south, Yabo Li, Rain Yuan Rain Tian AN INVETIGATION INTO ORGANIC WASTE BIN LINERS APSC 262 April 10, 2014 1036 Technology and Society Instructor Name: Paul Winkelman AN INVETIGATION INTO ORGANIC WASTE BIN LINERS

  18. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, Kolby; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J.; Martin, Scot T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  19. Heavy pollution suppresses light rain in China: observations and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gong, Daoyi; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai R.; Bennartz, Ralph; Chen, Deliang; Wang, Weiguo

    2009-08-15

    Long-term observational data reveal that both the frequency and amount of light rain have decreased in eastern China (EC) for 1956-2005 with high spatial coherency. This is different from the trend of total rainfall observed in EC, which decreases in northern EC and increases in southern EC. To examine the cause of the light rain trends, we analyzed the long-term variability of atmospheric water vapor and its correlation with light rain events. Results show very weak relationships between large-scale moisture transport and light rain in EC. This suggests that light rain trend in EC is not driven by large-scale circulation changes. Because of human activities, pollutant emission has increased dramatically in China for the last few decades, leading to significant reductions in visibility between 1960 and 2000. Cloud-resolving model simulations show that aerosols corresponding to heavily polluted conditions can significantly increase the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and reduce droplet sizes compared to pristine conditions. This can lead to a significant decline in raindrop concentration and delay raindrop formation because smaller cloud droplets are less efficient in the collision and coalescence processes. Together with weaker convection, the precipitation frequency and amount are significantly reduced in the polluted case. Satellite data also reveal higher CDNC and smaller droplet size over polluted land in EC relative to pristine regions, which is consistent with the model results. This evidence suggests that the significantly increased aerosol particles produced by air pollution are at least partly responsible for the decreased light rain events observed in China over the past fifty years.

  20. Atmospheric deposition of ^Be by rain events, in central Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Atmospheric deposition of ^Be by rain events, in central Argentina Juri Ayub, J. , Di Gregorio, B Aplicada San Luis. UniversidadNacional de San Luis - CONICET. Ejercito de los Andes 950. Argentina. 2 Buenos Aires, Argentina 3. Escuela de Cienciay Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin. Martin de

  1. The Acid Rain Program: What it Means to Mountain Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    ://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrends.html #12;5 Title IV - Acid Rain Program · Power Sector Cap & Emission Trading Program for SO2 · 8) & Emission Trading ­ Title V ­ Permits ­ Title VI ­ Stratospheric Ozone 1http) · Environmental Monitoring #12;6 Recent Programs · NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP) 2000 · Ozone season NOx Cap

  2. Water and Energy Savings, and Carbon Emission Reductions From Rain Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Water and Energy Savings, and Carbon Emission Reductions From Rain Water Harvesting, Combined Heat Infrastructure Ecology Decentralized Water Resource Development: Low Impact Development (LID) Decentralized Energy Production: Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Policies for Adoption of Rain Water Harvesting

  3. Observations of Precipitation Size and Fall Speed Characteristics within Coexisting Rain and Wet Snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuter, Sandra

    Snow SANDRA E. YUTER Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State are compared among samples obtained in mixed precipitation (rain and wet snow) and rain in the Oregon Cascade Mountains and in dry snow in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Coexisting rain and snow particles

  4. Photometric Model of a Rain Drop Kshitiz Garg and Shree K. Nayar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nayar, Shree K.

    conditions such as haze and fog, rain drops are large and visible to the naked eye. Each drop refracts and photometric models show that each rain drop behaves like a wide-angle lens that redirects light from a large of rain is highly complex. Unlike the particles that cause other weather conditions such as haze and fog

  5. Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds Mahen Konwar,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds Mahen Konwar,1 R. S. Maheskumar,1 J. R effective radius (re) increased with distance above cloud base (D). Warm rain became detectable, i.e., rain water content >0.01 g/Kg, at the tops of growing convective clouds when re exceeded 12 mm. The re

  6. Rain-induced subsurface airflow and Lisse effect Haipeng Guo,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    is low, and the maximum water-level rise is less than the maximum air pressure induced by rain and the water table depth. Citation: Guo, H., J. J. Jiao, and E. P. Weeks (2008), Rain-induced subsurface] Water table fluctuation may induce subsurface airflow [Jiao and Li, 2004] and airflow caused by rain

  7. RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    RAIN AND WIND ESTIMATION FROM SEAWINDS IN HURRICANES AT ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION Brent A. Williams method for estimating wind and rain in hurricanes from SeaWinds at ultra-high resolution is developed. We use a hurricane model to generate prior distributions for the wind speed, wind di- rection, and rain

  8. An iterative process for international negociations on acid rain in Northern Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toint, Philippe

    An iterative process for international negociations on acid rain in Northern Europe using a general 138.48.4.14) #12; An iterative process for international negotiations on acid rain in Northern Europe transboundary pollution problem related to acid rain in Northern Europe. This simulation shows the need

  9. A General Systems Theory for Rain Formation in Warm Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-15

    A cumulus cloud model which can explain the observed characteristics of warm rain formation in monsoon clouds is presented. The model is based on classical statistical physical concepts and satisfies the principle of maximum entropy production. Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations that are ubiquitous to all dynamical systems in nature, such as physical, chemical, social, etc and are characterized by inverse power law form for power (eddy energy) spectrum signifying long-range space-time correlations. A general systems theory model for atmospheric flows developed by the author is based on the concept that the large eddy energy is the integrated mean of enclosed turbulent (small scale) eddies. This model gives scale-free universal governing equations for cloud growth processes. The model predicted cloud parameters are in agreement with reported observations, in particular, the cloud dropsize distribution. Rain formation can occur in warm clouds within 30minutes lifetime under favourable conditions of moisture supply in the environment.

  10. Cometary panspermia explains the red rain of Kerala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godfrey Louis; A. Santhosh Kumar

    2003-10-05

    Red coloured rain occurred in many places of Kerala in India during July to September 2001 due to the mixing of huge quantity of microscopic red cells in the rainwater. Considering its correlation with a meteor airbust event, this phenomenon raised an extraordinary question whether the cells are extraterrestrial. Here we show how the observed features of the red rain phenomenon can be explained by considering the fragmentation and atmospheric disintegration of a fragile cometary body that presumably contains a dense collection of red cells. Slow settling of cells in the stratosphere explains the continuation of the phenomenon for two months. The red cells under study appear to be the resting spores of an extremophilic microorganism. Possible presence of these cells in the interstellar clouds is speculated from its similarity in UV absorption with the 217.5 nm UV extinction feature of interstellar clouds.

  11. 1984 issues: gas decontrol, energy tax, acid rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betts, M.

    1983-12-01

    Energy analysts predict that Congress will propose a limited natural gas deregulation bill, an energy tax to offset budget deficits, and acid rain legislation that will focus on scrubber requirements for boilers. Politics will play an important role in whether legislation materializes since Democrats generally favor federal conservation programs and Republicans want to speed up deregulation. The November election will indicate which direction Congress will lean. (DCK)

  12. Rains County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/WaterEnergy Marketing Corp Jump to: navigation,Rainier,Rains

  13. Stratiform and Convective Precipitation Observed by Multiple Radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Min; Kollias, Pavlos; Feng, Zhe; Zhang, Chidong; Long, Charles N.; Kalesse, Heike; Chandra, Arunchandra; Kumar, Vickal; Protat, Alain

    2014-11-01

    The motivation for this research is to develop a precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method using cloud radar-only measurements for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) long-term cloud observation analysis, which are crucial and unique for studying cloud lifecycle and precipitation features under different weather and climate regimes. Based on simultaneous and collocated observations of the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR), two precipitation radars (NCAR S-PolKa and Texas A&M University SMART-R), and surface precipitation during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign, a new cloud radar-only based precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method has been developed and evaluated. The resulting precipitation classification is equivalent to those collocated SMART-R and S-PolKa observations. Both cloud and precipitation radars detected about 5% precipitation occurrence during this period. The convective (stratiform) precipitation fraction is about 18% (82%). The 2-day collocated disdrometer observations show an increased number concentration of large raindrops in convective rain compared to dominant concentration of small raindrops in stratiform rain. The composite distributions of KAZR reflectivity and Doppler velocity also show two distinct structures for convective and stratiform rain. These indicate that the method produces physically consistent results for two types of rain. The cloud radar-only rainfall estimation is developed based on the gradient of accumulative radar reflectivity below 1 km, near-surface Ze, and collocated surface rainfall (R) measurement. The parameterization is compared with the Z-R exponential relation. The relative difference between estimated and surface measured rainfall rate shows that the two-parameter relation can improve rainfall estimation.

  14. Summer rain pulse size and rainwater uptake by three dominant desert plants in a desertified grassland ecosystem in northwestern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water sources derived from small (rain events, A. ordosia took advantage of deeper soil waterSummer rain pulse size and rainwater uptake by three dominant desert plants in a desertified composition, Rain pulse size, Summer precipitation Abstract To examine the different effects of rain pulse

  15. Light rain events change over North America, Europe and Asia for 1973-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gong, Daoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2010-10-28

    Long-term daily precipitation data from NCDC are used to investigate the changes of light rain events from 1973-2009 over North America, Europe and Asia. Results reveal that the trend of light rain events presents a remarkably diverse feature in different regions, while an overall decrease trend can be found over the continents in northern hemisphere. In North America, most of stations show a decrease trend for light rain on the annual basis but a decrease trend can also be found for moderate and heavy rain. The opposite trends are observed over the stations in Europe and the trend of light rain is not significant when averaged for all the stations. In Asia, especially East Asia, the light rain days show an overwhelming decrease trend with high spatial coherency. Meanwhile the moderate and heavy rain events (> 10 mm/day) have increased, suggesting a remarkable shift of precipitation from light to heavy rain in East Asia. While both the warming at a global scale and increased atmospheric aerosols due to air pollution at a regional scale (e.g. East Asia) may have affected the light rain changes, it remains a challenging task to quantitatively detect and separate the cause of light rain changes in different regions. ?

  16. Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnow Your PowerWeatherize »Rain or Shine:

  17. Automated Rain Sampler for Real time pH and Conductivity Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weerasinghe, R; Jayananda, M K; Sonnadara, D U J

    2015-01-01

    To monitor the acidity of rain water in real time, a rain water sampling system was developed. The rain sampler detects the initial rain after a dry spell and collects a water sample. Before performing the measurements, the pH probe is calibrated using a standard buffer solution whereas the conductivity probe is calibrated using deionized water. After calibrating the probes the pH and the conductivity of the collected rain water sample are measured using the pH and the conductivity probe. Weather parameters such as air temperature, humidity and pressure are also recorded simultaneously. The pH and conductivity measurement data including weather parameters are transmitted to central station using a GSM modem for further analysis. The collected rain water sample is preserved at the remote monitoring station for post chemical analysis. A programmable logic controller controls the entire process.

  18. With Chest Waders, Hip Boots, Or Rain Gear R. O. Parker Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in addition to the boots and rain gear (fig. 1). FEET FIRST When you fall feet first into the water, airWith Chest Waders, Hip Boots, Or Rain Gear R. O. Parker Jr. Neither chest wade rs, hip boots, nor rain ge a r will cause you to drown if you don't panic . Wade rs, the m ost dreaded of the thre e, can

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - 16.0855_Raines Draft Rev 4

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Management Update Project Management Update Bob Raines Director, Project Management Systems and Assessments * Everybody's Favorite Subject Cost Estimating * Cost Estimating * EVMS...

  20. Acid rain control strategists overlook dust removal benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    Various strategies for controlling acid rain by reducing SO{sub 2} from existing utilities have failed to take into account the incidental particulate removal abilities of SO{sub 2} scrubbers. This has resulted in over-estimating the costs of acid rain control by 25% or more. This oversight has also caused utilities to invest in preliminary engineering of precipitator upgrades which will never have to be made if scrubbers are installed. While it seems inexplicable that a factor of this importance could have been overlooked by the industry, it is because of the unique situation in old U.S. utility power plants. These plants have relatively inefficient particulate control equipment which is not subject to new source performance standards. New power plants incorporate highly efficient particulate control devices so the ability of the downstream scrubbers to remove dust is irrelevant. The very small amount of particulate entering the scrubber from a highly efficient precipitator could be offset by escaping sulfate particles from a poorly operated scrubber. So an informal guideline was established to indicate that the scrubber had no overall effect on particulate emissions. The industry has generalized upon this guideline when, in fact, it only applies to new plants. The McIlvaine Company in its FGD Knowledge Network has thoroughly documented evidence that SO{sub 2} scrubbers will remove as much as 95% of the particulate being emitted from the relatively low efficiency precipitators operating on the nations existing coal-fired power plants.

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 45, NO. 3, MARCH 2007 621 A C-Band Wind/Rain Backscatter Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    signature is altered by rain. Rain striking the water creates splash products including rings, stalksIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 45, NO. 3, MARCH 2007 621 A C-Band Wind/Rain--With the confirmed evidence of rain surface pertur- bation in recent studies, the rain effects on C

  2. On the infiltration of rain water through the soil with runo# of the excess water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasano, Antonio

    On the infiltration of rain water through the soil with runo# of the excess water Iacopo Borsi '' Viale Morgagni 67/A, 50134 Firenze, Italy Abstract This paper deals with the modelling of the rain water infiltration through the soil above the aquifer in case of runo# of the excess water. The main feature

  3. Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudd, Simon Marius

    Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets David Jon by raindrop impacts. We use high-speed imaging of drop impacts on dry sand to describe the drop (2007), Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets, J

  4. Seasonal controls on the exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    Seasonal controls on the exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest Lucy R. Hutyra,1 controls on the exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G03008 response to climate and weather. This study presents 4 years of eddy covariance data for CO2 and water

  5. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Water Management through Rain Gardens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (4m x 5m) and can hold vast amounts of water at any given time. The bowl shaped rain garden must is an important parameter since the soil used effects the water absorption ability of the rain garden. The optimalUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Water Management through

  6. The roles of cloud drop effective radius and LWP in determining rain properties in marine stratocumulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    The roles of cloud drop effective radius and LWP in determining rain properties in marine that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12­14 mm

  7. Summer rain pulse size and rainwater uptake by three dominant desert plants in a desertified grassland ecosystem in northwestern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Summer rain pulse size and rainwater uptake by three dominant desert plants in a desertified composition, Rain pulse size, Summer precipitation Abstract To examine the different effects of rain pulse with different pulse sizes based on the changes in the hydrogen isotope ratios (dD) of their stem water 7 days

  8. Suppression of rice methane emission by sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauci, Vincent

    limitation had been lifted by the simulated acid rain S deposition. Citation: Gauci, V., N. B. Dise, G process and so the duration of paddy inundation and the employment of mid-season field drainage both

  9. Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings : evidence from the U.S. Acid Rain Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Elizabeth M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate ...

  10. Environmental Externalities in Electric Power Markets: Acid Rain, Urban Ozone, and Climate Change

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the emissions resulting from the generation of electricity by utilities and their role in contributing to the environmental problems of acid rain, urban ozone, and climate change.

  11. Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings : evidence from the U.S. Acid Rain Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Elizabeth M.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate ...

  12. Heat and moisture transfer through building envelope components subjected to outdoor weather conditions including rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayamaha, S.E.G. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Singapore experiences a warm and humid climate with abundant rainfall during the entire year. Such conditions are typical of tropical climates where many of today`s metropolitan cities are situated. Rain has been found to affect the thermal performance of building components in two ways, namely, by cooling the surface during rain and thereafter by drying of the absorbed moisture after rain. However, existing software used for predicting the thermal performance of building components do not consider such effects and are therefore inadequate for accurate estimation of the thermal performance of building components in tropical climates. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and moisture flow through porous building materials exposed to outdoor conditions such as solar radiation and rain.

  13. Analysis of TRMM Precipitation Radar Algorithms and Rain over the Tropics and Southeast Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Funk, Aaron

    2013-12-10

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) 2A23 algorithm classifies rain echo as stratiform or convective while the 2A25 algorithm corrects vertical profiles of radar reflectivity for attenuation ...

  14. Integrated Title V/acid rain permits: Transitioning through initial permit issuance and reopenings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, C. [Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Titles IV and V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Act or CAA) created two new stationary source permitting programs, one specific to acid rain (Title IV), and a second for operating permits in general (Title V). The Phase 2 portion of the acid rain program was designed to be implemented through the Title V operating permit program, thereby subjecting all Phase 2 acid rain sources to the requirements of Title V. Permits issued pursuant to Phase 2 of the acid rain program will be viewed as a self-contained portion of the Title V operating permit and will be governed by regulations promulgated under both Title IV and Title V. The requirements imposed by Title IV may not always be consistent with the broader operating permit program requirements of Title V, and when inconsistency occurs, the acid rain requirements will take precedence. This nonalignment will perhaps be most apparent during two stages of initial permitting: (1) the transition period following Title V program approval when permit application, issuance, and effective dates differ between the two programs, and (2) at the point when acid rain permits must be reopened to incorporate Phase 2 NO{sub x} requirements. This paper explores strategies for streamlining implementation of the two programs with particular focus on these two coordination issues.

  15. Morphology of rain water channelization in systematically varied model sandy soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Wei; C. M. Cejas; R. Barrois; R. Dreyfus; D. J. Durian

    2014-03-13

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different raining conditions using a quasi-2d experimental set-up, and systematically determine the impact of soil grain diameter and surface wetting property on water channelization phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely-packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates into a shallow top layer of soil and creates a horizontal water wetting front that grows downward homogeneously until instabilities occur to form fingered flows. For hydrophobic sandy soils, in contrast, we observe that rain water ponds on the top of soil surface until the hydraulic pressure is strong enough to overcome the capillary repellency of soil and create narrow water channels that penetrate the soil packing. Varying the raindrop impinging speed has little influence on water channel formation. However, varying the rain rate causes significant changes in water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. At a fixed raining condition, we combine the effects of grain diameter and surface hydrophobicity into a single parameter and determine its influence on water infiltration depth, water channel width, and water channel separation. We also demonstrate the efficiency of several soil water improvement methods that relate to rain water channelization phenomenon, including pre-wetting sandy soils at different level before rainfall, modifying soil surface flatness, and applying superabsorbent hydrogel particles as soil modifiers.

  16. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  17. USING NEXRAD AND RAIN GAUGE PRECIPITATION DATA FOR HYDROLOGIC CALIBRATION OF SWAT IN A NORTHEASTERN WATERSHED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, Aisha M.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Srinivasan, Ragahvan; Shirmohammadi, Adel

    2010-05-10

    The value of watershed?scale, hydrologic and water quality models to ecosystem management is increasingly evident as more programs adopt these tools to evaluate the effectiveness of different management scenarios and their impact on the environment. Quality of precipitation data is critical for appropriate application of watershed models. In small watersheds, where no dense rain gauge network is available, modelers are faced with a dilemma to choose between different data sets. In this study, we used the German Branch (GB) watershed (~50 km2), which is included in the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), to examine the implications of using surface rain gauge and next?generation radar (NEXRAD) precipitation data sets on the performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The GB watershed is located in the Coastal Plain of Maryland on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. Stream flow estimation results using surface rain gauge data seem to indicate the importance of using rain gauges within the same direction as the storm pattern with respect to the watershed. In the absence of a spatially representative network of rain gauges within the watershed, NEXRAD data produced good estimates of stream flow at the outlet of the watershed. Three NEXRAD datasets, including (1)*non?corrected (NC), (2) bias?corrected (BC), and (3) inverse distance weighted (IDW) corrected NEXRAD data, were produced. Nash?Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients for daily stream flow simulation using these three NEXRAD data ranged from 0.46 to 0.58 during calibration and from 0.68 to 0.76 during validation. Overall, correcting NEXRAD with rain gauge data is promising to produce better hydrologic modeling results. Given the multiple precipitation datasets and corresponding simulations, we explored the combination of the multiple simulations using Bayesian model averaging.

  18. On the Differences in Storm Rainfall from Hurricanes Isidore and Lili. Part I: Satellite Observations and Rain Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Haiyan

    and freshwater flooding is the number one cause of death from hurricanes in the United States (Elsberry 2002 1998­2000, Lonfat et al. (2004) showed that the maximum azimuthally averaged rainfall rate is about 12. of rain (24 h) 1 ] and Tropical Storm Allison (2001, $6 billion in damages, 27 deaths, 35­40 in. of rain

  19. Network Coded Information Raining over High-Speed Rail through IEEE 802.16j

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valaee, Shahrokh

    Network Coded Information Raining over High-Speed Rail through IEEE 802.16j Christopher Sue, Sameh propose a two-hop wireless network architecture for high-speed rail employing 802.16j. Due to its backward in high-speed rail communications and better exploit relay diversity. We refer to our proposed scheme

  20. Formation and evolution of coronal rain observed by SDO/AIA on February 22, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vashalomidze, Z; Zaqarashvili, T V; Oliver, R; Shergelashvili, B; Ramishvili, G; Poedts, S; De Causmaecker, P

    2015-01-01

    The formation and dynamics of coronal rain are currently not fully understood. Coronal rain is the fall of cool and dense blobs formed by thermal instability in the solar corona towards the solar surface with acceleration smaller than gravitational free fall. We aim to study the observational evidence of the formation of coronal rain and to trace the detailed dynamics of individual blobs. We used time series of the 171 \\AA\\, and 304 \\AA\\, spectral lines obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) above active region AR 11420 on February 22, 2012. Observations show that a coronal loop disappeared in the 171 \\AA\\ channel and appeared in the 304 \\AA\\ line$\\text{}\\text{}$ more than one hour later, which indicates a rapid cooling of the coronal loop from 1 MK to 0.05 MK. An energy estimation shows that the radiation is higher than the heat input, which indicates so-called catastrophic cooling. The cooling was accompanied by the formation of coronal rain in the fo...

  1. Midweek increase in U.S. summer rain and storm heights suggests air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Midweek increase in U.S. summer rain and storm heights suggests air pollution invigorates air pollution suppresses cloud-drop coalescence and early rainout during the growth of thunderstorms explained by the difference in composition of aerosol pollution at that time. This ``weekend effect'' may

  2. Rain Forest Islands in the Chilean Semiarid Region: Fog-dependency,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rain Forest Islands in the Chilean Semiarid Region: Fog-dependency, Ecosystem Persistence and Tree that these forests persist as a result of fog-water inputs. If so, then because fog-water deposition is spatially by the direction of fog input should determine forest structure and tree regeneration patterns. To investigate

  3. WeatherJuly2015,Vol.70,No.7 Is there a Rhythm Of The Rain?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Paul

    accessed through channels such as artists' websites and YouTube (our choice of data- base is discussed198198 Weather­July2015,Vol.70,No.7 Is there a Rhythm Of The Rain? An analysis of weather have ana- lysed how our environment has influenced music: Wagner (1972) looked at weather in classical

  4. Adaptive FIR Filtering of Range Sidelobes for Air and Spaceborne Rain Mapping Stephen P. Lohmeier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    Adaptive FIR Filtering of Range Sidelobes for Air and Spaceborne Rain Mapping Stephen P. Lohmeier and Telecommunications Center Abstract ­ This paper describes an adaptive finite-impulse response (FIR) filteringB [1] sidelobe levels. Although others have used wavelets to achieve suppression [2]. To measure light

  5. A phase screen model for simulating numerically the propagation of a laser beam in rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukin, I P; Rychkov, D S; Falits, A V [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lai, Kin S; Liu, Min R [DSO National Laboratories 20 (Singapore)

    2009-09-30

    The method based on the generalisation of the phase screen method for a continuous random medium is proposed for simulating numerically the propagation of laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere with precipitation. In the phase screen model for a discrete component of a heterogeneous 'air-rain droplet' medium, the amplitude screen describing the scattering of an optical field by discrete particles of the medium is replaced by an equivalent phase screen with a spectrum of the correlation function of the effective dielectric constant fluctuations that is similar to the spectrum of a discrete scattering component - water droplets in air. The 'turbulent' phase screen is constructed on the basis of the Kolmogorov model, while the 'rain' screen model utiises the exponential distribution of the number of rain drops with respect to their radii as a function of the rain intensity. Theresults of the numerical simulation are compared with the known theoretical estimates for a large-scale discrete scattering medium. (propagation of laser radiation in matter)

  6. Crowdsourcing, Climate Change and Student Science: The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    it one of the most innovative citizen science programs in the nation. Students of all ages at over 100Crowdsourcing, Climate Change and Student Science: The Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow: Dr. Nolan Doesken Address: Department of Atmospheric Science 1371 Campus Delivery Colorado State

  7. RADARSAT SCANSAR WIND RETRIEVAL AND RAIN EFFECTS ON SCANSAR MEASUREMENTS UNDER HURRICANE CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    RADARSAT SCANSAR WIND RETRIEVAL AND RAIN EFFECTS ON SCANSAR MEASUREMENTS UNDER HURRICANE CONDITIONS CB, Provo, Utah 84602 ABSTRACT RADARSAT-1 ScanSAR SWA images of Hurricane Katrina are used-band polarization ratio models have been proposed, none have been well verified in hurricane conditions. Although C

  8. HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED OCEAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATE RETRIEVAL: [PART-1] DEVELOPMENT U.S.A * selnimri@mail.ucf.edu 2 NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA 3 Space model has been developed to support the analysis and design of the new airborne Hurricane Imaging

  9. Atmospheric deposition of {sup 7}Be by rain events, incentral Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayub, J. Juri; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales. Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis. Universidad National de San Luis--CONICET. Ejercito de los Andes 950. Argentina (Argentina); Di Gregorio, D. E.; Huck, H. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision National de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad National de San Martin. Martin de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. (Argentina)

    2008-08-07

    Beryllium-7 is a natural radionuclide that enters into the ecosystems through wet and dry depositions and has numerous environmental applications in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Atmospheric wet deposition of {sup 7}Be was measured in central Argentina. Rain traps were installed (1 m above ground) and individual rain events have been collected. Rain samples were filtered and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The gamma counting was undertaken using a 40%-efficient p-type coaxial intrinsic high-purity natural germanium crystal built by Princeton Gamma-Tech. The cryostat was made from electroformed high-purity copper using ultralow-background technology. The detector was surrounded by 50 cm of lead bricks to provide shielding against radioactive background. The detector gamma efficiency was determined using a water solution with known amounts of chemical compounds containing long-lived naturally occurring radioisotopes, {sup 176}Lu, {sup 138}La and {sup 40}K. Due to the geometry of the sample and its position close to the detector, the efficiency points from the {sup 176}Lu decay, had to be corrected for summing effects. The measured samples were 400 ml in size and were counted curing one day. The {sup 7}Be detection limit for the present measurements was as low as 0.2 Bq l{sup -1}. Thirty two rain events were sampled and analyzed (November 2006-May 2007). The measured values show that the events corresponding to low rainfall (<20 mm) are characterized by significantly higher activity concentrations (Bq l{sup -1}). The activity concentration of each individual event varied from 0.8 to 3.5 Bq l{sup -1}, while precipitations varied between 4 and 70 mm. The integrated activity by event of {sup 7}Be was fitted with a model that takes into account the precipitation amount and the elapsed time between two rain events. The integrated activities calculated with this model show a good agreement with experimental values.

  10. WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 25, NO. 3, PAGES 577-579, MARCH 1989 Comment on "Are Rain Rate Processes Self-Similar?"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, VOL. 25, NO. 3, PAGES 577-579, MARCH 1989 Comment on "Are Rain Rate the properties of the rain field with those of its fluctu- ations in such a way that neither of their theorems are rele- vant to the problem of stochasticself-similar rain modeling. We would thereforelike to take

  11. Basic Installation Guidelines & Instructions for your SkyJuice Rain Barrel 1. Your rain barrel must be placed on a surface that is flat and level. Use a spade to flatten the area for placement of the barrel.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the barrel by the spigot. To maintain the tight connection, open the barrel and tighten the nut on the inside of dish soap to the rain barrel to stop the mosquitoes from laying eggs in the water. Dish soap

  12. Coronal rain in magnetic arcades: Rebound shocks, Limit cycles, and Shear flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, X; Keppens, R; Van Doorsselaere, T

    2015-01-01

    We extend our earlier multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations of coronal rain occurring in magnetic arcades with higher resolution, grid-adaptive computations covering a much longer ($>6$ hour) timespan. We quantify how in-situ forming blob-like condensations grow along and across field lines and show that rain showers can occur in limit cycles, here demonstrated for the first time in 2.5D setups. We discuss dynamical, multi-dimensional aspects of the rebound shocks generated by the siphon inflows and quantify the thermodynamics of a prominence-corona-transition-region like structure surrounding the blobs. We point out the correlation between condensation rates and the cross-sectional size of loop systems where catastrophic cooling takes place. We also study the variations of the typical number density, kinetic energy and temperature while blobs descend, impact and sink into the transition region. In addition, we explain the mechanisms leading to concurrent upflows while the blobs descend. As a resu...

  13. Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Acid Rain Program is divided into two time periods; Phase I, from 1995 through 1999, and Phase II, starting in 2000. Phase I mostly affects power plants that are the largest sources of SO2 and NOx . Phase II affects virtually all electric power producers, including utilities and nonutilities. This report is a study of the effects of compliance with Phase I regulations on the costs and operations of electric utilities, but does not address any Phase II impacts.

  14. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  15. The red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible extraterrestrial origin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godfrey Louis; A. Santhosh Kumar

    2006-01-02

    A red rain phenomenon occurred in Kerala, India starting from 25th July 2001, in which the rainwater appeared coloured in various localized places that are spread over a few hundred kilometers in Kerala. Maximum cases were reported during the first 10 days and isolated cases were found to occur for about 2 months. The striking red colouration of the rainwater was found to be due to the suspension of microscopic red particles having the appearance of biological cells. These particles have no similarity with usual desert dust. An estimated minimum quantity of 50,000 kg of red particles has fallen from the sky through red rain. An analysis of this strange phenomenon further shows that the conventional atmospheric transport processes like dust storms etc. cannot explain this phenomenon. The electron microscopic study of the red particles shows fine cell structure indicating their biological cell like nature. EDAX analysis shows that the major elements present in these cell like particles are carbon and oxygen. Strangely, a test for DNA using Ethidium Bromide dye fluorescence technique indicates absence of DNA in these cells. In the context of a suspected link between a meteor airburst event and the red rain, the possibility for the extraterrestrial origin of these particles from cometary fragments is discussed.

  16. Rain water transport and storage in a model sandy soil with hydrogel particle additives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Wei; D. J. Durian

    2014-02-10

    We study rain water infiltration and drainage in a dry model sandy soil with superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives by measuring the mass of retained water for non-ponding rainfall using a self-built 3D laboratory set-up. In the pure model sandy soil, the retained water curve measurements indicate that instead of a stable horizontal wetting front that grows downward uniformly, a narrow fingered flow forms under the top layer of water-saturated soil. This rain water channelization phenomenon not only further reduces the available rain water in the plant root zone, but also affects the efficiency of soil additives, such as superabsorbent hydrogel particles. Our studies show that the shape of the retained water curve for a soil packing with hydrogel particle additives strongly depends on the location and the concentration of the hydrogel particles in the model sandy soil. By carefully choosing the particle size and distribution methods, we may use the swollen hydrogel particles to modify the soil pore structure, to clog or extend the water channels in sandy soils, or to build water reservoirs in the plant root zone.

  17. The Roles of Cloud Drop Effective Radius and LWP in Determining Rain Properties in Marine Stratocumulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2012-07-04

    Numerical simulations described in previous studies showed that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open cells. Additional analyses of the same simulations show that the suppression of rain is well described in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12-14 um. Cloud water starts to get depleted when column-maximum rain intensity (Rmax) exceeds 0.1 mm h-1. This happens when cloud-top re reaches 14 um. Rmax is mostly less than 0.1 mm h-1 at re<14 um, regardless of the cloud water path, but increases rapidly when re exceeds 14 um. This is in agreement with recent aircraft observations and theoretical observations in convective clouds so that the mechanism is not limited to describing marine stratocumulus. These results support the hypothesis that the onset of significant precipitation is determined by the number of nucleated cloud drops and the height (H) above cloud base within the cloud that is required for cloud drops to reach re of 14 um. In turn, this can explain the conditions for initiation of significant drizzle and opening of closed cells providing the basis for a simple parameterization for GCMs that unifies the representation of both precipitating and non-precipitating clouds as well as the transition between them. Furthermore, satellite global observations of cloud depth (from base to top), and cloud top re can be used to derive and validate this parameterization.

  18. Voluntary compliance with market-based environment poliy [sic] : evidence from the U.S. acid rain program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan Pablo

    The U.S. acid rain program, Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, is a pioneering experience in environmental regulation by setting a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and by including ...

  19. A little rain doesn't fix it: Farmers and ranchers remain cautious as drought continues 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    and climate, along with the #17;#19;.#16;#25; billion of agricultural losses in #25;#24;#23;#23; plus crop, hay and livestock losses, leave the question: What is the outlook for agricultural crops, forage and livestock this year? Agricultural outlook ?It... rain doesn?t #30;x it continued Forage outlook #31;e drought took a toll on pastures, leaving most ranchers without any hay to cut and bare spots in the forage for livestock. ?A lot of our pastures, speci#28;cally hay meadows, were probably...

  20. Rain or Shine, Students Keep Their Race Cars Going - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2 RadiometerRafael L. BrasRain or Shine,

  1. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausladen, Paul; Blessinger, Christopher S; Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  2. The future of emissions trading in light of the acid rain experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLean, B.J.; Rico, R.

    1995-12-31

    The idea of emissions trading was developed more than two decades ago by environmental economists eager to provide new ideas for how to improve the efficiency of environmental protection. However, early emissions trading efforts were built on the historical {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} infrastructure which has dominated U.S. environmental protection until today. The {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} model initially had advantages that were of a very pragmatic character: it assured large pollution reductions in a time when large, cheap reductions were available and necessary; and it did not require a sophisticated government infrastructure. Within the last five years, large-scale emission trading programs have been successfully designed and started that are fundamentally different from the earlier efforts, creating a new paradigm for environmental control just when our understanding of environmental problems is changing as well. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the largest national-scale program--the Acid Rain Program--and from that experience, forecast when emission trading programs may be headed based on our understanding of the factors currently influencing environmental management. The first section of this paper will briefly review the history of emissions trading programs, followed by a summary of the features of the Acid Rain Program, highlighting those features that distinguish it from previous efforts. The last section addresses the opportunities for emissions trading (and its probable future directions).

  3. The red rain phenomenon of Kerala and its possible extraterrestrial origin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, G; Louis, Godfrey

    2006-01-01

    A red rain phenomenon occurred in Kerala, India starting from 25th July 2001, in which the rainwater appeared coloured in various localized places that are spread over a few hundred kilometers in Kerala. Maximum cases were reported during the first 10 days and isolated cases were found to occur for about 2 months. The striking red colouration of the rainwater was found to be due to the suspension of microscopic red particles having the appearance of biological cells. These particles have no similarity with usual desert dust. An estimated minimum quantity of 50,000 kg of red particles has fallen from the sky through red rain. An analysis of this strange phenomenon further shows that the conventional atmospheric transport processes like dust storms etc. cannot explain this phenomenon. The electron microscopic study of the red particles shows fine cell structure indicating their biological cell like nature. EDAX analysis shows that the major elements present in these cell like particles are carbon and oxygen. St...

  4. Overview of the oxidation and scavenging characteristics of April rains (OSCAR) experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easter, R.C.; Dana, M.T.; Thorp, J.M.; Busness, K.M.; Hales, J.M.; Raynor, G.S.; Benkovitz, C.M.; Tanner, R.L.; Shannon, J.D.

    1984-04-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) field experiment was conducted in April, 1981, as part of the MAP3S/RAINE program. The OSCAR study was designed to provide detailed characterizations of the physicochemical and dynamical features of selected cyclonic storm systems as they traversed the eastern U.S. Major experiment components included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements, aircraft measurements both in cloud and in clear air in storm inflow regions, surface-level air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. The precipitation chemisty network consisted of an intermediate-density network with 37 sampling sites covering the region from southern Ontario to Tennessee and from Illinois to New Hampshire, and a high-density network with 47 sampling sites located in a 100 by 100 km area in northeast Indiana. A total of four storm events were studied during the experiment. The report describes the design and operational aspects for the high-density and intermediate-density components of the experiment, and the composition of the integrated OSCAR data set which has been developed. A synoptic meteorological description of the four storm events studied during OSCAR is also provided. 17 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

  5. Acid rain in China. Rapid industrialization has put citizens and ecosystems at risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorjoern Larssen; Espen Lydersen; Dagang Tang [and others] [Norwegian Institute for Water Research and University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2006-01-15

    Acid rain emerged as an important environmental problem in China in the late 1970s. Many years of record economic growth have been accompanied by increased energy demand, greater coal combustion, and larger emissions of pollutants. As a result of significant emissions and subsequent deposition of sulfur, widespread acid rain is observed in southern and southwestern China. In fact, the deposition of sulfur is in some places higher than what was reported from the 'black triangle' in central Europe in the early 1980s. In addition, nitrogen is emitted from agriculture, power production, and a rapidly increasing number of cars. As a result, considerable deposition of pollutants occurs in forested areas previously thought to be pristine. Little is known about the effects of acid deposition on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in China. This article presents the current situation and what to expect in the future, largely on the basis of results from a five-year Chinese-Norwegian cooperative project. In the years ahead, new environmental challenges must be expected if proper countermeasures are not put into place. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Modelling chemical degradation of concrete during leaching with rain and soil water types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques, D., E-mail: djacques@sckcen.b [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Institute for Environment, Health, and Safety, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Wang, L.; Martens, E.; Mallants, D. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Institute for Environment, Health, and Safety, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    Percolation of external water through concrete results in the degradation of cement and changes the concrete pore water and solid phase composition. The assessment of long-term degradation of concrete is possible by means of model simulation. This paper describes simulations of chemical degradation of cement for different types of rain and soil water at an ambient earth surface temperature (10 {sup o}C). Rain and soil water types were derived using generic equations and measurement of atmospheric boundary conditions representative for North-Belgium. An up-to-date and consistent thermodynamic model is used to calculate the geochemical changes during chemical degradation of the concrete. A general pattern of four degradation stages was simulated with the third stage being the geochemically most complex stage involving reactions with calcium-silicate hydrates, AFm and AFt phases. Whereas the sequence of the dissolution reactions was relatively insensitive to the composition of the percolating water, the duration of the different reactions depends strongly on the percolating water composition. Major identified factors influencing the velocity of cement degradation are the effect of dry deposition and biological activity increasing the partial pressure of CO{sub 2(g)} in the soil air phase (and thus increasing the inorganic carbon content in the percolating water). Soil weathering processes have only a minor impact, at least for the relatively inert sandy material considered in this study.

  7. An Examination of Version 5 Rainfall Estimates from the TRMM Microwave Imager, Precipitation Radar, and Rain Gauges on Global, Regional, and Storm Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    , and Rain Gauges on Global, Regional, and Storm Scales STEPHEN W. NESBITT1 AND EDWARD J. ZIPSER Department TRMM rainfall products with Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) global rain gauge analyses is done to evaluate the overall biases of the TMI and PR to "ground truth" to examine regional differences

  8. Allowance trading activity and state regulatory rulings: Evidence from the US Acid Rain Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    The US Acid Rain Program is one of the first, and by far the most extensive, applications of a market based approach to pollution control. From the beginning, there has been concern whether utilities would participate in allowance trading, and whether regulatory activity at the state level would further complicate utilities` decision to trade allowances. This paper finds that public utility commission regulation has encouraged allowance trading activity in states with regulatory rulings, but that allowance trading activity has not been limited to states issuing regulations. Until there is evidence suggesting that significant additional cost savings could have been obtained if additional allowance trading activity had occurred in states without regulations or that utilities in states with regulations are still not taking advantage of all cost saving trading opportunities, this analysis suggests that there is little reason to believe that allowance trading activity is impeded by public utility commission regulations.

  9. Traces of Radioactive 131I in Rain Water Samples in Romania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margineanu, Romul; Apostu, Ana; Gomoiu, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of I-131 (T1/2 = 8.04 days) have been performed in IFIN-HH's underground laboratory situated in Unirea salt mine from Slanic-Prahova, Romania. The rain water samples were collected in March 27th in Brasov and March 27th and 29th in Slanic. The samples were measured using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a GeHP detector having a FWHM = 1.80 keV at 1332.48 keV at the second Co-60 gammaray, and a relative efficiency of 22.8 %. The results show a specific activity of I-131 of 0.35 \\pm 0.04 Bq/dm^3 in Brasov and 0.39 \\pm 0.04 Bq/dm^3, 0.13 \\pm 0.03 Bq/dm^3 and 0.71 \\pm 0.06 Bq/dm^3 in Slanic.

  10. Week 4, Rain in my Brain On top of the Harbor Cone, Otago Peninsula, Pacific Ocean in the distance.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    Week 4, Rain in my Brain On top of the Harbor Cone, Otago Peninsula, Pacific Ocean in the distance of the ocean or of this beautiful city from on-high and it all comes back that we're here, a dream come true

  11. Volcanic Ash Fall--A "Hard Rain" of Abrasive Particles U.S. Department of the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V Volcanic Ash Fall--A "Hard Rain" of Abrasive Particles U.S. Department of the Interior U olcanic ash consists of tiny jagged particles of rock and natural glass blasted into the air by a volcano. Ash can threaten the health of people and live- stock, pose a hazard to flying jet aircraft, damage

  12. IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE IMAGING RADIOMETER (HIRAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    IMPROVED MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING OF HURRICANE WIND SPEED AND RAIN RATES USING THE HURRICANE@mail.ucf.edu ABSTRACT The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) is a new imaging technology microwave remote sensor for hurricane observations that is currently under development by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

  13. Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberbauer, S. F.

    2004-01-16

    The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

  14. Acid rain regs will be falling on utilities in '84, but not too hard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smock, R.

    1984-01-01

    Regulations will probably call for sulfur dioxide scrubber retrofits on some older power plants in 1984, but because the action will likely be administrative under the Clean Air Act rather than new legislation, the rulings will be less harsh. A response to Canadian pressures was delayed when administration attention focused on military problems and rejected the first Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposals submitted by the new director as too costly. Failure to take action in 1984, however, will be politically damaging to the administration during an election year. A lack of scientific data hampers decision making, but EPA scientists predict there will be enough information by 1988 to accurately quantify acid-rain damage. EPA must decide which states to include in the regulations, how much to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions, and how to allocate quotas. Complicating the issue is the effect on the jobs of high-sulfur coal miners and the high capital costs of scrubbers. A low-cost retrofit may be possible with a furnace-injection technique now under study. 2 figures, 3 tables. (DCK)

  15. The role of land surface processes on the mesoscale simulation of the July 26, 2005 heavy rain event over Mumbai, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    The role of land surface processes on the mesoscale simulation of the July 26, 2005 heavy rain Mesoscale convection Weather research and forecast model Indian summer monsoon Land surface processes

  16. Vegetation History And Logging Disturbance: Effects On Rain Forest In The Lope Reserve, Gabon (With Special Emphasis On Elephants and Apes) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Lee JT

    An investigation of the effects of commercial mechanised selective logging on rain forest vegetation and mammals, was undertaken in the Lope Reserve, central Gabon, between January 1989 to July 1991. Vegetation in Lope ...

  17. The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, R M.; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-05

    The formation of highly supercooled rain was documented by aircraft observations in clouds at a wide range of conditions near the coastal region of the western United States. Several case studies are described in detail using combined cloud and aerosol measurements to document both the highly super-cooled condition and the relatively pristine aerosol conditions under which it forms. The case studies include: (1) Marine convective clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, as measured by cloud physics probes flown on a Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CALWATER campaign in February and early March 2011. The clouds had extensive drizzle in their tops, which extended downward to the 0°C isotherm as supercooled rain. Ice multiplication was observed only in mature parts of the clouds where cloud water was already depleted. (2) Orographically triggered convective clouds in marine air mass over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the east of Sacramento, as measured in CALWATER. Supercooled rain was observed down to -21°C. No indications for ice multiplication were evident. (3) Orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park, also measured in CALWATER. The clouds had extensive drizzle at -21°C, which intensified with little freezing lower in the cloud, and (4) Supercooled drizzle drops in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, as measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of CCN was a common observation in all these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentration of large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations was associated with the persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination these two conditions provide ideal conditions for the formation of highly supercooled drizzle and rain. These results help explain the anomalously high incidences of aircraft icing at cold temperatures in U.S. west coast clouds (Bernstein et al., 2004) and highlight the need to include aerosol effects when simulating aircraft icing with cloud models. These case studies can also serve as benchmarks for explicit cloud microphysics models attempting to simulate the formation of precipitation in these types of pristine conditions.

  18. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest: DMS in the Amazon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jardine, K.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; et al

    2015-01-08

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within themore »51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63« less

  19. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest: DMS in the Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, K.; Yañez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-08

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  20. Nutrient dynamics and nitrogen trace gas flux during ecosystem development in montane rain forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, R.H.; Vitousek, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Patterns of nitrogen trace gas emissions, soil nitrogen flux, and nutrient availability were evaluated at five sites that form a chronosequence in Hawaiian montane rain forest. The estimated age of basaltic parent material from which soils developed at the Kilauea site was 200 yr, 6000 yr at the Puu Makaala site, 185000 yr at the Kohala site, 1.65 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Molokai site, and 4.5 x 10{sup 6} yr at the Kauai site. Peak net N mineralization and nitrification values were found in soils from the 185000-yr-old Kohala site. Nitrogen content of foliage and leaf litter was highest in the intermediate age sites (Puu Makaala and Kohala) and N and P retranslocation was lowest at the Puu Makaala site. Soil cores fertilized with nitrogen had significantly higher rates of root ingrowth than control cores at the two youngest sites (200 and 6000 yr old) but not in older sites (185000 and 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old sites) and total fine root growth into control cores was greatest at the Kohala site. The highest N{sub 2}O emissions were found at the 185000-yr-old Kohala site, while the highest combined flux of N{sub 2}O + NO was observed at the 4.5 x 10{sup 6}-yr-old Kauai site. While overall N{sub 2}O emission rates were correlated with rates of N transformations, soil water content appeared to influence the magnitude of emissions of N{sub 2}O and the ratios of emissions of NO vs. N{sub 2}O. N{sub 2}O emissions occurred when water-filled pore space (WFPS) values were >40%, with highest emissions in at least two sites observed at WFPS values of 75%. Among sites, high N{sub 2}O emissions were associated with high soil N transformation rates. Large NO fluxes were observed only at the Kauai site when WFPS values were <60%. 50 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Environmental radiological monitoring of air, rain, and snow on and near the Hanford Site, 1945-1957

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanf, R.W.; Thiede, M.E.

    1994-03-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The goal of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Members of the HEDR Project`s Environmental Monitoring Data Task have developed databases of historical environmental measurements of such emissions. Hanford documents were searched for information on the radiological monitoring of air, rain, and snow at and near the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The monitoring information was reviewed and summarized. The end product is a yearly overview of air, rain, and snow samples as well as ambient radiation levels in the air that were measured from 1945 through 1957. The following information is provided in each annual summary: the media sampled, the constituents (radionuclides) measured/reported, the sampling locations, the sampling frequencies, the sampling methods, and the document references. For some years a notes category is included that contains additional useful information. For the years 1948 through 1957, tables summarizing the sampling locations for the various sample media are also included in the appendix. A large number of documents were reviewed to obtain the information in this report. A reference list is attached to the end of each annual summary. All of the information summarized here was obtained from reports originating at Hanford. These reports are all publicly available and can be found in the Richland Operations Office (RL) public reading room. The information in this report has been compiled without analysis and should only be used as a guide to the original documents.

  2. Rainwater harvesting systems that collect and convey rain-water from roofs to storage tanks are often the best or only

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polz, Martin

    PROBLEM Rainwater harvesting systems that collect and convey rain- water from roofs to storage-yearrecord Rigorous analysis of rainwater harvesting system design can improve reliability and water quality CEE-yield of the rainwater harvesting systems, defining reliability as days per year on which the community's water de- mand

  3. Controlling acid rain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

  4. ARM - Datastreams - rain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We wouldDatastreamsnoaaradbrw Documentation XDC documentation DataDatastreamspws

  5. ARM - Instrument - rain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrn Documentation NOAACRN : XDCgovInstrumentsptr-ms Documentation ARM

  6. ARM - Campaign Instrument - rain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us atgovInstrumentsradgovInstrumentsrain

  7. ARM - Cloud and Rain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us agovInstrumentswrf-chem Comments? We Outreach

  8. Singin' in the Rain

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D-NicholasReports andRobert(SC)Siegfried

  9. Can extractive reserves save the rain forest: A ecological and socioeconomic comparison of non-timber forest product extraction systems in Peten, Guatemala, and West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salafsky, N.; Dugelby, B.L.; Terborgh, J.W.

    1992-04-01

    Extractive reserves in tropical rain forests, in which only non-timber products are harvested, have been heralded by some conservationists as a means of maintaining biodiversity while providing income for local people. The study of extraction systems in Peten, Guatemala, and in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, leads to a more tempered conclusion, for while the Peten program was quite successful, the Kalimantan program was not. The study finds the success of an extractive reserve to be contingent on: (1) ecological conditions, and (2) socioeconomic and political factors. Although the study focuses on market-oriented extractive reserves, many of the issues discussed apply as well to other land uses such as the collection of non-timber forest products for household consumption or small-scale timber extraction.

  10. Chemical alteration of limestone and marble samples exposed to acid rain and weathering in the eastern United States, 1984--1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimann, K.J.

    1991-06-01

    In a long-term program that began in 1984, limestone and marble briquettes have been exposed to both anthropogenic acid deposition and natural weathering of four field sites in the eastern United States. Similar tests began at an Ohio site in 1986. Effects of exposure on the briquettes and other materials at the sites are evaluated periodically by several federal agencies cooperating in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). A primary contribution of Argonne National Laboratory to the NAPAP has been chemical analysis to determine changes in the samples caused by exposure to the environment. Wet chemical analysis was used to detect sulfates, nitrates, fluorides, chlorides, and a series of metal cations in sequential layers of stone removed from the briquettes after field exposure. Results from the first four years of the program indicate that rinsing by rain keeps skyward-facing stone relatively clean of reaction products, especially sulfate, the most abundant product. On groundward-facing samples, sulfate concentrations increased linearly with exposure time, and values were proportional to atmospheric SO{sub 2} concentrations at the site. Sulfate concentrations in groundward samples were much higher in limestone than in marble, because of the greater porosity of the limestone. A steep sulfate gradient was seen in both sample types from the surface to the interior. On skyward surfaces, material losses per rain event due to complete dissolution of accumulated sulfates were approximately equal to concentrations measured in runoff. Preexposed limestone samples had sulfate accumulations deep in their interiors, while fresh, unexposed limestone did not. No substantial changes in cation accumulations wee detected in either limestone or marble.

  11. A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    account for about 70 percent of annual SO2 emissions and 30 percent of NOx emissions in the United States acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. Electric utility plants and NOx are harmful to the lungs and can cause disease and premature death. Thursday, April 29, 2010 #12

  12. ARM - Lesson Plans: Acid Rain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Room News Publications TraditionalPlans OutreachAcid

  13. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Surface Meteorology (williams-surfmet)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  14. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, S-band Radar (williams-s_band)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  15. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, 449 MHz Profiler(williams-449_prof)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  16. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    2012-11-06

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  17. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Vertical Air Motion (williams-vertair)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  18. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, S-band Radar (williams-s_band)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  19. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, Surface Meteorology (williams-surfmet)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  20. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers, 449 MHz Profiler(williams-449_prof)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Williams, Christopher; Jensen, Mike

    This data was collected by the NOAA 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz profilers in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA sponsored Mid-latitude Continental Convective Cloud Experiment (MC3E). The profiling radars were deployed in Northern Oklahoma at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) Southern Great Plans (SGP) Central Facility from 22 April through 6 June 2011. NOAA deployed three instruments: a Parsivel disdrometer, a 2.8-GHz profiler, and a 449-MHz profiler. The parasivel provided surface estimates of the raindrop size distribution and is the reference used to absolutely calibrate the 2.8 GHz profiler. The 2.8-GHz profiler provided unattenuated reflectivity profiles of the precipitation. The 449-MHz profiler provided estimates of the vertical air motion during precipitation from near the surface to just below the freezing level. By using the combination of 2.8-GHz and 449-MHz profiler observations, vertical profiles of raindrop size distributions can be retrieved. The profilers are often reference by their frequency band: the 2.8-GHz profiler operates in the S-band and the 449-MHz profiler operates in the UHF band. The raw observations are available as well as calibrated spectra and moments. This document describes how the instruments were deployed, how the data was collected, and the format of the archived data.

  1. The effect of rain on freeway capacity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Edward Roy

    1969-01-01

    321 351 352 409 372 370 415 309 310 ?81 261 278 259 160 40 10 VPH AT Irl DDDRG 2 796 3360 3924 'i 752 5040 5076 4704 4092 3756 4320 4368 4116 4308 44i 52 4176 4236 3432 3900 3588 2976 4 Ai 2 8 3948 4 Ai 5 2... 4680 4200 5064 5 18'i 4992 4860 5088 4536 4164 4584 4308 4104 4680 4908 4980 4848 5268 4980 4716 4932 4608 4632 1680 2904 3468 4092 45 36 5064 4368 4356 3804 4764 4848 4776 ~53e 4764 4164 3888 4320 3972. . . 38 76...

  2. Singing in the Rain 26 January 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    by the great harm being done by its CO2 emissions. The terrorists (who had attacked the power station, caused of CO2 emissions to protect the lives and property of young people and future generations, to avoid for doubled CO2, while we now know that real world sensitivity is 3°C. Michaels also has the facts wrong about

  3. Robert B. Raines | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultiday

  4. Rain Rivers and Reservoirs Workshop 1-3 September, 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    to increased flooding, changing flood risk and significant changes to the sediment budget of the river system, flood risk, sediment/debris risk and pollution. However, it is important to remember that the modern-off by changing flooding mechanisms and increasing flood risk. The engineering interventions on the soil surface

  5. Uncertainty of microwave radiative transfer computations in rain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Sung Wook

    2009-06-02

    Currently, the effect of the vertical resolution on the brightness temperature (BT) has not been examined in depth. The uncertainty of the freezing level (FL) retrieved using two different satellites' data is large. Various ...

  6. NREL: News Feature - Rain or Shine, Students Keep Their Race...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    always work," he said. One of his teams, Astler said, wanted to use a hinge so that the solar panel could be adjusted to more directly receive the sun. But the hinge added too...

  7. Ringing in the rain : an agent based weather warning system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chao-Chi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    People's daily lives are impacted by lots of dynamic environmental information, such as weather and traffic. Though most of this information is available on the Internet, there is no easy way for someone to access it while ...

  8. July 2006 / ACCJ Journal / 55 rain-powered remote

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cichocki, Andrzej

    the latest generation of electroencepha- lographs (EEGs) to capture tiny electrical emissions from the brain a simple computer game, in which users drive a car around a track on the monitor ­ using their thoughts to differentiate the minuscule, microvolt emissions from the storm of electrical brain signals, then amplify them

  9. Incentive mechanisms as a strategic option for acid rain compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A.; McDermott, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 (P.L. 101--549) establishes the use of flexible emission compliance strategies for electric utilities to reduce the emissions of add precursors (SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2]). To control SO[sub 2] emissions, tradeable emission allowances will be used; NO[sub 2] emissions will be controlled by an emission standard, but a utility is permitted to average NO[sub 2] emissions systemwide to meet the standard. Both of these policies promote flexibility and cost savings for the utility while achieving the prescribed emission reduction goals of P.L. 101--549. The use of SO[sub 2] emission allowances has two notable benefits: A utility has the choice of a wide range of compliance methods allowing it to minimize compliance costs and second; the use of transferable emission allowances promote technological innovation with respect to emissions reduction/control. This report discusses the use of regulatory incentives towards the achievement of a Title IV goal of cost reduction of SO[sub 2] emissions.

  10. Incentive mechanisms as a strategic option for acid rain compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A.; McDermott, K.A.

    1991-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 (P.L. 101--549) establishes the use of flexible emission compliance strategies for electric utilities to reduce the emissions of add precursors (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}). To control SO{sub 2} emissions, tradeable emission allowances will be used; NO{sub 2} emissions will be controlled by an emission standard, but a utility is permitted to average NO{sub 2} emissions systemwide to meet the standard. Both of these policies promote flexibility and cost savings for the utility while achieving the prescribed emission reduction goals of P.L. 101--549. The use of SO{sub 2} emission allowances has two notable benefits: A utility has the choice of a wide range of compliance methods allowing it to minimize compliance costs and second; the use of transferable emission allowances promote technological innovation with respect to emissions reduction/control. This report discusses the use of regulatory incentives towards the achievement of a Title IV goal of cost reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions.

  11. Effects of Rain Attenuation on Satellite Video Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winkler, Stefan

    10 GHz. Raindrops absorb and scatter radio wave energy, which degrades the reliability Technological University (NTU), Singapore 639798, email: eyhlee@ntu.edu.sg Cheetah Technologies, San Jose, CA

  12. Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachman, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol...

  13. Creating Thunder: The Western Rain-Making Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parkman, E. Breck

    1993-01-01

    stone balls were used to send thunder and lightning againstballs were rolled about in order to create thunder and lightning (

  14. Rain-Making and Benefunder 20 October 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    energy infrastructure. Other things are needed, especially technology development, but those things that helps achieve broader public awareness, and (3) "connect the dots" all the way from the basic climate drawn at CSAS about policy implications of our climate and energy research are at odds

  15. How Often Does It Rain? YING SUN* AND SUSAN SOLOMON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Daily precipitation data from worldwide stations and gridded analyses and from 18 coupled global climate and models of relevance for climate variability, water resources, and climate change. 1. Introduction of precipitation frequencies at various intensities over the * Current affiliation: National Climate Center, China

  16. Soil for Rain Gardens in Mediteranean-climate Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anglin, Bojana

    2009-01-01

    rate comparision. Stormwater guidelines development. Citypublications/our_work/stormwater/lid/bio_docs/Bioretention%2Guidance Manual for Stormwater Quality Protection. Bay Area

  17. Virtual Field Trip: Temperate Rain Forest Douglas Fir and Western

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    Disturbance Cascade Creek fire on the southwest flank of Mount Adams. Sept 2012 #12;Frequency: none Frequency: 250-500 yrs Severity: high Size: large Frequency: 50-90 yrs Severity: low Size: small Fire in the PNW Natural Disturbance #12;Vegetation Succession #12;Species and Trophic relationships Pacific Giant

  18. Virtual Field Trip: Temperate Rain Forest Knysna Forest Biome near

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    Disturbance #12;Frequency: none Frequency: 250-500 yrs Severity: high Size: large Frequency: 50-90 yrs Severity: low Size: small Fire in the PNW Natural Disturbance #12;Vegetation Succession #12;Species

  19. Solar Decathlon: Rain and Shine | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES PursuantEnergy Small|EnergyWake of

  20. NNSA Procurement Projects Perspective - Bob Raines, Associate Administrator

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties -Department of EnergyNEW1for Acquisition and Project Management,

  1. Flood forecasting with the A&M watershed model: a hydrometeorological study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Cedric Glynn

    1990-01-01

    Nonorographic, Monsoon rains ( One day, probably warm rain One day continuous rain Air mass showers Prewarm fromal rain ( Thunderstorms Steady rains Warm rains Showers and steady rains { Continuous rain Rainshowers Thunderstorms Spring Summer...

  2. Influence of concrete fracture on the rain infiltration and thermal performance of building facades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the occupants. Over time, the pore structure of such materials may however be altered by cracks and defects for the purpose of durability assessments as well. Keywords heat; moisture; modelling; building material; fracture is to be accounted for in any long-term performance assessment. Hygrothermal simulations of building components

  3. Influence of concrete fracture on the rain infiltration and thermal performance of building facades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the health and comfort of the occupants. Over time, the pore structure of such materials may however for the purpose of durability assessments as well. Keywords heat; moisture; modelling; building material; fracture, and their influence is to be accounted for in any long-term performance assessment. Electronic address: × ÑÓÒºÖÓÙ Ö Ò

  4. Harvesting the Rain, An Overview of the Rainwater Collection Systems at McKinney ISD 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreppler, S.; Estes, J. M.; Dupont, D.

    2002-01-01

    COLLECTION SYSTEM WORKS There are several components needed to harvest the rainwater at each of the four McKinney ISD sustainable elementary schools. They are as follows. 1. Collection 2. Roof Wash 3. Grey Water 4. Treatment 5. Irrigation... functions. 1. Mixing of the chlorine (Details of the treatment component are presented below.) 2. Aeration of the water 3. Freeze Protection The pump was sized for 300 gallons per minute which allows for 50 gallons per minute per cistern...

  5. 1996 update on compliance and emissions trading under the U.S. acid rain program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1998-01-01

    November 1997This paper reports on the second year of compliance with the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions-reduction and -trading provisions of the Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The material is intended ...

  6. The time it never rained: How Texas water management has changed because of recurring droughts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    changes in the way the state of Texas managed and regulated its water. TWDB formed One of the ?rst actions the Texas Legislature took a?er the ????s drought was the establishment of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) in ????. ?e new state... Court decided the regulatory powers of the Edwards Aquifer Authority were constitutional. ?e Court gave the Legislature the green light to create districts that could regulate groundwater.? More droughts, more changes A?er the drought...

  7. for Better Homes The effects of loads from wind, snow and rain on houses and other

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennard, William N.

    realistic circumstances; as a result, the ways buildings respond to these stresses to the point of failure a controlled environment · Contains a typical two-storey brick house that comes complete with plumbing moulds grow · How loads move through structures to the ground · How well individual and overall parts

  8. ENJOYING THE RAIN FOREST Nowhere in the world will your eyes observe a greater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    will see today are the same as those that dazzled the first Spanish explorers more than 500 years ago. You

  9. Satellite Retrievals of Arctic and Equatorial Rain and Snowfall Rates Using Millimeter Wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surussavadee, Chinnawat

    A new global precipitation retrieval algorithm for the millimeter-wave Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit is presented that also retrieves Arctic precipitation rates over surface snow and ice. This algorithm improves upon ...

  10. Organization and Environmental Properties of Extreme-Rain-Producing Mesoscale Convective Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Russ

    -kilometer national composite radar reflectivity data are then used to examine the structure and evolution of each. Doswell et al. (1996, hereafter DBM96) note that the total precipitation at any point is directly pro

  11. Estimated increases in the cost of electricity under three acid-rain control bills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillsman, E.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Alvic, D.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Several bills were introduced in the past two Congresses to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from electric power plants. The effects of these bills on electricity costs depend on features of the bills, on the mix of generating capacity owned by different electric utilities, on the technologies available for complying with the legislation, and on the time horizon used to calculate the costs. A system of computer software has been developed to make utility-specific estimates of the effects of different legislation on electricity costs. This paper presents sample results from a larger analysis of six pieces of legislation. These results suggest that the emissions trading systems proposed in some legislation, and adopted in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1991, may have less effect than expected on the cost of complying with the legislation. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Costs to Maryland utilities and ratepayers of an acid-rain control strategy: an update analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahal, M.I.

    1988-03-01

    In 1985, the Power Plant Research Program (PPRP) published a study that developed estimates of cost and electric-rate impacts for a hypothetical control scenario for each major electric utility operating in the State. This report updates that earlier study by incorporating new information. Important differences include revised financial/accounting assumptions, a decline in the cost premium for low-sulfur coal, increases in scrubber construction costs and changes in control strategies. Also, the update incorporates control of NOx emissions. The original study was limited to evaluating the costs of controlling sulfur-emissions only.

  13. Streamflow Forecasting Based on Statistical Applications and Measurements Made with Rain Gage and Weather Radar 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudlow, M.D.

    1967-01-01

    measurements taken with weather radar. In addition, accurate estimates of lag time can be made from radar observations. For a storm which is unevenly distributed over the watershed, it is demonstrated that a better estimation of lag time may be made from radar...

  14. Impacts of experimentally imposed drought on leaf respiration and morphology in an Amazon rain forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    . C Araga~o1 , Yadvinder Malhi1 , Antonio L. Da Costa5 , Alan P. Braga5 , Paulo L. Gonc¸alves5 , Joao De Athaydes5 , Mauricio Da Costa5 , Samuel S. Almeida6 , Catherine Campbell7 , Vaughan Hurry7

  15. Amazonian peatland vegetation and its representation in the modern pollen rain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    of peat-forming and wetland ecosystems in the Pastaza-Marañon Fan Basin in northern Peru (the largest analysis in peat cores obtained from lowland peatlands in northern Peru has enabled past vegetation dating methods), records obtained from these peatlands potentially represent an extremely powerful tool

  16. Modeling of solute transport in snow using conservative tracers and artificial rain-on-snow experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    variation of clean water flux, a negative concentration-discharge relationship occurs when solutes are evenly distributed in the mobile and immobile fluids, while a positive relationship occurs when the solutes were present only in the immobile fluid near the surface. This result may help in explaining

  17. Lessons from Phase 2 compliance with the U.S. Acid Rain Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides preliminary answers to four questions concerning the behavior of agents operating under the SO2 Allowance Trading Program that could not be adequately answered until several years' data on compliance ...

  18. The efficiency and robustness of allowance banking in the U.S. Acid Rain Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical evaluation of the efficiency of allowance banking (i.e., abating more in early periods in order to abate less in later periods) in the nationwide market for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission ...

  19. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Rain Gardens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to dispose of stormwater runoff. 70% of all water pollution is caused by stormwater runoff, which can garden is low compared to other stormwater runoff solutions. #12;iii TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................... 10 4.2.1. Pollutant in Stormwater...

  20. Temporal and Spatial Diversity and Distribution of Arboreal Carabidae (Coleoptera) in a Western Amazonian Rain Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support NationalMuseumof NaturalHistory,SmithsonianInstitution,Washington,D.C.20560, U.S.A. and Jon D. Witman

  1. High Velocity Rain: The Terminal Velocity of Model of Galactic Infall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert A. Benjamin; Laura Danly

    1996-12-18

    A model is proposed for determining the distances to falling interstellar clouds in the galactic halo by measuring the cloud velocity and column density and assuming a model for the vertical density distribution of the Galactic interstellar medium. It is shown that falling clouds with $N(H I) \\sim 0.4 kpc$ one or more of the following occurs: (1) the neutral fraction of the cloud decreases to $\\sim 31 \\pm 14%$, (2) the density drops off faster than characterized by Reynolds, or (3) there is a systematic decrease in drag coefficient with increasing z.

  2. Global Precipitation Retrievals Using the NOAA AMSU Millimeter-Wave Channels: Comparisons with Rain Gauges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surussavadee, Chinnawat

    A surface-precipitation-rate retrieval algorithm for 13-channel Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) millimeter-wave spectral observations from 23 to 191 GHz is described. It was trained using cloud-resolving fifth-generation ...

  3. Effects of baroclinicity on storm divergence and stratiform rain in a precipitating subtropical region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Jr., Larry John

    2009-05-15

    Divergence structures associated with the spectrum of precipitating systems in the subtropics and midlatitudes are not well documented. A mesoscale model (MM5) is employed to quantify the relative importance different ...

  4. Photo of the Week: Rain or Shine, Preparing for the 2013 Hurricane Season |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary Areas ofEnergy OnPeter B. LyonsDepartmentofa Future

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - 16.0855_Raines Draft Rev 4 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy May 28Mar [CompatibilityEnergy 05_Tom

  6. Pieces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    raining needles fall rain under water green close see darkerwater shook not immensely leaves shook not immensely now it is raining green dark immensely rain

  7. Drought-tolerant Biofuel Crops could be a Critical Hedge for Biorefineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, III, William R.

    2013-01-01

    production potential and rain water availability indicatespatial analysis of rain water availability with a supply

  8. Possible linkages between Saharan dust and tropical cyclone rain band invigoration in the eastern Atlantic during NAMMA-06

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    for tropical cyclogenesis, it also provides an infusion of cloud condensation and ice nuclei which can

  9. ATOC 3500/CHEM 3151 Spring 2014 The San Joaquin, acid rain, and using a simple "box" model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    are there in this "box?" (b) The major source of air pollution in the valley is from steam generators used in the oil in the United States - experiences extended periods of stagnant air in the wintertime. These episodes are often air temperature is 15 o C and the pressure is 1000 mb, how many molecules of air

  10. Isotopic evidence for source changes of nitrate in rain at Bermuda Meredith Galanter Hastings and Daniel M. Sigman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigman, Daniel M.

    ). Globally, levels of NOx are rising due to increasing anthropogenic emissions from fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and aircraft emissions. The increases in anthropogenic emissions are leading to increased during the cool season is consistent with anthropogenic emissions from North America, the higher warm

  11. Abstract--Rain, snow, gaseous, cloud, fog, scintillation and other atmospheric properties can have a distorting effect on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Changcheng

    -effective attenuation mitigation techniques. It enhances link availability and performance. In view of these analytical conditions can enable mitigation planning by adaptively selecting appropriate modulation, coding, transmitted power level, transmission rate and configured frame size. The aim of this paper is to estimate different

  12. Ensemble-Based Analysis of Factors Leading to the Development of a Multiday Warm-Season Heavy Rain Event*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Russ

    use of operational global ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium- Range Weather methods are used to examine the processes that led to the development and maintenance of the long-lived vortex and its associated rainfall, and to its apparently limited predictability. Linear statistics

  13. Abstract--A satellite mission is proposed to provide frequent, high-resolution measurements of surface winds, rain, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    cyclogenesis, monsoons, the Madden- Julian Oscillation (MJO) and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO

  14. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment TWP-ICE Cloud and rain characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, P.T., Jakob, C., and Mather, J.H.

    2004-05-31

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them.

  15. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE): Cloud and Rain Characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PT May; C Jakob; JH Mather

    2004-05-30

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Commission DG RTD-1.2, and several United States, Australian, Canadian, and European Universities. This experiment will be undertaken over a 4-week period in early 2006. January and February corresponds to the wet phase of the Australia monsoon. This season has been selected because, despite Darwin’s coastal location, the convection that occurs over and near Darwin at this time is largely of maritime origin with a large fetch over water. Based on previous experiments, the convection appears typical of maritime convection with widespread convection that has complex organization, but is not as deep or as intense as continental or coastal convection. Therefore, it is expected that the convection and cloud characteristics will be representative of conditions typical for wide areas of the tropics.

  16. Modeling and analysis of phosphorus reduction by rain gardens and other BMPs in stormwater runoff from small urban developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obeid, Najwa, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    As part of The Discovery Museums (TDM) Low Impact Development (LID) Design and Monitoring report (Master of Engineering Group Project) for the town of Acton, , the effectiveness of low impact development technologies at ...

  17. Changes in Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) retrievals due to the orbit boost estimated from rain gauge data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMoss, Jeremy

    2009-06-02

    to 403 km in August 2001. The change in orbit altitude produced small changes in a wide range of observing parameters, including field-of-view size and viewing angles. Due to natural climatic variability, it is not possible to evaluate possible changes...

  18. MHK ISDB/Sensors/0.01" Rain Gauge (2m cable) Smart Sensor | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHK ISDB/Instruments/NortekMonitor ADCP <MHK|

  19. Co-Designing Sustainable Communities: The Identification and Incorporation of Social Performance Metrics in Native American Sustainable Housing and Renewable Energy System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelby, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    conditions using rain water harvesting Conserve waterby using rain water harvesting Reduce energy consumption infor Pumping Water Baseball Fields Rain Harvesting Drawing &

  20. Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dee, Sean Joseph

    2012-01-01

    R. T. Raines, Energy & Environmental Science 2010, 3, 765-R. T. Raines, Energy & Environmental Science 2010, 3, 765-R. T. Raines, Energy & Environmental Science 2010, 3, 765-

  1. Rainwater Harvesting in San Francisco Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bintliff, Jacob M.

    2011-01-01

    installed and planned rain- water harvesting (RWH) systemsFour of these schools have rain- water barrel systems. Asthe district adopted the Rain- water Harvesting Guidelines

  2. Fog Water and Ecosystem Function: Heterogeneity in a California Redwood Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    deposition collectors measure rain water as well as some drymore vertically deposited rain water during the winter thanTable 2). Likewise, bulk rain water NO - –N concentrations

  3. Converting oak woodland or savanna to vineyards may stress groundwater supply in summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grismer, Mark E; Asato, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Applied ET o * Rain* IWR† water . . . . . . . . . . . . .associated with rain levels, soil water–holding ca- pacityR eff Irrigation water (IW) Effective rain (plus irrigation

  4. The 26 July 2005 heavy rainfall event over Mumbai: numerical modeling aspects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahany, Sandeep; Venugopal, V.; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

    2010-01-01

    ing cloud liquid water, rain water, cloud ice, snow andcomprising of cloud water, rain water, ice, snow and hail

  5. The Junkyard in the Jungle: Transnational, Transnatural Nature in Karen Tei Yamashita’s Through the Arc of the Rain Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simal, Begoña

    2010-01-01

    narrator  how  a  huge  parking  lot  is  discovered  in part of this peculiar parking lot  now contains “a large enough, the abandoned “parking lot” is found  by teams of 

  6. Performance evaluation of interpolation methods for incorporating rain gauge measurements into NEXRAD precipitation data: A case study in the Upper Guadalupe River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Hongjie; Zhang, Xuesong; Yu, Beibei; Sharif, Hatim

    2011-04-21

    High spatial and temporal resolution of precipitation data is critical input for hydrological budget estimation and flash flood modeling. This study evaluated four methods (Bias Adjustment (BA), Simple Kriging with varying Local Means (SKlm), Kriging with External Drift (KED), and Regression Kriging (RK)) for their performances in incorporating gauge rainfall measurements into NEXRAD (Next Generation Weather Radar) Multisensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) (hourly and 4 x 4 km{sup 2}). Measurements from a network of 50 gauges at the Upper Guadalupe River Basin, Central Texas and MPE data for the year 2004 were used in the study. We used three evaluation coefficients Percentage Bias (PB), Coefficient of Determination (R2), and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) to examine the performance of the four methods for preserving regional and local scale characteristics of observed precipitation data. The results show that the two Kriging-based methods (SKlm and RK) are in generally better than BA and KED and that the PB and NSE criteria are better than the R2 criterion in assessing the performance of the four methods. It is also worth noting that the performance of one method at regional scale may be different from its performance at local scale. Critical evaluation of the performance of different methods at local or regional scale should be conducted according to the different purposes. The results obtained in this study are expected to contribute to the development of more accurate spatial rainfall products for hydrologic budget and flash flood modeling.

  7. SAFETY, GUIDELINES & ETIQUETTE Most programs will be held rain or shine. We assume you will come unless we hear from you.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    to use the recycling bins (located in Picnic Area and at Peetwood Pavilion) for plastic, glass, and cans. Reduce, Reuse, and RECYCLE! #12;

  8. Microbial Fuel Cells -Solar Times http://solar.rain-barrel.net/microbial-fuel-cells/ 1 of 3 6/28/2006 11:32 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    a battery that generates electricity from deep sea composting micro-organisms that just love to break down of Star Trek the Next Generation; it conjures up images of Wesley Crusher accidentally letting

  9. Field Projects and Research Highlights for Jeff Nystuen 2004/2005 1. Spatial Averaging of Rain Generated Sound in the Ionian Sea, Greece: Jan-Apr 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nystuen, Jeffrey A.

    Generated Sound in the Ionian Sea, Greece: Jan-Apr 2004 An acoustic mooring with 4 PALs was deployed in 3 km deep water off the southwestern coast of Greece. Co-located radar measurements show the spatial

  10. Acid Rain Program 2 0 0 5 P R O G R E S S R E P O R T

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    in Air Quality, Acid Deposition, and Ecological Effects ......14 Air Quality ..................................................................................................28 EPA-430-R-06-015 Clean Air Markets Division Office of Air and Radiation U.S. Environmental, air quality, and ecological effects. · Future programs that build on the ARP to further address

  11. Numerical simulation of the 16-19 October 1994 southeast Texas heavy rain event: precipitation results and diagnosis of the lifting mechanism 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroski, Thomas John

    2000-01-01

    During the period 16-19 October 1994, a mesoscale convective system (MCS) developed within a weakly forced large-scale environment over relatively flat terrain. This resulted in extreme rainfall totals and subsequent ...

  12. Black carbon transport and deposition to the California mountain snow pack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadley, Odelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Three EcoTech automated rain water samplers (RWS) wereSample Collection The RWS (rain water sampler), automated,BC particles in snow and rain water. This includes a

  13. Migration Patterns of Juvenile Winter-run-sized Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) through the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    above normal water year brought rain events and winter-runFor example, early rain events in 2006, a wet water year,late-arriving rain events of 2001, a dry water year, showed

  14. The Diurnal Path of the Sun: Ideology and Interregional Interaction in Ancient Northwest Mesoamerica and the American Southwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathiowetz, Michael Dean

    2011-01-01

    paayoynguman’iniy, “their rain water mound” (ibid. : 32). InLumholtz (ibid. ) noted: The rain-water as it flows over theof jars and canteens with rain water emerging forth from the

  15. Choosing and Using Safe Water Technologies: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luoto, Jill Emily

    2010-01-01

    by households (from rain water, tap water, earthpan water,includes tap water, rain water, earth- pan water or “other”source type (tap water, rain water, earthpan water, and “

  16. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadley, O.L.

    2010-01-01

    using EcoTech, automated rain water samplers (RWS) modifiedof collected snow and rain water were filtered throughcm 3 (kg) of snow or rain water and P is the total measured

  17. Dictionary of Upriver Halkomelem, Volume I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galloway, Brent Douglas

    2009-01-01

    rain-water drops in a bucket::q'pá:ls rain-water drops in a bucket::~ th'eq'ém. collected rain-water from a drip:: th'q'émelets

  18. Nutrition and Food Security in a Changing Climate: Methods for predicting household coping strategy use and Food Security in the Ethiopian Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunnes, Dana Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Perceptions 3.3.10 Rain and Water-resource Need 3.3.11 “Outasset-shortfalls. 3.3.10 Rain and Water-Resource Need As forduring floods or heavy rains, water is lost to runoff and

  19. Evaluating patterns of fog water deposition and isotopic composition on the California Channel Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Douglas T; Still, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    relative proportions of fog and rain water when they occurIsotopic composition of fog and rain water at Site 7. “Fog”are a mixture of fog and rain water. Dry season fog water is

  20. Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candido, Christhina Maria

    2010-01-01

    is heavily weighted towards hydroelectricity, accounting forof rain to drive hydroelectricity generation) and inadequatelack of rain for the hydroelectricity based system) and poor

  1. Rainwater Harvesting in San Francisco Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bintliff, Jacob M.

    2011-01-01

    and planned rain- water harvesting (RWH) systems areadopted the Rain- water Harvesting Guidelines in ear- lywater management education was matched with a de- SFUSD Rainwater Harvesting

  2. Lecture Notes 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Example 2: Let's do the experiment of watching the weather tomorrow. Assume there are three possible outcomes: it will rain (20% chances of rain) or it will be ...

  3. The chemical transport model Oslo CTM3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    f ) is f = c f net rain out cloud water + ice where c f isnet rain out is larger than the available cloud water + ice,

  4. Age of riverine carbon suggests rapid export of terrestrial primary production in tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest, J.rains. The lack of variability in ? 14 C VP values between the rising water

  5. Effects of selective logging on tropical forest tree growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest, J.water content cannot explain the increases in diameter observed before the onset of rains.

  6. Acquisition of Crosswell Seismic Monitoring Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    by the mass of the rain water, and an increase in poreby the infiltration of rain water. The effect on travel time

  7. Seasonal drought stress in the Amazon: Reconciling models and observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, I. T.; Prihodko, L.; Denning, A. S.; Goulden, M.; Miller, S.; da Rocha, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    during periods of rain, and restore water to near-surfaceAmazon Rain forest on regional and global carbon and water

  8. Teaching Organic Farming and Gardening: Resources for Instructors, 3rd Edition. Part 1 - Skills and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    application of water (irrigation or rain) tends to breakrain or irrigation) stops because gravitational waterof rain gauges in monitoring the volumes of water delivered

  9. "Es Siempre Preferible la Carpa a la Pulquería": The Construction of Poverty in the Music of the Carpas Shows in Mexico City, 1890-1930

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieletto-Bueno, M Natalia

    2015-01-01

    in the water that has come through with the rain; and thererecent rain. The still-wet tent, the mark of water very high

  10. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    areas. In the U. S. Virgin Islands rain water harvesting and seawater desalination are the principal

  11. Cloud Seeding What is it.... "It is a science that can be used to control winds, suppress hail, dissolve fog or create

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    , dissolve fog or create rain."...."assisting nature"...."Cloud seeding essentially helps that process along

  12. ThI Institute for Theoretical Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kullmann, Oliver

    Football with Default Rules W = {football, rain, cold rain snow} D = football : ¬snow takesPlace ¬snow is a tuple W, D , where W is a set of formulae and D is a set of default rules. Example: Playing Football with Default Rules W = {football, rain, cold rain snow, cold} D = football : ¬snow takesPlace snow

  13. -A Science Service Feature 7 WHYTHEWTt3T% ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and more llscientific" method Of liberating secret, rain persuading chemicals from the top of a special

  14. Contact information Director of Studies

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    Richner, Heinz

    , systematics, plant ecology, paleoecology, tropical rain forest ecology and ecosystem dynamics. Studying

  15. Final Report for NSF Grant CHE-9421727

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    Jones, William D.

    ranging from air pollution (acid rain) due to oil combustion to catalyst poisoning in industrial processes

  16. Released upon receipt but intended f o r use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plunged in water as a rain charm. A French writer of the sixteenth century, J. Bodin, says: "'phis custom drought, the people dip a holy image i n the water daily u n t i l rain f a l l s . In the Bombay TO BRING RAIN Among the very numerous superstitious methods of invoking rain one that has prevailed widely

  17. Tips on How to Write Theoretical Papers What is a why-question?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Carl W.

    to its temperature, water in the atmosphere condenses. Rain is this condensed water.) Note that inductive world, it seems silly to speculate about the reason why water may have decided to become rain. Yet A is the case. That is, the explanation proceeds from conclusion to assumption(s). (E.g., Why does it rain? Rain

  18. FLORIDA-FRIENDLY LANDSCAPINGTM *COMMON SENSE OVERARCHING PRINCIPLES

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    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    know that a ½ in. rain can easily fill one 55gallon rain barrel, and that water can be used (without restric on) for irriga ng plant beds, filling watering cans, or washing garden tools? Rain barrels also into our water bodies. In 2011, onehundred and thirtytwo (132) rain barrels were sold through inoffice

  19. Overview of Measurements for Understanding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    Precipitation humidity profile #12;WATER VAPOR RAIN CLOUD WATER CLOUD ICE GRAUPEL HAIL SNOW PRECIPITATION FSSP DP Sensor Balloon, Aircraft FSSP, 2D-C Drizzle FSSP, 2D-C Drizzle + Collision/Coalescence Rain 2D-P, Radar Rain + Humidity Profile 2D-P, Radar Precipitation Balloon, Aircraft Rain Gauge #12;Gas

  20. Publication 426-043 www.ext.vt.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    specially designed to collect rainfall and storm-water runoff. The plants and soil in the rain garden clean pollutants from the water as it seeps into the ground and evaporates back into the atmosphere. For a rain. Rain Garden Urban Water-Quality Management Rain Garden Plants Mike Andruczyk, Extension Agent

  1. A Science Somrice FeatureL Released upon receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in which rain is falling may dissociate the water, the chemical constituents of which are oxygen and hydrogen, and if the rain is heavy may set free enough hydrogen to meet appreciably the color of the electric dis- charge. Hence red li&tning implies heavy rain, and heavy rain implies a wet forest

  2. CLOUD MICROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES, PROCESSES, AND RAINFALL ESTIMATION OPPORTUNITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    , and a formulation of the RDSD into the simplest free parameters of the rain intensity R, rain water content W intensity R, rain water content W and median volume drop diameter D0. This is accomplished through-R relationships is explored from the combined approach of rain-forming physical processes that shape the RDSD

  3. Enclosed is a confirmation that indicates the camp session(s) in which you have enrolled your child, receipt of payment, location of registration, and check-in times. This Summer Sports Camp News

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    only) GOLF Golf shoes, clubs, bag, umbrella, rain gear, towel, sunscreen, swimsuit, 2 dozen golf balls

  4. NRES 285 Fisheries Techniques August 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suski, Cory David

    with chest waders · Bottled drinking water · Sunscreen · Rain suit (umbrellas not recommended) A limited

  5. Pushing the reset button on Texas Rangelands: Recovering from drought requires patience, knowledge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    program specialist in Texas A&M?s Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, said some burned areas that received rain a?er the ?res are recovering, but other burned areas that did not have rain are not improving. ?Landowners are concerned about... as long as it rains in the next growing season. But we had gone a whole year without rain. ?Previous studies have shown if it rains immedi- ately a?er burn, the response (of grasses) is quick,? she said. ?If it doesn?t rain, it could take up to three...

  6. Water Transfer from Soil to the Atmosphere as Related to Climate and Soil Properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wendt, C. W.

    1970-01-01

    of the soil surface is the limiting parameter. Effects of Crude Oil on Evaporation - Crude oil applied to the wet soil surfaces of the lysimeters following rains suppressed evaporation immediately following the rains. However, the value of the crude oil...

  7. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [University of Delaware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37 in rain or snow. The resulting "acid rain" may produce serious ecological effects on the environment3

  8. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 14211434, 2015 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/1421/2015/

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    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    of Scavenging ratios of polycyclic aromatic compounds in rain and snow in the Athabasca oil sands region L and rain at the oil sands sites. (G) and (P) denote predominantly gas-phase and particulate-phase PACs

  9. Sustainability Around the House | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainability Around the House Sustainability Around the House April 13, 2015 - 7:46am Addthis Rain barrels collect rain water and provide a free source of fresh water for your...

  10. Morphology, hydrology, and water quality of two vernal pools in Madera County, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renz, Wendy; Higgins, Tanya

    2006-01-01

    received 10.89 in of rain during this water year thus far,rain gauge stations listed on the California Data Exchange Center website (http://cdec.water.ca.gov), managed by the California Department of Water

  11. Journal No. 5 December 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Liberia show that the disappearance of the forest caused a regular decline of the amount of rain falling

  12. Seismic Performance Assessment and Probabilistic Repair Cost Analysis of Precast Concrete Cladding Systems for Multistory Buildings

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    Hunt, Jeffrey Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Lifts 1020 Escalators & Moving Walks D20 Plumbing 2010 Plumbing Fixtures 2020 Domestic Water Distribution 2040 Rain Water Drainage

  13. RECLAIMing Air, Redefining Democracy : : A History of the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market, Environmental Justice, and Risk, 1960 - present

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    Tribbett, Krystal L.

    2014-01-01

    acid rain: reduce these emissions by using lower sulfur content fuel, or by installing control technology known as scrubbers

  14. Interannual variations in the North American monsoon and SST anomalies: A general circulation model study.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrara, J. D.; Yu, J.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    the recent notable Midwest summer flood ( drought) events ofdrought in particular—the rain- fall anomalies in the Midwest

  15. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karasaki, Kenzi

    2014-01-01

    times by triggering a GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupt).time, rain caused a GFCI (ground fault circuit interrupt),

  16. ME 6101 Engineering Design Final Learning Essay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with the weather as the bringer of rain and water in an agriculturally water-driven nation. Its female counterpart

  17. Getting Our Feet Wet: Water Management at Mt. Laguna in Cleveland National Forest

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    Mumby, William Cade

    2013-01-01

    rain gardens, soil amendments, permeable pavements, and infiltration devices could offer potential solutions to problems of water

  18. EDITORS: Corrected C?opy, please su'bstttute f o r that mailed you yesterday.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the following: 0 summer fog f o r fair, A winter fog f o r rain; A fact most everywhere, In valley and on plain. When fog goes up the rain is oror; When fog comes down ' t w i l l rain som more. When the is dry me r

  19. Ensemble Tropical Rainfall Potential (eTRaP) Forecasts ELIZABETH E. EBERT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebert, Beth

    for more than 300 deaths in the United States during the period 1970­99, including 50 deaths related landfall in the United States between 2004 and 2008 shows that the eTRaP rain amounts are more accurate-h rain forecast based on estimated rain rates from microwave sensors aboard polar

  20. Goldschmidt2013 Conference Abstracts www.minersoc.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    of rain water from Nanchang City in this paper(Fig 1). The results indicated that the sulfur isotopic and winter. The sources of sulfur in rain water include bio-organic sulfur, anthropogenic sulfur and sulfur from the sea. In spring and summer, the sulfur in rain water comes mainly from anthropogenic sulfur

  1. md Science Service Featuro By Dr. Charles F. Brooks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    No. 745 Sept. 30 md Science Service Featuro By Dr. Charles F. Brooks of Clark University. RAIN SKADOWS Mountains cast rain shadoms; often there is the greatest difference in rain- is fall between in me trade wind, laden with water vapor, blows persistently from one direction. is forced to rise

  2. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 6Cl-2.0l63 Finance and Administration; Chalking Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    is defined as the use of a water-soluble substance or substance washable by rain that is for the purpose for chalking must be water-soluble and easily washable by water or rain. (e) Chalking is prohibited on walls portions on the paved South Terrace that can be directly washed by rain. (d) The substance used

  3. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Minimal models for precipitating turbulent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majda, Andrew J.

    would be sepa- rated into cloud water (small droplets suspended in air), and rain water (larger droplets for water vapor and rain water only. As a first test of the minimal models, we investigate orga- nization and in more comprehensive cloud resolving models, such as tilted rain-water profiles, low-altitude cold pools

  4. Tracing Sources of Sulfur in the Florida Everglades Anne L. Bates,* William H. Orem, Judson W. Harvey, and Elliott C. Spiker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thousand [] units) of sulfate in surface water, ground water, and rain water from sites throughout. Shallow ground to enhance the uptake of phosphorus by crop plants water underlying the Everglades and rain during rain events. This sulfate may thenground water under the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) may

  5. The Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989, A UCSC Student Oral History Documentary Projec

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reti, Irene; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    2006-01-01

    on the roof of the water from the rain. I never heard whatrain and tons of it. And we were walking to the Civic Center to go get water.rains, when it was raining and my roommates and I had walked to get the water

  6. VOLUME 88, NUMBER 1 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 7 JANUARY 2002 A Complexity View of Rainfall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Kim

    of collecting rain in a container and mea- suring the amount of water after a certain time. The time intervals and Evaporation Project (PEP) in BALTEX [4]. Rain rate, liquid water content, and drop size distribution were in between rain events are called drought periods. The event size is defined as the released water column

  7. Mass Transport within Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    a ? ? + ? ? ? V d + rain water ? C a ? ? ap Z a Z a ? ? ? ?units m d -1 5.0 x 10 -8 rain v water ? ag m d -1 (m y -1 )f s ? f a ) ? ? V d + rain × Z water ? f a ? . ? ap Consider

  8. DISCRETE AND CONTINUOUS doi:10.3934/dcdsb.2012.17.2815 DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS SERIES B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherratt, Jonathan A.

    Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK Abstract. In semi-arid regions, infiltration of rain water into the soil is signif there is strong evidence that the infiltration of rain water into the soil is positively correlated with vegetation biomass [6, 20, 33, 48]. On bare ground, much of the water that falls as rain simply runs off

  9. www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 336 27 APRIL 2012 405 NEWS&ANALYSISCREDITS(TOPTOBOTTOM):CSIRO;P.DURACKETAL.,SCIENCE336(27APRIL)

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    Lawrence, Deborah

    of the water cycle, but they had their limita- tions. Using rain gauges on land was tricky given that heavy of track- ing water as it cycles between atmosphere and ocean. If more rain falls over an ocean than water% of the water cycle operates over oceans and much of the water falling as rain over land comes from the ocean

  10. >> Business, E1 >> Classifieds, F1 >> Lotteries, A2 >> Movies, D5 >> Obituaries, B4 >> Opinion, B8 >> Outdoors, C14 >> TV, D4 $2 ($2.50 in some areas) SUNDAY, MARCH 15, 2015 I RAIN LIKELY L 54 M 42 I WWW.SPOKESMAN.COM

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    . Baldor Associated Press See AFGHANISTAN, A11 JERUSALEM ­ Deep- ly divided and foul of mood, Israelis

  11. -A -._--Science Service Feature Dr. Charles F. Brooks,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    surfaces, so that i n the morning we find dew. 5Uch water vapor i n the a i r , conditions favoring rain, w scusse-s: . DEV SIGNS Vhen the grass i s dry at morning light Look f o r rain before the night." 'When the dew is on the grass Rain w i l l never corn? t o pass." D r . J. Bwnphreys of the Weather Bureau has

  12. A Scie:ice Service _Fc?oture ? YV"Y THE 'JEATHZR ?

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    more water. A week a f t e r R heavy rain, then, -------*-- (Tomorrow: Climate) A11 rights reservedW, on which the seme smouqt of rain f a l l s , we may note f i r s t t h a t i n the forest Perhaps one fourth of the rain i s intercepted by the leaves and brunches of the trees Fcnd f a i l s t o reach

  13. -A Science Service Feature 7 VHYTHEI'rrEATHER 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    apart from the ice storm. Just as warm rain f a l l i n g on a sidewalk may leave its surface dry, so, too, chilled rain may f a l l 011 brick or asphalt without wetting it, evaporates the raindrops converted i n t o i c e . In the one case the hot surface In the other, rain,cooled be- Some snowstorms

  14. Classi cation Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langford, John

    on future inputs #12; rain snow 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Precipitation Temperature Unknown Function Samples Training Sample #12; rain snow 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Precipitation Temperature Learned Function (Classifier) guess 1 guess 2 guess 3 #12; rain snow 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Precipitation Temperature Future

  15. We All Share One Planet: Comparative Case Studies in Education for Sustainable Development in India

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    Arribas Layton, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    production and harvesting of drinking water. However, Pandyaalternative water sources like rainwater harvesting. (of its own water through a system of rain harvesting. All of

  16. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 11 - 20 of 15 results. Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled with salt...

  17. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 11 - 20 of 13 results. Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled with salt...

  18. Analysis Of Factors Affecting Natural Source Slf Electromagnetic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to the integrated axis of the artificial electromagnetic interference field, the noise is weakest. (3) Rain can exert great influence on the high frequency band of natural...

  19. Control of Dry Season Evapotranspiration over the Amazonian Forest as Inferred from Observations at a Southern Amazon Forest Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juárez, RIN; Hodnett, MG; Fu, R; Goulden, ML; von Randow, C

    2007-01-01

    variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest andEnergy and water dynam- ics of a central Amazonian rain forest.

  20. REVIEW REPORT Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    scientists is the development and deployment of new sampling methods. Examples include successful exploitation of ADCP for plankton biomass estimates, estimation of rain using acoustics, and Project EAGLE

  1. In vivo evidence of glutamate toxicity in multiple sclerosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. A two year follow-upEDSS) 27 and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (P, Pitt D, Raine CS. Multiple sclerosis: altered glutamate

  2. Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    weather, HMS, downburst, 222-S, rain, Clouds Description: South towards Rattlesnake Mountain (Photo by John Smith). This picture was taken from 222-S looking South towards...

  3. Assoc. Admin.

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    B. Raines Associate Admin. for External Affairs Clarence Bishop Deputy Admin. for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Anne M. Harrington Assoc. Admin. for Safety, Infrastructure and...

  4. Geographic Information System At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Geothermal Systems in The Great Basin Using a Geographic Information System (GIS) - Part II, Coolbaugh, Zehner, Raines, Shevenell, Minor, Sawatzky and Oppliger. The...

  5. Black Swans, Dragons-Kings and Prediction Black Swan (Cygnus atratus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in pdf of rain events Peters et al. (2002) Heavy tails in pdf of forest fires Malamud et al., Science 281

  6. Landscaping for Energy-Efficient Homes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    regional climate. Your home's microclimate may receive more sun, shade, wind, rain, snow, moisture, andor dryness than average local conditions. If your home is located on a...

  7. An Agent-based Model of Prehistoric Settlement Patterns and Political Consolidation in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru and Bolivia

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    Griffin, Arthur F.; Stanish, Charles

    2007-01-01

    by 100% the amortized capital cost of rain fed terraces:capital ratio of 1.0 (same as for raised fields (g)), so total annual cost

  8. Holistic Approach for Water Management Planning of Nong Chok District in Bangkok, Thailand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suksawang, Wilasinee

    2012-01-01

    National Library, 2008. Rainwater Harvesting. Retrieved fromApril 1, 2012) Rainwater Harvesting Tank Size Calculation.at rain garden - Rainwater harvesting Rainwater Harvesting

  9. Science Teachers Aboard Research Ships (STARS); A Hawaii Ocean Times Series By Kimberlee Stuart, Kapa'a High School Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's colored Styrofoam cup at a depth of 3 km? Myself and two colleagues aboard the Kilo Moana Rain at Station

  10. 2015 DOE Acquisition and Project Management (APM) Workshop Presentatio...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0900 Mike Morgan - Government Relations Manager - Project Management Institute (PMI) Pulse of the Profession - PMI 2015 Pulse Knowledge Transfer of DOE 1000 Bob Raines,...

  11. Chapter 9 Audible Noise

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    by typical sources such as traffic, neighboring businesses or industries, and weather (wind or rain). The ambient noise level is typically a mix of noise from natural and...

  12. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This evidence suggests that the significantly increased aerosol particles produced by air pollution are at least partly responsible for the decreased light rain events observed...

  13. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and...

  14. Paul J. Hanson | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Division. He studies the effect of acid rain, nitrogen deposition, mercury deposition, ozone, and environmental and atmospheric changes on woody plants and ecosystems. The current...

  15. Cutaneous cancers in Calabar, Southern Nigeria

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    Asuquo, Maurice E; Ebughe, Godwin

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancer in Zaria, Nigeria. Trop Doct 1995; 25(Suppl. ):Malignancies in Kano, Northern Nigeria: A histopathologicalequatorial rain forest of Nigeria. International Journal of

  16. cctdp | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was launched in 1986 as a multi-billion-dollar effort to address acid rain. The...

  17. DE-FE0000833

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain technology could...

  18. Quantum Chemical Calculations of Sulfate Adsorption at the Al-and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ are often replaced by Al3+ in regions affected by acid rain (1). In acid mine drainage

  19. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    educationdownloadsfun-sun-teachers-activity-guide-elementary-grades-k-2-1 Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled...

  20. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    oven. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsbuild-pizza-box-solar-oven-0 Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled...

  1. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    experiment as a class. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadswhats-cooking Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled...

  2. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy.goveereeducationdownloadsphotovoltaics-and-solar-energy-2-activities Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled...

  3. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Search results Search results Enter terms Search Showing 11 - 20 of 13 results. Download Rain Machine (Solar Still) Working in groups, students build simple solar stills filled...

  4. The UCSC Arboretum: A Grand Experiment

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    Reti, Irene; Regional History Project, UC Santa Cruz Library; Hall, Brett; Harder, Daniel; Norris, Phyllis

    2007-01-01

    a lot of rain, but it was filling up with water. And, byrain year round. That’s why we have such trouble with water

  5. Krypton-81 isotope can help map underground waterways | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been difficult to get an accurate model of the entire system. Good models could predict water availability according to changes in vegetation, terrain, rain, droughts or...

  6. EPA Webcast- Creating a Green Infrastructure Plan to Transform Your Community

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Green infrastructure approaches, such as incorporating trees and rain gardens into street designs, can help communities better manage stormwater while achieving other environmental, public health,...

  7. NNSA Procurement Perspective - Joe Waddell, NNSA Senior Procurement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procurement Projects Perspective - Bob Raines, Associate Administrator for Acquisition and Project Management, NNSA Aligning Contract Incentives Subject: Cost and Price Analysis...

  8. Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Composition in Agro-ecosystems Purdue University Task A. 2 Perennial grasses had lower sediment losses * Greater loss of soil following rain events from poplar, maize, and...

  9. 1016 VOLUME 43J O U R N A L O F A P P L I E D M E T E O R O L O G Y 2004 American Meteorological Society

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    Nesbitt, Steve

    , and Rain Gauges on Global, Regional, and Storm Scales STEPHEN W. NESBITT* AND EDWARD J. ZIPSER Department is performed across the Tropics in two ways: 1) by comparing long-term TRMM rainfall products with Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) global rain gauge analyses and 2) by comparing the rainfall estimates

  10. he 1900-foot rule and eradication of citrus canker-affected trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    , but disease in infested groves increased rapidly in extent and severity. Locations directly affected by both early- and late-season rain events had increased canker incidence that dis- qualified fruit sales from on these varieties was often associated with exposure to wind- blown rain due to the absence of nat- ural or planted

  11. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 59755995, 2008 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/8/5975/2008/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    rain event over Mumbai, India M. Lei1, D. Niyogi1, C. Kishtawal2, R. A. Pielke, Sr.3, A. Beltr- breaking 24-h heavy rain event that occurred over Mumbai, India on 26 July 2005 as the event has been of Mumbai city is increased in the simulation, possibly as a feedback from the sea breeze ­ urban landscape

  12. Plant Ecology 131: 223231, 1997. 223 c 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in Belgium.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavin, Daniel G.

    . Spatial structure and regeneration of Tetramerista glabra in peat swamp rain forest in Indonesian Borneo Hampshire, 03755, USA; ( current address: College of Forest Resources, Box 352100, University of Washington in peat swamp rain forest in Borneo (West Kalimantan, Indonesia). T. glabra has strong spatial structure

  13. Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Conservation Songs 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water Conservation Songs Gallon the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Cups, cups, cups of water, Running down the drain, It's my job to turn it off, I want to save that rain! Gallons, gallons, gallons of water Rushing

  14. --A Science .SsrviceFeature 7 W H Y T H E " E R ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    today, when Even the equinox, however,the sun crosses the equator on its southward journey. fails rain hard a dizy or two before or after the equinox as on the exact date, the sunt(; immediate crossing usual Then, too, this is the transi- Perhaps the first of these storms, with its high winds and rain

  15. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 35063510 Short communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauci, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    by dissimilatory SO4 2À reducing bacteria (SRB), lacks supporting evidence. Here, we present data from an acid rain; Wetlands; Emissions; Acid rain; Bacteria; SRB; Methanogens; Bogs; Atmosphere; Competitive exclusion Sulphur population of SO4 2À reducing bacteria (SRB). Although rates of dissimilatory sulphate reduction have been

  16. The First Pan American Geosynthetics Conference & Exhibition 2-5 March 2008, Cancun, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    The First Pan American Geosynthetics Conference & Exhibition 2-5 March 2008, Cancun, Mexico, wind, rain) after 6, 12, 18, 30, and 84 months under specific exposure conditions. Geomembranes of two radiation, humidity, wind, and rain) after 6, 12, 18, 30, and 84 months (0,5, 1, 1.5, 2.5, and 7 years). 2

  17. Dr. Charles I?. Brooks, of Clask University,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or the summer wind from the Gulf of Mexico, furnish moisture for spring rains. able a large belt i n cold* Winds blowing from the cold water t o the mrm land are hcatcd and become drier, and so do rainfall. Southern Arizona, Nem Mexico, ,and extreme Texas get most of their scant rain from minter storms

  18. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2005. 33:64571 doi: 10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122541

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Gerard

    , a single large mountain peak can be seen to trigger or divert rain-bearing clouds. Those migrat- ing across of Washington, Seattle, Washington; email: gerard@ess.washington.edu Key Words rain, snow, mountains, topography mountain passes would have experienced changes in the frequency and intensity of precipitation

  19. Spatial-temporal mesoscale modelling of rainfall intensity using gage and radar data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, Brian J.

    values. We use spatial logistic regression to model the probability of rain for both sources of data modelling, spatial logistic regression, spatial temporal models. 1 #12;and allows the temporal evolution detailed spatial structure of rain fields is costly and their maintenance is time-consuming. Remote sensing

  20. Effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on Electric Utilities: An Update, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on SO2 emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. It updates and expands the EIA report, Electric Utility Phase I Acid Rain Compliance Strategies for the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  1. Rainfall inltration and runoff from an Alsol in semi-arid tropical India. II. Tilled systems1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mm of rain, and the remaining events during the cropping period after 150 mm of rain to crop harvest rights reserved. P I I S 0 1 6 7 - 1 9 8 7 ( 9 8 ) 0 0 1 2 5 - 1 #12;Loss of rainwater as runoff not only

  2. GREQAMGroupement de Recherche en Economie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille -UMR-CNRS 6579

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Since the American Acid Rain Program, an increasing number of countries chooses pollution permit markets abatement goods and services. This speci...c demand is notably appeared with the Acid Rain Program (Joskow and al. [14]): this latter has led ...rms to largely invest in scrubbers, a technology which enables

  3. Interannual variability of summer monsoon rainfall onset date across India Vincent Moron (*,**), Andrew W. Robertson (**)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Andrew W.

    being the date of the first rains over Kerala, located at the southernwestern tip of the India Kerala) following Joseph et al. [1994, 2006]. Both MOK and IMD reflect (uniquely and mostly, respectively) the first rains over Kerala. Later definitions have been based on regional-scale changes in circulation

  4. JUNE 2001 1003Y U T E R A N D P A R K E R 2001 American Meteorological Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    , and a siphon gauge were clustered in one location to ensure similar exposure. To address exposure effects, eight siphon rain gauges were deployed on different sides of the ship and on several different levels instrumentation paired with a baseline minimum siphon gauge or other trusted instrument. Comparison of the rain

  5. Hurricane "Rainfall Potential" Derived from Satellite Observations Aids Overland Rainfall Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Haiyan

    is used to quantify the rainfall distribution in tropical cyclones that made landfall in the United States storm total rain over land in the United States. The range of the maximum storm overland rain forecast associated with hurricanes in the United States (Rappaport 2000). Skill in tropical cyclone (TC) track

  6. Eden Apartments East Village Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    median income · Rain Garden and Green Roof Su stainable Multi-Family L iving Location: Rosemount, MN UMore Park Sustainable Aspects · Rain Garden · Green Roof · Walkable Streets · Multi-Use Zoning · Minimal Impervious Surface · Energy Star Appliances · Low VOC Materials · Electricity from Eco

  7. AOML is an environmental laboratory of NOAA's Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research on Virginia Key in Miami, Florida September-October 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Sandy's powerful winds and the regions of heaviest precipitation. These highly-accurate, real-time data winds, torrential rains, and a storm surge that flooded low-lying regions from the Carolinas to Maine of the Caribbean and pelting Florida with tropical storm-force winds and rain. Hurricane Research Division (HRD

  8. Oklahoma State University, in compliance with Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order 11246 as amended, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Americans with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    and letting the soil dry out between watering forces plants to produce strong, deep roots. · Mulch. Mulch. Gather 9 short, plastic rain gauges or use tuna cans to make your own. 1 3 5 4 2 2. Place the rain gauges

  9. 0.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0.2 Our Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, John

    is an area of updraft and downdraft turbulence of air and water particles. In the updraft, a rain cloud is formed from the collision of water particles. When the water particles are too large to be sustained by the updraft, they fall as pre­ cipitation in the form of snow, rain or hail. The lifecycle of an average storm

  10. Well-Balanced Positivity Preserving Central-Upwind Scheme for the Shallow Water System with Friction Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chertock, Alina

    . Hydrol., 382 (2010), pp. 88­102], designed to mimic the rain water drainage in urban areas containing houses. Since the rain water depth is typically several orders of magnitude smaller than the heightWell-Balanced Positivity Preserving Central-Upwind Scheme for the Shallow Water System

  11. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Historically, rain water harvesting has been a principal source of potable water for the residents of the USVI such as rain water harvesting, alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and investigation of applicableVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 Virgin Islands

  12. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are principally of volcanic origin and are consequently relatively mountainous. Historically, rain water such as rain water harvesting, development of alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and investigationVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 Virgin Islands

  13. Cactus and Alkalinity By Elton Roberts Ripon, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    their water directly from rain. These plants normally grow on a minimum of soil in rocky areas. Many appear dissolving in the rain water. It is this water that the cacti prefer. We have seen that dropping the p in general. The occurrence of highly alkaline water seems to be quite prevalent. For this reason we would

  14. Kyle Ackley April 30, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kachroo, Pushkin

    by saving water which we all know is a big problem here in the Las Vegas valley. The water company already has set specific days and times each month that residents can water, but the problem still exists level due to rain or other incidences. Say your sprinklers are set to go off tonight but it was raining

  15. THEACCURACY OF NUMERICAL MODELS FOR CONTINUUM STANLY STEINBERG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Stanly

    Water Rain Evaporation Figure 1.1. A Lake These notes are directed towards students who have some modest of water in the lake. Water can enter and leave the lake by various means: rain; evaporation; rivers and how much error is there is solving the mathematical model. #12; 2 Lake Ground Ground Water Ground

  16. Informa(on and Resources Herbicides and Water Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    How do herbicides get into surface water? · Washed off soil, hard surfaces, or treated plants by rain conditions determine the availability of water to help herbicides move · Runoff is likely with rainInforma(on and Resources Herbicides and Water Quality What is an herbicide

  17. Temporal dynamics of blue and green virtual water trade networks N. Hanasaki,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konar, Megan

    is predominantly rain-fed (i.e., produced using ``green'' water). Approximately 60%­70% of the global food supply is produced on rain-fed lands [Falkenmark and Rockstrom, 2004]. Green water supplies remain important evenTemporal dynamics of blue and green virtual water trade networks M. Konar,1 C. Dalin,1 N. Hanasaki

  18. Range Cattle Research and Education Center January 2014 Research Report RC-2014-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    period beginning at midnight. Daily observations of rainfall, temperature, and solar radiation, and solar radiation for 2013, Range Cattle REC. January February March April Max Min Rain S Rad Max Min Rain standard gauge. Measurements reported prior to 2006 were recorded at 0900 h; thus, data on a given day

  19. Range Cattle Research and Education Center March 2006 Research Report RC-2006-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    of rainfall, air temperature, evapo-transpiration, and solar radiation for 2005 obtained at the Range Cattle, and solar radiation for 2005, Range Cattle REC. January February March April Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain Research and Education Center (REC) Ona, Florida, and is compared to a 64-year summary of data collected

  20. Range Cattle Research and Education Center January 2013 Research Report RC-2013-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    . This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapo- transpiration, and solar radiation, and solar radiation for 2012, Range Cattle REC. January February March April Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain to a 71-year summary of rainfall data and a 70-year summary of temperature data collected from

  1. Range Cattle Research and Education Center February 2008 Research Report RC-2008-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    . This research report presents a summary of rainfall, air temperature, evapo-transpiration, and solar radiation, and solar radiation for 2007, Range Cattle REC. January February March April Max Min Rain MJ/ Max Min Rain to a 66-year summary of data collected from this location. The center is located 82o 55' W and 27o 26' N

  2. A, Science Service Feature Released on receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , It mews 113 tons of water t o the acreb An inch of rain f a l l i n g over one sq\\::aj:o m5le yields 72 WEATHZR ? Mailed July 19, 1928 By Charles Fitzhugh Talman, Authority on I'u'leteorology AN INCH OF` RAIN i f e t o read a rain-gauge, reported that the r a i n f a l l w a s "be- tween a p i n t and a pint

  3. ORISE: Graduate Student Research Experiences - Benjamin Martin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the sky and twists into a tornado, tossing trucks and plucking up pines. As the rain floods the creeks with runoff, people crawl out from their hiding spaces and begin to assess...

  4. EAD - June 4, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    June 4, 2012 1 ENERGY ASSURANCE DAILY Monday Evening, June 04, 2012 Electricity Tornadoes, Heavy Rains Cut Power to 49,000 Pepco and BGE Customers in Washington, DC and Maryland...

  5. Stochastic Modeling of the Rainfall Runoff-Process for Nonpoint Source Pollutant Load Estimation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Michael A.; Dickey, Roger O.

    1989-01-01

    was applied to a study watershed in the Lake Ray Hubbard reservoir drainage basin near Dallas, Texas. Regional rainfall characteristics were established using historical hourly data from the Federal Aviation Administration rain gage at Love Field Airport...

  6. Released upon receipt but intended f o r use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . considerable moisture in the air the segments stand Out from the plant. atmosphere the inner layor contracts, on the approach of moist weather, ehows small red spots, which grow as the moisture increases. BJ the time rain f

  7. letters to nature 364 NATURE |VOL 407 |21 SEPTEMBER 2000 |www.nature.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morel, François M. M.

    generates a continuous rain of calcium carbonate to the deep ocean and underlying sediments1 proportion of malformed coccoliths and incomplete coccospheres. Diminished calci®ca- tion led to a reduction

  8. ATOC/CHEM 5151 -Atmospheric Chemistry T/Th, 9:30 10:45 am

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming by human activities, such as acid rain, the Antarctic ozone hole, and global warming, have placed, and global warming. We will als

  9. Removal of nutrients from combined sewer overflows and lake water in a vertical-flow constructed wetland system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brix, Hans

    and human activities in the catch- ment of the lakes, the water quality is often poor and reduces. Combined sewer overflows occur during rain events when large amounts of rainwater are added to the normal

  10. Impervious Areas: Examining the Undermining Effects on Surface Water Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, De'Etra Jenra

    2012-02-14

    lot study. Results indicated that day since last rain event had the most significant effect on surface water quality. Furthermore, concrete produced higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), potassium and calcium...

  11. Yield and leaf blade area comparisons of extra leafy to normal leafed maize (Zea mays L.) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rushing, Ronald Wayne

    1996-01-01

    relationships between extra leaf production and rain yield of the leafy 9 hybrids. Fourteen hybrids were compared, including, eight Lfy and six normal-leafed industry standard hybrids. The fourteen hybrids were replicated four times in a randomized block design...

  12. An integrated assessment of air pollutant abatement opportunities in a computable general equilibrium framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waugh, C. (Caleb Joseph)

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission reduction policies are desirable to reduce smog, tropospheric concentrations of ozone precursors, acid rain, and other adverse effects on human health, the environment, ...

  13. Optimal Placement of Stereo Sensors1 Mohammad Al Hasan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, John E.

    of battery-powered sensors impose limitations on their processing capacity and longevity. As battery power. For instance, when sensors are deployed under extreme conditions such as fire, rain etc., one can at best hope

  14. An empirical approach to retrieving monthly evapotranspiration over Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negron Juarez, RI; Goulden, ML; Myneni, RB; Fu, R; Bernardes, S; Gao, H

    2008-01-01

    variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest andEnergy and water dynamics of a central Amazonian rain forest.energy exchange of a pasture and a mature transitional tropical forest

  15. What drives the seasonality of photosynthesis across the Amazon basin? A cross-site analysis of eddy flux tower measurements from the Brasil flux network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest andEnergy and water dynamics of a central Amazonian rain forest.of forest evapotranspiration on the energy available to

  16. The temporal efficiency of SO? emissions trading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical evaluation of the temporal efficiency of the U.S. Acid Rain Program, which implemented a nationwide market for trading and banking sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission allowances. We first develop ...

  17. U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of which is heated ground water (underground water from rain- fall and streams). Other common volcanic gas can dam- age crops, electronics, and machinery. Pyroclastic Flow Pyroclastic Flow Eruption Column

  18. Table of Contents Extension Calendar Wins Gold 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    ,000. Much of the data showed that early spraying, before OR inoculum built up, was effective in reducing their soil, this will decrease the amount of pesticide and fertilizer being wasted in the landscape. The rain

  19. Dimethyl fumarate ameliorates acute pancreatitis in rodent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Racke MK, Raine CS. Multiple sclerosis—the plaque and itsimprove psoriasis and multiple sclerosis by inducing type IIBG-12 for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2012;

  20. The 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 1 Portable, Single-mirror, Air Fluorescence Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    trailer has been implemented with a hydaulic lift so that the front of the mirror can be pointed an integrated weather station and rain detector to prevent operation during bad weather. The laser system

  1. Transport in Porous Media 3 (1988) 343-356. 343 9 1988 by Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gvirtzman, Haim

    1988-01-01

    thermonuclear tests during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s forms part of some rain water molecules (IAEA, 1981) which et al., 1966). The thermonuclear pulse was used in Britain to show that the downward water transport

  2. FOCUS July 1998 1 The Departments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    . Blast fur- nace slags, mine tailings, contaminated soils, scrap tires, glass, plastic--more than 4 and drying, car- bonation, and acid rain. In one test, six hours of pressure and pounding in a giant Instron

  3. Smart Meters Help Balance Energy Consumption at Solar Decathlon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clouds, rain, thunderstorms… at Solar Decathlon Village? Oh my, you may say. But less-than-ideal weather conditions are no match for this year's teams, thanks to smart grid technology that is helping them monitor their energy consumption.

  4. A Dissertation Presented to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Anh

    centuries is not that long after all To that turtle in Hanoi, forever gazing at the pond, the smell voyage home To Madgy, Bootsy, Noushka, Kona, rain or shine, eyes always sparkling, heart purring and tail

  5. Flirty Fishing – Gender Ethics and the Jesus Revolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Julianne

    2014-01-01

    1971. Raine, Susan. " Flirty Fishing in the Children of God:PhD student Flirty Fishing – Gender Ethics and the Jesusthe movement known as “flirty fishing. ” Who Were the Jesus

  6. Analysis of Data from the Avon-to-Westford Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crane, R. K.

    1973-01-08

    This report describes the analysis of results of a Lincoln Laboratory experiment which consisted of a series of bistatic scatter and radar measurements of the scattering cross section per unit volume of rain and thin ...

  7. The Time-Correlated Update Problem Joshua Reich, Vishal Misra, and Dan Rubenstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the maximal amount of data (long-term system monitoring - e.g., carbon dioxide consumption in tem- perate rain include remote or vast domains such as underground, underwater, outer-space, Arctic, and mountainous

  8. Planning for future uncertainties in electric power generation : an analysis of transitional strategies for reduction of carbon and sulfur emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabors, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The object of this paper is to identify strategies for the U.S. electric utility industry for reduction of both acid rain producing and global warming gases. The research used the EPRI Electric Generation Expansion Analysis ...

  9. Water Pages WINTER 2009 A Quarterly Newsletter Produced by the Rutgers Cooperative Extension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    and assisted with the marketing and sales of natural gas vehicles, two of which were purchased by Rutgers Garden web page. The Rain Garden Team encourages you to save some money on gas this year by checking out

  10. Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    -product of combustion, is highly soluble and removed efficiently from clouds by rain. Regional carbon monoxide (CO, reactive nitrogen, a trace by-product of fossil-fuel combustion, plays a central role in much

  11. Groundwater in the Southwestern Part of the Jemez Mountains Volcanic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as compared with the surrounding lower country. Part of the water from rain and melting snow runs off quickly, but part drains more slowly, being stored temporarily in the ground...

  12. Tips: Lighting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    are available as flood lights. These models have been tested to withstand the rain and snow so they can be used in exposed fixtures. Look for ENERGY STAR-qualified fixtures that...

  13. Synthetic Storm Modeling for Millimeter Wave Band Mesh Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Bharatwajan

    2008-06-12

    network is simulated and attenuation on individual links is calculated using existing models relating rain rate and attenuation. Finally, the collective effect of attenuated links on network performance is analyzed. This model is particularly useful...

  14. Interactive responses of old-field plant growth and composition to warming and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    and rain addition) over 2 years. Warming suppressed total production, shoot production, and species limited knowledge of climate change impacts on the terrestrial carbon cycle and its feedbacks to global

  15. An analysis of winter precipitation in the northeast and a winter weather precipitation type forecasting tool for New York City 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Christopher James

    1999-01-01

    Winter storms produce a wide array of precipitation types across the northeast United States. Immense problems are created for all parts of today's society when the precipitation falls in the form of snow or freezing rain. ...

  16. A, 3cionco Sorvico FcctWo blocsod on roooipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BHYTmWEATIIER Mailod Augwst 2, 1926 By Drc Charles F. Brocks of Clark Univorsity A HURRICANE A single storm that killod anticipation of wind and rain that cam as forecast. This tropical ojcclono, or $lost Indian hurricano, though

  17. InsideIllinoisMay 17, 2007 Vol. 26, No. 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    , and bicycle and walking paths; "green" technologies such as rain gardens, geothermal systems and photovoltaic of retail space. The plans involved a "strategic alliance with Clark-Lindsey Vil- lage," southeast

  18. Pollen Dispersion in Relation to Meteorological Conditions, Seasonality, Location and Elevation in College Station, Texas, USA 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Kristen

    2012-04-30

    meteorological factors, including temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, pressure, rain, wind speed and wind direction. A biological microscope was used for identification of possible common species in College Station, Texas. Insight into the vertical...

  19. Elemental Teleology and an Interpretation of the Rainfall Example in Physics 2.8 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinlaw, Caleb

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an interpretation of the rainfall example in which Aristotle does not himself think that crop growth is the final cause of rain. The grounds for this interpretation will be an ‘elemental teleology’ ...

  20. Flue gas desulfurization : cost and functional analysis of large-scale and proven plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilly, Jean

    1983-01-01

    Flue Gas Desulfurization is a method of controlling the emission of sulfurs, which causes the acid rain. The following study is based on 26 utilities which burn coal, have a generating capacity of at least 50 Megawatts ...

  1. Modeling Low Impact Development at the Small-Watershed Scale: Implications for the Decision Making Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Mijin

    2014-12-03

    in order to identify their performance on improving stormwater runoff and water quality under such conditions. Rain gardens, rainwater harvesting systems, and permeable pavements, commonly used in urban areas, were selected. The Soil and Water Assessment...

  2. From presentation discussions Thursday, April 29, 2010 Why do environmental groups oppose mercury cap and trade schemes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    -and-trade system is the best way to limit sulfur dioxide (acid rain) and greenhouse gases because they cap and trade schemes? Do particles cool or warm the climate? Haze and fires Sulfur scrubbers #12;EPA

  3. Analysis of 11 june 2003 mesoscale convective vortex genesis using weather surveillance radar ??88 doppler (wsr-88d) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Amber Elizabeth

    2009-05-15

    Mesoscale convective vortices (MCVs), which typically form within the stratiform rain of some mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), may persist for days, often regenerating convection daily. Long-lived MCVs can produce as much precipitation as a...

  4. Heterogeneous Seepage at the Nopal I Uranium Mine, Chihuahua, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Patrick F.

    2008-01-01

    amounts for instrumented collectors from Nopal I +00 m adit.Nopal I rainfall Cumulative seepage (ml) Cumulative30D Cum 34E Cum 24B Cum. Nopal rain Collectors full Delayed

  5. OFFICE OF ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY (OE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    roof and control room protection from recent rains. The repair work for the roof and wall repairs to Power House 1 housing Power Plant 1 is estimated to begin in 24-48 hours,...

  6. New Braunfels Utilities - Energy Efficiency and Water Conservation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AC & Heat Pump: 200 - 500 Washing Machine: 100 Solar Water Heater: 900 Solar ScreenFilm: up to 300 LED Exit Sign: 20 Shade Tree: 25 Rain BarrelCistern: 1gallon Drought...

  7. -A Sciarcd Ehrvice Feature Releas3d upon recaipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . There was a dark cloud overhead and the h w was net, but no rain was f a l l i n g and the air was very calm

  8. weekly

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    in the industry familiar with the situation believe these incidents are the result of soil shifting brought on by the record rain and snow in the region over the last 18 months....

  9. 5/14/2015 Top 3 Trends to Look for at IMS 2015 http://www.wirelessdesignmag.com/blogs/2015/05/top3trendslookims2015 1/10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    rain, noise detector for street/structure noises temperature sensor light detector for light pollution and EMF detector to detect electromagnetic wave pollution). The sensor node can be set at a remote

  10. Mechanistic modelling of the links between environment, mosquitoes and malaria transmission in the current and future climates of West Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamana, Teresa K. (Teresa Keiko)

    2015-01-01

    Malaria transmission in West Africa is closely tied to climate, as rain fed water pools provide breeding habitat for the anopheles mosquito vector, and temperature affects the mosquito's ability to spread disease. This ...

  11. Trust-Driven Interactive Visual Navigation for Autonomous Robots Anqi Xu and Gregory Dudek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudek, Gregory

    -scale applications, including the mapping of endangered ecosystems such as coral reefs and rain forests encountered a coral reef and incorrectly labeled it as land rather than as water. This mistake caused

  12. Up to the waist in mud! : the assessment and application of earth-derivative architecture in rural Bangladesh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, K. Iftekhar

    1991-01-01

    This thesis is about architecture that uses earth as the prime· building material in the context of rural Bangladesh. In extreme environmental conditions of annual floods, rain and atmospheric humidity, the use of earth, ...

  13. Los Alamos plants willows for flood June 18, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mexico experienced thousand-year rains in September 2013 causing over $3 million in damage to monitoring Nature to control sediment migration, ADEP's Corrective Actions Program (CAP) and contractors Terranear

  14. New additions to the spider fauna of Kansas discovered near black-tailed prairie dog towns in shortgrass prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, William M.

    and diverse part of the grassland ecosystem. Although approximately 80% of the Earth's species are terrestrial as a preservative. A plywood sun/rain shelter was installed above each trap. The pitfalls were emptied twice: on 8

  15. The hydrometeorology of Kuwait : characterization and modeling of rainfall distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcella, Marc Pace

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study on the hydrometeorology of Kuwait. The spatial, seasonal, and inter annual variability of Kuwait rainfall is discussed based on rain gauge and satellite datasets. It is found that ...

  16. Toward a greener campus : experiments with sustainable resource management at one Mexican university and two United States universities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coffie, Randall Gregory Jesus

    2005-01-01

    Modern society faces a range of difficult resource management problem like climate change, acid rain and soil depletion. To confront problems like these successfully, educational institutions, along with all other public ...

  17. Soil and Vegetation Management: Keys to Water Conservation on Rangeland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuster, Joseph L.

    2001-01-11

    The amount of water that soaks into the soil largely determines plant productivity. We can manage and conserve water where and when it falls, and by controlling the kind of vegetation we can make the fullest use of rain ...

  18. An observational study of the South Pacific Convergence Zone using satellite and model re-analysis data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cocks, Stephen Brenton

    2004-09-30

    Satellite derived wind, rain rate and sea surface temperature data combined with NCEP analysis data are used to examine the structure of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) during La Nina conditions. Annual means indicate that the axes...

  19. FLORIDA FUR-FARMING. By J. M. WILLSON, ]n.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for a pecuniary benefit, but each objection in its turn has been met. Neither the excessive rains nor the long droughts, the hot summer suns nor the frosts of winter, will affect the industry; neither would

  20. Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices : the effect of expectation errors and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain ...

  1. The economics of pollution permit banking in the context of Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schennach, Susanne M.

    1998-01-01

    Tradable pollution permits are the basis of a new market-based approach to environmental control. The Acid Rain Program, established under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, and aimed at drastically reducing ...

  2. Rural AreasRural AreasRural Areasin Russell McGee and Saqib Mukhtar*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    - ter sampler. Air is pulled through a filter under the rain hood using a vacuum fan at 40 to 60 cubicLife Research and the US Department of Agriculture's National Institute of Food and Agriculture. The samplers

  3. -A Science Service Feature Release on r e c e i p t

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rainfall. Thus at Washington 7*3O incheo of rain f e l l from 6:15 Porn., August 11, t o 6:15 pome, August

  4. Cover photos: CBL, AL, and HPL small photos: Cheryl Nemazie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    and rain water Utilize renewable energy certificates and/or carbon offsets COSTS ANd FINANCINg conferencing systems Install on-campus renewable energy sources Convert on-site fossil fuel use to biofuels use

  5. BSc (Hons) Building Surveying Course content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    BSc (Hons) Building Surveying Course content Year One Year One modules Professional, Academic and openings o Upper floor construction o Internal walls and partitions o Roofs, roof coverings and rain water

  6. Upper bounds on minimum distance of nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Santosh

    2005-11-01

    The most popular class of quantum error correcting codes is stabilizer codes. Binary quantum stabilizer codes have been well studied, and Calderbank, Rains, Shor and Sloane (July 1998) have constructed a table of upper bounds on the minimum distance...

  7. There is evidence of a widespread reduction in solar radiation at the earth's surface, often referred to as global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    to increases in aerosols, by-products in the combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal. This is backed up". Following acid rain concerns in the 1980s, pollution acts helped to reduce this aerosol pollution in some

  8. CenWits: A Sensor-Based Loosely Coupled Search and Rescue System Using Witnesses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Richard Y.

    canyons, large cities with skyscrapers, rain forests, or even when there is a roof or some other are carried by moving people, power-efficient routing is difficult to implement and maintain over a large

  9. Numerical balancing in a humidification dehumidification desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Jacob A., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    This thesis details research on the thermal and concentration balancing of a humidification dehumidification desalination system. The system operates similarly to the natural rain cycle. Seawater is heated, sprayed into ...

  10. Proposed Oasis Projects University of Illinois at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chien H.

    campus. Green features to include: electricity generation using photovoltaic cells, rain water collection Environments (OCLE) Burnham Hall (BH) - 3rd floor corridor Transform the third floor corridor into a series

  11. A newsletter for commercial vegetable growers prepared by the Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service July 11, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    the crop with the spray; it will injure the crop. Also, take care to avoid spraying glyphosate on plastic mulch. If it is not washed off by rain or irrigation, crop leaves that later contact the mulch can

  12. Constructed farm wetlands (CFWs) designed for remediation of farmyard runoff: an evaluation of their water treatment efficiency, ecological value, costs and benefits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gouriveau, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Farmyard runoff, i.e. the effluent generated by the rain falling over farmyards, tracks and roofs, is a significant and overlooked source of nutrients and pathogens which degrades aquatic ecosystems through eutrophication, ...

  13. Z .Geoderma 100 2001 303319 www.elsevier.nlrlocatergeoderma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    , sorption phenomena, and soil acidity are highlighted. Beginning in the 1970s, soil chemistry paradigms chemistry. The latter included research on: acid rain effects on soils and waters; trace metalrmetalloid

  14. www.rtands.com Railway Track & Structures March 2009 37 s rail transport continues to grow in popularity, so does

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    www.rtands.com Railway Track & Structures March 2009 37 A s rail transport continues to grow is protected from debris, rain and freezing temperatures, the more smoothly it flows." Barr cites the findings

  15. Software Aesthetics: tools and patterns of hypertext 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-09-30

    -rate days, a wave pattern is identified that is characteristic of high rain events. This wave pattern is then compared to the patterns of variability of brightness temperature using empirical orthogonal functions. A linear regression technique is used...

  16. Assessment of Soil Erosion at a DC Park Facility Spring Valley Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    park for the pilot assessment study. Failure to control erosion caused by the runoff of rain water can of Columbia Date: May 2005 Prepared for the DC Water Resources Research Institute Funded by USGS through

  17. Multiphoton spectral analysis of benzo[a]pyrene uptake and metabolism in a rat liver Rola Barhoumi a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    combustion of fossil fuels. These compounds have been identified in ground and rain water, tap water, waste water, sewage sludge and foodstuffs (Ramesh et al., 2004b; Samanta et al., 2002). Due

  18. The herbicide 2, 4-D can be used in agricultural crops, forests, roadsides, lawns,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    of water: Avoid spraying on hard surfaces, especially when water from irrigation or rain can wash. Will injure desired broadleaf plants if drift contacts them. Water quality issues: 2, 4-D breaks down rapidly

  19. A new species of Quexua from southeastern Peru (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Daniel J.

    2011-10-28

    A distinctive new species of the crabronine wasp genus Quexua Pate is described and figured from a single male collected from lowland Amazonian rain forest in southeastern Peru. Quexua cicra sp. n. is the only species in ...

  20. Opal Waters, Rising Seas: How Sociocultural Inequality Reduces Resilience to Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    218 Chapter 12 Opal Waters, Rising Seas: How Sociocultural Inequality Reduces Resilience to Climate in the north indicate increasing extreme events: #12;Opal Waters, Rising Seas 219 monsoonal rain projected

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Moisture Transport Through Walls and Associated Cooling Loads in the Hot/Humid Climate of Florianopolis, Brazil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, N.; Winkelmann, F. C.; Lamberts, R.; Philippi, P. C.; Da Cunha, Neto, J. A. B.

    1996-01-01

    . The simulation results were compared to those obtained by pure conduction heat transfer without moisture effects. Also analyzed were the influence on cooling loads of high moisture content due to rain soaking of materials. and the influence of solar radiation...

  2. Systems integration for global sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    cost estimates for climate change mitigation. Nature 493,security in an era of climate change. Food Policy 35, 365–al. , From acid rain to climate change. Science 338, 1153–

  3. NNMCAB Environmental News from Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    about July 1, delivered more rain to the Laboratory than in many previous years. Precipitation rates in July were in the 99th per- centile, approximately 250 percent of the...

  4. Microsoft Word - summer.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    higher than the final settlement for the September contract (1.672). The remnants of hurricane &24;Georges&23; brought heavy rains and flooding to many parts of the Gulf Coast between...

  5. Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    remained moderate in most parts of the country during the last full week of summer. Hurricane Floyd weakened as it traveled up the East Coast, bringing heavy rains and tropical...

  6. Microsoft Word - summer.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of hot weather as Los Angeles reported several days of 100 degree plus temperatures. Hurricane &24;Bonnie&23; brought heavy rains and some significant damage to coastal areas in North...

  7. Co-creating Knowledge, Understanding, and Action for Effective Natural Resource Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Laura

    2012-07-16

    , it is just south of the forest reserve named the Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development (Iwokrama, more information below). It is a seasonally flooded savanna (Fig. 1.3) with some rain forest. Sixteen villages... (Graphic courtesy of the Iwokrama International Centre GIS, Iwokrama 2007) Iwokrama Upper Essequibo Conservation Concession International Highway 10 Figure 1.3. The North Rupununi Savanna in the rainy season, September 2008 (photo courtesy...

  8. Managing Winter Annual Grasses in South & Southwest Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stichler, Charles; Livingston, Stephen

    1999-01-19

    and planted shallower than larger seeded small grains. In areas under irrigation or receiving frequent rains, ryegrass seed can be sown broadcast on top of the soil with good success. Ryegrass also requires more frequent rains or irri- gation to establish a... Disadvantages Oats Early fall grazing Poor cold tolerance High forage quality - gains Poor disease tolerance in many cultivars Germinates under limited moisture Ryegrass Most popular cool-season grass Limited fall grazing Can be seeded by surface broadcast Poor...

  9. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  10. Evaluation of convection-permitting model simulations of cloud populations associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation using data collected during the AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Long, Charles N.; Wu, Di; Thompson, Gregory

    2014-11-12

    Regional cloud permitting model simulations of cloud populations observed during the 2011 ARM Madden Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment/ Dynamics of Madden-Julian Experiment (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign are evaluated against radar and ship-based measurements. Sensitivity of model simulated surface rain rate statistics to parameters and parameterization of hydrometeor sizes in five commonly used WRF microphysics schemes are examined. It is shown that at 2 km grid spacing, the model generally overestimates rain rate from large and deep convective cores. Sensitivity runs involving variation of parameters that affect rain drop or ice particle size distribution (more aggressive break-up process etc) generally reduce the bias in rain-rate and boundary layer temperature statistics as the smaller particles become more vulnerable to evaporation. Furthermore significant improvement in the convective rain-rate statistics is observed when the horizontal grid-spacing is reduced to 1 km and 0.5 km, while it is worsened when run at 4 km grid spacing as increased turbulence enhances evaporation. The results suggest modulation of evaporation processes, through parameterization of turbulent mixing and break-up of hydrometeors may provide a potential avenue for correcting cloud statistics and associated boundary layer temperature biases in regional and global cloud permitting model simulations.

  11. A New Two-Moment Bulk Stratiform Cloud Microphysics Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model, Version 3 (CAM3). Part II: Single-Column and Global Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettelman, A.; Morrison, H.; Ghan, Steven J.

    2008-08-11

    The global performance of a new 2-moment cloud microphysics scheme for a General Circulation Model (GCM) is presented and evaluated relative to observations. The scheme produces reasonable representations of cloud particle size and number concentration when compared to observations, and represents expected and observed spatial variations in cloud microphysical quantities. The scheme has smaller particles and higher number concentrations over land than the standard bulk microphysics in the GCM, and is able to balance the radiation budget of the planet with 60% the liquid water of the standard scheme, in better agreement with observations. The new scheme treats both the mixing ratio and number concentration of rain and snow, and is therefore able to differentiate the two key regimes, consisting of drizzle in shallow warm clouds and larger rain drops in deeper cloud systems. The modeled rain and snow size distributions are consistent with observations.

  12. Synergies and conflicts in multimedia pollution control related to utility compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A.

    1993-11-01

    Most analyses of the alternative strategies used by utilities to comply with Title IV requirements have focused on factors directly related to controlling sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. However, utilities must meet a number of additional environmental requirements at the same tune they comply with the acid rain program. To illuminate the potential synergies and conflicts that might exist between the other regulatory mandates and the acid rain program, a thorough examination of all the various programs and their interrelationships must be conducted. This paper reviews the environmental mandates that utilities will have to plan to meet in the next decade concurrently with the acid rain program, and it analyzes the interactions among the various programs to identify potential synergies and conflicts.

  13. Satellite remote sensing of global rainfall using passive microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferriday, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    Global rainfall over land and ocean is estimated using measurements of upwelling microwaves by a satellite passive microwave radiometer. Radiative transfer calculations through a cloud model are used to parameterize an inversion technique for retrieving rain rates from brightness temperatures measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The rainfall retrieval technique is based on the interaction between multi-spectral microwave radiances and millimeter sized liquid and frozen hydrometeors distributed in the satellite`s field of view. The rain rate algorithm is sensitive to both hydrometeor emission and scattering while being relatively insensitive to extraneous atmospheric and surface effects. Separate formulations are used over ocean and land to account for different background microwave characteristics and the algorithm corrects for inhomogeneous distributions of rain rates within the satellite`s field of view. Estimates of instantaneous and climate scale rainfall are validated through comparisons with modeled clouds, surface radars, rain gauges and alternative satellite estimates. The accuracy of the rainfall estimates is determined from a combination of validation comparisons, theoretical sampling error calculations, and modeled sensitivity to variations in atmospheric and surface radiative properties. An error budget is constructed for both instantaneous rain rates and climate scale global estimates. At a one degree resolution, the root mean square errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates are 13% over ocean and 20% over land. The root mean square errors in global rainfall totals over a four month period are found to be 46% over ocean and 63% over land. Global rainfall totals are computed on a monthly scale for a three year period from 1987 to 1990. The time series is analyzed for climate scale rainfall distribution and variability.

  14. Blackland's flood warning system protects soldiers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    works for project leader Dr. Dennis Hoffman, said the No. 1 reason for installing the FAST system was ?to protect soldiers by alerting them of dangerous flood conditions.? Equipment and personnel had been lost at low water crossings during storms... on individual panels. Charts display stream level over the past 24-hour period. Wolfe gave a recent example of the FAST in action. Rains from Hurricane Dolly missed Fort Hood, but a large amount of rain fell north of the fort. ?A surge of water came...

  15. The Effect of Teleconnections on North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Precipitation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yue

    2015-04-28

    -based) by quadrant with respect to the direction of movement and center of the TC (Source: Figure 4 in Zhu and Quiring, 2013) ................................................... 4 2.2. The 2A25 (c) TC rain, and (d) TC rain fraction based on 58 grid averages... is determined using a k-means cluster analysis. Here k = 3. The red circles and path represent straight-moving hurricanes. The black and blue circles and paths represent recurving hurricanes. Track paths are based on the average positions of the hurricanes...

  16. PETC Review, Issue 1, March 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaustein, B.; Reiss, J.; Martin, G.; Hammer, D.; Mills, J. [eds.

    1990-03-01

    This issue of PETC Review contains short discussion on the following topics: (1)``SO{sub 2} Control and Duct Injection: A Solution to Acid Rain``--research on duct injection; (2)``Acid Rain Abatement and Advanced Coal Cleaning: A Precombustion Option``--research on selective agglomeration and advanced froth flotation; (3)``Two-Stage Liquefaction of Coal``--PETC`s efforts to further the viability of this technology; (4)``Clean Coal Technology: Energy and the Environment``--the Clean Coal Technology Program is demonstrating technologies that show coal can be both efficient and environmentally acceptable. Supplemental sections on events, special focuses, calendars, publication lists, etc. are also included.

  17. PETC Review, Issue 1, March 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaustein, B.; Reiss, J.; Martin, G.; Hammer, D.; Mills, J. (eds.)

    1990-03-01

    This issue of PETC Review contains short discussion on the following topics: (1) SO{sub 2} Control and Duct Injection: A Solution to Acid Rain''--research on duct injection; (2) Acid Rain Abatement and Advanced Coal Cleaning: A Precombustion Option''--research on selective agglomeration and advanced froth flotation; (3) Two-Stage Liquefaction of Coal''--PETC's efforts to further the viability of this technology; (4) Clean Coal Technology: Energy and the Environment''--the Clean Coal Technology Program is demonstrating technologies that show coal can be both efficient and environmentally acceptable. Supplemental sections on events, special focuses, calendars, publication lists, etc. are also included.

  18. Interview of Julian Hunt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    2009-01-01

    tea; we used to play battleships and submarines with them; it was a very broadening experience for us; he used to go down to Oxford Prison as a prison visitor and then come back and tell us about them; we were being told how the world was and how... dealing with large questions such as the growing UK nuclear power programme, also researching acid rain; sadly these sorts of findings are not communicated well so that the Government was apparently not aware of acid rain until some twenty years after...

  19. 428 BIOCHIMICAET BIOPHYSICAACTA pH CONTROL OF THE CHLOROPHYLL a FLUORESCENCE IN ALGAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    428 BIOCHIMICAET BIOPHYSICAACTA BBA 46126 pH CONTROL OF THE CHLOROPHYLL a FLUORESCENCE IN ALGAE on the "slow" (min) time course of Chlorophyll a fluorescence yield in the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa and in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans. In Chlorella, the decay of fluorescence yield, in the I- to 5-rain

  20. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 19, 2009) Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels of biomass into monosaccharides. Add- ing water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic

  1. An Investigation of Hydrological Aspects of Water Harvesting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, O.; Runkles, J.; Wendt, C.

    1972-01-01

    of runoff. To prevent erosion, channel slopes should not exceed 0.005. Catchment surfaces should be wetted by rain or by sprinkling before rolling. Surfaces should be rolled with a rubber-tired roller for 1.5 to 3 hrs per ac. Drop structures should...

  2. Instructions to: TOM: Teaching flow over Mountains -Worksheet at the radar site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Is it snowing/raining? What is the intensity (light, heavy)? What do you think the temperature is? How much snow driving to the radar site it was cold and snowing lightly. The snowflakes were small. There was no wind by HighresLOW 8:42 am / 0142 UTC Radar truck leveled #12; 6 EXERCISE 5 Once you are done with Exercises

  3. Improving Crop Yield and Water Productivity by Ecological Sanitation and Water Harvesting in South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Improving Crop Yield and Water Productivity by Ecological Sanitation and Water Harvesting in South and fertility constraints in rain- fed smallholder agriculture in South Africa, namely in situ water harvesting, is to use water harvesting and conservation technologies (WH).9 The principal hydrological functions of WH

  4. www.barrandwray.com Barr + Wray 2013 The Treatment of Scottish Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    or Spring. Sea Water e.g. Desal. of Marine & Brackish. Rain Water Harvesting. Recovery of Treated Wastewaterwww.barrandwray.com © Barr + Wray 2013 The Treatment of Scottish Water for Private Communities + Wray 2013 Contents B+W Overview Our Approach Water Sources Treatment Decision Trees Case Study

  5. New Jersey Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Stephen José

    harvesting. The results of this research will help to develop guidelines for water testing and best management practices for applying harvested rain water to backyard and community gardens. In the secondNew Jersey Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 New Jersey Water

  6. Research and Extension Education Capabilities AgriLife Urban Solutions Center and associated County Extension Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extension Programs Water Management for Urban Landscapes · Lawn and landscape water conservation · Irrigation system design and management · Rainwater harvesting, rain gardens, porous pavements, green roofs, and wetlands · In-home water conservation · Use of SWAT, APEX, and other hydrologic and water quality models

  7. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Life Cycle Assessment of Bioethanol Derived from Corn and Corn Stover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air [kg NOx-Equiv.]. Production and processes of corn and petroleum from crude oils are also observed ­ Global Warming Air [kg CO2-Equiv.], 3) TRACI, Acidification Rain [kg mol H + Equiv.], and 4) TRACI, Smog for ethanol production (corn versus corn stover) had little effect on the life cycle emissions of E85, however

  8. This document must be cited according to its final version which was presented as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    products and are the source of a lot of problems: pollution, acid rains, woods wasting, green house effect whereas the inlet and outlet gas stream temperatures are close to ambient temperature. Indeed, through between gas and solid phases, autothermal operation is possible even for a feed with a low adiabatic

  9. Ninety-One Years Going home, I glimpsed a tail light go out;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Rafe

    Ninety-One Years Going home, I glimpsed a tail light go out; the rain spoke sparks from side-side wall, a single string of four o'clock light. After ninety-one years, my mother's father was a hero

  10. Melissa Antokal, Caitlin Ryan, Nagapooja Seeba, Ajay Varadharajan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Andrew J.

    the water group evaluated expanding rainwater catchment as a way to insure adequate water supply and reduce the Centre ("the Centre Village" and "the Centre"). We demonstrate that the current rainwater catchment currently equipped to catch rain water, and expanding the current storage capacity with either underground

  11. James E. Warjone Chairman and CEO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mass, Clifford F.

    James E. Warjone Chairman and CEO Port Blakely Tree Farms, LP 1325 4th Ave. , Suite 1000 Seattle accurate predictions of wind rain so that we and other forest owners can time our slash pile burning and sportfishing companies would all benefit. The construction industry would also benefit especially when pouring

  12. Raindrop Detection and Removal from Long Range Trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    be degraded by raindrops which have adhered to the windscreen or camera lens. In order to resolve due to bad weather conditions such as rain, haze, fog and snow. On rainy days, it is inevitable that raindrops will adhere to camera lenses, protecting shields or windscreens, causing failure to many computer

  13. file:///C|/DOCUME~1/ADMINI~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/~LWF0000.htm (1 of 2) [10/22/2004 9:51:07 AM] until afterthemassivebombardmentsceased.Thisof

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    - tremesof temperature,pressureandacidity/alkalinity in wateryenvironmentsatthebottomof theoceanor in hot surface zone bathed both in the intense ultraviolet radiation of the early Sun and a rain by impacts. Since there exists a relatively narrow distribution of agesand rapid transition from older

  14. What measures climate? A variety of variables including their variability and extreme values determine climate for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    climate zones? The sun is the ultimate power source for the climate "machine". The uneven distribution conditions. Typical variables to consider are temperature (maximum, miniumum), precipitation (includes rain, sleet, snow, hail, etc), sunlight/cloudiness, wind, humidity, ice cover, sea temperature, etc... Many

  15. Development of precipitation retrievals at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths for geostationary satellites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

    for precipitation retrieval from geostationary sensors based on mesoscale cloud modeling and radiative transfer resolution problem from a geostationary orbit. Adding the thermal infrared observations has a limited impact rain and the other hydrometeor profiles. These theoretical results are evaluated at close

  16. The Faculty of Engineering has a new dean, but one with a familiar face.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoubridge, Eric

    as "carbon footprint." Groundwater, which originates in rain, snow or ice, collects or flows beneath groundwater footprint. If you haven't heard that term yet, read on, because it soon could become as familiar the earth's surface, providing the water to replenish aquifers, springs and wells. The groundwater footprint

  17. To print this page, select File then Print from your browser URL: http://www.hgtvpro.com/hpro/nws_ind_nws_trends/article/0,2624,HPRO_26519_6023943,00.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rain- screen/insulation wall cladding for commercial buildings, a heat-pump water heater, an energy-Content Office Furniture Project FROG Modular Green Classroom Rheem HP-50 Heat-Pump Water Heater Convia Energy for data centers, a mobile solar generator for job-site power, and an advanced modular classroom

  18. Multiphysics simulation to improve the understanding of Pressure Wave Propagation techniques applied to composite polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    applied to composite polymers O. Gallot-lavallée, J.L. Reboud, P. Rain LEMD, CNRS, Joseph Fourier the measurement of space charge by propagation of a pressure wave on composites polymers. Numerical simulations. The modelled structure is an electrical insulator sandwiched between two conductive electrodes

  19. The Australian outback's only palm trees, thought to be living fossils of the ancient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    Rain slows seismic waves The recent occurrence of earthquakes and even heavy rainfall reduce the near-surface velocity of a type of seismic wave responsible for the worst damage during earthquakes. Nori Nakata and Roel Snieder at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden studied these `shear' waves using seismic

  20. Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. x, No. x, xxxx 1 Copyright 200x Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    interests include the management of diffuse pollution (particularly phosphorus and suspended solidsInt. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. x, No. x, xxxx 1 Copyright © 200x Inderscience Enterprises at a UK site using both direct (rain) and indirect (soils) methods', Int. J. Environment and Pollution

  1. Environmental and Cost Synergy in Supply Chain Network Integration Mergers and Acquisitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Nagurney and Trisha Woolley Department of Finance and Operations Management Isenberg School of Management 1 #12;1. Introduction Pollution has major adverse consequences including global warming, acid rain on the bottom line for those actions expended to reduce pollution (Hart and Ahuja (1996)). For example, 3M saved

  2. DISCUSSION NOTES CAMPUS COMMUNITY COUNCIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Hall Member Attendees (all attended in person, no attendees by phone): Adam Costanzo, Bill Rains Siegel, Ted Hillyer, William Lacy. Delegates: Wes Young (attending for William Lacy) Attending Non between the Davis campus and Sacramento campus. i. There has not been a definitive name given

  3. University Faculty Senate Meeting Friday April 23, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    -Ostrowski, Bill McDaniel, William O'Brian, Abhijit Pandya, Howard Prentice, Marguerite Purnell, Deborah Raines nominated, and it was seconded, William McDaniel - nominated, and it was seconded, Peggy Goldstein Bill Mc Lauderdale Campus, and the Davie Campus. Members Present: Diane Alperin, Bruce Arneklev, Charlotte Barry

  4. April 6, 2011 Gloria Alvarado Vice President, UC Davis Retirees' Association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Assembly Katie Kolesar ­ Chair, UC Davis Graduate Student Association William Lacy ­ Vice Provost Chancellor, Human Health Sciences Bill Rains ­ President, UC Davis Emeriti Association Rahim Reed ­ AssociateApril 6, 2011 Gloria Alvarado ­ Vice President, UC Davis Retirees' Association Yena Bae ­ Vice

  5. Atmospheric input of nitrogen to the coastal region of southeastern Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shon, Zang-Ho

    1994-01-01

    35.31?04.7 gmol 1-1 and 1312?47 IIMOI M-2 day-', respectively. These values were similar for DIN and DON. The isotopic data of rain nitrate and ammonium showed that the surface wind direction was a significant factor influencing...

  6. The NO{sub x} Budget trading program: a collaborative, innovative approach to solving a regional air pollution problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napolitano, Sam; Stevens, Gabrielle; Schreifels, Jeremy; Culligan, Kevin

    2007-11-15

    The NO{sub x} Budget Trading Program showed that regional cap-and-trade programs are adaptable to more than one pollutant, time period, and geographic scale, and can achieve compliance results similar to the Acid Rain Program. Here are 11 specific lessons that have emerged from the experience. (author)

  7. Social Media Plan #WinterPrep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are common during the winter and spring along rivers, streams and creeks in the northern U.S. and AlaskaPrep 6 #12; Nor'easter Facebook A Nor'easter can strike at any time of year, but these coastal the coastal areas, these storms can bring heavy precipitation (snow or rain), strong winds and may cause

  8. Possible impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on water resources of the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    in the concentrations of submicron air pollution particles during the last half century. These particles slow down mitigated by cloud seeding for rain enhancement, but apparently, the air pollution dominated and caused be compromised by the air pollution produced by the very people who depend on that water. Citation: Givati, A

  9. Roofing as a Contributor to Urban Runoff Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 Roofing as a Contributor to Urban Runoff Pollution Shirley E. Clark, Ph.D., P.E.Shirley E. Clark at: http://www.eng.ua.edu/~rpitt Map courtesy of U.S. Geological Website on Acid Rain #12;2 Roof Dissolved: 35 Not givenRusty galvanized roof roof (plywood

  10. MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report 2014 Northwest Region, Report Number 5: October 8, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report 2014 Northwest Region, Report Number 5: October 8, 2014 Nikki Rothwell and Emily Pochubay, Extension Fruit Educators Wet conditions have slowed apple harvest are not cooperating with northwest Michigan apple growers as many apples are ripening quicker this week, but rain has

  11. MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report 2014 Northwest Region, Report Number 6: October 15, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MSU Fruit Team Apple Maturity Report 2014 Northwest Region, Report Number 6: October 15, 2014 Emily, which is slowing apple harvest in the north. Cool weather and rain continues across northwest Michigan at the NWMHRC, many growers dropped off samples for testing because apple varieties have been slow to mature

  12. RECTILINEAR VORTEX SHEETS OF INVISCID LIQUID-GAS TWO-PHASE FLOW: LINEAR STABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dehua

    sediment transport, geysers, volcanic eruptions, clouds, rain in natural and climate system; mixture of oil and natural gas in extraction tubes of oil exploitation, oil transportation, steam generators, cooling systems- ology in chemical engineering, medical and genetic engineering, bioengineering, and so on. Multi

  13. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of water for the islands' limited public water distribution systems. Wastewater disposal continues such as rain water harvesting, alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and investigation of applicable water quality, sediment generation and control, water use in rice production and climate variability

  14. Reforestation: Herbaceous Weed Control After Planting http://tfsweb.tamu.edu Page 1 of 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and grasses. Water and nutrients within the sprayed areas that would have been utilized by the herbaceous veg spring rains, summer weather and the quality of the planting op- eration, it is significantly improved, application and disposal of chemicals and containers. It is a violation of Federal Law to use these products

  15. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water is a concern, so too is proper disposal of wastewater. The Virgin Islands Water Resources Research with cistern water quality, treatment of wastewater from aquaponic systems and sediment export from watersheds Program Introduction 1 #12;Water Quality in Virgin Islands Rain Water Collection Cisterns. Basic

  16. Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods , F. Leipold1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods A. Fateev1 , F. Leipold1 , Y. Kusano1 , B. Stenum1 , H acid rain and ozone production when it is released into the air. Reduction of NOx in the exhaust gas-assisted techniques for NOx-reduction: direct treatment of exhaust gases by plasma, injection of N atoms and injection

  17. Curbing Greenhouse Gases: Agriculture's Role

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    the Kyoto results in more detail elsewhere in this issue. Emissions trading - Creating a market for emission rights Importantly, the Protocol encourages emissions trading. Emissions are limited by country emissions trading system, much like the trading scheme used in the U.S. acid #12;3 rain program. The total

  18. Long-Term Feasibility of Agriculture in Zambia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Temperature Radiation from the Sun Rain 2 #12;Types of Evapotranspiration Reference evapotranspiration (ET0 life. Calculated similarly to PET but with a different KC #12;The Crop Coefficient Model 3 #12;Map 4 #12;P(failure) vs. Coefficient of Variation Data used: Shortwave radiation: 400 W m-2 Longwave

  19. Orographic Influences on an Oahu Flood MICHAEL J. MURPHY JR.* AND STEVEN BUSINGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Businger, Steven

    and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii (Manuscript received 26 measured by gauges on the is- lands of Kauai and Oahu, and seven deaths resulting from the breaching of Kauai's Ka Loko Dam on 14 March. Of the many heavy rain events that occurred on Oahu during this period

  20. Ecology 2003 91, 240252

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chave, Jérôme

    Journal of Ecology 2003 91, 240­252 © 2003 British Ecological Society Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Center for Tropical Forest Science, Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute-words: above-ground biomass change, carbon cycle, dry living above-ground bio- mass, tropical rain forest

  1. Overview of MEXT's Space Activities Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for would-be satellite engineers in order to learn satellite development process Overview of Space/broadcasting capability at a relatively low cost. (2) Disaster Risk Management Monitoring disasters, such as heavy rain in Integration, Test and Operation of Satellite (3) Acquisition of Satellite Application Capacity through

  2. harvestingf o r H o m e o w n e r s CLEMSONP U B L I C S E R V I C E

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    downhill and picking up pollutants that are left behind on the landscape. These pollutants include soil, litter (like cigarette butts) fertilizers, pet waste, yard debris, oils and many other contaminants and built houses that came standard with a rainwater capture feature. When it rains, it pours... Stormwater

  3. Ericsson ResponseTM Cellular GSM System for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ), Base Station Controller (BSC), Radio Base Station (RBS), network management, network database Station (RBS 2202) with six Transceiver Radio Units (TRU) inbuilt, but the central switching equipment container. The container has grips for fork and top lift, and adjustable stairs with rain shield. Weight

  4. Effects of Sea-Salt Aerosols on Precipitation in Simulations of Shallow Cumulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kogan, Yefim L.; Mechem, David B.; Choi, Kityan

    2012-02-01

    A suite of large-eddy simulations with size-resolving microphysical processes was performed in order to assess effects of sea-salt aerosols on precipitation process in trade cumulus. Simulations based on observations from the Rain in Cumulus over...

  5. Corresponding author address: Jerry M. Straka, Univ. of Oklahoma, School of Meteorology,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of environments favorable for supercell formation, but a nearly 75-percent failure rate of tornado warnings based of descending rain curtains in producing strong rotation at the ground and tornadogenesis is investigated and Lewellen 2002.) allow asymmetries to develop and evolve. First a control run is described for a given

  6. Physical Science 21 Lab 9: The Hunt for Micrometeorites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ringwald, Frederick A.

    Earth crosses the path of where a comet orbits the Sun. Comets are big, dirty snowballs: they spend most of their time in the Outer Solar System. Every so often, a comet comes in close to the Sun. When they do collector of micrometeorites, since they are continuously falling from the sky. When it rains, the dust

  7. The Diurnal Cycle of the Boundary Layer, Convection, Clouds, and Surface Radiation in a Coastal Monsoon Environment (Darwin, Australia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protat, Alain

    : A partnership between the Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia CHARLES N. LONG by monsoon rains are of great importance as such regions include major population areas around the globe. One; Keenan and Carbone 1992; Mapes and Houze 1992). The ``wet'' season across Northern Australia begins

  8. ESYS 10: survey 1 Pre-Survey: ESYS 10, Winter 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    . Acid rain b. Contamination of soil and water by radioactivity from nuclear facilities c. Damage warming l. Contamination of soil and water by toxic waste m. Extinction of plant and animal species 2. starvation b. car accidents c. water pollution 4. Which action can have the greatest impact on reducing

  9. LICOR LI-6400 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE -FIELD SOIL RESPIRATION MEAUSUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barger, Nichole

    ) Field LiCor kit with spares and tools 8) Trash bags to cover the licor in case of rain 9) soil Measurements Set the Licor near the spot to be measured Set or check that the stop collar on the soil chamber head is in the right location so that the insertion depth is correct (likely use 2cm unless

  10. Water Clean Water Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Keep Our Water Clean Keep Our Water Clean Home and garden pesticides and fertilizers are polluting residues wash into gutters, storm drains, and streams by rain,garden watering,or cleaning up drinking water. Follow these tips to keep our rivers, creeks, and oceans clean. What can you do to protect

  11. 12 MONTHS OF SAFETY & WELLNESS DECEMBER: WINTER DRIVING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loudon, Catherine

    , winter weather hazards result in thousands of motor vehicle accidents each year: · Heavy fog can reduce vehicle Solution: · Plan ahead & consider delaying your trip if the weather is bad · Turn on your in the rain & increase the distance between you & the vehicle ahead · Maintain your vehicle & regularly check

  12. YOU MUST COMLPETE ALL REQUIRED AREAS FOR THE FORM TO BE SUCCESSFULLY SUBMITTED BY EMAIL. SUBMITTING BY EMAIL IS PREFERRED.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    : COMPLETE ONLY THE SECTION THAT APPLIES TO YOUR SITUATION VEHICLE PERSONAL INJURY PROPERTY DAMAGE CYBER/DATA SECURITY/OTHER INCIDENT VEHICLE LOSS ACCIDENT INFORMATION Were Police Notified? Yes No Name of Police No STATE Vehicle Driver: OTHER Vehicle Driver: Weather Conditions: Clear Rain Snow Other ... Describe

  13. Lightweight Rainfall Radiometer STAR Aircraft Sensor Christopher Ruf1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    for high quality rain measurement but is also lightweight and low power, and follows a technology path critical subsystems. At the system level, it will validate the calibration methodology used to produce Level 1 brightness temperature imagery. All electrical, mechanical and thermal subsystems of the LRR

  14. DETECTING CONVERSING GROUPS OF CHATTERS: A MODEL, ALGORITHMS, AND TESTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Mark

    on the basis of statistical analysis. KEYWORDS social networks, conversing groups, IRC, chatters, chatrooms of users around the world. For example, there are at least 785 IRC (Internet Relay Chat) networks them until we get a good rain or a really hard freeze The essential features of an IRC chatrooms

  15. Improved performance of NOx reduction by H2 and CO over a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst at low temperatures under lean-burn conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    pollutants that are produced during the combustion of fossil fuels. The NOx emitted by vehicles contributes to the formation of smog, ozone, and acid rain, causing serious environmental pollution. Vehicles that run on light and produce fewer pollutants by using a rel- atively high air-to-fuel ratio as compared to gasoline- powered

  16. A Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Waters of Puget Sound 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Danielle

    2009-06-09

    Air pollutants can be deposited in many forms such as rain, snow, and gases. Urban centers are major sources of combustion-derived particulate matter, black carbon, and volatile organic carbon to the atmosphere. Expansion of urban centers in the 20...

  17. Detecting Pedestrians Using Patterns of Motion and Appearance Paul Viola Michael J. Jones Daniel Snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zhigang

    Snow Microsoft Research Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs viola@microsoft.com mjones@merl.com snow@merl.com Abstract This paper describes a pedestrian detection system that in operates on low res- olution images under difficult conditions (such as rain and snow). 1 Introduction

  18. ANR @ MSUANR @ MSU AgBioResearchAgBioResearch Expert Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    summer and repeated episodes of early heavy rain, European red mite (ERM) and two- spotted spider mite injury to trees before diapause (overwintering stage) is triggered. ERM can lay eggs in the calyx end populations will impact the 2009 production season. ERM adults will be laying eggs on spur shoots and limb

  19. AIAA-98-0057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    AIAA-98-0057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS: PARAMETRIC STUDY WITH MULTIPLE that is most useful in estimating fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. The histograms of rain ow counted for apwise loads on three horizontal axis wind tur- binesHAWTs. In the case of two of these turbines

  20. Excellence or Disaster? A Thought Experiment on Grading, Teaching and Learning in Engineering School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to Rameswaram Island. The wind was strong and the rain heavy, but the train had 110 passengers and five crew. The steel bridge must have swayed in the wind, but the train got across safely, and reached the outer signal noise on a DC-3 is not as benign as the rock music of a diesel locomotive. But it is also important