National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for railroad engine fuel

  1. LNG as a fuel for railroads: Assessment of technology status and economics. Topical report, June-September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pera, C.J.; Moyer, C.B.

    1993-01-06

    The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.

  2. The potential for LNG as a railroad fuel in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    Freight railroad operations in the US represent a substantial opportunity for liquefied natural gas (LNG) to displace diesel fuel. With the promise of achieving an overwhelming economic advantage over diesel fuel, this paper presents some discussion to the question, ``Why is the application of LNG for railroad use in the US moving so slowly?'' A brief overview of the freight railroad operations in the US is given, along with a summary of several railroad LNG demonstration projects. US Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board exhaust emission regulations may cause the railroad industry to move from small-scale LNG demonstration projects to using LNG as a primary freight railroad transportation fuel in selected regions or route-specific applications.

  3. Gaseous-fuel engine technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains three distinct groups of papers covering gaseous-fuel injection and control, gaseous-fuel engine projects, and gaseous-fuel engine/vehicle applications. Contents include: ultra rapid natural gas port injection; a CNG specific fuel injector using latching solenoid technology; development of an electronically-controlled natural gas-fueled John Deere PowerTech 8.1L engine; adapting a Geo Metro to run on natural gas using fuel-injection technology; behavior of a closed loop controlled air valve type mixer on a natural gas fueled engine under transient operation; and a turbocharged lean-burn 4.3 liter natural gas engine.

  4. Annual Energy Outlook 2014 foresees growth of LNG as a fuel for railroads

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    14, 2014 Annual Energy Outlook 2014 foresees growth of LNG as a fuel for railroads The U.S. Energy Information Administration expects liquefied natural gas, or LNG, to play an increasing role in powering freight locomotives in the coming years. EIA's Reference case, in its recently released Annual Energy Outlook 2014 indicates that growing natural gas production and lower natural gas spot prices compared to crude oil prices could provide significant cost savings for locomotives that use LNG as a

  5. Engineered fuel: Renewable fuel of the future?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomczyk, L.

    1997-01-01

    The power generation and municipal solid waste management industries share an interest in the use of process engineered fuel (PEF) comprised mainly of paper and plastics as a supplement to conventional fuels. PEF is often burned in existing boilers, making PEF an alternative to traditional refuse derived fuels (RDF). This paper describes PEF facilities and makes a comparison of PEF and RDF fuels.

  6. Evaluation of Shortline Railroads & SNF/HLW Rail Shipment Inspections...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Spent Nuclear Fuel Task: Identify Shortline Railroads Serving Nuclear Power Plants Establish Contact Information with Railroads Officials Field Review of each Railroad's ...

  7. Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines John Farrell SAE High Efficiency Internal Combustion Engine Symposium April 11, 2016 2 Goal: better fuels and better vehicles sooner Fuel and Engine Co-Optimization o What fuel properties maximize engine performance? o How do engine parameters affect efficiency? o What fuel and engine combinations are sustainable, affordable, and scalable? 3 30% per vehicle petroleum reduction via efficiency and displacement source: EIA 2014 reference case Fuel selection

  8. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    Railroads are important to the U.S. economy. They transport freight efficiently, requiring less energy and emitting fewer pollutants than other modes of surface transportation. While the railroad industry has steadily improved its fuel efficiency--by 16% over the last decade--more can, and needs to, be done. The ability of locomotive manufacturers to conduct research into fuel efficiency and emissions reduction is limited by the small number of locomotives manufactured annually. Each year for the last five years, the two North American locomotive manufacturers--General Electric Transportation Systems and the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors--have together sold about 800 locomotives in the United States. With such a small number of units over which research costs can be spread, outside help is needed to investigate all possible ways to reduce fuel usage and emissions. Because fuel costs represent a significant portion of the total operating costs of a railroad, fuel efficiency has always been an important factor in the design of locomotives and in the operations of a railroad. However, fuel efficiency has recently become even more critical with the introduction of strict emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to be implemented in stages (Tiers 0, 1, and 2) between 2000 and 2005. Some of the technologies that could be employed to meet the emission standards may negatively affect fuel economy--by as much as 10-15% when emissions are reduced to Tier 1 levels. Lowering fuel economy by that magnitude would have a serious impact on the cost to the consumer of goods shipped by rail, on the competitiveness of the railroad industry, and on this country's dependence on foreign oil. Clearly, a joint government/industry R&D program is needed to help catalyze the development of advanced technologies that will substantially reduce locomotive engine emissions while also improving train system energy efficiency. DOE convened an industry

  9. Fuel quantity modulation in pilot ignited engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    May, Andrew

    2006-05-16

    An engine system includes a first fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a first fuel supplied to the engine, a second fuel regulator adapted to control an amount of a second fuel supplied to the engine concurrently with the first fuel being supplied to the engine, and a controller coupled to at least the second fuel regulator. The controller is adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a relationship to the amount of the first fuel supplied to the engine to operate in igniting the first fuel at a specified time in steady state engine operation and adapted to determine the amount of the second fuel supplied to the engine in a manner different from the relationship at steady state engine operation in transient engine operation.

  10. Engines and Fuels | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engines and Fuels Engines and Fuels Argonne's Engines and Fuels research focuses on understanding the interactions between fuels and engines in order to maximize the benefits available through optimization as well as to enable multi-fuel capability. Argonne researchers apply their expertise in the areas of combustion chemistry, fuel spray characterization, combustion system design, controls, and in-cylinder sensing as well as emissions control. A team of experts spanning a range of disciplines

  11. Internal combustion engine fuel feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochard, P.; Guicherd, C.

    1980-02-19

    In a method and apparatus for controlling the fuel feed to a stratified-charge internal combustion engine, from idle up to the position corresponding with the maximum flow of air, the overall richness (Rg) of the combustible mixture is reduced by acting simultaneously upon the flow of fuel feeding the main chamber and upon the flow of fuel injected into the auxiliary chamber. For higher loads the maximum flow of air is kept constant and rg is increased by continuing to act upon both fuel flows. By keeping the richness of the mixture in the auxiliary chamber substantially constant, it is possible to obtain the best compromise between the performance of the engine and the emission of pollutant gases.

  12. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  13. Diesel engine fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The film shows the basic structure of diesel systems, including the parts and operation of injectors and fuel pumps. It discusses Bosch, General Motors, and Excello Equipment. This title has been declared obsolete for use within the sponsoring agency, but may have content value for educational use.

  14. Sandia Energy - Optimizing Engines for Alternative Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimizing Engines for Alternative Fuels Home Energy Transportation Energy CRF Facilities News News & Events Research & Capabilities Sensors & Optical Diagnostics Optimizing...

  15. Fuels and Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Diesel Feedstocks and Future Fuels Future Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable, Fuel-Efficient, and Emissions-Friendly New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuel Diesel Engine ...

  16. Solid fuel applications to transportation engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentz, Richard L.; Renner, Roy A.

    1980-06-01

    The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

  17. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  18. Fuel-Engine Co-Optimization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel-Engine Co-Optimization initiative aims to simultaneously transform both transportation fuels and vehicles in order to maximize performance and energy efficiency, minimize environmental impact, and accelerate widespread adoption of innovative combustion strategies.

  19. Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines As part of the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines initiative, researchers are exploring synergies among new bio-based fuels, engines, powertrains, and fueling infrastructure. Image by Loren Stacks, Sandia National Laboratories. As part of the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines initiative, researchers are exploring synergies among new bio-based fuels, engines, powertrains, and fueling infrastructure. Image by

  20. Fuel Performance Experiments on the Atomistic Level, Studying Fuel Through Engineered Single Crystal UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgett, Eric; Deo, Chaitanya; Phillpot, Simon

    2015-05-08

    Fuel Performance Experiments on the Atomistic Level, Studying Fuel Through Engineered Single Crystal UO2

  1. Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Reitz, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

  2. Vaporized alcohol fuel boosts engine efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardenburg, H.O.; Bergmann, H.K.; Metsch, H.I.; Schaefer, A.J.

    1983-02-01

    An effort is being made at Daimler-Benz AG to utilize the special characteristics of vaporized methanol and ethanol in an alcohol-gas spark-ignited engine. Describes laboratory testing which demonstrates that waste heat recovery and very lean air/fuel mixtures improve the efficiency and economy of a spark-ignition engine running on alcohol vapors. Presents graph comparing performance and torque of the alcohol-gas and diesel engines. Finds that the fuel consumption of the methanol-fueled version approaches that of a diesel engine, with other advantages including low engine noise, good acceleration, and favorable exhaust emissions.

  3. Fuel injector nozzle for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klomp, E.D.; Peters, B.D.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a fuel injection nozzle for a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a nozzle body with at least one fuel flow opening therethrough for feed fuel to the chamber, a resilient diaphragm normally sealing the opening and having orifice means therein for further atomizing and directing the pulses into the chamber, fastening means for fixing the diaphragm to the body so that diaphragm can deflect by a predetermined amount under low engine load operating conditions so that a wide angle cone of atomized fuel is injected into and generally at one end of the combustion chamber for the stratified charge thereof and deflect by an amount greater than the first amount of deflection under high engine load operating conditions. A narrow spray cone of atomized fuel is injected in a deeper pattern into and throughout the combustion chamber for optimizing the charge thereof and fuel burns under the low and high load engine operating conditions.

  4. Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and Engine Oils Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and Engine Oils 2003 DEER Conference ...

  5. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, B.D.; Confer, G.L.; Zujing Shen; Hapeman, M.J.; Flynn, P.L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slurry, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure. 19 figures.

  6. Method of combustion for dual fuel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Confer, Gregory L.; Shen, Zujing; Hapeman, Martin J.; Flynn, Paul L.

    1993-12-21

    Apparatus and a method of introducing a primary fuel, which may be a coal water slutty, and a high combustion auxiliary fuel, which may be a conventional diesel oil, into an internal combustion diesel engine comprises detecting the load conditions of the engine, determining the amount of time prior to the top dead center position of the piston to inject the main fuel into the combustion chamber, and determining the relationship of the timing of the injection of the auxiliary fuel into the combustion chamber to achieve a predetermined specific fuel consumption, a predetermined combustion efficiency, and a predetermined peak cylinder firing pressure.

  7. Optima: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optima: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Optima: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines doeoptimainitiativeoverview.pdf More Documents & Publications Optima Program Overview...

  8. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects A technique for ...

  9. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel This study presents full quantification of ...

  10. Bachelor of Science Engineering Technology Hydrogen and Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bachelor of Science Engineering Technology Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Education Program Concentration Bachelor of Science Engineering Technology Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Education ...

  11. Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient HD Engine ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine (DOE SuperTruck Program) Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient HD ... More Documents & Publications Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient HD Engine

  12. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  13. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Fuels of the Future: Accelerating the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuels of the Future: Accelerating the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Fuels of the Future: Accelerating the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Plenary IV: Fuels of the Future: Accelerating the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Fuels of the Future: Accelerating the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines John Eichberger, Vice President of Government Relations, National Association of Convenience Stores/Executive Director, The Fuels Institute

  15. Sandia Energy - Engineering Alternative Fuel with Cyanobacteria

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fatty acid floating on top. She has engineered two strains of cyanobacteria to produce free fatty acids, a precursor to fuels, as she studies the direct conversion of carbon...

  16. Co-Optima Initiative Fuels Combustion Engine Efficiency | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Co-Optima Initiative Fuels Combustion Engine Efficiency Co-Optima Initiative Fuels Combustion Engine Efficiency August 2, 2016 - 11:15am Addthis As part of the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines initiative, researchers are exploring synergies among new bio-based fuels, engines, powertrains, and fueling infrastructure. | Image by Loren Stacks, Sandia National Laboratories. As part of the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines initiative, researchers are exploring synergies among

  17. Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimization of Fuels and Engines Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines presentation for SAE High Efficiency Internal Combustion Engine Symposium on April 10-11, 2016. farrell_co-optimization_sae_heice_ symposium_2016.pdf (14.01 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima)-Fuel Properties and Chemical Kinetics and Thrust I Engine Projects Vehicle Technologies Office Merit

  18. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  19. Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Oils | Department of Energy Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and Engine Oils Fuel Additive Strategies for Enhancing the Performance of Engines and Engine Oils 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: ChevronTexaco Technology 2003_deer_kaufman.pdf (1.22 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D

  20. Fuels and Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy and Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology Fuels and Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_baranescu.pdf (87.57 KB) More Documents & Publications New Diesel Feedstocks and Future Fuels Future Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable, Fuel-Efficient, and Emissions-Friendly New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuel Diesel Engine Challenges

  1. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_taylor.pdf (415.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Fuels For Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Fuels for Advanced

  2. Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress Report Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress Report DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Progress Report for the Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells Program highlights progress achieved during FY 2000. 13.pdf (3.87 MB) More Documents & Publications Cleaner Vehicles, Cleaner Fuel & Cleaner Air Durability of NOx Absorbers

  3. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course Manual...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines and Related Technologies Course Manual Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course Manual This course manual features technical information on the use of ...

  4. EIS-0203: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs EIS-0203: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory ...

  5. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Shankar; Frazier, Timothy R.; Stanton, Donald W.; Xu, Yi; Bunting, Bruce G.; Wolf, Leslie R.

    2014-08-26

    A technique for engine control to account for fuel effects including providing an internal combustion engine and a controller to regulate operation thereof, the engine being operable to combust a fuel to produce an exhaust gas; establishing a plurality of fuel property inputs; establishing a plurality of engine performance inputs; generating engine control information as a function of the fuel property inputs and the engine performance inputs; and accessing the engine control information with the controller to regulate at least one engine operating parameter.

  6. Fuel-tolerance tests with the Ford PROCO engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choma, M.A.; Havstad, P.H.; Simko, A.O.; Stockhausen, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of fuel tolerance tests were conducted utilizing Ford's PROCO engine, a direct fuel injection stratified charge engine developed for light duty vehicles. These engine tests were run on the dynamometer and in vehicles. Data indicate an 89 RON octane requirement, relatively low sensitivity to volatility characteristics and good fuel economy, emission control and operability on a certain range of petroleum fuel and alcohol mixes including 100% methanol. Fuels such as JP-4 and Diesel fuel are not at present suitable for this engine. There were no engine modifications tested that might improve the match between the engine and a particular fuel. The 100% methanol test was conducted with a modified fuel injection pump. Durability aspects including compatibility of various fuels with the materials in the fuel system were not addressed.

  7. Fuel system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davison, M.J.; Mardell, J.E.; Mowbray, D.F.; Seilly, A.H.

    1982-10-26

    A fuel system for an internal combustion engine includes a pump/injector having an actuating winding to which power is supplied by a first electronic means. A first control signal is supplied by a second electronic means to energize the winding and a second control signal is supplied by a third electronic means to de-energize the winding. The third electronic means calculates the time at which the winding should be de-energized to allow the piston in the pump to draw in the required volume of fuel, the second electronic means causing delivery of fuel when the required volume of fuel has been drawn into the pumping chamber of the pump.

  8. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  9. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  10. Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels and Fuel Additives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A bench-top engine testing system was used to fast screen the efficiency of fuel additives or fuel blends on NOx reduction

  11. Utiization of alternate fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lestz, S.S.

    1980-09-01

    Accomplishments during three years entitled The Utilization of Alternate Fuels in Diesel Engines are summarized. Experiments were designed and test equipment set-up for the purpose of evaluating the use of methanol as a fumigant for light-duty Diesel engine service. The major experimental results were obtained from a multicylinder automotive Diesel engine. However, fundamental studies employing a GC/micro-reactor and a constant volume combustion bomb were also started. The purpose of this work was to measure some of the chemical and physical properties of methanol and methanol-air mixtures. The laminar flame velocity for various mixtures has been measured in the combustion bomb and thermal degradation studies have begun in the GC/micro-reactor. An Oldsmobile 5.7 liter V/8 Diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 40% of the fuel energy. The primary objectives of the study were to determine the effect of methanol fumigation on fuel efficiency, smoke, nitric oxide emission, and the occurrence of severe knock. An assessment of the biological activity for samples of the raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract was also made using boh the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test and the B. subtilis Comptest. Generally, methanol fumigation was found to decrease NO emission for all conditions, to have a slight effect on smoke opacity, and to have a beneficial effect on fuel efficiency at higher loads. Also at higher loads, the methanol was found to induce what was defined as knock limited operation. The biological activity of the raw particulate matter was fond to be less than that of its soluble organic extract. However, for both the fumigation of methanol did enhance the biological activity.

  12. Advanced fuel chemistry for advanced engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taatjes, Craig A.; Jusinski, Leonard E.; Zador, Judit; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Miller, James A.

    2009-09-01

    Autoignition chemistry is central to predictive modeling of many advanced engine designs that combine high efficiency and low inherent pollutant emissions. This chemistry, and especially its pressure dependence, is poorly known for fuels derived from heavy petroleum and for biofuels, both of which are becoming increasingly prominent in the nation's fuel stream. We have investigated the pressure dependence of key ignition reactions for a series of molecules representative of non-traditional and alternative fuels. These investigations combined experimental characterization of hydroxyl radical production in well-controlled photolytically initiated oxidation and a hybrid modeling strategy that linked detailed quantum chemistry and computational kinetics of critical reactions with rate-equation models of the global chemical system. Comprehensive mechanisms for autoignition generally ignore the pressure dependence of branching fractions in the important alkyl + O{sub 2} reaction systems; however we have demonstrated that pressure-dependent 'formally direct' pathways persist at in-cylinder pressures.

  13. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leto, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  14. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course Photo of hydrogen-powered bus. Produced by College of the Desert and SunLine Transit Agency with funding from the U.S. Federal Transit Administration, this course features technical information on the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel. It covers hydrogen properties, use, and safety as well as fuel cell technologies, systems, engine design, safety, and

  15. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance Photo of a gasoline direct injection piston with injector. NREL studies the effects of new fuel properties on performance and emissions in advanced engine technologies. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's combustion research and development bridges fundamental chemical kinetics and applied engine research to investigate how new engine technologies can be co-developed with fuels and lubricants to maximize energy-efficient vehicle performance. Through

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: College Students Engineer Efficient Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    in EcoCAR 2 Competition College Students Engineer Efficient Vehicles in EcoCAR 2 Competition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: College Students Engineer Efficient Vehicles in EcoCAR 2 Competition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: College Students Engineer Efficient Vehicles in EcoCAR 2 Competition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: College Students Engineer Efficient Vehicles in EcoCAR 2 Competition on Google Bookmark Alternative

  17. Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly Reduced Emissions and Improved Fuel Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An advanced engine design that is 15 percent more efficient than diesel, pollution free, and uses any fuel.

  18. Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verhelst, S.; Wallner, T.; Energy Systems; Ghent Univ.

    2009-12-01

    The threat posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Taking a prominent place in these strategic plans is hydrogen as a future energy carrier. A number of manufacturers are now leasing demonstration vehicles to consumers using hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (H{sub 2}ICEs) as well as fuel cell vehicles. Developing countries in particular are pushing for H{sub 2}ICEs (powering two- and three-wheelers as well as passenger cars and buses) to decrease local pollution at an affordable cost. This article offers a comprehensive overview of H{sub 2}ICEs. Topics that are discussed include fundamentals of the combustion of hydrogen, details on the different mixture formation strategies and their emissions characteristics, measures to convert existing vehicles, dedicated hydrogen engine features, a state of the art on increasing power output and efficiency while controlling emissions and modeling.

  19. Federal Railroad Administration | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Railroad Administration Federal Railroad Administration PDF icon Federal Railroad Administration More Documents & Publications Evaluation of Shortline Railroads & SNFHLW Rail...

  20. Improving combustion stability in a bi-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how a new strategy for ignition timing control can reduce NOx emissions from engines using CNG and gasoline. Until a proper fueling infrastructure is established, a certain fraction of vehicles powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) must have bi-fuel capability. A bi-fuel engine, enjoying the longer range of gasoline and the cleaner emissions of CNG, can overcome the problem of having few CNG fueling stations. However, bi-fuel engines must be optimized to run on both fuels since low CNG volumetric efficiency causes power losses compared to gasoline.

  1. Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Optima)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Optima) initiative seeks to transform the fuels and vehicles that provide mobility for our country’s people, goods, and services. This collaboration between industry stakeholders and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories builds on decades of advances in both fuels and engines.

  2. Dual fuel control of a high speed turbocharged diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Few, P.C.; Sardari, P.

    1987-01-01

    The modification of a Ford 7600 turbocharged diesel engine to a dual fuel engine using methane as the supplementary fuel has been carried out. The paper describes the preliminary work of dual fuel control. Two systems are examined and their behaviour is presented.

  3. Adapting ethanol fuels to diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    During the 2nd International Alcohol Symposium 1977, Daimler-Benz reported on the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of using ethanol in originally diesel-operated commercial vehicles, and especially about the first results in the field of adapting the ethanol fuel to the requirements of conventional diesel engines. Investigations to this effect were continued by Daimler-Benz AG, Stuttgart, and Mercedes-Benz of Brasil in coordination with competent Brazilian government departments. The development effort is primarily adapted to Brazilian conditions, since ethanol fuel is intended as a long-term project in this country. This report is presented under headings - auto-ignition; durability tests; remedial measures; the injection systems; ethanol quality.

  4. Fuel Requirements for HCCI Engine Operation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements for HCCI Engine Operation Fuel Requirements for HCCI Engine Operation 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Southwest Research Institute 2002_deer_ryan.pdf (998.12 KB) More Documents & Publications HCCI - A Technical Review and Progress Report 2006 Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development for high efficiency clean combustion engines Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels

  5. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2004_deer_bromberg.pdf (404.01 KB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Onboard

  6. Pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary combustion engine and fuel injector therefor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loyd, R. W.

    1980-02-12

    For a pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary, internal combustion engine, the fuel injection system and a fuel injector therefor comprises a fuel injector having plural discharge ports with at least one of the discharge ports located to emit a ''pilot'' fuel charge (relatively rich fuel-air mixture) into a passage in the engine housing, which passage communicates with the engine combustion chambers. An ignition element is located in the passage to ignite the ''pilot'' fuel (a relatively rich fuel-air mixture) flowing through the passage. At least one other discharge port of the fuel injector is in substantially direct communication with the combustion chambers of the engine to emit a main fuel charge into the latter. The ignited ''pilot'' fuelair mixture, when ignited, flashes into the combustion chambers to ignite the main, relatively lean, fuel-air mixture which is in the combustion chambers.

  7. Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient HD Engine ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    heavy-duty truck fuel efficiency. deer12deojeda.pdf (1.53 MB) More Documents & Publications Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient HD Engine (DOE SuperTruck Program)

  8. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  9. Dual fuel combustion in a turbocharged diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Few, P.C.; Newlyn, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The modification of a turbocharged diesel engine to a dual-fuel engine using methane as the supplementary fuel has been carried out. The effect of the gaseous fuel in a turbo-charged diesel engine has been investigated by means of a heat release study and a computer program already developed at Leicester Polytechnic. It is used in order to examine the rate of heat released under any operational condition.

  10. Green Racing Series Revs Engines with Renewable Fuel from INEOS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Racing Series Revs Engines with Renewable Fuel from INEOS Bio Green Racing Series Revs ... races. | Photo by Natalie Committee, Energy Department A racecar heads into the pits ...

  11. Future Directions in Engines and Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The vision of the VW group for the future of diesel engines and future fuels is presented. PDF icon deer10sjohnson.pdf More Documents & Publications The Diesel Engine Powering ...

  12. Future Directions in Engines and Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Future directions in engines and fuels, powertrains and vehicle system review. PDF icon deer10tatur.pdf More Documents & Publications A View from the Bridge Boosting Small Engines...

  13. Effects of Biomass Fuels on Engine & System Out Emissions for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine A European Perspective of EURO 5U.S. 07 Heavy-Duty Engine Technologies and Their Related Consequences ...

  14. Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FUELS FOR ADVANCED CIDI ENGINES AND FUEL CELLS FUELS FOR ADVANCED CIDI ENGINES AND FUEL CELLS 2000 ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT FUELS F O R ADVANCED CIDI ENGINES A N D FUEL CELLS A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T We would like to express our sincere appreciation to Argonne National Laboratory, Computer Systems Management, Inc., National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and QSS Group, Inc., for their artistic and technical contributions in preparing and publishing this report. In addition, we would like to

  15. Use of alcohol fuel: engine-conversion demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The use of ethanol as a fuel extender when mixed with gasoline, and the use of both hydrated and anhydrous ethanol as a fuel in gasoline and diesel engines are discussed. Required engine modifications for efficient use of ethanol are described, and include engine compression alterations, carburetor adjustments, and arrangement for fuel preheating. In 1981 and 1982 a demonstration of ethanol use in spark ignition engines was conducted at a major public park in South Carolina. The demonstration included a controlled road test with a pick-up truck and a demonstration of ethanol use in small, air cooled gasoline engines. One problem that was identified was that of contaminated fuel that clogged the fuel system after a few days' operation. (LEW)

  16. Engine control system having fuel-based adjustment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willi, Martin L.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Montgomery, David T.; Gong, Weidong

    2011-03-15

    A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve configured to affect a fluid flow of the cylinder, an actuator configured to move the engine valve, and an in-cylinder sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of a characteristic of fuel entering the cylinder. The control system also has a controller in communication with the actuator and the sensor. The controller is configured to determine the characteristic of the fuel based on the signal and selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve based on the characteristic of the fuel.

  17. Recycled waste oil: A fuel for medium speed diesel engines?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A.B.L.; Poynton, W.A.; Howard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the exploratory engine trials that Mirrlees Blackstone has undertaken to investigate the effect of fueling an engine using waste oil derived from used lubricants. The effect on the engine`s mechanical components, and thermal performance are examined, and the steps taken to overcome problems are discussed. The proposed engine is sited within the Research and Development facilities, housed separately from the manufacturing plant. The unit is already capable of operating on two different types of fuel with single engine set up. It is a 3 cylinder, 4-stroke turbocharged direct injection engine mounted on an underbase and it operates at 600 rpm, 15.0 bar B.M.E.P. (Brake Mean Effective Pressure). It is a mature engine, built {approximately} 20 years previously, and used for emergency stand-by duties in the company`s powerhouse. The test engine is coupled to an alternator and the electricity generated is fed to the national grid. Initial samples of treated fuel oil, analyzed by an independent oil analysis consultant, indicated that the fuel oil does not correspond to a normal fuel oil. They contained high concentrations of trace elements (i.e. calcium, phosphorus, lead, aluminum and silicon) which was consistent with sourcing from waste lubricating oils. The fuel oil was considered to be too severe for use in an engine.

  18. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course Manual

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This course manual features technical information on the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel. It covers hydrogen properties, use, and safety as well as fuel cell technologies, systems, engine design, safety, and maintenance. It also presents the different types of fuel cells and hybrid electric vehicles.

  19. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  20. Compounded turbocharged rotary internal combustion engine fueled with natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, P.E.

    1992-10-15

    This patent describes a compounded engine. It comprises: a first Wankel engine having a housing with a trochoidal inner surface containing a generally triangular shaped rotor, the engine containing a fuel supply system suitable for operating the engine with natural gas as a fuel; a turbocharge compressing air for combustion by the engine, the turbocharger being driven by the exhaust gases which exit from the engine; a combustion chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust from the engine after that exhaust has passed through the turbocharger, the chamber having an ignition device suitable for igniting hydrocarbons in the engine exhaust, whereby the engine timing, and the air and fuel mixture of the engine are controlled so that when the engine exhaust reaches the combustion chamber the exhaust contains a sufficient amount of oxygen and hydrocarbons to enable ignition and combustion of the engine exhaust in the combustion chamber without the addition of fuel or air, and whereby the engine operating conditions are controlled to vary the performance of the secondary combustor; and a controllable ignition device to ignite the exhaust gases in the combustion chamber at predetermined times.

  1. Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Control | Department of Energy Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions Control Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions Control 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Catalytica Energy Systems 2004_deer_catalytica.pdf (331 KB) More Documents & Publications Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx

  2. Future Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable, Fuel-Efficient, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions-Friendly | Department of Energy Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable, Fuel-Efficient, and Emissions-Friendly Future Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable, Fuel-Efficient, and Emissions-Friendly 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_bardasz.pdf (561.21 KB) More Documents & Publications Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation Diesel Particulate Filters:

  3. How Exhaust Emissions Drive Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy How Exhaust Emissions Drive Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency How Exhaust Emissions Drive Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Pacific Northwest Laboratory 2004_deer_muntean.pdf (922.09 KB) More Documents & Publications The State of the Science in Diesel Particulate Control APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber

  4. Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels and Fuel Additives Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels and Fuel Additives A bench-top ...

  5. Future Directions in Engines and Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research on improving the efficiency of HD/MD/LD diesel engines with alternative fuels is presented deer10_eckerle.pdf (384.38 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: SuperTruck Program: Engine Project Review SuperTruck Program: Engine Project Review View from the Bridge: Commercial Vehicle Perspective

  6. Fuel vaporization improves fuel economy of alcohol-burning Sl engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardenberg, H.O.; Metsch, H.I.; Schaefer, A.J.

    1982-10-01

    Fuel vaporization and combustion of the thereby achieved homogeneous mixtures improve the overall efficiency of SI engines in comparison to operation with liquid fuels. The improvements result from a recovery of waste heat and the thus achieved greater usable energy of the fuel, which is increased by the heat of vaporization over the lower calorific value of the liquid fuel, and from the fact that very lean mixtures can be burnt without misfiring. The favorable fuel economy of the air/fuel-vapor mixture-aspirating engine is explained with the aid of engine cycle computation which also enables comparison of different combustion processes. Consideration of common substances shows that methanol is the fuel best suited for this type of SI engine.

  7. Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Presentation given at the ...

  8. Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Accelerate Fuel and Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Co-Optimization Technologies | Department of Energy 7 Million to Accelerate Fuel and Engine Co-Optimization Technologies Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Accelerate Fuel and Engine Co-Optimization Technologies August 1, 2016 - 1:40pm Addthis The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) announced today up to $7 million in project funding to accelerate the introduction of affordable, scalable, and sustainable high-performance fuels for use in high-efficiency, low-emission engines as part of the

  9. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Fuel, Engines, and Emissions Research Center

  10. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  11. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  12. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Optical-Engine and Surrogate-Fuels Research for an Improved Understand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Understanding of Fuel Effects on Advanced-Combustion Strategies Optical-Engine and Surrogate-Fuels Research for an Improved Understanding of Fuel Effects on Advanced-Combustion ...

  15. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  16. ORNL Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-12

    This video highlights the Vehicle Research Laboratory's capabilities at the Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC). FEERC is a Department of Energy user facility located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  17. ORNL Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    This video highlights the Vehicle Research Laboratory's capabilities at the Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC). FEERC is a Department of Energy user facility located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Development of a high-output dual-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, P.R. . Fairbanks Morse Engineering Division)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a new dual-fuel engine development program. The engine is the largest commercially available in terms of power output (650 hp/cyl) and features very low emissions (1 g/hp-hr NO[sub x]) and excellent fuel consumption (43 percent thermal efficiency). A two-cylinder turbocharged prototype was designed and built for the initial development. Results from testing on 18-cylinder production versions are also reported.

  19. Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Krishnasamy; Ra, youngchul; Reitz, Rolf; Bunting, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the target fuel. The present study proposes surrogate models for the nine fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) that have been developed for studying low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine concepts. The surrogate compositions for the fuels are arrived at by simulating their distillation profiles to within a maximum absolute error of 4% using a discrete multi-component (DMC) fuel model that has been incorporated in the multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN. The simulated surrogate compositions cover the range and measured concentrations of the various hydrocarbon classes present in the fuels. The fidelity of the surrogate fuel models is judged on the basis of matching their specific gravity, lower heating value, hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, cetane number, and cetane index with the measured data for all nine FACE fuels.

  20. Rotary engine with dual spark plugs and fuel injectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J.; Bracco, F.V.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes a stratified charge rotary combustion engine having a housing having a running surface surrounding a working chamber, the running surface having a two-lobed profile, the lobes forming a junction in a top-dead-center region of the housing, a rotor mounted for rotation in the working chamber, a fuel injection and ignition system placed in the top-dead center region. It includes a pilot fuel injector fuel into the working chamber; a first spark plug located upstream of the pilot fuel injector for igniting fuel injected by the pilot fuel injector, the pilot fuel injector and the first spark plug being located on a downstream side of the junction; a main fuel injector for injecting fuel into the working chamber, the ignited pilot fuel acting to ignite fuel injected by the main injector; and a second spark plug located upstream of the main fuel injector and located upstream of the junction for igniting fuel/air mixture in the working chamber.

  1. Emissions characteristics of Military Helicopter Engines Fueled with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Klingshirn, Christopher D; Striebich, Richard; Cheng, Mengdawn

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in aviation activities and more stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations have increased concerns regarding aircraft emissions, due to their harmful health and environmental impacts, especially in the vicinity of airports and military bases. In this study, the gaseous and particulate-matter emissions of two General Electric T701C engines and one T700 engine were evaluated. The T700 series engines power the U.S. Army's Black Hawk and Apache helicopters. The engines were fueled with standard military JP-8 fuel and were tested at three power settings. In addition, one of the T701C engines was operated on a natural-gas-derived Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene jet fuel. Test results show that the T701C engine emits significantly lower particulate-matter emissions than the T700 for all conditions tested. Particulate-matter mass emission indices ranged from 0.2-1.4 g/kg fuel for the T700 and 0.2-0.6 g/kg fuel for the T701C. Slightly higher NOx and lower CO emissions were observed for the T701C compared with the T700. Operation of the T701C with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel rendered dramatic reductions in soot emissions relative to operation on JP-8, due primarily to the lack of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuel. The Fischer-Tropsch fuel also produced smaller particles and slight reductions in CO emissions.

  2. Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuel—making them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once they’re pumped out of the tank.

  3. Dual fueling of a Caterpillar 3406 diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, S.R.; Midkiff, K.C.; Doughty, G.; Brett, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    A Caterpillar 3406 turbocharged diesel engine was converted to operate in a dual-fuel mode and was evaluated for performance and emission characteristics for both diesel and natural gas operation. Full load power was achieved with dual fueling without knock. Similar fuel efficiencies were obtained with dual fueling a high loads, but efficiencies were lower for low loads. Bosch smoke numbers were reduced by over 50% with dual fueling for all cases investigated. NO{sub x} emissions were found to be lower at low loads and at high speeds under high load. CO emissions were significantly increased for dual fueling while CO{sub 2} concentrations in the exhaust were reduced for dual fueling.

  4. Study of Fuel Property Effects Using Future Low Emissions Heavy Duty Truck Engine Hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sharon

    2000-08-20

    Fuel properties have had substantial impact on engine emissions. Fuel impact varies with engine technology. An assessment of fuel impact on future low emission designs was needed as part of an EMAEPA-API study effort

  5. FUEL INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR LEAN PREMIXED COMBUSTION IN GAS TURBINE ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Ferguson; Geo. A. Richard; Doug Straub

    2008-06-13

    In response to environmental concerns of NOx emissions, gas turbine manufacturers have developed engines that operate under lean, pre-mixed fuel and air conditions. While this has proven to reduce NOx emissions by lowering peak flame temperatures, it is not without its limitations as engines utilizing this technology are more susceptible to combustion dynamics. Although dependent on a number of mechanisms, changes in fuel composition can alter the dynamic response of a given combustion system. This is of particular interest as increases in demand of domestic natural gas have fueled efforts to utilize alternatives such as coal derived syngas, imported liquefied natural gas and hydrogen or hydrogen augmented fuels. However, prior to changing the fuel supply end-users need to understand how their system will respond. A variety of historical parameters have been utilized to determine fuel interchangeability such as Wobbe and Weaver Indices, however these parameters were never optimized for today’s engines operating under lean pre-mixed combustion. This paper provides a discussion of currently available parameters to describe fuel interchangeability. Through the analysis of the dynamic response of a lab-scale Rijke tube combustor operating on various fuel blends, it is shown that commonly used indices are inadequate for describing combustion specific phenomena.

  6. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  7. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Guoming; Schock, Harold; Yang, Xiaojian; Huisjen, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Moran, Kevin; Zhen, Ron; Zhang, Shupeng

    2013-09-30

    The central objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate an HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) capable SI (spark ignited) engine that is capable of fast and smooth mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion modes. The model-based control technique was used to develop and validate the proposed control strategy for the fast and smooth combustion mode transition based upon the developed control-oriented engine; and an HCCI capable SI engine was designed and constructed using production ready two-step valve-train with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. Finally, smooth combustion mode transition was demonstrated on a metal engine within eight engine cycles. The Chrysler turbocharged 2.0L I4 direct injection engine was selected as the base engine for the project and the engine was modified to fit the two-step valve with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. To develop the model-based control strategy for stable HCCI combustion and smooth combustion mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion, a control-oriented real-time engine model was developed and implemented into the MSU HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) simulation environment. The developed model was used to study the engine actuating system requirement for the smooth and fast combustion mode transition and to develop the proposed mode transition control strategy. Finally, a single cylinder optical engine was designed and fabricated for studying the HCCI combustion characteristics. Optical engine combustion tests were conducted in both SI and HCCI combustion modes and the test results were used to calibrate the developed control-oriented engine model. Intensive GT-Power simulations were conducted to determine the optimal valve lift (high and low) and the cam phasing range. Delphi was selected to be the supplier for the two-step valve-train and Denso to be the electrical variable valve timing system supplier. A test bench was constructed to develop control strategies for

  8. 40 kW Stirling engine for solid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsen, H.; Ammundsen, N.; Traerup, J.

    1996-12-31

    The external combustion in a Stirling engine makes it very attractive for utilization of solid fuels in decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Only few projects have concentrated on the development of Stirling engines specifically for biomass. In this project a Stirling engine has been designed primarily for utilization of wood chips. Maximum shaft power is 40 kW corresponding to an electric output of 36 kW. Biomass needs more space in the combustion chamber compared to gas and liquid fuels, and a large heat transfer area is necessary. The design of the new Stirling engine has been adapted to the special demands of combustion of wood chips, resulting in a large engine compared to engines for gas or liquid fuels. The engine has four-cylinders arranged in a square. The design is made as a hermetic unit, where the alternator is built into the pressurized crankcase so that dynamic seals are avoided. Grease lubricated bearings are used in a special designed crank mechanism, which eliminates guiding forces on the pistons Helium is used as working gas at 4 MPa mean pressure. The first test of the 40 kW engine with natural gas as fuel has been made in the laboratory, and the results are in agreement with predicted results from simulation programs. The wood chips combustion system has been tested for some time with very promising results. When the laboratory test of the engine is finished, the test of the complete system will be initiated. The paper describes the engine and results from the test program. Expectations to maintenance and operation problems are also discussed.

  9. Stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, S.R.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes a stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines having an air intake stroke, a compression stroke, a power stroke, and an exhaust stroke. It comprises a rotor housing, the housing including an air intake port and an exhaust port, and an outer perimeter, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a gaseous fuel injector supplying all of the fuel is connected to the housing between 270{degrees} and 360{degrees} of the rotor rotation after compression top dead center and downstream of the air intake port, the injector providing gaseous fuel at a pressure less than peak compression pressure, the injector located in the middle of the width of the outer perimeter of the housing, spark ignition means in the housing downstream of the injector, and means connected to the fuel injector responsive to the compression pressure for controlling the rate and duration of fuel injection.

  10. Engine control system having fuel-based timing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willi, Martin L.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Montgomery, David T.; Gong, Weidong

    2012-04-03

    A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the cylinder and an actuator associated with the engine valve. The control system also has a sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of an amount of an air/fuel mixture remaining within the cylinder after completion of a first combustion event and a controller in communication with the actuator and the sensor. The controller may be configured to compare the amount with a desired amount, and to selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve associated with a subsequent combustion event based on the comparison.

  11. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Jeffery K; Pawel, Steven J; Wilson, Dane F

    2013-05-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  12. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, Steve; Moore, D.

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  13. Union Pacific Railroad`s LNG locomotive test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimaila, B.

    1995-12-31

    Union Pacific Railroad is testing LNG in six locomotives through 1997 to determine if the liquefied natural gas technology is right for them. Two of the six LNG test locomotives are switch, or yard, locomotives. These 1,350 horsepower locomotives are the industry`s first locomotives totally fueled by natural gas. They`re being tested in the yard in the Los Angeles area. The other four locomotives are long-haul locomotives fueled by two tenders. These units are duel-fueled, operating on a mixture of LNG and diesel and are being tested primarily on the Los Angeles to North Platte, Nebraska corridor. All the information concerning locomotive emissions, locomotive performance, maintenance requirements, the overall LNG system design and the economic feasibility of the project will be analyzed to determine if UPR should expand, or abandon, the LNG technology.

  14. New Directions in Engines and Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Fuels New Directions in Engines and Fuels Mobility based predominately on petroleum faces severe and imminent constraints as petroleum production and deliverability are inadequate to supply an economically developing world and a collective will and constancy of purpose are required to solve these problems deer09_smyth.pdf (1.06 MB) More Documents & Publications GM's Perspective on Advanced Biofuels Market Drivers for Biofuels Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts

  15. Annual Report FY2014 Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2015-01-01

    Due to concerns about future petroleum supply and accelerating climate change, increased engine efficiency and alternative fuels are of interest. This project contributes to the science-base needed by industry to develop highly efficient DISI engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Lean operation is studied since it can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, focus is on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification can be used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion, but may lead to soot and NOx emissions challenges. Advanced ignition system and intake air preheating both promote ignition stability. Controlled end-gas autoignition can be used maintain high combustion efficiency for ultra-lean well-mixed conditions. However, the response of both combustion and exhaust emission to these techniques depends on the fuel properties. Therefore, to achieve optimal fuel-economy gains, the combustion-control strategies of the engine must adopt to the fuel being utilized.

  16. FY2015 Annual Report for Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjöberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and the need to secure energy supplies are two reasons for a growing interest in engine efficiency and alternative fuels. This project contributes to the science-base needed by industry to develop highly efficient DISI engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Our emphasis is on lean operation, which can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, we focus on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification is used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion but has soot- and NOx- emissions challenges. For ultralean well-mixed operation, turbulent deflagration can be combined with controlled end-gas auto-ignition to render mixed-mode combustion that facilitates high combustion efficiency. However, the response of both combustion and exhaust emissions to these techniques depends on the fuel properties. Therefore, to achieve optimal fuel-economy gains, the engine combustion-control strategies must be adapted to the fuel being utilized.

  17. Coal-fueled diesel technology development: Nozzle development for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.N.; Lee, M.; White, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Direct injection of a micronized coal water mixture fuel into the combustion chambers of a diesel engine requires atomizing an abrasive slurry fuel with accurately sized orifices. Five injector orifice materials were evaluated: diamond compacts, chemical vapor deposited diamond tubes, thermally stabilized diamond, tungsten carbide with cobalt binder, and tungsten carbide with nickel binder with brazed and mechanically mounted orifice inserts. Nozzle bodies were fabricated of Armco 17-4 precipitation hardening stainless steel and Stellite 6B in order to withstand cyclic injection pressures and elevated temperatures. Based on a total of approximately 200 cylinder hours of engine operation with coal water mixture fuel diamond compacts were chosen for the orifice material.

  18. A small scale biomass fueled gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, J.D.; Purvis, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWd) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth materials (such as rice hulls, cotton gin trash, nut shells, and various straws, grasses, and animal manures) that are not normally considered as fuel for power plants. This paper summarizes the new power generation concept with emphasis on the engineering challenges presented by the gas turbine component.

  19. The Prospective Role of JAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojima, Hisao; Dojiri, Shigeru; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Seiichiro; Nomura, Shigeo

    2007-07-01

    JAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories was established in 2005 to take over the activities of the JNC Tokai Works. Many kinds of development activities have been carried out since 1959. Among these, the results on the centrifuge for U enrichment, LWR spent fuel reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication have already provided the foundation of the fuel cycle industry in Japan. R and D on the treatment and disposal of high-level waste and FBR fuel reprocessing has also been carried out. Through such activities, radioactive material release to the environment has been appropriately controlled and all nuclear materials have been placed under IAEA safeguards. The Laboratories has sufficient experience and ability to establish the next generation closed cycle and strives to become a world-class Center Of Excellence (COE). (authors)

  20. Aldehyde and unburned fuel emission measurements from a methanol-fueled Texaco stratified charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C.; Foster, D.E.

    1985-04-01

    A Texaco L-163S TCCS (Texaco Controlled Combustion System) engine was operated with pure methanol to investigate the origin of unburned fuel (UBF) and formaldehyde emissions. Both continuous and time-resolved exhaust gas sampling methods were used to measure UBF and formaldehyde concentrations. Fuel impingement is believed to be an additional source of UBF emissions from this methanol-fueled TCCS engine. At increased load we believe that it is the primary source of the UBF emissions. Formaldehyde emissions were found to originate in the cylinder gases, especially at low load. However the formation of aldehydes in the exhaust port after leaving the cylinder does occur and becomes more important as the load increases. Increasing the engine load resulted in a decrease in UBF emissions but in most cases increased the formaldehyde emissions. Increased engine speed resulted in slightly increased UBF and formaldehyde emissions.

  1. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  2. Efficient Use of Natural Gas Based Fuels in Heavy-Duty Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Natural gas and other liquid feedstocks for transportation fuels are compared for use in a dual-fuel engine. Benefits include economic stability, national security, environment, and cost.

  3. Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Results show single fuel model could not represent all fuels studied but engine performance could be predicted with a grouped approach using cetane with secondary effects from ...

  4. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  5. Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents a next generation model-based engine controller that incorporates real-time fuel efficiency optimization and tested under fully transient engine and vehicle operating conditions.

  6. Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine Research Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion: Heavy-Duty Optical-Engine Research 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies ...

  7. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  8. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review Merit review of DOE FCVT combustion, emission ...

  9. Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications Highlights roadmap towards 55% brake thermal efficiency and progress to meet ...

  10. Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Six different fuels were investigated to study the influence of fuel properties on engine out emissions and performance of low temperature premixed compression ignition combustion light-duty HSDI engines

  11. Co-Optimized Fuel-Engine Systems to Transform Our Nation's Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Co-Optimized Fuel-Engine Systems to Transform Our Nation's Vehicles Co-Optimized Fuel-Engine Systems to Transform Our Nation's Vehicles May 4, 2016 - 10:57am Addthis As part of the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines initiative, researchers are exploring synergies among new bio-based fuels, engines, powertrains, and fueling infrastructure. Image by Loren Stacks, Sandia National Laboratories As part of the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines initiative, researchers

  12. Development of Kinetic Mechanisms for Next-Generation Fuels and CFD Simulation of Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, William J.; McNenly, Matt J.; Whitesides, Russell; Mehl, Marco; Killingsworth, Nick J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2015-12-17

    Predictive chemical kinetic models are needed to represent next-generation fuel components and their mixtures with conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. These kinetic models will allow the prediction of the effect of alternative fuel blends in CFD simulations of advanced spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. Enabled by kinetic models, CFD simulations can be used to optimize fuel formulations for advanced combustion engines so that maximum engine efficiency, fossil fuel displacement goals, and low pollutant emission goals can be achieved.

  13. Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for NNSA U N C L A S S I F I E D Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Eric L. Brosha, Anthony Burrell, Neil Henson, Jonathan Phillips, and Tommy Rockward Los Alamos National Laboratory Timothy Ward, Plamen Atanassov University of New Mexico Karren More Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fuel Cell Technologies Program Kick-off Meeting September 30 - October 1, 2009 Washington DC Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for NNSA U

  14. Engineered Nanostructured MEA Technology for Low Temperature Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yimin

    2009-07-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalyst support technology based on unique engineered nanostructures for low temperature fuel cells which: (1) Achieves high catalyst activity and performance; (2) Improves catalyst durability over current technologies; and (3) Reduces catalyst cost. This project is directed at the development of durable catalysts supported by novel support that improves the catalyst utilization and hence reduce the catalyst loading. This project will develop a solid fundamental knowledge base necessary for the synthetic effort while at the same time demonstrating the catalyst advantages in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs).

  15. Feedback air-fuel control system for Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monahan, R.

    1991-11-19

    This patent describes improvement in combination with a Stirling engine having an air-fuel ratio control and an exhaust gas emission outlet. The improvement comprises an oxygen sensor in communication with the exhaust gas emission outlet for generating an output signal representative of the oxygen content in the outlet; a sensor signal conditioning unit for adapting the output signal to a conditioned input signal for a microprocessor; and a microprocessor controlled pilot for adjusting the air-fuel control in response to the control input signal.

  16. Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient HD Engine (DOE SuperTruck

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program) | Department of Energy Engine (DOE SuperTruck Program) Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient HD Engine (DOE SuperTruck Program) Discusses engine efficiency contributions of enhanced fuel injection rematched to new piston geometry, improved charge air system, revised base engine components reduce friction and turbocompounding. deer11_deojeda.pdf (2.06 MB) More Documents & Publications Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient HD Engine

  17. Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions in Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using CFD Simulations With Detailed Fuel Chemistry | Department of Energy Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using CFD Simulations With Detailed Fuel Chemistry Accurate Predictions of Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions in Engines Using CFD Simulations With Detailed Fuel Chemistry Accurate fuel models with hundreds of species in advanced CFD with reasonable simulation times. Reaction workbench used for surrogate blend formulation and model

  18. Electrometallurgical treatment of oxide spent fuel - engineering-scale development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karell, E. J.

    1998-04-22

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed the electrometallurgical treatment process for conditioning various Department of Energy (DOE) spent fuel types for long-term storage or disposal. This process uses electrorefining to separate the constituents of spent fuel into three product streams: metallic uranium, a metal waste form containing the cladding and noble metal fission products, and a ceramic waste form containing the transuranics, and rare earth, alkali, and alkaline earth fission products. While metallic fuels can be directly introduced into the electrorefiner, the actinide components of oxide fuels must first be reduced to the metallic form. The Chemical Technology Division of AFT has developed a process to reduce the actinide oxides that uses lithium at 650 C in the presence of molten LiCl, yielding the actinide metals and Li{sub 2}O. A significant amount of work has already been accomplished to investigate the basic chemistry of the lithium reduction process and to demonstrate its applicability to the treatment of light-water reactor- (LWR-) type spent fuel. The success of this work has led to conceptual plans to construct a pilot-scale oxide reduction facility at ANL's Idaho site. In support of the design effort, a series of laboratory- and engineering-scale experiments is being conducted using simulated fuel. These experiments have focused on the engineering issues associated with scaling-up the process and proving compatibility between the reduction and electrorefining steps. Specific areas of investigation included reduction reaction kinetics, evaluation of various fuel basket designs, and issues related to electrorefining the reduced product. This paper summarizes the results of these experiments and outlines plans for future work.

  19. Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima) -- Fuel Properties and Chemical Kinetics and Thrust I Engine Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information #$%&'"(")*+,"!" Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Fuel Property Team -./0+,"12"345.+67489 ! "!"#$%&"'('#") * %+",%-./0"12) 3 %4",%5$/1) 6 %7$89%:"9;1) <% :$=%:>?;#9/) @ %5"99%7"2.) @ %+'#%A8;>B;) * %:$=%C$2>9"D) * %5($E%F"G9;() * %->'=%!'9E10'('8GH I % *J!

  20. Impact of Fuel Properties on Light-Duty Engine Performance and Emissions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Properties on Light-Duty Engine Performance and Emissions Impact of Fuel Properties on Light-Duty Engine Performance and Emissions Describes the effects of seven fuels with significantly different fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty diesel engine. Cetane numbers range between 26 and 76 for the investigated fuels. deer08_koehler.pdf (1.58 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Effects on Low Temperature Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

  1. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2014-10-07

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  2. A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A single-cylinder engine was used to study how selected oxygenated fuels affect combustion and emissions in a modern diesel engine during conventional combustion and low-temperature combustion (LTC).

  3. Fuel mixture stratification as a method for improving homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2006-10-31

    A method for slowing the heat-release rate in homogeneous charge compression ignition ("HCCI") engines that allows operation without excessive knock at higher engine loads than are possible with conventional HCCI. This method comprises injecting a fuel charge in a manner that creates a stratified fuel charge in the engine cylinder to provide a range of fuel concentrations in the in-cylinder gases (typically with enough oxygen for complete combustion) using a fuel with two-stage ignition fuel having appropriate cool-flame chemistry so that regions of different fuel concentrations autoignite sequentially.

  4. Effects of fuel stability upon injection-nozzle deposit formation in road-tested diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortnagel, M.; Herrbrich, B.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of diesel fuels have changed distinctly, especially in the United States. Fuel-related problems-one of which is the injector-nozzle coking in passenger-car diesel engines-have arisen due to deteriorated fuel qualities. Extended investigations of road-tested diesel engines suggest a link between fuel stability and the coke-deposit mechanism. Stabilizing poor-quality fuels by a chemical-additive package resulted in troublefree operation over extended mileage. Thus fuel stability, which evidently has to be secured at the refinery, shows up as an important property for satisfactory engine operation.

  5. Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data from ORNL |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data from ORNL Statistical Overview of 5 Years of HCCI Fuel and Engine Data from ORNL Results show single fuel model could not represent all fuels studied but engine performance could be predicted with a grouped approach using cetane with secondary effects from volatility or heavy fuel components deer10_bunting.pdf (1.06 MB) More Documents & Publications Response of Oil Sands Derived Fuels in Diesel HCCI Operation APBF

  6. Performance Evaluation and Optimization of Diesel Fuel Properties and Chemistry in an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G; Eaton, Scott J; Crawford, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    The nine CRC fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE fuels) have been evaluated in a simple, premixed HCCI engine under varying conditions of fuel rate, air-fuel ratio, and intake temperature. Engine performance was found to vary mainly as a function of combustion phasing as affected by fuel cetane and engine control variables. The data was modeled using statistical techniques involving eigenvector representation of the fuel properties and engine control variables, to define engine response and allow optimization across the fuels for best fuel efficiency. In general, the independent manipulation of intake temperature and air-fuel ratio provided some opportunity for improving combustion efficiency of a specific fuel beyond the direct effect of targeting the optimum combustion phasing of the engine (near 5 CAD ATDC). High cetane fuels suffer performance loss due to easier ignition, resulting in lower intake temperatures, which increase HC and CO emissions and result in the need for more advanced combustion phasing. The FACE fuels also varied in T90 temperature and % aromatics, independent of cetane number. T90 temperature was found to have an effect on engine performance when combined with high centane, but % aromatics did not, when evaluated independently of cetane and T90.

  7. Fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J.

    2012-10-09

    A fuel injector in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer wall of the injector defines an interior volume in which an intermediate wall is disposed. A first gap is formed between the outer wall and the intermediate wall. The intermediate wall defines an internal volume in which an inner wall is disposed. A second gap is formed between the intermediate wall and the inner wall. The second gap receives cooling fluid that cools the injector. The cooling fluid provides convective cooling to the intermediate wall as it flows within the second gap. The cooling fluid also flows through apertures in the intermediate wall into the first gap where it provides impingement cooling to the outer wall and provides convective cooling to the outer wall. The inner wall defines a passageway that delivers fuel into a liner downstream from a main combustion zone.

  8. Direct fired reciprocating engine and bottoming high temperature fuel cell hybrid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Holcombe, Norman T.

    2006-02-07

    A system of a fuel cell bottoming an internal combustion engine. The engine exhaust gas may be combined in varying degrees with air and fed as input to a fuel cell. Reformer and oxidizers may be combined with heat exchangers to accommodate rich and lean burn conditions in the engine in peaking and base load conditions without producing high concentrations of harmful emissions.

  9. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  10. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2007-11-06

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  11. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  12. Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr.; Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-04-25

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  13. Characteristics of isopentanol as a fuel for HCCI engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over the currently used ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. The rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} alcohols cost effectively. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially substitute ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C{sub 5} alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for HCCI engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. Results are presented in comparison with gasoline or ethanol data previously reported. For a given combustion phasing, isopentanol requires lower intake temperatures than gasoline or ethanol at all tested speeds, indicating a higher HCCI reactivity. Similar to ethanol but unlike gasoline, isopentanol does not show two-stage ignition even at very low engine speed (350 rpm) or with considerable intake pressure boost (200 kPa abs.). However, isopentanol does show considerable intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) that is comparable to gasoline. Our previous work has found that ITHR is critical for maintaining combustion stability at the retarded combustion phasings required to achieve high loads without knock. The stronger ITHR causes the combustion phasing of isopentanol to be less sensitive to intake temperature variations than ethanol. With the capability to retard combustion phasing, a maximum IMEP{sub g} of 5.4 and 11.6 bar was achieved with isopentanol at 100 and 200 kPa intake pressure, respectively. These loads are even slightly higher than those achieved with gasoline. The ITHR of isopentanol depends on operating conditions and is enhanced by simultaneously increasing pressures and reducing temperatures. However, increasing the temperature seems to have little effect on ITHR at

  14. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  15. Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Blends of Phytol and diesel (by volume) were compared against baseline diesel experiments and simulations p-21_ramirez.pdf (351.23 KB) More Documents & Publications HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance Characterization of Dual-Fuel

  16. High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine High Fuel Economy Heavy-Duty Truck Engine 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace060_tai_2011_o.pdf (434.09 KB) More Documents & Publications Volvo SuperTruck - Powertrain Technologies for Efficiency Improvement Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Volvo SuperTruck - Powertrain Technologies for Efficiency Improvement SuperTruck Program: Engine Project Review

  17. Hydrogen as a Supplemental Fuel in Diesel Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as a Supplemental Fuel in Diesel Engines Hydrogen as a Supplemental Fuel in Diesel Engines Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_bika.pdf (177.65 KB) More Documents & Publications Fuels of the Future for Cars and Trucks Renewable Diesel Vehicle Technologies Office:

  18. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann; DeLancey, James Peter; Primus, Roy James; Pintgen, Florian Peter

    2011-02-15

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  19. LWRS Fuels Pathway: Engineering Design and Fuels Pathway Initial Testing of the Hot Water Corrosion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. John Garnier; Dr. Kevin McHugh

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development R&D pathway performs strategic research focused on cladding designs leading to improved reactor core economics and safety margins. The research performed is to demonstrate the nuclear fuel technology advancements while satisfying safety and regulatory limits. These goals are met through rigorous testing and analysis. The nuclear fuel technology developed will assist in moving existing nuclear fuel technology to an improved level that would not be practical by industry acting independently. Strategic mission goals are to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental nuclear fuel and cladding performance in nuclear power plants, and to apply this information in the development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels. These will result in improved safety, cladding, integrity, and nuclear fuel cycle economics. To achieve these goals various methods for non-irradiated characterization testing of advanced cladding systems are needed. One such new test system is the Hot Water Corrosion System (HWCS) designed to develop new data for cladding performance assessment and material behavior under simulated off-normal reactor conditions. The HWCS is capable of exposing prototype rodlets to heated, high velocity water at elevated pressure for long periods of time (days, weeks, months). Water chemistry (dissolved oxygen, conductivity and pH) is continuously monitored. In addition, internal rodlet heaters inserted into cladding tubes are used to evaluate repeated thermal stressing and heat transfer characteristics of the prototype rodlets. In summary, the HWCS provides rapid ex-reactor evaluation of cladding designs in normal (flowing hot water) and off-normal (induced cladding stress), enabling engineering and manufacturing improvements to cladding designs before initiation of the more expensive and time consuming in-reactor irradiation testing.

  20. A Stirling engine for use with lower quality fuels (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Stirling engine for use with lower quality fuels This content will become publicly available on June 21, 2017 Prev Next Title: A Stirling engine for use with lower quality ...

  1. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakwani, R. M.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.; Winsor, R. E.

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  2. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.

    2003-09-02

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  3. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.; Park, Chan Seung

    2011-11-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  4. Performance and emissions characteristics of alternative fuels in spark ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, M.R.; Maxwell, R.L.; Swain, M.N.; Bedsworth, K.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A formal ongoing program to characterize the performance and exhaust characteristics of automotive-type powerplants fueled by conventional and alternative fuels is reported. This report contains the information obtained during the past three years when four alternative fuels and two baseline fuels were evaluated in three engines. The four alternative fuels were a simulated gasoline made to represent coal derived gasoline, methyl aryl ethers blended at the 10% level in an unleaded gasoline, gasoline made from methanol, and a blend of Indolene plus methanol and higher alcohols. The two baseline fuels were, Indolene and Gulf unleaded regular gasoline. The engines tested were a pre-mixed carbureted SI (spark ignition) engine, a carbureted three-valve stratified-charge SI engine and a pre-mixed carbureted SI engine with a closed-loop three-way catalyst emission control system.

  5. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  6. Evaluation of the hydrogen-fueled rotary engine for hybrid vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salanki, P.A.; Wallace, J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The hydrogen-fueled engine has been identified as a viable power unit for ultra-low emission series-hybrid vehicles. The Wankel engine is particularly well suited to the use of hydrogen fuel, since its design minimizes most of the combustion difficulties. In order to evaluate the possibilities offered by the hydrogen fueled rotary engine, dynamometer tests were conducted with a small (2.2 kW) Wankel engine fueled with hydrogen. Preliminary results show an absence of the combustion difficulties present with hydrogen-fueled homogeneous charge piston engines. The engine was operated unthrottled and power output was controlled by quality governing, i.e. by varying the fuel-air equivalence ratio on the lean side of stoichiometric. The ability to operate with quality governing is made possible by the wide flammability limits of hydrogen-air mixtures. NO{sub x} emissions are on the order of 5 ppm for power outputs up to 70% of the maximum attainable on hydrogen fuel. Thus, by operating with very lean mixtures, which effectively derates the engine, very low NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved. Since the rotary engine has a characteristically high power to weight ratio and a small volume per unit power compared to the piston engine, operating a rotary engine on hydrogen and derating the power output could yield an engine with extremely low emissions which still has weight and volume characteristics comparable to a gasoline-fueled piston engine. Finally, since engine weight and volume affect vehicle design, and consequently in-use vehicle power requirements, those factors, as well as engine efficiency, must be taken into account in evaluating overall hybrid vehicle efficiency.

  7. TRISO-Fuel Element Performance Modeling for the Hybrid LIFE Engine with Pu Fuel Blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMange, P; Marian, J; Caro, M; Caro, A

    2010-02-18

    A TRISO-coated fuel thermo-mechanical performance study is performed for the hybrid LIFE engine to test the viability of TRISO particles to achieve ultra-high burnup of a weapons-grade Pu blanket. Our methodology includes full elastic anisotropy, time and temperature varying material properties for all TRISO layers, and a procedure to remap the elastic solutions in order to achieve fast fluences up to 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2} (E > 0.18 MeV). In order to model fast fluences in the range of {approx} 7 {approx} 30 x 10{sup 25} n {center_dot} m{sup -2}, for which no data exist, careful scalings and extrapolations of the known TRISO material properties are carried out under a number of potential scenarios. A number of findings can be extracted from our study. First, failure of the internal pyrolytic carbon (PyC) layer occurs within the first two months of operation. Then, the particles behave as BISO-coated particles, with the internal pressure being withstood directly by the SiC layer. Later, after 1.6 years, the remaining PyC crumbles due to void swelling and the fuel particle becomes a single-SiC-layer particle. Unrestrained by the PyC layers, and at the temperatures and fluences in the LIFE engine, the SiC layer maintains reasonably-low tensile stresses until the end-of-life. Second, the PyC creep constant, K, has a striking influence on the fuel performance of TRISO-coated particles, whose stresses scale almost inversely proportional to K. Obtaining more reliable measurements, especially at higher fluences, is an imperative for the fidelity of our models. Finally, varying the geometry of the TRISO-coated fuel particles results in little differences in the scope of fuel performance. The mechanical integrity of 2-cm graphite pebbles that act as fuel matrix has also been studied and it is concluded that they can reliable serve the entire LIFE burnup cycle without failure.

  8. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.T. Robinson; James P. Meagher; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Siv Aasland; Charles Besecker; Jack Chen Bart A. van Hassel; Olga Polevaya; Rafey Khan; Piyush Pilaniwalla

    2002-12-31

    This topical report summarizes work accomplished for the Program from November 1, 2001 to December 31, 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1: Materials Development; Task 2: Composite Development; Task 4: Reactor Design and Process Optimization; Task 8: Fuels and Engine Testing; 8.1 International Diesel Engine Program; 8.2 Nuvera Fuel Cell Program; and Task 10: Program Management. Major progress has been made towards developing high temperature, high performance, robust, oxygen transport elements. In addition, a novel reactor design has been proposed that co-produces hydrogen, lowers cost and improves system operability. Fuel and engine testing is progressing well, but was delayed somewhat due to the hiatus in program funding in 2002. The Nuvera fuel cell portion of the program was completed on schedule and delivered promising results regarding low emission fuels for transportation fuel cells. The evaluation of ultra-clean diesel fuels continues in single cylinder (SCTE) and multiple cylinder (MCTE) test rigs at International Truck and Engine. FT diesel and a BP oxygenate showed significant emissions reductions in comparison to baseline petroleum diesel fuels. Overall through the end of 2002 the program remains under budget, but behind schedule in some areas.

  9. Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Safety Enhancing Railroad Hazardous Materials Transportation Safety Presented by Kevin R. Blackwell, Radioactive Materials Program Manager. PDF icon Enhancing Railroad Hazardous...

  10. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review Advanced Combustion Engine R&D and Fuels Technology Merit Review Merit review of DOE FCVT combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels research. Annual Progress Report (5.6 MB) More Documents & Publications Heavy Vehicle Systems Optimization Peer Review 2008 Annual Merit Review Results Summary - 7. Combustion Research 2012 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Advanced Combustion

  11. New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuel Diesel Engine Challenges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008-2009 Fuels Technologies R&D Progress Report Biodiesel Basics ...

  12. New Vehicle Initiative Aims to Make Fuel and Engines Work Together More Efficiently

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recently I had the pleasure of briefing members of Congress on EERE’s groundbreaking fuel-engine co-optimization initiative. The new, multi-year project combines previously independent areas of biofuels and engine combustion research and development (R&D) to design new fuels and engines that are co-optimized—designed in tandem to both maximize vehicle performance and carbon efficiency.

  13. Engineered nano-scale ceramic supports for PEM fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, Eric L; Blackmore, Karen J; Burrell, Anthony K; Henson, Neil J; Phillips, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    cell conditions must also exhibit high surface area as a necessary adjunct to obtaining high Pt dispersions and Pt utilization targets. Our goal in this work is to identify new synthesis approaches together with materials that will lead to ceramic supports with high surface areas and high Pt dispersions. Several strong candidates for use as PEMFC catalyst supports include: transition metal nitrides and substoichiometric titanium oxides, which hither to now have been prepared by other researcher groups with relatively low surface areas (ca. 1-50 m{sup 2}/g typical). To achieve our goals of engineering high surface area, conductive ceramic support for utilization in PEMFCs, a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary team with experience synthesizing and investigating these materials has been assembled. This team is headed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and includes Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of New Mexico. This report describes our fiscal year 2010 technical progress related to applying advanced synthetiC methods towards the development of new ceramic supports for Pt catalysts for PEM fuel cells.

  14. Series 50 propane-fueled Nova bus: Engine development, installation, and field trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.

    1999-01-01

    The report describes a project to develop the Detroit Diesel series 50 liquefied propane gas (LPG) heavy-duty engine and to conduct demonstrations of LPG-fuelled buses at selected sites (Halifax Regional Municipality and three sites in the United States). The project included five main elements: Engine development and certification, chassis re-engineering and engine installation, field demonstration, LPG fuel testing, and LPG fuel variability testing. Lessons learned with regard to engine design and other issues are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development and testing.

  15. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems` variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems' variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included. (Contains a minimum of 223 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Fuel nozzle for a combustor of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belsom, Keith Cletus; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Thomas, Larry Lou

    2016-03-22

    A fuel nozzle for a gas turbine generally includes a main body having an upstream end axially separated from a downstream end. The main body at least partially defines a fuel supply passage that extends through the upstream end and at least partially through the main body. A fuel distribution manifold is disposed at the downstream end of the main body. The fuel distribution manifold includes a plurality of axially extending passages that extend through the fuel distribution manifold. A plurality of fuel injection ports defines a flow path between the fuel supply passage and each of the plurality of axially extending passages.

  18. Development of a bench scale test to evaluate lubricants for use with methanol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, R.; Klaus, E.; Duda, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    In methanol-fueled diesel engines, the crankcase lubricant is used to lubricate both the engine and the fuel injector system. Crankcase lubricants including some designed for methanol-fueled engines are not completely compatible with the methanol fuel. In order to test the effect of methanol extraction on diesel engine lubricant performance, two extraction protocols were developed: one to simulate the fuel injector (1000 parts of methanol to one part of lubricant) and the other to simulate an extreme case of methanol contamination in the crank-case (one part of methanol to five parts of lubricant). The extracted samples of the lubricant were stripped to remove the methanol. The samples were then evaluated for changes in oxidative stability and lubricity. 12 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Methanol with dimethyl ether ignition promotor as fuel for compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brook, D.L.; Cipolat, D.; Rallis, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    Reduction of the world dependence upon crude oil necessitates the use of long term alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Alcohols appear to offer a solution as in the short term they can be manufactured from natural gas and coal, while ultimately they may be produced from agricultural products. A fair measure of success has been achieved in using alcohols in spark ignition engines. However the more widely used compression ignition engines cannot utilize unmodified pure alcohols. The current techniques for using alcohol fuels in compression ignition engines all have a number of shortcomings. This paper describes a novel technique where an ignition promotor, dimethyl ether (DME), is used to increase the cetane rating of methanol. The systems particular advantage is that the DME can be catalyzed from the methanol base fuel, in situ. This fuel system matches the performance characteristics of diesel oil fuel.

  20. Method and apparatus for controlling fuel/air mixture in a lean burn engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubesh, John Thomas; Dodge, Lee Gene; Podnar, Daniel James

    1998-04-07

    The system for controlling the fuel/air mixture supplied to a lean burn engine when operating on natural gas, gasoline, hydrogen, alcohol, propane, butane, diesel or any other fuel as desired. As specific humidity of air supplied to the lean burn engine increases, the oxygen concentration of exhaust gas discharged by the engine for a given equivalence ratio will decrease. Closed loop fuel control systems typically attempt to maintain a constant exhaust gas oxygen concentration. Therefore, the decrease in the exhaust gas oxygen concentration resulting from increased specific humidity will often be improperly attributed to an excessive supply of fuel and the control system will incorrectly reduce the amount of fuel supplied to the engine. Also, the minimum fuel/air equivalence ratio for a lean burn engine to avoid misfiring will increase as specific humidity increases. A relative humidity sensor to allow the control system to provide a more enriched fuel/air mixture at high specific humidity levels. The level of specific humidity may be used to compensate an output signal from a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor for changing oxygen concentrations at a desired equivalence ratio due to variation in specific humidity specific humidity. As a result, the control system will maintain the desired efficiency, low exhaust emissions and power level for the associated lean burn engine regardless of the specific humidity level of intake air supplied to the lean burn engine.

  1. Engineered Biosynthesis of Alternative Biodiesel Fuel - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration | (NNSA) Engineer, Sandia National Laboratories Clifford Ho Clifford Ho February 2010 Asian American Engineer of the Year Clifford Ho, a Sandia engineer, has been selected by the Chinese Institute of Engineers - USA to receive the Asian American Engineer of the Year Award. The honor is presented each year to the nation's most outstanding Asian American engineers and scientists who make significant, lasting and global contributions to the nation. Ho was recognized for his

  2. BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines BETO Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines December 17, 2015 - 9:48am Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) have released a request for information (RFI) titled "Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines" (Optima). BETO and VTO are

  3. Fuel Effects on Ignition and Their Impact on Advanced Combustion Engines (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.; Li, H.; Neill, S.

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this report is to develop a pathway to use easily measured ignition properties as metrics for characterizing fuels in advanced combustion engine research--correlate IQT{trademark} measured parameters with engine data. In HCCL engines, ignition timing depends on the reaction rates throughout compression stroke: need to understand sensitivity to T, P, and [O{sub 2}]; need to rank fuels based on more than one set of conditions; and need to understand how fuel composition (molecular species) affect ignition properties.

  4. EERE Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy EERE Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines EERE Seeks Stakeholder Input on the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines December 18, 2015 - 1:00pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) have released a request for information (RFI) titled "Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines" (Optima). BETO and VTO are

  5. Road to Fuel Savings: GM Technology Ramps Up Engine Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from the Energy Department, is having a big impact on the vehicle's fuel consumption. ... is a compact technology that is having a big impact on the vehicle's fuel consumption. ...

  6. Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: DaimlerChrysler Research and Technology

  7. Investigation of Bio-Diesel Fueled Engines under Low-Temperature Combustion Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chia-fon F. Lee; Alan C. Hansen

    2010-09-30

    In accordance with meeting DOE technical targets this research was aimed at developing and optimizing new fuel injection technologies and strategies for the combustion of clean burning renewable fuels in diesel engines. In addition a simultaneous minimum 20% improvement in fuel economy was targeted with the aid of this novel advanced combustion system. Biodiesel and other renewable fuels have unique properties that can be leveraged to reduce emissions and increase engine efficiency. This research is an investigation into the combustion characteristics of biodiesel and its impacts on the performance of a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine, which is a novel engine configuration that incorporates technologies and strategies for simultaneously reducing NOx and particulate emissions while increasing engine efficiency. Generating fundamental knowledge about the properties of biodiesel and blends with petroleum-derived diesel and their impact on in-cylinder fuel atomization and combustion processes was an important initial step to being able to optimize fuel injection strategies as well as introduce new technologies. With the benefit of this knowledge experiments were performed on both optical and metal LTC engines in which combustion and emissions could be observed and measured under realistic conditions. With the aid these experiments and detailed combustion models strategies were identified and applied in order to improve fuel economy and simultaneously reduce emissions.

  8. Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 – October 1, 2009

  9. Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study presents full quantification of biodiesel's impact on emissions and fuel economy with the inclusion of DPF regeneration events.

  10. Emissions comparison of alternative fuels in an advanced automotive diesel engine. Interim report, October 1997--April 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirman, M.B.; Owens, E.C.; Whitney, K.A.

    1998-09-01

    Exhaust emissions mappings were conducted for six alternative diesel fuels in a Daimler-Benz (DB) OM6l1 diesel engine. The OM6l 1 engine is a 2.2L, direct-injection diesel with a Bosch, high-pressure, common-rail, fuel-injection system. The engine design closely matches the specifications of the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) target compression-ignition engine. Triplicate 13-mode, steady-state test sequences were performed for each fuel, with a 2-D control fuel serving as the baseline. No adjustments were made to the engine to compensate for any performance differences resulting from fuel property variations.

  11. Design and development of the Waukesha Custom Engine Control Air/Fuel Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    The Waukesha Custom Engine Control Air/Fuel Module (AFM) is designed to control the air-fuel ratio for all Waukesha carbureted, gaseous fueled, industrial engine. The AFM is programmed with a personal computer to run in one of four control modes: catalyst, best power, best economy, or lean-burn. One system can control naturally aspirated, turbocharged, in-line or vee engines. The basic system consists of an oxygen sensing system, intake manifold pressure transducer, electronic control module, actuator and exhaust thermocouple. The system permits correct operation of Waukesha engines in spite of changes in fuel pressure or temperature, engine load or speed, and fuel composition. The system utilizes closed loop control and is centered about oxygen sensing technology. An innovative approach to applying oxygen sensors to industrial engines provides very good performance, greatly prolongs sensor life, and maintains sensor accuracy. Design considerations and operating results are given for application of the system to stationary, industrial engines operating on fuel gases of greatly varying composition.

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel project systems engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, J.C.

    1995-10-03

    The purpose of the WHC Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to describe the systems engineering approach and methods that will be integrated with established WHC engineering practices to enhance the WHC engineering management of the SNF Project. The scope of the SEMP encompasses the efforts needed to manage the WHC implementation of systems engineering on the SNF Project. This implementation applies to, and is tailored to the needs of the SNF project and all its subprojects, including all current and future subprojects

  13. Heavy-duty H2-Diesel Dual Fuel Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    duty H2-Diesel Dual Fuel Engines Heavy-duty H2-Diesel Dual Fuel Engines Brake thermal efficiency can be improved with the addition of a large amount of hydrogen at medium to high loads deer09_li.pdf (37.32 KB) More Documents & Publications Evaluation of NTE Windows and a Work-Based Method to Determine In-Use Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects Integrated Engine and Aftertreatment Technology Roadmap for EPA 2010 Heavy-duty Emissions Regulations

  14. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled ``Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,`` describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  15. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  16. Enhanced air/fuel mixing for automotive stirling engine turbulator-type combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riecke, George T.; Stotts, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to the improved combustion of fuel in a combustion chamber of a stirling engine and the like by dividing combustion into primary and secondary combustion zones through the use of a diverter plate.

  17. Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Norton; Keith Vertin; Nigel N. Clark; Donald W. Lyons; Mridul Gautam; Stephen Goguen; James Eberhardt

    1999-05-03

    Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also economically competitive with California diesel fuel if .roduced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel, because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. The buses were equipped with unmodified Detroit Diesel 6V92 2-stroke diesel engines. Six 40-foot buses were tested. Three of the buses had recently rebuilt engines and were equipped with an oxidation catalytic converter. Vehicle emissions measurements were performed using West Virginia University's unique transportable chassis dynamometer. The emissions were measured over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. The buses performed well on both neat and blended MGSD fuel. Three buses without catalytic converters were tested. Compared to their emissions when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel, these buses emitted an average of 5% lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 20% lower particulate matter (PM) when operating on neat MGSD fuel. Catalyst equipped buses emitted an average of 8% lower NOx and 31% lower PM when operating on MGSD than when operating on Federal no. 2 diesel fuel.

  18. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  19. Review of alternate automotive engine fuel economy. Final report January-October 78

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, D.; Bolt, J.A.; Huber, P.; Taylor, T. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    This study assessed the potential of alternate automotive engines to meet the fuel economy goals and emission levels of the 1980-1990 period. As part of NHTSA's continuing research in support of the Department of Transportation fuel economy activities, this study reviewed those developments offering viable substitutes for the current spark ignition engine systems. Categories assessed included stratified charge, diesels, turbo charging, rotary/Wankel engines, and the developmental gas turbine and Stirling cycle engines. Results of past and on-going research through 1978 were reviewed along with the development and production status of various alternate engine technologies proposed for automobiles and light trucks through the 1980s. Assessment was then made of the potential fuel economy improvement as a percentage of 1978 baseline data.

  20. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  1. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project

  2. HD Truck and Engine Fuel Efficiency Opportunities and Challenges...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Supertruck - Development and Demonstration of a Fuel-Efficient Class 8 Tractor & Trailer Comments of Tendril Networks Inc SuperTruck Development ...

  3. Future Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable, Fuel-Efficient, and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Market Introducution in Europe Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel ...

  4. Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Co-Optima Program Overview, John Farrell, Laboratory Program Manager, Vehicle Technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Co-Optima: Low Greenhouse Gas Fuels, Blake Simmons, ...

  5. Sandia Energy - Optima: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stakeholder and consumer value. The initiative will accelerate the widespread deployment of significantly improved fuels and vehicles (passenger to light truck to heavy-duty...

  6. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Task 7, Extended wear testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakenell, J.F.; Fritz, S.G.; Schwalb, J.A.

    1991-07-01

    Over the past several years, interest has arisen in the development of coal-fired diesel engines for the purpose of efficiently utilizing the extensive coal reserves in the United States, and therefore reducing dependence on foreign oil. One process, which is being considered for use in producing clean coal fuel products involves mild gasification. This process produces by-products which can be further refined and, when blended with neat diesel fuel, used as an engine fuel. The purpose of this task was to test a blend of this coal liquid and diesel fuel (referred to as coal-lite) in an engine, and determine if any detrimental results were observed. This was done by performing a back-to-back performance and emission test of neat diesel fuel and the coal-lite fuel, followed by a 500-hour test of the coal-lite fuel, and completed by a back-to-back performance and emission test of the coal-lite fuel and neat diesel fuel.

  7. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakenell, J.F.; Fritz, S.G.; Schwalb, J.A.

    1991-07-01

    Over the past several years, interest has arisen in the development of coal-fired diesel engines for the purpose of efficiently utilizing the extensive coal reserves in the United States, and therefore reducing dependence on foreign oil. One process, which is being considered for use in producing clean coal fuel products involves mild gasification. This process produces by-products which can be further refined and, when blended with neat diesel fuel, used as an engine fuel. The purpose of this task was to test a blend of this coal liquid and diesel fuel (referred to as coal-lite) in an engine, and determine if any detrimental results were observed. This was done by performing a back-to-back performance and emission test of neat diesel fuel and the coal-lite fuel, followed by a 500-hour test of the coal-lite fuel, and completed by a back-to-back performance and emission test of the coal-lite fuel and neat diesel fuel.

  8. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratapas, John; Zelepouga, Serguei; Gnatenko, Vitaliy; Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas; Li, Hailin; Getz, Timothy; Mather, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  9. Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima) -- Thrust II Engine Projects, Sprays, and Emissions Control Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FT039 - Part 1 Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Advanced Engine Development Team Paul Miles, 4 Magnus Sjöberg, 4 John Dec, 4 Steve Ciatti, 1 Chris Kolodziej, 1 Scott Curran, 3 Mark Musculus, 4 Charles Mueller 4 1. Argonne National Laboratory 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory 4. Sandia National Laboratories Co-Optima DOE VTO Management Team: Kevin Stork, Gurpreet Singh, & Leo Breton Thrust II engine projects June 9 th , 2016 Overview: Thrust II

  10. Simulation studies of diesel engine performance with oxygen enriched air and water emulsified fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assanis, D.N.; Baker, D. ); Sekar, R.R.; Siambekos, C.T.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    A computer simulation code of a turbocharged, turbocompound diesel engine was modified to study the effects of using oxygen-enriched combustion air and water-emulsified diesel fuels. Oxygen levels of 21 percent to 40 percent by volume in the combustion air were studied. Water content in the fuel was varied from 0 percent to 50 percent mass. Simulation studies and a review and analysis of previous work in this area led to the following conclusions about expected engine performance and emissions: the power density of the engine is significantly increased by oxygen enrichment. Ignition delay and particulate emissions are reduced. Combustion temperatures and No{sub x} emissions are increased with oxygen enrichment but could be brought back to the base levels by introducing water in the fuel. The peak cylinder pressure which increases with the power output level might result in mechanical problems with engine components. Oxygen enrichment also provides an opportunity to use cheaper fuel such as No. 6 diesel fuel. Overall, the adverse effects of oxygen enrichment could be countered by the addition of water and it appears that an optimum combination of water content, oxygen level, and base diesel fuel quality may exist. This could yield improved performance and emissions characteristics compared to a state-of-the-art diesel engine. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Study of fuel consumption and cooling system in low heat rejection turbocharged diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taymaz, I.; Gur, M.; Cally, I.; Mimaroglu, A.

    1998-07-01

    In a conventional internal combustion engine, approximately one-third of total fuel input energy is converted to useful work. Since the working gas in a practical engine cycle is not exhausted at ambient temperature, a major part of the energy is lost with the exhaust gases. In addition another major part of energy input is rejected in the form of heat via the cooling system. If the energy normally rejected to the coolant could be recovered instead on the crankshaft as useful work, then a substantial improvement in fuel economy would result. At the same time, the cooling water, antifreeze, thermostat, radiator, water pump, cooling fan, and associated hoses and clamps could be eliminated. A new trend in the field of internal combustion engines is to insulate the heat transfer surfaces such as the combustion chamber, cylinder wall, cylinder head, piston and valves by ceramic insulating materials for the improvement of engine performance and elimination of cooling system. In this study, the effect of insulated heat transfer surfaces on direct injected and turbocharged diesel engine fuel consumption and cooling system were investigated. The research engine was a four-stroke, direct injected, six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. This engine was tested at different speeds and loads conditions without coating. Then, combustion chamber surfaces, cylinder head, valves and piston crown faces was coated with ceramic materials. Ceramic layers were made of CaZrO{sub 3} and MgZrO{sub 3} and plasma coated onto base of the NiCrAl bond coat. The ceramic coated research engine was tested at the same operation conditions as the standard (without coating) engine. The results indicate a reduction in fuel consumption and heat losses to engine cooling system of the ceramic coated engine.

  12. Fuel-air mixing and combustion in a two-dimensional Wankel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, T.I.P.; Schock, H.J.; Ramos, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of mixture stratification at the intake port and gaseous fuel injection on the flow field and fuel-air mixing in a two-dimensional rotary engine model have been investigated by means of a two-equation model of turbulence, an algebraic grid generation method and an approximate factorization time-linearized numerical technique. It is shown that the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber is a function of the air-fuel mixture fluctuations at the intake port. The fuel is advected by the flow field induced by the rotor and is concentrated near the leading apex during the intake stroke. During compression, the fuel concentration is highest near the trailing apex and lowest near the rotor. The penetration of gaseous fuel injected into the combustion chamber during the compression stroke increases with the injection velocity.

  13. Methylal and Methylal-Diesel Blended Fuels from Use In Compression-Ignition Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith D. Vertin; James M. Ohi; David W. Naegeli; Kenneth H. Childress; Gary P. Hagen; Chris I. McCarthy; Adelbert S. Cheng; Robert W. Dibble

    1999-05-05

    Gas-to-liquids catalytic conversion technologies show promise for liberating stranded natural gas reserves and for achieving energy diversity worldwide. Some gas-to-liquids products are used as transportation fuels and as blendstocks for upgrading crude derived fuels. Methylal (CH{sub 3}-O-CH{sub 2}-O-CH{sub 3}) also known as dimethoxymethane or DMM, is a gas-to-liquid chemical that has been evaluated for use as a diesel fuel component. Methylal contains 42% oxygen by weight and is soluble in diesel fuel. The physical and chemical properties of neat methylal and for blends of methylal in conventional diesel fuel are presented. Methylal was found to be more volatile than diesel fuel, and special precautions for distribution and fuel tank storage are discussed. Steady state engine tests were also performed using an unmodified Cummins 85.9 turbocharged diesel engine to examine the effect of methylal blend concentration on performance and emissions. Substantial reductions of particulate matter emissions h ave been demonstrated 3r IO to 30% blends of methylal in diesel fuel. This research indicates that methylal may be an effective blendstock for diesel fuel provided design changes are made to vehicle fuel handling systems.

  14. Fuel injection characteristics and combustion behavior of a direct-injection stratified-charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balles, E.N.; Ekchian, J.A.; Heywood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    High levels of hydrocarbon emissions during light load operation keep the direct injection stratified charge engine from commercial application. Previous analytical work has identified several possible hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms which can result from poor in-cylinder fuel distribution. Poor fuel distribution can be caused by erratic fuel injection. Experiments conducted on a single cylinder disc engine show a dramatic increase in the cycle to cycle variation in injection characteristics as engine load decreases. This is accompanied by an increase in cycle to cycle variation in combustion behavior suggesting that degradation in combustion results from the degradation in the quality of the injection event. Examination of combustion and injection characteristics on a cycle by cycle basis shows that, at light load, IMEP and heat release do not correlate with the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder. There are strong indications that individual cycles undergo partial or complete misfire.

  15. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  16. Engine performance comparison associated with carburetor icing during aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel operation. Final report Jan-Jul 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavage, W.; Newcomb, J.; Biehl, K.

    1983-05-01

    A comprehensive sea-level-static test cell data collection and evaluation effort to review operational characteristics of 'off-the-shelf' carburetor ice detection/warning devices for general aviation piston engine aircraft during operation on aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel. Presented herein are results, observations and conclusions drawn from over 250 hours of test cell engine operation on 100LL aviation grade fuel, unleaded premium and unleaded regular grade automotive fuel. Sea-level-static test cell engine operations were conducted utilizing a Teledyne Continental Motors 0-200A engine and a Cessna 150 fuel system to review engine operational characteristics of 100LL aviation grade fuel and various blends of automotive grade fuel as well as carburetor ice detectors/warning devices sensitivity/effectiveness during actual carburetor icing. The primary purpose of test cell engine operation was to observe real-time carburetor icing characteristics associated with possible automotive grade fuel utilization by piston-powered light general aviation aircraft. In fulfillment of this task, baseline engine operations were established with 100LL aviation grade fuel followed by various blend of automotive grade fuel prior to imposing carburetor icing conditions and assessing operational characteristics.

  17. Performance and emissions of non-petroleum fuels in a direct-injection stratified charge Sl engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, L.E.; Chui, G.K.; Roby, R.J.

    1982-10-01

    Seven fuels derived from coal and shale resources were evaluated using a direct-injection stratified charge engine. The fuels were refined to different degrees which ranged from those typical of gasoline blending components to those similar to current gasoline. Results showed that fuels refined to have properties similar to gasoline performed like gasoline. The less refined fuels were limited in performance. The total carbon monoxide and the hydrocarbon emissions varied with the volatility of the fuels. Most fuels with a higher overall distillation curve generally gave higher hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. The NOx emissions increased with the percent aromatics in the fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were found to increase with fuel viscosity. Within the range of engine operation, nearly all the fuels evaluated gave satisfactory performance. With some modifications, even the less refined fuels can be potentially suitable for use in this engine.

  18. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.

    1991-10-01

    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  19. Operation of a Four-Cylinder 1.9L Propane Fueled HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Au, M; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    2001-03-15

    A four-cylinder 1.9 Volkswagen TDI Engine has been converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. The stock configuration is a turbocharged direct injection Diesel engine. The combustion chamber has been modified by discarding the in-cylinder Diesel fuel injectors and replacing them with blank inserts (which contain pressure transducers). The stock pistons contain a reentrant bowl and have been retained for the tests reported here. The intake and exhaust manifolds have also been retained, but the turbocharger has been removed. A heater has been installed upstream of the intake manifold and fuel is added just downstream of this heater. The performance of this engine in naturally aspirated HCCI operation, subject to variable intake temperature and fuel flow rate, has been studied. The engine has been run with propane fuel at a constant speed of 1800 rpm. This work is intended to characterize the HCCI operation of the engine in this configuration that has been minimally modified from the base Diesel engine. The performance (BMEP, IMEP, efficiency, etc) and emissions (THC, CO, NOx) of the engine are presented, as are combustion process results based on heat release analysis of the pressure traces from each cylinder.

  20. Recent Accomplishments in the Irradiation Testing of Engineering-Scale Monolithic Fuel Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; D.M. Wachs; M.K. Meyer; H.W. Glunz; R.B. Nielson

    2012-10-01

    The US fuel development team is focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum monolithic fuel including irradiation testing of engineering-scale specimens. The team has recently accomplished the successful irradiation of the first monolithic multi-plate fuel element assembly within the AFIP-7 campaign. The AFIP-6 MKII campaign, while somewhat truncated by hardware challenges, exhibited successful irradiation of a large-scale monolithic specimen under extreme irradiation conditions. The channel gap and ultrasonic data are presented for AFIP-7 and AFIP-6 MKII, respectively. Finally, design concepts are summarized for future irradiations such as the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiment campaigns.

  1. New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuel Diesel Engine Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  2. A Model Fuels Consortium to Promote Engine Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  3. Fuel nozzle assembly for use as structural support for a duct structure in a combustor of a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

    2015-03-31

    A fuel nozzle assembly for use in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer housing of the fuel nozzle assembly includes an inner volume and provides a direct structural connection between a duct structure and a fuel manifold. The duct structure defines a flow passage for combustion gases flowing within the combustor apparatus. The fuel manifold defines a fuel supply channel therein in fluid communication with a source of fuel. A fuel injector of the fuel nozzle assembly is provided in the inner volume of the outer housing and defines a fuel passage therein. The fuel passage is in fluid communication with the fuel supply channel of the fuel manifold for distributing the fuel from the fuel supply channel into the flow passage of the duct structure.

  4. Diesel fuel component contribution to engine emissions and performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erwin, J.; Ryan, T.W. III; Moulton, D.S.

    1994-11-01

    Contemporary diesel fuel is a blend of several refinery streams chosen to meet specifications. The need to increase yield of transportation fuel from crude oil has resulted in converting increased proportions of residual oil to lighter products. This conversion is accomplished by thermal, catalytic, and hydrocracking of high molecular weight materials rich in aromatic compounds. The current efforts to reformulate California diesel fuel for reduced emissions from existing engines is an example of another driving force affecting refining practice: regulations designed to reduce exhaust emissions. Although derived from petroleum crude oil, reformulated diesel fuel is an alternative to current specification-grade diesel fuel, and this alternative presents opportunities and questions to be resolved by fuel and engine research. Various concerned parties have argued that regulations for fuel reformulation have not been based on an adequate data base. Despite numerous studies, much ambiguity remains about the relationship of exhaust parameters to fuel composition, particularly for diesel fuel. In an effort to gather pertinent data, the automobile industry and the oil refiners have joined forces in the Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AUTO/OIL) to address this question for gasoline. The objective of that work is to define the relationship between gasoline composition and the magnitude and composition of the exhaust emissions. The results of the AUTO/OEL program will also be used, along with other data bases, to define the EPA {open_quotes}complex model{close_quotes} for reformulated gasolines. Valuable insights have been gained for compression ignition engines in the Coordinating Research Council`s VE-1 program, but no program similar to AUTO/OIL has been started for diesel fuel reformulation. A more detailed understanding of the fuel/performance relationship is a readily apparent need.

  5. Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize coal-water slurry fuel sprays from diesel engine injectors. Since the combustion event is a strong function of the fuel spray, full characterization of the spray is a necessity for successful engine design and for modeling of the combustion process. Two experimental facilities were used at TAMU to study the injection of coal slurry fuels. The first experimental facility incorporates General Electric locomotive engine components (injection pump, fuel line, and nozzle) and a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the moving parts of the pump. The second experimental facility is based on an accumulator injector from General Electric. Instrumentation includes instantaneous needle lift and fuel line pressure. A pressurized visualization chamber was used to provide a spray environment which simulated the engine gas density and permitted the use of spray diagnostic techniques. The study was divided into two phases: (1) overall characterization of the spray, and (2) detailed droplet size and size distribution characterization. In addition to this overall characterization of the spray, the second phase of this study characterized the details of the atomization quality.

  6. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project systems engineering management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, J.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-19

    The purpose of this document is to describe the systems engineering approach and methods that will be integrated with established WHC engineering practices. The methodology promotes and ensures sound management of the SNF Project. The scope of the document encompasses the efforts needed to manage the WHC implementation of systems engineering on the SNF Project including risk management process, design authority/design agent concept, and documentation responsibilities. This implementation applies to, and is tailored to the needs of the SNF Project and all its Subprojects, including all current and future Subprojects.

  8. A comparison of unburned fuel and aldehyde emissions from a methanol-fueled stratified charge and homogeneous charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, D.E.; Kim, C.; Scull, N.

    1987-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental program in which a Texaco L-163S engine was fueled with methanol and operated in its traditional stratified charge mode and then modified to run as a homogeneous charge spark ignited engine. The primary data taken were the aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions (UBF). Those data were taken using a continuous time-averaging sampling probe at the exhaust tank and at the exhaust port and with a rotary time-resolving sampling valve located at the exhaust port. The data are for two loads, 138.1 kPa (20 psi) and 207.1 kPa (30 psi) BMEP and three speeds, 1000, 1400 and 1800 rpm. The data indicate that both the stratified charge and the homogeneous charge modes of operation formaldehyde was the only aldehyde detected in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the cylinder. Over the load and speed ranges tested, the unburned fuel emission were higher and the formaldehyde emission lower when comparing the stratified charge to the homogeneous charge operation. Time resolved data at the exhaust port for the two modes of operation are compared. The homogeneous charge operation had a uniform concentration of both unburned fuel and formaldehyde over the exhaust stroke. The stratified charge data shows large changes in the unburned fuel and moderate changes in the aldehyde concentrations during the exhaust stroke.

  9. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  10. Enhanced air/fuel mixing for automotive Stirling engine turbulator-type combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riecke, G.T.; Stotts, R.E.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes a combustor for use in a Stirling engine and the like. It comprises: a combustor chamber; a fuel inlet couple to the chamber to inject fuel therein; a turbulator means disposed in the chambers downstream of the fuel inlet means for injecting combustion air into the chamber, the turbulator means being so positioned to cause a mixing of the combustion air and fuel injected in the chamber; diverter means for dividing the combustion air and creating a primary mixing zone downstream fa the primary mixing zone; and wherein the primary mixing zone comprises a fuel rich zone where combustion initiates and the secondary mixing zone has sufficient combustion air to complete combustion of the fuel.

  11. Fuel supply and control for turbocharged engines. (Latest citations from the Patent Bibliographic Database with Exemplary Claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning means for supplying a fuel air charge to turbocharged internal combustion engines. Adjustments and control techniques vary the fuel supply with changes in charge pressure and operating conditions. The citations generally refer to diesel and gasoline engines, but a few reference multi-fuels, such as alcohol and hydrogen additions to the primary fuel. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Railroad transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooden, D.G.

    1986-03-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of rail operations that are important for assessing the risk of transporting high-level nuclear waste. The major emphasis of the discussion is towards ''general freight'' shipments of radioactive material. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for selecting models and parameters that are appropriate for assessing the risk of rail transportation of nuclear waste.

  13. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Railroad Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,759,140 2,974,641 3,121,150 3,118,150 3,369,781 3,670,338 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 459,324 482,929 514,418 492,156 460,066 480,024 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 43,763...

  14. Lean-burn hydrogen spark-ignited engines: the mechanical equivalent to the fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fuel cells are considered as the ideal power source for future vehicles, due to their high efficiency and low emissions. However, extensive use of fuel cells in light-duty vehicles is likely to be years away, due to their high manufacturing cost. Hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited, homogeneous-charge engines offer a near-term alternative to fuel cells. Hydrogen in a spark-ignited engine can be burned at very low equivalence ratios, so that NO[sub x] emissions can be reduced to less than 10 ppm without catalyst. HC and CO emissions may result from oxidation of engine oil, but by proper design are negligible (a few ppm). Lean operation also results in increased indicated efficiency due to the thermodynamic properties of the gaseous mixture contained in the cylinder. The high effective octane number of hydrogen allows the use of a high compression ratio, further increasing engine efficiency. In this paper, a simplified engine model is used for predicting hydrogen engine efficiency and emissions. The model uses basic thermodynamic equations for the compression and expansion processes, along with an empirical correlation for heat transfer, to predict engine indicated efficiency. A friction correlation and a supercharger/turbocharger model are then used to calculate brake thermal efficiency. The model is validated with many 1345 experimental points obtained in a recent evaluation of a hydrogen research engine. The experimental data are used to adjust the empirical constants in the heat release rate and heat transfer correlation. The adjusted engine model predicts pressure traces, indicated efficiency and NO,, emissions with good accuracy over the range of speed, equivalence ratio and manifold pressure experimentally covered.

  15. Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    during FY 2000. PDF icon 13.pdf More Documents & Publications Cleaner Vehicles, Cleaner Fuel & Cleaner Air Durability of NOx Absorbers Review of Diesel Emission Control Technology

  16. Comparison of unburned fuel and aldehyde emissions from a methanol-fueled stratified charge and homogeneous charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scull, N.; Kim, C.; Foster, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental program in which a Texaco L-163S engine was fueled with methanol and operated in its traditional stratified charge mode and then modified to run as a homogenous charge spark ignited engine. The primary data taken were the aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions (UBF). These data were taken using a continuous time-averaging sampling probe at the exhaust tank and at the exhaust port and with a rotary time-resolving sampling valve located at the exhaust port. The data indicate that for both the stratified charge and the homogeneous charge modes of operation formaldehyde was the only aldehyde detected in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the cylinder.

  17. Maintaining low exhaust emissions with turbocharged gas engines using a feedback air-fuel ratio control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckard, D.W.; Serve, J.V.

    1987-10-01

    Maintaining low exhaust emissions on a turbocharged, natural gas engine through the speed and load range requires precise control of the air-fuel ratio. Changes in ambient conditions or fuel heating value will cause the air-fuel ratio to change substantially. By combining air-gas pressure with preturbine temperature control, the air-fuel ratio can be maintained regardless of changes in the ambient conditions or the fuel's heating value. Design conditions and operating results are presented for an air-fuel controller for a turbocharged engine.

  18. Diesel engine performance and emissions using different fuel/additive combinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, D.L.; Rush, M.W.; Richards, P.

    1988-01-01

    It is probable that diesel fuel quality in Europe will fall as the need to blend conversion components into the diesel pool increases. In particular diesel ignition quality and stability could decrease and carbon residue and aromatic content increase. This paper discusses the effects of worsening fuel quality on combustion, injection characteristics and emissions and the efficacy of appropriate additives in overcoming these effects. Both direct injection and indirect injection engines were used in the investigations.

  19. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  20. Comparison of Propane and Methane Performance and Emissions in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  1. Air-fuel ratio controller for a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serve, J.V.; Eckard, D.W.

    1988-09-13

    This patent describes an air-fuel ratio controller for a gaseous-fueled, turbo-charged engine having an air manifold, a gas manifold, and a turbine inlet. The controller consists of: means for controlling air manifold pressure, comprising means for providing an air manifold pressure set point signal based on gas manifold pressure and engine RPM's and at least one constant input; and means for controlling turbine inlet temperature, the means comprising means for modulating the slope of the set point signal for the air manifold pressure controller.

  2. Compression ignition engine having fuel system for non-sooting combustion and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazyn, Timothy; Gehrke, Christopher

    2014-10-28

    A direct injection compression ignition internal combustion engine includes a fuel system having a nozzle extending into a cylinder of the engine and a plurality of spray orifices formed in the nozzle. Each of the spray orifices has an inner diameter dimension of about 0.09 mm or less, and define inter-orifice angles between adjacent spray orifice center axes of about 36.degree. or greater such that spray plumes of injected fuel from each of the spray orifices combust within the cylinder according to a non-sooting lifted flame and gas entrainment combustion pattern. Related methodology is also disclosed.

  3. Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

  4. Argonne and Marathon join forces to optimize fuels and engines | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Representatives from Argonne and Marathon Petroleum Corporation meet at the company's Refining Analytical Development Facility in Catlettsburg, KY. Argonne and MPC will be collaborating on a project to optimize fuels and engines simultaneously in an effort to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines. Representatives from Argonne and Marathon Petroleum Corporation meet at the company's Refining Analytical Development Facility in Catlettsburg, KY. Argonne and

  5. Emissions of Volatile Particulate Components from Turboshaft Engines running JP-8 and Fischer-Tropsch Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Landgraf, Bradley J

    2009-01-01

    Rotating-wing aircraft or helicopters are heavily used by the US military and also a wide range of commercial applications around the world, but emissions data for this class of engines are limited. In this study, we focus on emissions from T700-GE-700 and T700-GE-701C engines; T700 engine was run with military JP-8 and T701C run with both JP-8 and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels. Each engine was run at three engine power settings from the idle to maximum power in sequence. Exhaust particles measured at the engine exhaust plane (EEP) have a peak mobility diameter less than 50nm in all engine power settings. At a 4-m downstream location, sulfate/sulfur measurements indicate all particulate sulfur exists practically as sulfate, and the particulate sulfur and sulfate contents increased as the engine power increased. The conversion of sulfur to sulfate was found not to be dependent on engine power setting. Analysis also showed that conversion of sulfur to sulfate was not by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide gas on the soot particles and then subsequently oxidized to form sulfate, but by gas-phase conversion of SO2 via OH or O then subsequently forming H2SO4 and condensing on soot particles. Without the sulfur and aromatic components, use of the FT fuel led to significant reduction of soot emissions as compared to that of the JP-8 fuel producing less number of particles than that of the JP-8 fuel; however, the FT fuel produced much higher number concentrations of particles smaller than 7nm than that of JP-8 in all engine power settings. This indicates non-aromatics components in the FT fuel could have contributed to the enhancement of emissions of particles smaller than 7nm. These small particles are volatile, not observed at the EEP, and may be important in playing a role for the formation of secondary particles in the atmosphere or serving as a site for effective cloud nuclei condensation to occur.

  6. Achieving and Demonstrating Vehicle Technologies Engine Fuel Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a steam systems approach to help companies operate and maintain their industrial steam plants and thermal manufacturing processes more efficiently. Achieve Steam System Excellence - Steam Overview (December 2002) (278.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems J.R. Simplot: Burner Upgrade Project Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Large Food Processing Plant Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces

  7. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  8. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Jonathan Dwight; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2015-12-15

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes an end cover, an endcap assembly, a fluid supply chamber, and a plurality of tube assemblies positioned at the endcap assembly. Each of the tube assemblies includes housing having a fuel plenum and a cooling fluid plenum. The cooling fluid plenum is positioned downstream from the fuel plenum and separated from the fuel plenum by an intermediate wall. The plurality of tube assemblies also include a plurality of tubes that extends through the housing. Each of the plurality of tubes is coupled in flow communication with the fluid supply chamber and a combustion chamber positioned downstream from the tube assembly. The plurality of tube assemblies further includes an aft plate at a downstream end of the cooling fluid plenum. The plate includes at least one aperture.

  9. Fuel Composition Effects at Constant RON and MON in an HCCI Engine Operated with Negative Valve Overlap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G; Farrell, John T

    2006-01-01

    The effects of fuel properties on gasoline HCCI operation have been investigated in a single cylinder, 500 cc, 11.3 CR port fuel injected research engine, operated at lambda=1 and equipped with hydraulic valve actuation. HCCI is promoted by early exhaust valve closing to retain hot exhaust in the cylinder, thereby increasing the cylinder gas temperature. Test fuels were formulated with pure components to have the same RON, MON, and octane sensitivity as an indolene reference fuel, but with a wide range of fuel composition differences. Experiments have been carried out to determine if fuel composition plays a role in HCCI combustion properties, independent of octane numbers. Fuel economy, emissions, and combustion parameters have been measured at several fixed speed/load conditions over a range of exhaust valve closing angles. When the data are compared at constant combustion phasing, fuel effects on emissions and other combustion properties are small. However, when compared at constant exhaust valve closing angle, fuel composition effects are more pronounced, specifically regarding ignition. Operability range differences are also related to fuel composition. An all-paraffinic (normal, iso, and cycloparaffins) fuel exhibited distinctly earlier combustion phasing, increased rate of cylinder pressure rise, and increased rate of maximum heat release compared to the indolene reference fuel. Conversely, olefin-containing fuels exhibited retarded combustion phasing. The fuels with the most advanced ignition showed a wider operating range in terms of engine speed and load, irrespective of exhaust closing angle. These ignition differences reflect contributions from both fuel and EGR kinetics, the effects of which are discussed. The fuel composition variables are somewhat inter-correlated, which makes the experimental separation their effects imprecise with this small set of fuels, though clear trends are evident. The overall effects of fuel composition on engine performance

  10. Design and Testing of a Liquid Nitrous Oxide and Ethanol Fueled Rocket Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    A small-scale, bi-propellant, liquid fueled rocket engine and supporting test infrastructure were designed and constructed at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC). This facility was used to evaluate liquid nitrous oxide and ethanol as potential rocket propellants. Thrust and pressure measurements along with high-speed digital imaging of the rocket exhaust plume were made. This experimental data was used for validation of a computational model developed of the rocket engine tested. The developed computational model was utilized to analyze rocket engine performance across a range of operating pressures, fuel-oxidizer mixture ratios, and outlet nozzle configurations. A comparative study of the modeling of a liquid rocket engine was performed using NASA CEA and Cantera, an opensource equilibrium code capable of being interfaced with MATLAB. One goal of this modeling was to demonstrate the ability of Cantera to accurately model the basic chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics, and transport properties for varied fuel and oxidizer operating conditions. Once validated for basic equilibrium, an expanded MATLAB code, referencing Cantera, was advanced beyond CEAs capabilities to predict rocket engine performance as a function of supplied propellant flow rate and rocket engine nozzle dimensions. Cantera was found to comparable favorably to CEA for making equilibrium calculations, supporting its use as an alternative to CEA. The developed rocket engine performs as predicted, demonstrating the developedMATLAB rocket engine model was successful in predicting real world rocket engine performance. Finally, nitrous oxide and ethanol were shown to perform well as rocket propellants, with specific impulses experimentally recorded in the range of 250 to 260 seconds.