National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for radon thoron isotopic

  1. Portable apparatus for the measurement of environmental radon and thoron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Negro, Vincent C. (New Hyde Park, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The radometer is a portable instrument for the measurement of the concentration of atmospheric radon/thoron in a test area. A constant velocity pump pulls the air from the outside at a constant flow rate. If the air is too moist, some or all of the sample is passed through a desiccant filter prior to encountering an electrostatic filter. The electrostatic filter prevents any charged particles from entering the sampling chamber. Once the sample has entered the chamber, the progeny of the decay of radon/thoron are collected on a detector and measured. The measured data is compiled by a computer and displayed.

  2. Multi-parametric approach towards the assessment of radon and thoron progeny exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Rosaline E-mail: rosaline.mishra@gmail.com; Sapra, B. K.; Mayya, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    Conventionally, the dosimetry is carried out using radon and thoron gas concentration measurements and doses have been assigned using assumed equilibrium factors for the progeny species, which is inadequate pertaining to the variations in equilibrium factors and possibly due to significant thoron. In fact, since the true exposures depend upon the intricate mechanisms of progeny deposition in the lung, therefore an integrated approach for the assessment of progeny is essential. In this context, the recently developed deposition based progeny concentration measurement techniques (DTPS: Direct Thoron progeny sensors and DRPS: Direct Radon progeny sensors) appear to be best suited for radiological risk assessments both among occupational workers and general study populations. DTPS and DRPS consist of aluminized mylar mounted LR115 type passive detectors, which essentially detects the alpha particles emitted from the deposited progeny atoms on the detector surface. It gives direct measure of progeny activity concentrations in air. DTPS has a lower limit of detection limit of 0.1?Bq/m{sup 3} whereas that for DRPS is 1 Bq/m{sup 3}, hence are perfectly suitable for indoor environments. These DTPS and DRPS can be capped with 200-mesh type wire-screen to measure the coarse fraction of the progeny concentration and the corresponding coarse fraction deposition velocities as well as the time integrated fine fraction. DTPS and DRPS can also be lodged in an integrated sampler wherein the wire-mesh and filter-paper are arranged in an array in flow-mode, to measure the fine and coarse fraction concentration separately and simultaneously. The details are further discussed in the paper.

  3. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-05-26

    Currently, thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Radon (Rn-222) and thoron (Rn-220) emanation fractions from three separate formations of oil field pipe scale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fruchtnicht, Erich Harold

    2004-11-15

    because of the external radiation exposure but also because of the radon gas emissions, both of which are due to the radioactive minerals contained in the scale. It was believed that the structure of the scale is formed tightly enough to prevent much...

  5. Method of and apparatus for measuring the mean concentration of thoron and/or radon in a gas mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Henry (P.O. Box 1454, Sedona, AZ 86336)

    1990-01-01

    A method of and an apparatus for detecting and accurately measuring the mean concentrations of .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn in a gas mixture, such as the ambient atmosphere in a mine, is provided. The apparatus includes an alpha target member which defines at least one operative target surface and which is preferably fabricated from a single piece of an alpha particle sensitive material. At least one portion of the operative target surface is covered with an alpha particle filter. The uncovered and filter covered operative surface is exposed to the gas mixture containing the .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn. In the radioactive decay series of these isotopes the maximum kinetic energy emitted by the alpha decay of .sup.222 Rn is about 1.1 MeV less than the maximum kinetic energy emitted by the alpha decay of a .sup.220 Tn. The alpha particle filter has a predetermined mass per unit area of the covered portion of the operative target surface that prevents penetration of alpha particles which originate from .sup.222 Rn decay, but which allows passage therethrough of the maximum kinetic energy alpha particles from .sup.220 Tn decay. Thus, a count of the alpha particle tracks in the uncovered portion of the target member is proportional to the mean concentration of sum of .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn in the gas mixture, while the count of alpha tracks in the target member under the filter is proportional to the concentration of only the .sup.220 Tn in the gas mixture.

  6. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 56 (2002) 953956 Sensitivity of LR115 detector in diffusion chamber to 222

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2002-01-01

    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 56 (2002) 953­956 Sensitivity of LR115 detector in diffusion chamber Determination has been made of the sensitivity of LR115 type 2-track detectors (in units of m) to 222 Rn chamber. r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Radon; Thoron; LR115 track detector

  7. A TIME-DEPENDENT METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING THE DIFFUSION OF RADON-222 IN CONCRETE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zapalac, Geordie H.

    2013-01-01

    Emanometrische Jo78 and Radon Exhalation Rates from BuildingStiller s. ' Messungen von Radon und Thoron in Bodenluft",Measuring 1981, A Fast Radon-222 Building Materials and

  8. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 55 (2001) 707713 Bronchial dosimeter for radon progeny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 55 (2001) 707­713 Bronchial dosimeter for radon progeny T June 2001 Abstract A true bronchial dosimeter has been designed, consisting of four 400-mesh wire. In this way, the bronchial dosimeter directly gives bronchial dose from the alpha counts recorded on the wire

  9. A study of the polyethylene membrane used in diffusion chambers for radon gas concentration measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    A study of the polyethylene membrane used in diffusion chambers for radon gas concentration. Thoron can also be deterred from entering the diffusion chamber by using a polyethylene (PE) membrane rights reserved. PACS: 29.40; 23.60 Keywords: Diffusion chamber; Polyethylene membrane; Radon and thoron

  10. Isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Physics Isotopes Isotopes Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Get Expertise...

  11. RADON: A BIBLIOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lepman, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    thoron monitor for earthquake prediction research. NUCL.instrument for earthquake prediction research which monitorsaid in both earthquake prediction and uranium exploration.

  12. RADON: A BIBLIOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lepman, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Franklin. J. C. Uramuift mine radon control research, TRANS.technique for monitoring radon-222 and daughter products. Hintegrating environmental radon daughter monitor. HEALTH

  13. Radon detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-01-25

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

  14. Radon detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

  15. The diffusion of Radon shape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panaretos, Victor M

    2006-01-01

    Helgason, S. (1980). The Radon transform. Birkh¨ user. a [7]V.M. (2006). Representation of Radon shape di?usions viainversion of stochastic Radon transforms. Unpublished

  16. RADON: A BIBLIOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lepman, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    radon progeny personnel dosimeter. HEALTH PHYS. 21(1): 126-study of the use of TSEE dosimeters in radon iwnit&rins. H AR. T. A working level dosimeter for uraniun miners. EH. -3S3

  17. Home Safety: Radon Gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

    1999-11-12

    Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. This publication explains the health risks, testing methods, and mitigation and reduction techniques....

  18. MEASURING RADON SOURCE MAGNITUDE IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazaroff, W.W.

    2010-01-01

    Alpha Scintillation for Radon," Rev. Scl Instrum. 28, 680-H.F. , "Alpha Scintillation Radon Counting," in Workshop on1981, Study of Residential Radon A Survey Levels, Geomet

  19. Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nachab, A. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, BP 120, Le Haut Vigneau, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)

    2007-03-28

    The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon can be a non negligible component of the background. In order to reduce the radon level in the gas mixture, it has been necessary first to cover the NEMO 3 detector with an airtight tent and then to install a radon-free air factory. With the use of sensitive radon detectors, the level of radon at the exit of the factory and inside the tent is continuously controlled. These radon levels are discussed within the NEMO 3 context.

  20. RADON: A BIBLIOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lepman, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    of radon of the order of 1-5 pCi/Uter appears to te aof concentrations over 1 pCi/l. The monitor draus airusually low (approximately 0.1 pCi/liter) the experimental

  1. Radon: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  2. Indoor Radon and Its Decay Products: Concentrations, Causes, and Control Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    strategies for identifying high-radon homes· . . . . . . . .C. Behavior of radon indoors: generalgeographic radon modeling •••••••••••. •••••. •..•••. ••• D.

  3. Studies on the Reduction of Radon Plate-Out

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruemmer, M; Calkins, R; Cooley, J; Sekula, S

    2015-01-01

    The decay of common radioactive gases, such as radon, produces stable isotopes by a sequence of daughter particles with varied half-lives. These daughter particles are a significant source of gamma, neutron, and alpha particle backgrounds that can mimic desired signals in dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. In the LUMINA Laboratory at Southern Methodist University (SMU), studies of radon plate-out onto copper samples are conducted using one of XIA's first five UltraLo 1800 alpha counters. We present results from investigations into various mitigation approaches. A custom-built copper holder (in either plastic or metal) has been designed and produced to maximize the copper's exposure to 220Rn. The 220Rn source is a collection of camping lantern mantles. We present the current status of control and experimental methods for addressing radon exposure levels.

  4. Studies on the Reduction of Radon Plate-Out

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bruemmer; M. Nakib; R. Calkins; J. Cooley; S. Sekula

    2015-06-12

    The decay of common radioactive gases, such as radon, produces stable isotopes by a sequence of daughter particles with varied half-lives. These daughter particles are a significant source of gamma, neutron, and alpha particle backgrounds that can mimic desired signals in dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. In the LUMINA Laboratory at Southern Methodist University (SMU), studies of radon plate-out onto copper samples are conducted using one of XIA's first five UltraLo 1800 alpha counters. We present results from investigations into various mitigation approaches. A custom-built copper holder (in either plastic or metal) has been designed and produced to maximize the copper's exposure to 220Rn. The 220Rn source is a collection of camping lantern mantles. We present the current status of control and experimental methods for addressing radon exposure levels.

  5. RADON DAUGHTER EXPOSURES IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    heat exchanger. Both the radon-2? 2 concentration (a) andMeeting on the Assessrm of Radon and Daughter Exposure andItaly, March 3-7, 1980 RADON-DAUGHTER EXPOSURES IN ENERGY-

  6. New Methods of Energy Efficient Radon Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    survey of residential radon levels in the U.S." RadiationSoil as a source of indoor radon: generation, migration,and entry", In Radon and its decay products in indoor air.

  7. Models of Radon Entry: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    J. L. , and Philips, F. M. Radon Transport in Dry CrackedPressure Variation on Radon Entry into B- uildings, ReportA. Monitoring and Modeling of Radon Entry into Basements: A

  8. The Dual Horospherical Radon Transform as a Limit of Spherical Radon Transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasquale, Angela

    The Dual Horospherical Radon Transform as a Limit of Spherical Radon Transforms J. Hilgert, A of G. The horospherical Radon transform maps functions on X to functions on HorX by integrating over the dual horospherical Radon transform as a limit of dual spherical Radon transforms. 1. Introduction

  9. INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATING LBL PASSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RADON NOMITOR (PERM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boegel, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    LBL PASSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RADON MONITOR (PERM) HASTH M. L.LBL PASSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RADON MONITOR (PERM) M.L. Boegel,LBL PASSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RADON MONITOR (PERM) CONTENTS:

  10. The Radon-Nikodym Theorem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-07-12

    Theorem 1 (Johann Radon-Otton Nikodym). Let (X, B,µ) be a ?-finite measure space and let ? be a measure defined on B such that ? ? µ. Then there is a unique ...

  11. Radon - HPMC Occupational Health Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cold and Flu Prevention Hand Washing Healthy Sleep Heat Stress Radon Signs of a Heart Attack Signs of a Stroke Coping with Stress & Change Skin Cancer Awareness Choose My...

  12. THE ATTENUATED RADON TRANSFORM: THEORY AND APPLICATION IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gullberg, Grant Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The Attenuated Radon Transform . . . . . . . .The Modified Attenuated Radon Transform. . . . .ProjectionProjections Radon's Inversion Formula Back-Projection Back-

  13. Radon in the DRIFT-II directional dark matter TPC: emanation, detection and mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battat, J B R; Daw, E; Dorofeev, A; Ezeribe, A C; Fox, J R; Gauvreau, J -L; Gold, M; Harmon, L J; Harton, J L; Landers, J M; Lee, E R; Loomba, D; Matthews, J A J; Miller, E H; Monte, A; Murphy, A StJ; Paling, S M; Phan, N; Pipe, M; Robinson, M; Sadler, S W; Scarff, A; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Telfer, S; Walker, D; Warner, D; Yuriev, L

    2014-01-01

    Radon gas emanating from materials is of interest in environmental science and also a major concern in rare event non-accelerator particle physics experiments such as dark matter and double beta decay searches, where it is a major source of background. Notable for dark matter experiments is the production of radon progeny recoils (RPRs), the low energy (~100 keV) recoils of radon daughter isotopes, which can mimic the signal expected from WIMP interactions. Presented here are results of measurements of radon emanation from detector materials in the 1 metre cubed DRIFT-II directional dark matter gas time projection chamber experiment. Construction and operation of a radon emanation facility for this work is described, along with an analysis to continuously monitor DRIFT data for the presence of internal 222Rn and 218Po. Applying this analysis to historical DRIFT data, we show how systematic substitution of detector materials for alternatives, selected by this device for low radon emanation, has resulted in a f...

  14. INVARIANT RADON MEASURES ON MEASURED LAMINATION SPACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamenstädt, Ursula

    INVARIANT RADON MEASURES ON MEASURED LAMINATION SPACE URSULA HAMENST¨ADT Abstract. Let S be an oriented surface of genus g 0 with m 0 punctures and 3g - 3 + m 2. We classify all Radon measures class group MCG(S) naturally acts on ML as a group of homeomorphisms preserving a Radon measure

  15. Inversion of the attenuated Radon transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität

    Inversion of the attenuated Radon transform F. Natterer Institut fur Numerische und instrumentelle@math.uni-muenster.de Abstract We derive an exact inversion formula for the attenuated Radon transform. The formula is closely for x 2 IR2, #12; 2 S1 Dax; #12; = 1Z 0 ax + t#12;dt : 1.1 The attenuated Radon transform Ra is de ned

  16. Convex Corson compacta and Radon measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plebanek, Grzegorz

    Convex Corson compacta and Radon measures Grzegorz Plebanek Abstract Assuming the continuum hypothesis, we show that (i) there is a compact convex subset L of \\Sigma(R ! 1 ), and a proba­ bility Radon \\Lambda -- compact set M of probability Radon measures on K, which has no G ffi --points. 1 Introduction

  17. Radon Transform Inversion using the Shearlet Representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labate, Demetrio

    Radon Transform Inversion using the Shearlet Representation Flavia Colonna Department The inversion of the Radon transform is a classical ill-posed inverse problem where some method-optimal rate of convergence in estimating a large class of images from noisy Radon data. This is achieved

  18. RADON TRANSFORMINVERSIONVIA WIENER FILTERINGOVER THE EUCLIDEAN MOTIONGROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazici, Birsen

    RADON TRANSFORMINVERSIONVIA WIENER FILTERINGOVER THE EUCLIDEAN MOTIONGROUP Can Evren Yarman Drexel formulatethe Radon transform asa wn- volution integral over the Euclidean motion group (SE(2)) and provideaminimummeansquare error(MMSE) stochas- tic deconvolution method for the Radon transform inver- sion. Proposed

  19. Nonlinear Radon and Fourier Transforms Franois Rouvire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallette, Bruno

    Nonlinear Radon and Fourier Transforms François Rouvière Université de Nice Laboratoire Dieudonné, of the clas- sical Radon transform on hyperplanes. A function f on Rn can be reconstructed from nonlinear Radon transforms, obtained by integrating f and a ...nite num- ber of multiples x f over a family

  20. RESTRICTED RADON TRANSFORMS AND UNIONS OF HYPERPLANES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESTRICTED RADON TRANSFORMS AND UNIONS OF HYPERPLANES Daniel M. Oberlin Department of Mathematics, Florida State University October 2004 x1 Introduction If #6; (n 1) is the unit sphere in R n , the Radon in a ball. The following theorem, which we regard as an estimate for a restricted Radon transform

  1. Injectivity of Rotation Invariant Windowed Radon Transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermé, Hermine

    Injectivity of Rotation Invariant Windowed Radon Transforms Hermine Bierm´e MAPMO-UMR 6628, D rotation invariant windowed Radon transforms that integrate a func- tion over hyperplanes by using a radial with positive real part , the windowed Radon transform is not injective on functions with a Gaussian decay

  2. ON RADON TRANSFORMS AND THE KAPPA OPERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallette, Bruno

    ON RADON TRANSFORMS AND THE KAPPA OPERATOR François Rouvière (Université de Nice) Bruxelles, November 24, 2006 1. Introduction In 1917 Johann Radon solved the following problem : ...nd a function f called the Radon transform. Apart from an important contribution by Fritz John (1938) the problem fell

  3. Large families of mutually singular Radon measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plebanek, Grzegorz

    Large families of mutually singular Radon measures David H. Fremlin & Grzegorz Plebanek \\Lambda mutually singular Radon probability measures. 1. Introduction. We present here a partial answer with a family (¯ s ) s2S of mu­ tually singular Radon measures on X such that #(S) ? #(X)? In section 2 we

  4. Multilinear generalized Radon transforms and point configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grafakos, Loukas

    Multilinear generalized Radon transforms and point configurations Loukas Grafakos, Allan Greenleaf, Alex Iosevich and Eyvindur Palsson Abstract. We study multilinear generalized Radon transforms using for the results in [7]. 1. Introduction Linear generalized Radon transforms are operators of the form (1.1) Rf

  5. RESTRICTED RADON TRANSFORMS AND UNIONS OF HYPERPLANES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESTRICTED RADON TRANSFORMS AND UNIONS OF HYPERPLANES Daniel M. Oberlin Department of Mathematics, Florida State University October 2004 §1 Introduction If (n-1) is the unit sphere in Rn , the Radon, which we regard as an estimate for a restricted Radon transform, is typical of our results here: Theorem

  6. A Radon Progeny Deposition Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. E. Guiseppe; S. R. Elliott; A. Hime; K. Rielage; S. Westerdale

    2010-12-30

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly Rn-222) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of Pb-210 on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

  7. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  8. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold (Mack, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  9. Radon reduction and radon monitoring in the NEMO experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) Abstract: The first data of the NEMO 3 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment have shown that the radon in the LSM (Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, depth of 4800 m w.e.), investigates the neutrinoless double beta decay (20) of various nuclei [1]. The observation of such a process will give us fundamental

  10. RADON AND ALDEHYDE CONCENTRATIONS IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moschandreas, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    ENVIRONMENT DIVISION RADON AND ALDEHYDE CONCENTRATIONS INLBL-12590 EEB-Vent 81-12 RADON AND ALDEHYDE CONCENTRATIONS2.1 Monitoring History of Radon Table 2.1. Integrated (PERM)

  11. RADON PROGENY AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL FOR DOSIMETRY OF NANOAEROSOLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruzer, Lev S.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of Unattached Radon Progeny Deposited in theRuzer, L.S. and Apte, M.G. 2005 Radon progeny as a potentialof unaatached fraction of radon progeny, Journal of

  12. Radon Monitoring and Data Collection in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radon Monitoring and Data Collection in the United States Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Radon Task Force Norman Anderson, Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention Mike Brennan......................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 The Radon Task Force

  13. A RESIDENTIAL RADON DAUGHTER MONITOR BASED ON ALPHA SPECTROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazaroff, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Measurine Working Lev­ els of Radon Daughters in Residences,D.A. Holaday, of "Occurrence Radon and of Its Mixturesof the Tsivoglou Method for Radon Daughters in Air," Health

  14. RADON AND ITS DAUGHTERS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    of Radionu­ clide Contents and Radon Emanation Rates inD.L. Krinkel, and W.W. Nazaroff, Radon in Energy-EfficientStitt, and G.II. Zapalac, Radon Measurements and Emanation

  15. Injectivity and stability for a generic class of generalized Radon ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-12-15

    prove a microlocal regularity theorem for generalized Radon transforms ... for example, the Euclidean Radon transform is defined over the set of affine.

  16. ALPHA SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES FOR FIELD MEASUREMENT OF RADON DAUGHTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazaroff, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    ventilation with heat recovery for controlling radonand radon-daughter concentrations in residences, Lawrencealpha energy concentration of radon decay products, Lawrence

  17. Overcomplete Radon Bases for Target Property Management in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guibas, Leonidas J.

    Overcomplete Radon Bases for Target Property Management in Sensor Networks Xiaoye Jiang Stanford, exploiting an overcomplete Radon basis dictionary to model property uncertainty in such cir- cumstances

  18. ARE RADON GAS MEASUREMENTS ADEQUATE FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CASE CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    ARE RADON GAS MEASUREMENTS ADEQUATE FOR EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CASE CONTROL STUDIES OF RADON 2004 The lung dose derived from radon is not attributed to the radon gas itself, but instead to its of the radon risk, the excess number of cancers are related to the radon gas exposure, and not to the radon

  19. Predicting New Hampshire Indoor Radon Concentrations from geologic information and other covariates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    38961 Predicting New Hampshire Indoor Radon ConcentrationsRadon Potential Assessment of New Hampshire, Geologic Radoncollected in the New Hampshire Radon Survey. Fig. 2. The

  20. Radon monitoring and early low background counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Radon Monitoring and Early Low Background Counting at theCA 94720, USA Abstract. Radon detectors have been deployedin Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in

  1. Monitoring and Modeling of Radon Entry into Basements: A Status Reportfor Small Structures Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of the response of continuous radon monitorsto transient radon concentrations," Health Physics, 37 pp.steady-state transport of radon from soil into houses with

  2. A RAPID SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE POTENTIAL ALPHA ENERGY CONCENTRATION OF RADON DECAY PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revzan, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of the Attachment the Decay Products of Radon-220and Radon-222 to Monodispersed Aerosols,". :! _. Aerosol.Kusnetz H.L. , 1956, "Radon Daughters in Mine Atmosphers.

  3. Modeling Radon Entry into Houses with Basements: Model Description and Verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revzan, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    in the Proceedings Modeling Radon Entry into Houses withIndoor Air LBL-27742 MODELING RADON ENTRY INTO HOUSES WITHDriven Flow Equation for Radon Ingress through Cracks in

  4. When tensor products of AC charges and Radon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buczolich, Zoltán

    When tensor products of AC #3; charges and Radon measures are AC #3; charges Zolt#19;an Buczolich and Radon measures. We show that if F is a charge in R m which is AC#3; in a locally BV set E and #22; is an absolutely continuous Radon measure on R n with locally bounded Radon-Nikodym derivative then the charge F

  5. RADON TRANSFORM ON THE TORUS AHMED ABOUELAZ AND FRANOIS ROUVIRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallette, Bruno

    RADON TRANSFORM ON THE TORUS AHMED ABOUELAZ AND FRANÇOIS ROUVIÈRE Abstract. We consider the Radon-Ricci spaces etc. We consider here the n-dimensional (at) torus Tn = Rn=Zn and the Radon transform de will thus enter the picture, as in the case of Radon transforms on Zn already studied by the ...rst author

  6. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Radon Concern in the Hickory Aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    stream_source_info Radon concern in the hickory aquifer.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5403 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Radon concern in the hickory aquifer.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset...=ISO-8859-1 Radon ConcernStory by Amanda Crawford tx H2O | pg. 20 As the primary water source for Mason,Concho, McCulloch, San Saba, Menard, Kimble, and Gillespie counties in Central Texas, the threat of elevated radionuclide concentra- tions...

  8. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup ?3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup ?3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup ?3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup ?3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup ?3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup ?3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup ?3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup ?3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup ?3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m{sup ?3} proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas, all building material samples have exceeded the radon concentration in concrete and building materials of 3 to 7 Bq m{sup ?3} estimated by ICRP. The annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, and radon exhalation rates in tin tailings were calculated to be in the range of 2.47 to 11.46 mSv, 5.94 to 1090.56 mSv y{sup ?1}, and 0.23 to 1.18 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. For building materials, the calculated risk assessment of the annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk were 0.72 to 10.00 mSv, 1.73 to 24.00 mSv y{sup ?1}, 0.010 to 0.06 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1} and 40 to 550 chances of persons will suffer the cancer per million (1 × 10{sup 6}), respectively.

  9. Radon measurements at the FEMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomczak, L.M.; Daniels, R.D.; Dennis, C.; Glassey, H.G.; Lohner, W.G.; Ray, E.C.; Selasky, J.A.; Spitz, H.B.; Roush, K.

    1993-08-01

    Environmental radon monitoring activities at the DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have been conducted extensively since the early 1980`s. Monitoring has been conducted at ambient concentration levels (< 1 pCi/L Rn-222), inside buildings, and at significantly elevated levels (hundreds of thousands pCi/L Rn-222) within the K-65 silo that store concentrated radium bearing wastes. The purpose of this paper/presentation is to present and discuss some of the difficulties encountered/solutions (e.g. reliability, detection limits, affects of environmental factors, data transfer, etc.) that have been discovered while taking measurements using both alpha track-etch passive integrating detectors and alpha scintillation real-time detectors. A short summary and conclusion section is provided following each topic presented.

  10. A fast butterfly algorithm for generalized Radon transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Jingwei

    Generalized Radon transforms, such as the hyperbolic Radon transform, cannot be implemented as efficiently in the frequency domain as convolutions, thus limiting their use in seismic data processing. We have devised a fast ...

  11. Reconstruction from Radon projections and orthogonal expansion on a ball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan Xu

    2007-05-14

    The relation between Radon transform and orthogonal expansions of a function on the unit ball in $\\RR^d$ is exploited. A compact formula for the partial sums of the expansion is given in terms of the Radon transform, which leads to algorithms for image reconstruction from Radon data. The relation between orthogonal expansion and the singular value decomposition of the Radon transform is also exploited.

  12. Environmental Protection Agency 195.2 PART 195--RADON PROFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    59 Environmental Protection Agency § 195.2 PART 195--RADON PROFICIENCY PROGRAMS Subpart A: The National Radon Meas- urement Proficiency (RMP) Program, the individual proficiency component of the RMP Program, and the National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. (b) Applicability. This part applies

  13. Metrics and Smoothing of TranslationInvariant Radon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Michael

    Metrics and Smoothing of Translation­Invariant Radon Transforms Along Curves Michael Greenblatt 1: (617) 253­4358 Running head: Radon Transforms 1 This research was supported in part by NSF grant DMS­invariant Radon transforms along curves for # # # and p

  14. The Generalised Radon Transform: Sampling and Memory Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    The Generalised Radon Transform: Sampling and Memory Considerations C.L. Luengo Hendriks, M. van. The generalised Radon transform is a well-known tool for detecting parameterised shapes in an image. Applying the Radon trans- form to an image results in a parameter response function (PRF). Curves in the image become

  15. GEODESIC RADON TRANSFORMS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES FRANOIS ROUVIRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallette, Bruno

    GEODESIC RADON TRANSFORMS ON SYMMETRIC SPACES FRANÇOIS ROUVIÈRE à la mémoire d'André Cerezo of the non-compact type, by means of shifted dual Radon transforms. One of these formulas is extended to a large class of totally geodesic Radon transforms on these spaces. 1. Introduction 1.1. Inverting the X

  16. Contemporary Mathematics Local Non-injectivity for Weighted Radon Transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boman, Jan

    Contemporary Mathematics Local Non-injectivity for Weighted Radon Transforms Jan Boman Abstract. A weighted plane Radon transform R is considered, where (x, L) is a smooth positive function. It is proved of smooth positive weight functions. 1. Introduction We shall consider a weighted plane Radon transform (1

  17. Letter to the Editor Rutherford, the Curies, and Radon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Letter to the Editor Rutherford, the Curies, and Radon Received 3 January 2000; accepted,2 it is interesting to note that the Curies were also responsible for the discovery of radon-222, the naturally oc of about one minute.''6 In modern terminology, Rutherford and Owens had discovered radon in the form

  18. Une interpretation cohomologique de la condition de Radon-Cavalieri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Agnolo, Andrea

    Une interpr´etation cohomologique de la condition de Radon-Cavalieri Andrea D'Agnolo R les D-modules `a l'´etude de la transform´ee de Radon affine r´eelle. Classiquement, on obtient la est diff´erente, et montre comment cette condition, li´ee `a la transform´ee de Radon projective

  19. Approximating Radon measures on first--countable compact spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plebanek, Grzegorz

    Approximating Radon measures on first--countable compact spaces Grzegorz Plebanek (Wroc/law) Abstract The assertion every Radon measure defined on a first--countable compact space is uniformly regular under CH. In this note we consider some properties of finite Radon measures defined on compact spaces

  20. Radon space and Adaboost for Pose Estimation Patrick Etyngier1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Audibert, Jean-Yves

    Radon space and Adaboost for Pose Estimation Patrick Etyngier1 Nikos Paragios2 Renaud Keriven1 in the radon space consist of our feature space. Such features are associ- ated with [AdaBoost] learners spaces and methods exist for fast line extraction and manipulation (Hough[5, 10], Radon [10]). Our method

  1. RADON-NIKODYM THEOREMS D. CANDELORO and A. VOLCIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candeloro, Domenico

    RADON-NIKOD´YM THEOREMS D. CANDELORO and A. VOLCIC 1 Introduction Suppose is the Lebesgue measure and , that is the integral measure of some function f L1 (µ) : such function is called Radon- Nikod´ym derivative a Radon-Nikod´ym derivative d dµ , i.e. a µ- integrable function f such that (E) = E f dµ holds, for any

  2. Silica Fume as a Radon Retardant from Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Silica Fume as a Radon Retardant from Concrete K . N . Y U , * , R . V . B A L E N D R A N of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Radon, and tracheobronchial deposition of radon progeny can lead to lung cancers. Aggregates (granite) are known

  3. RADON TRANSFORM ON SYMMETRIC MATRIX DOMAINS GENKAI ZHANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Genkai

    RADON TRANSFORM ON SYMMETRIC MATRIX DOMAINS GENKAI ZHANG Abstract. Let K = R; C ; H be the #12;eld space. We consider the Radon transform Rf(y) for functions f 2 C 1 0 (X) de#12;ned by integration of f 0 Radon transform, namely MR t Rf = cf . This generalizes

  4. Radon-based Structure from Motion Without Correspondences Ameesh Makadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, S. Shankar

    Radon-based Structure from Motion Without Correspondences Ameesh Makadia Christopher Geyer Shankar present a novel approach for the estimation of 3D- motion directly from two images using the Radon trans is in the realization that the Radon transform is a filtering operator: If we assume that im- ages are defined

  5. Radon Transform and Cavalieri Condition: a Cohomological Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Agnolo, Andrea

    Radon Transform and Cavalieri Condition: a Cohomological Approach Andrea D'Agnolo Abstract We apply the theory of integral transforms for sheaves and D-modules to the study of the real Radon transform. J. 93 (1998), no. 3, 597­632. #12;Radon Transform and Cavalieri Condition: a Cohomological Approach

  6. INVERTING RADON TRANSFORMS : THE GROUP-THEORETIC Franois Rouvire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallette, Bruno

    INVERTING RADON TRANSFORMS : THE GROUP-THEORETIC APPROACH François Rouvière Abstract of various inversion formulas from the literature on Radon transforms, obtained by group-theoretic tools such as invariant di¤erential operators and harmonic analysis. We introduce a general concept of shifted Radon

  7. INVARIANT RADON MEASURES FOR HOROCYCLE FLOWS ON ABELIAN COVERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarig, Omri

    INVARIANT RADON MEASURES FOR HOROCYCLE FLOWS ON ABELIAN COVERS OMRI SARIG Dedicated to the memory of M. Babillot Abstract. We classify the ergodic invariant Radon measures for horocycle flows on Zd those supported on periodic orbits. There are however invariant Radon measures. Burger [Bu] classified

  8. THE ATTENUATED RADON TRANSFORM: APPLICATION TO SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE PRESENCE OF A VARIABLE ATTENUATING MEDIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gullberg, Grant T.

    2013-01-01

    ·" 10276 vii THE ATTENUATED RADON TRANSFORM: APPLICATION TOOn the inversion of sampled Radon transforms, to appear as aMathematics THE ATTENUATED RADON TRANSFORM: APPLICATION TO

  9. Low Radioactive Techniques in SuperNEMO: Status of the Radon R and D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perrot, F. [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, Chemin du Solarium, Le Haut-Vigneau, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, Chemin du Solarium, Le Haut-Vigneau, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan (France)

    2011-04-27

    Radon is a well-known source of background with respect to the search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}), due to the high Q{sub {beta}} value of one of its daughter nucleus {sup 214}Bi. Radon has been observed and reduced down to 6.5 mBq/m{sup 3} in the NEMO-3 experiment which is looking for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} process in {sup 100}Mo and in six other isotopes. The SuperNEMO project, a next-generation double beta decay experiment which will also use a tracko-calorimeter technique, has been in an R and D phase since 2006. The goal is to reach a sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}(0{nu})>10{sup 26} y corresponding to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.05-0.1 eV with 100 kg of {sup 82}Se. Such a sensitivity requires in particular to improve the radon radiopurity down to 0.1 mBq/m{sup 3} in the tracking chamber.

  10. The relation of seismic activity and radon concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulali, Feride E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Akkurt, ?skender E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Vogiannis, Efstratios

    2014-10-06

    Radon, which is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation, reaches to surface as gas or dissolved form in the ground water. Emanation of radon can has a profile is disposed to increasing or decreasing depending on the effects of meteorological events or crust movements. In this work, the radon concentration in soil gas, which is transported from soil to AlphaGUARD, is continuously measured in Mytilene (Greece). A graph of radon concentration is prepared for comparison with simultaneous earthquake data. As a consequence of comparison, we determined that the radon concentration indicates anomalies before the earthquakes.

  11. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Radon free storage container and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold (Mack, CO); Rangel, Mark J. (Austin, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A radon free containment environment for either short or long term storage of radon gas detectors can be provided as active, passive, or combined active and passive embodiments. A passive embodiment includes a resealable vessel containing a basket capable of holding and storing detectors and an activated charcoal adsorbing liner between the basket and the containment vessel wall. An active embodiment includes the resealable vessel of the passive embodiment, and also includes an external activated charcoal filter that circulates the gas inside the vessel through the activated charcoal filter. An embodiment combining the active and passive embodiments is also provided.

  13. Systematic grid-wise radon concentration measurements and first radon map in Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodoulou, G; Parpottas, Y; 10.1016/j.radmeas.2012.03.019

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study of the indoor airborne radon concentration in the central part of the Nicosia district was conducted, using high-sensitivity active radon portable detectors of the type "RADIM3A". From a total of 108 measurements in 54 grids of 1 km^2 area each, the overall mean value is 20.6 \\pm 13.2 Bq m^-3 (A.M.\\pm S.D.). That is almost twice less than the corresponding average worldwide value. The radon concentration levels in drinking water were also measured in 24 sites of the residential district, using the high-sensitivity radon detector of the type "RADIM3W". The mean value obtained from these measurements is 243.8 \\pm 224.8 mBq L^-1, which is relatively low compared to the corresponding internationally accepted level. The associated annual effective dose rates to each measurement were also calculated and compared to the corresponding worldwide values. From the geographical coordinates of the measuring sites and the corresponding radon concentration values, the digital radon map of the central part...

  14. Systematic grid-wise radon concentration measurements and first radon map in Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Theodoulou; H. Tsertos; Y. Parpottas

    2012-06-26

    A systematic study of the indoor airborne radon concentration in the central part of the Nicosia district was conducted, using high-sensitivity active radon portable detectors of the type "RADIM3A". From a total of 108 measurements in 54 grids of 1 km^2 area each, the overall mean value is 20.6 \\pm 13.2 Bq m^-3 (A.M.\\pm S.D.). That is almost twice less than the corresponding average worldwide value. The radon concentration levels in drinking water were also measured in 24 sites of the residential district, using the high-sensitivity radon detector of the type "RADIM3W". The mean value obtained from these measurements is 243.8 \\pm 224.8 mBq L^-1, which is relatively low compared to the corresponding internationally accepted level. The associated annual effective dose rates to each measurement were also calculated and compared to the corresponding worldwide values. From the geographical coordinates of the measuring sites and the corresponding radon concentration values, the digital radon map of the central part of the Nicosia district was constructed for the first time, by means of the ArcMap software package.

  15. MEASURING RADON SOURCE MAGNITUDE IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazaroff, W.W.

    2010-01-01

    19P0 No. of Houses Radon pCi/l) GSDh Air-Exchange Rate (GSD -i a b Source Magnitude (pCi l" h ) GM GSD a b l.i Sanand a range of 0.01 to 6.0 pCi i" sive measurements in six

  16. URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÑON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO (EFRC) proposes to license, construct, and operate a conventional acid leach uranium and vanadium mill storage pad, and access roads. The mill is designed to process ore containing uranium and vanadium

  17. Polarization and relaxation of radon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. R. Tardiff; J. A. Behr; T. E. Chupp; K. Gulyuz; R. S. Lefferts; W. Lorenzon; S. R. Nuss-Warren; M. R. Pearson; N. Pietralla; G. Rainovski; J. F. Sell; G. D. Sprouse

    2006-12-07

    Investigations of the polarization and relaxation of $^{209}$Rn by spin exchange with laser optically pumped rubidium are reported. On the order of one million atoms per shot were collected in coated and uncoated glass cells. Gamma-ray anisotropies were measured as a signal of the alignment (second order moment of the polarization) resulting from the combination of polarization and quadrupole relaxation at the cell walls. The temperature dependence over the range 130$^\\circ$C to 220$^\\circ$C shows the anisotropies increasing with increasing temperature as the ratio of the spin exchange polarization rate to the wall relaxation rate increases faster than the rubidium polarization decreases. Polarization relaxation rates for coated and uncoated cells are presented. In addition, improved limits on the multipole mixing ratios of some of the main gamma-ray transitions have been extracted. These results are promising for electric dipole moment measurements of octupole-deformed $^{223}$Rn and other isotopes, provided sufficient quantities of the rare isotopes can be produced.

  18. Adsorption of radon and water vapor on commercial activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, N.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Ghosh, T.K.; Hines, A.L.; Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherms are reported for radon and water vapor on two commercial activated carbons: coconut shell Type PCB and hardwood Type BD. The isotherms of the water vapor were measured gravimetrically at 298 K. The isotherms of radon from dry nitrogen were obtained at 293, 298, and 308 K while the data for the mixture of radon and water vapor were measured at 298 K. The concentrations of radon in the gas and solid phases were measured simultaneously, once the adsorption equilibrium and the radioactive equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products were established. The shape of the isotherms was of Type III for the radon and Type V for the water vapor, according to Brunauer`s classification. The adsorption mechanism was similar for both the radon and the water vapor, being physical adsorption on the macropore surface area in the low pressure region and micropore filling near saturation pressure. The uptake capacity of radon decreased both with increasing temperature and relative humidity. The heat of adsorption data indicated that the PCB- and the BD-activated carbons provided a heterogeneous surface for radon adsorption. The equilibrium data for radon were correlated with a modified Freundlich equation.

  19. AVERAGES ALONG POLYNOMIAL SEQUENCES IN DISCRETE NILPOTENT GROUPS: SINGULAR RADON TRANSFORMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magyar, Akos

    AVERAGES ALONG POLYNOMIAL SEQUENCES IN DISCRETE NILPOTENT GROUPS: SINGULAR RADON TRANSFORMS can consider discrete maximal Radon transforms, which have applications to pointwise ergodic theo- rems, and discrete singular Radon transforms. In this paper we prove L2 boundedness of discrete

  20. VARIATIONS IN RADON-222 IN SOIL AND GROUND WATER AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wollenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    1962, Final Report, on-site radon studies in surface soils,110. King, Chi-Yu, 1975, Radon emanation along an act- ive1975, In- vestigation of Radon-222 in subsurface waters as

  1. HUMAN DISEASE FROM RADON EXPOSURES: THE IMPACT OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budnitz, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Buildings H M N DISEASE FROM RADON EXPOSURES: U A THE IMPACTVent 78-6 HUMAN DISEASE FROM RADON EXPOSURES: THE IMPACT OFof conservation measures on radon levels, and the disease

  2. HUMAN DISEASE FROM RADON EXPOSURES: THE IMPACT OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budnitz, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Snihs, "The Significance of Radon and Its Progeny as NaturalDivision Human Disease from Radon Exposures: The I P ImpactVent 78-5 HUMAN DISEASE FROM RADON EXPOSURES: THE IMPACT OF

  3. An Experiment with Depressurization Tests as Indicators of Radon Availability in Six New Jersey Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    as Indicators of Radon Availability in 6 New Jersey HousesAS INDICATORS OF RADON AVAILABILITY IN 6 NEW JERSEY HOUSESas Indicators of Radon Availability in 6 New Jersey Houses

  4. This sheet is posted on the web at http://www-sk.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~berns/SUPERK/RADON/radonhutcheck.pdf Super-Kamiokande Dome Radon-Free Air System Shift Checklist for the `RADON HUT'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    This sheet is posted on the web at http://www-sk.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~berns/SUPERK/RADON/radonhutcheck.pdf Super-Kamiokande Dome Radon-Free Air System Shift Checklist for the `RADON HUT' Rev.: J.Griskevich / H.S. home = 949-940-0015 The Radon Hut manual (latest version) is posted on the web at: https://www-sk.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~berns/SUPERK/RADON

  5. This sheet is posted on the web at http://wwwsk.icrr.utokyo.ac.jp/~berns/SUPERK/RADON/radonhutcheck.pdf SuperKamiokande Dome RadonFree Air System Shift Checklist for the `RADON HUT'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    This sheet is posted on the web at http://www­sk.icrr.u­tokyo.ac.jp/~berns/SUPERK/RADON/radonhutcheck.pdf Super­Kamiokande Dome Radon­Free Air System Shift Checklist for the `RADON HUT' Rev.: HGB, 20 Nov 2007@phys.washington.edu The Radon Hut manual (latest version) is posted on the web at: https://www­sk.icrr.u­tokyo.ac.jp/~berns/SUPERK/RADON

  6. The Generalized Mader's Inversion Formulas for the Radon Transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri A. Antipov; Boris Rubin

    2011-03-11

    In 1927 Philomena Mader derived elegant inversion formulas for the hyperplane Radon transform on $\\bbr^n$. These formulas differ from the original ones by Radon and seem to be forgotten. We generalize Mader's formulas to totally geodesic Radon transforms in any dimension on arbitrary constant curvature space. Another new interesting inversion formula for the $k$-plane transform was presented in the recent book "Integral geometry and Radon transform" by S. Helgason. We extend this formula to arbitrary constant curvature space. The paper combines tools of integral geometry and complex analysis.

  7. Finite Geometry and the Radon Transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Revzen

    2011-11-20

    Finite Geometry is used to underpin operators acting in finite, d, dimensional Hilbert space. Quasi distribution and Radon transform underpinned with finite dual affine plane geometry (DAPG) are defined in analogy with the continuous ($d \\rightarrow \\infty$) Hilbert space case. An essntial role in these definitions play the projectors of states of mutual unbiased bases (MUB) and their Wigner function-like mapping onto the generalized phase space that lines and points of DAPG constitutes.

  8. Real-time measurement of radon activity and mixed radiation fields characterization with silicon pixel detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Severino, Clizia Tecla; Silari, Marco

    Real-time measurement of radon activity and mixed radiation fields characterization with silicon pixel detector

  9. RADON TRANSFORM INVERSION BASED ON HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF THE EUCLIDEAN MOTION GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazici, Birsen

    RADON TRANSFORM INVERSION BASED ON HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF THE EUCLIDEAN MOTION GROUP Can Evren Yarman of the projection slice theorem using harmonic analysis of the Euclidean motion group (M(N)). The Radon transform to new algo- rithms for the inversion of the Radon transform. 1. INTRODUCTION The Radon transform forms

  10. 162 IEEE TRANSACTIONSONACOUSTICS, SPEECH, ANDSIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. ASSP-35, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 1987 Discrete Radon Transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beylkin, Gregory

    Discrete Radon Transform GREGORY BEYLKIN Abstract-This paper describes the discrete Radon transform (DRT showthattheDRTcan beused tocomputevariousgen- eralizations of the classical Radon transform (RT) and. An interesting observation is that the exact inversion algorithm cannot be obtained directly from Radon

  11. Mapping the geogenic radon potential: methodology and spatial analysis for central Hungary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horváth, Ákos

    Mapping the geogenic radon potential: methodology and spatial analysis for central Hungary Katalin 2013 Available online Keywords: Hungarian geogenic radon potential Soil gas radon Soil gas permeability Spatial modeling a b s t r a c t A detailed geogenic radon potential (GRP) mapping based on field soil gas

  12. Experimental, statistical, and biological models of radon carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, F.T.

    1991-09-01

    Risk models developed for underground miners have not been consistently validated in studies of populations exposed to indoor radon. Imprecision in risk estimates results principally from differences between exposures in mines as compared to domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products. Uncertainties in extrapolating miner data to domestic exposures can be reduced by means of a broad-based health effects research program that addresses the interrelated issues of exposure, respiratory tract dose, carcinogenesis (molecular/cellular and animal studies, plus developing biological and statistical models), and the relationship of radon to smoking and other copollutant exposures. This article reviews experimental animal data on radon carcinogenesis observed primarily in rats at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Recent experimental and mechanistic carcinogenesis models of exposures to radon, uranium ore dust, and cigarette smoke are presented with statistical analyses of animal data. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing theActivation byIs a SmallIsotope

  14. Long term performance of different radon remedial methods in Sweden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavensjoe, B

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project was to investigate the long time effectiveness of different radon remedial methods. The ten years project started 1991. From start the investigation comprised of 105 dwellings (91 single-family houses and 14 flats in multi-family buildings). In all of the dwellings remedial measures were carried out in the eighties. Before and immediately after the reduction the local measured the radon concentrations. New measurements of the radon concentrations have been made every third year; in 1991, 1994, 1997 and in 2000. Twelve different radon remedial methods and method combinations were used. The radon sources were building materials as well as sub-soils. In all of the dwellings the radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track films during 3 months (January-March) measurements and in half of them the air change rates by passive tracer gas methods. The results of the 2000 and the 1991 (within brackets) studies showed that the radon concentration was up to 200 Bq/m sup 3 in 54 (54) sin...

  15. A fast butterfly algorithm for the hyperbolic Radon transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Jingwei

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a fast butterfly algorithm for the hyperbolic Radon transform commonly used in seismic data processing. For two-dimensional data, the algorithm runs in complexity O(N[superscript 2] logN), where N is representative ...

  16. RADON AND ITS DAUGHTERS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    AMD ITS DAUCHTERS IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDINCS A.V. Nero,W.W. Nazaroff, Radon in Energy-Efficient Houses, LawrenceStudies, pp. 18- 23 in Energy Efficient Buildings Program,

  17. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark)] [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark) [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark)] [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  18. Radon in multi-story residential buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mardis, H.M.; MacWaters, J.; Oswald, J.

    1991-12-01

    In September 1989, HUD signed an Interagency Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requesting EPA to measure radon levels and distribution patterns in several multi-story residential buildings. This study was conducted in two phases. The Phase 1 included walk-through investigations of each of the four test buildings. These preliminary investigations were focused on identifying site-specific characteristics that might influence radon entry and distribution. The results of these investigations were used to design and implement short-term screening measurements (diffusion barrier charcoal canisters) of each building's radon potential. Phase 2 consisted of long-term radon measurements with alpha track detectors (approximately 6 months) and investigations of the characteristics of each building. These measurements were made to address the possibility that long-term radon levels might be higher on upper floors than indicated by the short-term basement and ground-level screening tests. The report describes the investigations that were conducted, the data that were gathered for each building, and general observations and discussions about patterns of radon distribution in these specific buildings.

  19. Radon in energy-efficient earth-sheltered structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nero, A.V.

    1983-05-01

    Exposure o the radioactive-decay products of radon 222 that are present in indoor air constitutes the most-significant radiation dose received by the general population in most countries. Indoor concentrations vary from one building to another, ranging from insignificant to very high levels that cause radiation doses higher than those experienced by uranium miners. This wide range of concentrations is attributable to variability in the rate at which radon enters buildings, and differences in the ventilation rate. Earth-sheltered dwellings, because they are more completely surrounded by earth material than other structures, have an as yet unquantified potential for having radon entry rates that are higher than typical for other houses in the region. Moreover, measures that save energy by reducing ventilation rates (for example by reducing infiltration) can also raise indoor radon concentrations. For these reasons a significant effort is needed to determine the potential for ventilation-reducing measures and earth sheltering to increase radon concentrations, especially in regions where they are already high. Where necessary, proper attention to specific design features that affect radon entry rates or residence time indoors should be adequate to avoid undue risk to the public.

  20. Radon Transform in Finite Dimensional Hilbert Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Revzen

    2012-02-06

    Novel analysis of ?nite dimensional Hilbert space is outlined. The approach bypasses general, inherent, di?culties present in handling angular variables in ?nite dimensional problems: The ?nite dimensional, d, Hilbert space operators are underpinned with ?nite geometry which provide intuitive perspective to the physical operators. The analysis emphasizes a central role for projectors of mutual unbiased bases (MUB) states, extending thereby their use in ?nite dimensional quantum mechanics studies. Interrelation among the Hilbert space operators revealed via their (?nite) dual a?ne plane geometry (DAPG) underpinning are displayed and utilized in formulating the ?nite dimensional ubiquitous Radon transformation and its inverse illustrating phase space-like physics encoded in lines and points of the geometry. The ?nite geometry required for our study is outlined.

  1. Relationships of radon diffusion coefficient with saturated hydraulic conductivity, fines content and moisture saturation of radon/infiltration barriers for the UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, P.Y.; Chen, P.K. [Morrison-Knudsen Co., Inc., Boise, ID (United States)

    1994-01-24

    The release of {sup 222}Radon to the atmosphere is controlled by the rate of its gas transport through earthen materials. Of the many soil-related parameters, radon diffusion coefficient is the key parameter that characterizes this transport. We compared the radon diffusion coefficients measured at the laboratories for the UMTRA Project with simple empirical correlations developed by others. The empirical correlations predict the radon diffusion coefficient based on the fraction of moisture saturation and porosity. One of the more recent correlations agrees reasonably well with the measurements. In addition, by using a series of correlation curves, we studied the empirical relationships of the. radon diffusion coefficient with the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the fines content, and the moisture saturation in soil. The results reveal that a reliable determination of the long-term moisture and porosity is essential in the design of an adequate radon barrier with respect to the radon diffusion coefficient.

  2. Radon spectroscopy of packet delay Andre Broido, Ryan King, Evi Nemeth, kc claffy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Radon spectroscopy of packet delay Andre Broido, Ryan King, Evi Nemeth, kc claffy CAIDA, SDSC techniques, specifically the Radon transform previously applied in geophysics [6] and computer tomography [7

  3. Radon spectroscopy of packet delay Andre Broido, Ryan King, Evi Nemeth, kc cla#y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Radon spectroscopy of packet delay Andre Broido, Ryan King, Evi Nemeth, kc cla#y CAIDA, SDSC techniques, specifically the Radon transform previously applied in geophysics [6] and computer tomography [7

  4. The Radon Transform on SO(3): A Fourier Slice Theorem and Numerical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prestin, Jürgen

    The Radon Transform on SO(3): A Fourier Slice Theorem and Numerical Inversion Ralf Hielscher­dimensional Radon transform on the rotation group SO(3) is an ill posed inverse problem which applies to X inversion of the one­dimensional Radon transform on SO(3). Based on a Fourier slice theorem the discrete

  5. Imaging of structure at and near the core mantle boundary using a generalized radon transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Hilst, Robert Dirk

    Imaging of structure at and near the core mantle boundary using a generalized radon transform: 1 of selected waveforms. Here we construct a generalized radon transform (for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic radon transform: 1. Construction of image gathers, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B12304, doi:10.1029/2005JB

  6. Radon and Fourier transforms for D-modules Andrea D'Agnolo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Agnolo, Andrea

    Radon and Fourier transforms for D-modules Andrea D'Agnolo and Michael Eastwood Version: July 17, 2002 Contents 1 Radon and Fourier transforms for D-modules 3 1.1 Review on algebraic D-modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2 Review on the Fourier-Laplace transform . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3 Review on the Radon

  7. Circular Harmonic Decomposition Approach for Numerical Inversion of Circular Radon Transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, Alfred K.

    Circular Harmonic Decomposition Approach for Numerical Inversion of Circular Radon Transforms Gaël@num.uni-sb.de ABSTRACT Numerical inversions via circular harmonic decomposition for two classes of circular Radon transforms are established. The first class deals with the Radon transform (RT) de- fined on circular arcs

  8. Real forms of the Radon-Penrose transform Andrea D'Agnolo Corrado Marastoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Agnolo, Andrea

    Real forms of the Radon-Penrose transform Andrea D'Agnolo Corrado Marastoni Abstract The complex Radon correspondence relates an n-dimensional projective space with the Grassmann manifold of its p-dimensional planes. This is the geometric background of the Radon-Penrose transform, which intertwines co- homology

  9. DOMESTIC RADON RISKS MAY BE DOMINATED BY BYSTANDER EFFECTS--BUT THE RISKS ARE UNLIKELY TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Paper DOMESTIC RADON RISKS MAY BE DOMINATED BY BYSTANDER EFFECTS--BUT THE RISKS ARE UNLIKELY TO BE GREATER THAN WE THOUGHT D. J. Brenner* and R. K. Sachs Abstract--Radon risks derive from exposure are manifestations of the same basic phenomenon. The model was fitted to dose- and dose-rate dependent radon- exposed

  10. EXPONENTIAL RADON TRANSFORM INVERSION BASED ON HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF THE EUCLIDEAN MOTION GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazici, Birsen

    EXPONENTIAL RADON TRANSFORM INVERSION BASED ON HARMONIC ANALYSIS OF THE EUCLIDEAN MOTION GROUP Can Engineering Troy, NY ABSTRACT This paper presents a new method for the exponential Radon trans- form inversion based on harmonic analysis of the Euclidean mo- tion group (M(2)). The exponential Radon transform

  11. Radon emanation from brittle fracturing in granites under upper crustal conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas, Chamot-Rooke

    Radon emanation from brittle fracturing in granites under upper crustal conditions Aurélien Nicolas CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon, France Abstract Radon-222, a radioactive gas naturally produced in the Earth precursor. Here we investigate the effects of mechanical and thermal damage on the radon emanation from

  12. Inversion of the noisy Radon transform on SO(3) by Gabor frames and sparse recovery principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teschke, Gerd

    Inversion of the noisy Radon transform on SO(3) by Gabor frames and sparse recovery principles-dimensional Radon transform on the rotation group SO(3) is an ill-posed inverse problem that can be applied to X to stably approximate the inverse of the noisy Radon transform on SO(3). The proposed approach is composed

  13. Radon-Nikodym theorems for multimeasures in non-separable spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, José

    Radon-Nikod´ym theorems for multimeasures in non-separable spaces B. Cascales, V. Kadets and J. Rodr´iguez § Dedicated to the memory of Mikhail Kadets Abstract We prove two Radon-Nikod´ym theorems of the Radon-Nikod´ym derivative as well). The main advantage of our results is the absence of any separability

  14. Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny in the human Abstract To calculate the absorbed dose in the human lung due to inhaled radon progeny, ICRP focussed and secretory cells). The absorbed energy for alpha particles emitted by radon progeny in the human respiratory

  15. RADON/RIDGELET SIGNATURE FOR IMAGE AUTHENTICATION Zhen Yao Nasir Rajpoot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajpoot, Nasir

    RADON/RIDGELET SIGNATURE FOR IMAGE AUTHENTICATION Zhen Yao Nasir Rajpoot Dept. of Computer Science transform. The signature is extracted from the Radon domain and entropy coded after a 1D wavelet transform- derlying Radon transform plays an essential role in provid- ing such non-separable, directional properties

  16. Sensitivity of LR 115 detectors in hemispherical chambers for radon measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Sensitivity of LR 115 detectors in hemispherical chambers for radon measurements D. Nikezic 1 , F, if the radius is larger than 3 cm, the effects of the deposition fraction of radon progeny will come into effect, which will again introduce uncertainties in radon measurements. For the hemispherical chamber

  17. Numerical simulations of radon as an in situ partitioning tracer for quantifying NAPL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    Numerical simulations of radon as an in situ partitioning tracer for quantifying NAPL contamination­pull partitioning tracer tests using radon-222 to quantify non- aqueous phase liquid contamination. J. Contam. Hydrol. 58, 129­146] of push­pull tests using radon as a naturally occurring partitioning tracer

  18. THE EFFECT OF RADON TRANSPORT IN GROUNDWATER UPON GAMMA-RAY BOREHOLE LOGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    f i c a t i o n de la Presence de Radon-222 dans les FluidsReport No. 30 THE EFFECT OF RADON TRANSPORT IN GROUNDWATERDE82 012616 THE EFFECT OF RADON TRANSPORT IN G O N W T R

  19. Measuring radon flux across active faults: Relevance of excavating and possibility of satellite discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klinger, Yann

    Measuring radon flux across active faults: Relevance of excavating and possibility of satellite January 2010 Keywords: Exhalation flux Radon-222 Carbon dioxide Faults Earthquake Trench a b s t r a c on the Xidatan segment of the Kunlun Fault, Qinghai Province, China, using measurement of the radon- 222

  20. Radon-Penrose transform for D-modules Andrea D'Agnolo Pierre Schapira

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schapira, Pierre

    Radon-Penrose transform for D-modules Andrea D'Agnolo Pierre Schapira@ccr.jussieu.fr 1 #12; Radon-Penrose transform for D-modules ffl Proposed running head: Radon-Penrose transform for D-modules ffl Proofs should be sent to: Andrea D

  1. The Radon-Nikodym theorem Article written for the International Encyclopedia for Statistical Sciences (Springer)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konstantopoulos, Takis

    The Radon-Nikod´ym theorem Article written for the International Encyclopedia for Statistical A F then (A) = 0. The Radon- Nikod´ym theorem states that these exists a µ-integrable function f : R then the µ-measure of the points such that f() = f() equals zero. The function f is called Radon

  2. Journal of Hazardous Materials 132 (2006) 98110 Assessment of environmental radon hazard using human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2006-01-01

    Journal of Hazardous Materials 132 (2006) 98­110 Assessment of environmental radon hazard using Abstract Radon is a natural radioactive gas derived from geological materials. It has been estimated to assess the health hazard from environmental radon is reviewed. A short history of dosimetric models

  3. Rapid determination of particle velocity from space-time images using the Radon transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cauwenberghs, Gert

    Rapid determination of particle velocity from space-time images using the Radon transform Patrick J an alternative method that makes use of the Radon transform to calculate the velocity of streaming particles. We the velocity that makes use of the Radon transform (Deans 1983; Averbuch et al. 2001), which takes a set

  4. THE RADON TRANSFORM ON Zk MICHELLE R. DEDEO AND ELINOR VELASQUEZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeDeo, Michelle R.

    THE RADON TRANSFORM ON Zk n MICHELLE R. DEDEO AND ELINOR VELASQUEZ SIAM J. DISCRETE MATH. c 2004 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 472­478 Abstract. The Radon transform algorithms. We expect the results to be of use in directional and toroidal time series. Key words. Radon

  5. Inversion of weighted Radon transforms via finite Fourier series weight approximations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillement, Jean-Pol

    Inversion of weighted Radon transforms via finite Fourier series weight approximations J Moscow, Russia e-mail: novikov@cmap.polytechnique.fr Abstract. We consider weighted Radon transforms approach by numerical examples for the case of the attenuated Radon transforms in the framework

  6. Improved Radon Based Imaging using the Shearlet Transform Glenn R. Easleya, Flavia Colonnab, Demetrio Labatec

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labate, Demetrio

    Improved Radon Based Imaging using the Shearlet Transform Glenn R. Easleya, Flavia Colonnab, such as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), can be described mathematically as col- lecting data in a Radon transform domain. The process of inverting the Radon transform to form an image can be unstable when the data

  7. Radon spectroscopy of inter-packet delay Andre Broido, Ryan King, Evi Nemeth, kc claffy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Radon spectroscopy of inter-packet delay Andre Broido, Ryan King, Evi Nemeth, kc claffy CAIDA, San is then converted by a coarse- grained Radon transform to a family of 1D marginals. Each marginal has semantics it closest to a delta function. As an application of Radon transform technique, we de- termine the target

  8. Simulation of background from low-level tritium and radon emanation in the KATRIN spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiber, B. [Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Collaboration: KATRIN Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a large-scale experiment for the model independent determination of the mass of electron anti-neutrinos with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. It investigates the kinematics of electrons from tritium beta decay close to the endpoint of the energy spectrum at 18.6 keV. To achieve a good signal to background ratio at the endpoint, a low background rate below 10{sup ?2} counts per second is required. The KATRIN setup thus consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous tritium source (WGTS), a magnetic electron transport system with differential and cryogenic pumping for tritium retention, and electro-static retarding spectrometers (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a segmented detector system for counting transmitted beta-electrons. A major source of background comes from magnetically trapped electrons in the main spectrometer (vacuum vessel: 1240 m{sup 3}, 10{sup ?11} mbar) produced by nuclear decays in the magnetic flux tube of the spectrometer. Major contributions are expected from short-lived radon isotopes and tritium. Primary electrons, originating from these decays, can be trapped for hours, until having lost almost all their energy through inelastic scattering on residual gas particles. Depending on the initial energy of the primary electron, up to hundreds of low energetic secondary electrons can be produced. Leaving the spectrometer, these electrons will contribute to the background rate. This contribution describes results from simulations for the various background sources. Decays of {sup 219}Rn, emanating from the main vacuum pump, and tritium from the WGTS that reaches the spectrometers are expected to account for most of the background. As a result of the radon alpha decay, electrons are emitted through various processes, such as shake-off, internal conversion and the Auger deexcitations. The corresponding simulations were done using the KASSIOPEIA framework, which has been developed for the KATRIN experiment for low-energy electron tracking, field calculation and detector simulation. The results of the simulations have been used to optimize the design parameters of the vacuum system with regard to radon emanation and tritium pumping, in order to reach the stringent requirements of the neutrino mass measurement.

  9. Retrospective radon progeny measurements through measurements of 210 activities on glass objects using stacked LR 115 detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Retrospective radon progeny measurements through measurements of 210 Po activities on glass objects 2 September 2008 PACS: 29.40 23.60 Keywords: Radon Radon progeny 210 Po Implantation Retrospective for determining 210 Po activity in glass surfaces after deposition of short-lived radon progeny. The sensitivities

  10. Multilinear generalized Radon transforms and point configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grafakos, Loukas; Iosevich, Alex; Palsson, Eyvindur

    2012-01-01

    We study multilinear generalized Radon transforms using a graph-theoretic paradigm that includes the widely studied linear case. These provide a general mechanism to study Falconer-type problems involving $(k+1)$-point configurations in geometric measure theory, with $k \\ge 2$, including the distribution of simplices, volumes and angles determined by the points of fractal subsets $E \\subset {\\Bbb R}^d$, $d \\ge 2$. If $T_k(E)$ denotes the set of noncongruent $(k+1)$-point configurations determined by $E$, we show that if the Hausdorff dimension of $E$ is greater than $d-\\frac{d-1}{2k}$, then the ${k+1 \\choose 2}$-dimensional Lebesgue measure of $T_k(E)$ is positive. This compliments previous work on the Falconer conjecture (\\cite{Erd05} and the references there), as well as work on finite point configurations \\cite{EHI11,GI10}. We also give applications to Erd\\"os-type problems in discrete geometry and a fractal regular value theorem, providing a multilinear framework for the results in \\cite{EIT11}.

  11. Modeling surface backgrounds from radon progeny plate-out

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumpilly, G.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Snyder, N. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)] [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The surface deposition and subsequent implantation of radon progeny in detector materials will be a source of energetic background events. We investigate Monte Carlo and model-based simulations to understand the surface implantation profile of radon progeny. Depending on the material and region of interest of a rare event search, these partial energy depositions can be problematic. Motivated by the use of Ge crystals for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay, we wish to understand the detector response of surface backgrounds from radon progeny. We look at the simulation of surface decays using a validated implantation distribution based on nuclear recoils and a realistic surface texture. Results of the simulations and measured ? spectra are presented.

  12. Dennis, Eberhart, Dulikravich & Radons FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, Brian

    1 Dennis, Eberhart, Dulikravich & Radons FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF COOLING OF REALISTIC 3-D Rapid cooling of the brain in the first minutes following the onset of cerebral ischemia is a potentially attractive preservation method. This computer modeling study was undertaken to examine brain-cooling

  13. REGULARIZATION FOR INVERTING THE RADON TRANSFORM WITH WEDGE CONSIDERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as missing wedge. We show that a regularization that penalizes non-uniformly in the orientation space produces re- constructions with less artifacts, thereby improving the recov- ery of the "invisible" edges distribution of an object from its (noisy) projections, and it is mathemati- cally related to the Radon

  14. Radon transform and kinetic equations in tomographic representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. N. Chernega; V. I. Man'ko; B. I. Sadovnikov

    2009-11-01

    Statistical properties of classical random process are considered in tomographic representation. The Radon integral transform is used to construct the tomographic form of kinetic equations. Relation of probability density on phase space for classical systems with tomographic probability distributions is elucidated. Examples of simple kinetic equations like Liouville equations for one and many particles are studied in detail.

  15. Small Sample Radon Testing of Homes in East Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper covers the results of small sample radon testing of homes in East Texas. The program was voluntary and participation was offered to a group of technical personnel involved in thc HVAC industry. Response was smaller than expected. The only...

  16. Hybrid isotope separation scheme

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which a scavenger, radiating the gas with a wave length or frequency characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photochemical reaction between the scavenger, and collecting the specific isotope-containing chemical by using a recombination surface or by a scooping apparatus. 2 figures.

  17. Stable isotope enrichment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian

    2014-07-15

    Brian Egle is working to increase the nation's capacity to produce stable isotopes for use including medicine, industry and national security.

  18. Stable isotope enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian

    2014-07-14

    Brian Egle is working to increase the nation's capacity to produce stable isotopes for use including medicine, industry and national security.

  19. Price Quotes and Isotope Ordering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ordering Price Quotes and Isotope Ordering Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Isotope...

  20. Discovery of the Indium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Thirty-eight indium isotopes (A = 98-135) have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  1. Discovery of the Titanium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Twentyfive titanium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  2. Discovery of the Mercury Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Meierfrankenfeld; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Forty mercury isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Discovery of the Cobalt Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Szymanski; M. Thoennessen

    2009-09-04

    Twenty-six cobalt isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Discovery of the Tin Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08

    Thirty-eight tin isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  5. Discovery of the Cadmium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Amos; M. Thoennessen

    2009-10-22

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Construction and Measurements of an Improved Vacuum-Swing-Adsorption Radon-Mitigation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Street, J; Dunagan, C; Loose, X; Schnee, R W; Stark, M; Sundarnath, K; Tronstad, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of $\\sim$0.2$\\,$Bq$\\,$m$^{-3}$. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a $>$$\\,$300$\\times$ reduction from an input activity of $58.6\\pm0.7$$\\,$Bq$\\,$m$^{-3}$ to a cleanroom activity of $0.13\\pm0.06$$\\,$Bq$\\,$m$^{-3}$.

  7. Construction and Measurements of an Improved Vacuum-Swing-Adsorption Radon-Mitigation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Street; R. Bunker; C. Dunagan; X. Loose; R. W. Schnee; M. Stark; K. Sundarnath; D. Tronstad

    2015-06-02

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of $\\sim$0.2$\\,$Bq$\\,$m$^{-3}$. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a $>$$\\,$300$\\times$ reduction from an input activity of $58.6\\pm0.7$$\\,$Bq$\\,$m$^{-3}$ to a cleanroom activity of $0.13\\pm0.06$$\\,$Bq$\\,$m$^{-3}$.

  8. Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young,, J. A.; Thomas, V. W.; Jackson, P. 0.

    1983-03-01

    This report recornmenrls instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of several instruments are examined. A year-long measurement program and a two rnonth measurement rnethodology are then presented based on the inherent difficulties of measuring average radon flux over a cover using the recommended instrumentation.

  9. Radon and Fourier transforms for Dmodules Andrea D'Agnolo and Michael Eastwood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radon and Fourier transforms for D­modules Andrea D'Agnolo and Michael Eastwood Contents Introduction 2 Acknowledgements 2 1. Radon and Fourier transforms for D­modules 3 1.1. Review on algebraic D­modules 3 1.2. Review on the Fourier­Laplace transform 5 1.3. Review on the Radon transform(s) 6 1.4. Review

  10. 3.3. Radon's and Helly's Theorems 67 with > 0. Thus, we have

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallier, Jean

    3.3. Radon's and Helly's Theorems 67 with µ > 0. Thus, we have iI µi µ Oxi = jJ - µj µ Oxj, with i is nonempty. Proof . The proof is by induction on n m+1 and uses Radon's theorem in the induction step. For n, we can pick a set X = {a1, . . . , an+1} such that ai Ci, for every i L. By Radon's Theorem

  11. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  12. Photochemical isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Greiner, N.R.; Boyer, K.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium. 8 figs.

  13. Laser isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cotter, Theodore P. (Munich, DE); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM); Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

  14. On the injectivity of the circular Radon transform arising in thermoacoustic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the injectivity of the circular Radon transform arising in thermoacoustic tomography Gaik, thermoacoustic tomogra­ phy (TAT or TCT) and its sibling photoacoustic tomography (PAT) have already made

  15. Analysis of volatile phase transport in soils using natural radon gas as a tracer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.; Thomas, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    We have conducted a field study of soil gas transport processes using radon gas as a naturally occurring tracer. The .experiment monitored soil gas radon activity, soil moisture, and soil temperature at three depths in the shallow soil column; barometric pressure, rainfall and wind speed were monitored at the soil surface. Linear and multiple regression analysis of the data sets has shown that the gas phase radon activities under natural environmental conditions are influenced by soil moisture content, barometric pressure variations, soil temperature and soil structure. The effect of wind speed on subsurface radon activities under our field conditions has not been demonstrated.

  16. Analysis of volatile phase transport in soils using natural radon gas as a tracer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.; Thomas, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    We have conducted a field study of soil gas transport processes using radon gas as a naturally occurring tracer. The .experiment monitored soil gas radon activity, soil moisture, and soil temperature at three depths in the shallow soil column; barometric pressure, rainfall and wind speed were monitored at the soil surface. Linear and multiple regression analysis of the data sets has shown that the gas phase radon activities under natural environmental conditions are influenced by soil moisture content, barometric pressure variations, soil temperature and soil structure. The effect of wind speed on subsurface radon activities under our field conditions has not been demonstrated.

  17. End point estimates for Radon transform of radial functions on Non-Euclidean spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ashisha

    2012-01-01

    We prove end point estimate for Radon transform of radial functions on affine Grasamannian and real hyperbolic space. We also discuss analogs of these results on the sphere.

  18. Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattavina, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

  19. Abstract--In this work, we first introduced a reorganized form of the Novikov's inversion formula for the attenuated Radon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the attenuated Radon transform with parallel-beam geometry which utilizes the conventional filters (such the attenuated Radon transform (AtRT). A closed- form inversion formula for parallel-beam (PB) geometry

  20. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  1. 2 Imaging of structure at and near the core-mantle 3 boundary using a generalized radon transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Hilst, Robert Dirk

    2 Imaging of structure at and near the core-mantle 3 boundary using a generalized radon transform. The first part describes the generalized radon transform 11 (GRT) of broadband ScS data (comprising main Hilst (2007), Imaging of structure at and near the core- 34 mantle boundary using a generalized radon

  2. Discrete Radon transform has an exact, fast inverse and generalizes to operations other than sums along lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Press, William H.

    Discrete Radon transform has an exact, fast inverse and generalizes to operations other than sums¨otz, Druckm¨uller, and independently Brady have defined a discrete Radon transform (DRT) that sums an image-to-noise in the presence of pointlike clutter features of arbitrarily large amplitude. Radon transform | computerized

  3. MEJORAMIENTO DE ONDAS INTERNAS EN IMGENES SAR USANDO, EN FORMA COMBINADA, LAS TRANSFORMADAS RADON Y WAVELETS (1-D)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernández-Walls, Rafael

    MEJORAMIENTO DE ONDAS INTERNAS EN IMÁGENES SAR USANDO, EN FORMA COMBINADA, LAS TRANSFORMADAS RADON este trabajo estamos proponiendo el uso combinado de las transformadas RADON y WAVELETS (1-D) para contengan islas o parte de la costa. Palabras clave--Imagen de radar, Ondas internas, Transformada Radon

  4. RaDON --Repair and Diagnosis in Ontology Networks Qiu Ji, Peter Haase, Guilin Qi, Pascal Hitzler, Steffen Stadtmuller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitzler, Pascal

    RaDON -- Repair and Diagnosis in Ontology Networks Qiu Ji, Peter Haase, Guilin Qi, Pascal Hitzler by integrating multiple distributed ontologies. Our RaDON system pro- vides functionalities to repair ontologies. To meet the above mentioned needs, we develop the RaDON system to repair and diagnose not only

  5. Perchlorate Isotope Forensics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohlke, J. K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA; Sturchio, N. C. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Horita, Juske [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL; Jackson, W. Andrew [Tennessee Technological University; Batista, Jacimaria [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2006-01-01

    Perchlorate has been detected recently in a variety of soils, waters, plants, and food products at levels that may be detrimental to human health. These discoveries have generated considerable interest in perchlorate source identification. In this study, comprehensive stable isotope analyses ({sup 37}Cl/{sup 35}Cl and {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O/{sup 16}O) of perchlorate from known synthetic and natural sources reveal systematic differences in isotopic characteristics that are related to the formation mechanisms. In addition, isotopic analyses of perchlorate extracted from groundwater and surface water demonstrate the feasibility of identifying perchlorate sources in contaminated environments on the basis of this technique. Both natural and synthetic sources of perchlorate have been identified in water samples from some perchlorate occurrences in the United States by the isotopic method.

  6. Plasma isotope separation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, M.W. ); Shepp, T.A. )

    1991-12-01

    Isotope separation has many important industrial, medical, and research applications. Large-scale processes have typically utilized complex cascade systems; for example, the gas centrifuge. Alternatively, high single-stage enrichment processes (as in the case of the calutron) are very energy intensive. Plasma-based methods being developed for the past 15 to 20 years have attempted to overcome these two drawbacks. In this review, six major types of isotope separation methods which involve plasma phenomena are discussed. These methods are: plasma centrifuge, AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotope separation), ion wave, ICR (ion-cyclotron resonance), calutron, and gas discharge. The emphasis of this paper is to describe the plasma phenomena in these major categories. An attempt was made to include enough references so that more detailed study or evaluation of a particular method could readily be pursued. A brief discussion of isotope separation using mass balance concepts is also carried out.

  7. KILLING OF TARGET CELLS DUE TO RADON PROGENY IN THE HUMAN LUNG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    KILLING OF TARGET CELLS DUE TO RADON PROGENY IN THE HUMAN LUNG B. M. F. Lau1 , D. Nikezic1,2 and K to inhaled radon progeny in the human lung. The present work uses the microdosimetric approach and determines/alleviate this discrepancy, including those based on different lung morpho- metry models(4) , different ethnic groups(5

  8. Tensor products of AC charges and AC Radon measures are not always AC charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buczolich, Zoltán

    Tensor products of AC #3; charges and AC Radon measures are not always AC #3; charges Zolt#19;an and an absolutely continuous Radon measure #22; on R such that F #22; is not an AC#3; charge on R 2 . 1 Introduction In [1] the tensor problem was stated for the tensor product of AC #3; charges and the Lebesgue

  9. Seismic imaging with the generalized Radon transform: A curvelet transform perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    Seismic imaging with the generalized Radon transform: A curvelet transform perspective M V de Hoop1@purdue.edu Abstract. A key challenge in the seismic imaging of reflectors using surface reflection data Endowed Professorship. #12;Generalized Radon Transform and Curvelets 2 1. Introduction 1.1. Seismic

  10. Construction and measurements of a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnee, R. W.; Bunker, R.; Ghulam, G.; Jardin, D.; Kos, M.; Tenney, A. S. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on (and near) detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay, and in screening detectors. In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto the wires of the Beta Cage during its assembly, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at Syracuse University using a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system. The radon filter shows ?20× reduction at its output, from 7.47±0.56 to 0.37±0.12 Bq/m{sup 3}, and the cleanroom radon activity meets project requirements, with a lowest achieved value consistent with that of the filter, and levels consistently < 2 Bq/m{sup 3}.

  11. Indoor Radon and Its Decay Products: Concentrations, Causes, and Control Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    This report is an introduction to the behavior of radon 222 and its decay products in indoor air. This includes review of basic characteristics of radon and its decay products and of features of the indoor environment itself, all of which factors affect behavior in indoor air. The experimental and theoretical evidence on behavior of radon and its decay products is examined, providing a basis for understanding the influence of geological, structural, and meteorological factors on indoor concentrations, as well as the effectiveness of control techniques. We go on to examine three important issues concerning indoor radon. We thus include (1) an appraisal of the concentration distribution in homes, (2) an examination of the utility and limitations of popular monitoring techniques and protocols, and (3) an assessment of the key elements of strategies for controlling radon levels in homes.

  12. Study on radon and radium concentrations in drinking water in west region of Iran

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forozani, Ghasem

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important characterizations of social health is existence the availability of safe drinking water. Since one of the sources of water contamination is nuclear contamination from radon gas, so in this research radon 222 concentration levels in water supplies in the Toyserkan (a region located in the west of Iran) is investigated. For measuring radon gas in water wells and springs Lucas chamber method is used. Review the results of these measurements that taken from 15th place show that, only five sites have radon concentrations above the limit dose. To reduce radon concentration, it is better to keep water in open pools in contact with air before the water is delivered to users.

  13. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed.

  14. RADON PROGENY AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL FOR DOSIMETRY OF NANOAEROSOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruzer, Lev; Ruzer, Lev S.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-02-25

    The study of aerosol exposure and dosimetry measurements and related quantitation of health effects are important to the understanding of the consequences of air pollution, and are discussed widely in the scientific literature. During the last 10 years the need to correlate aerosol exposure and biological effects has become especially important due to rapid development of a new, revolutionary industry ?-- nanotechnology. Nanoproduct commerce is predicted to top $1 trillion by 2015. Quantitative assessment of aerosol particle behavior in air and in lung deposition, and dosimetry in different parts of the lung, particularly for nanoaerosols, remains poor despite several decades of study. Direct measurements on humans are still needed in order to validate the hollow cast, animal studies, and lung deposition modeling. We discuss here the use of nanoscale radon decay products as an experimental tool in the study of local deposition and lung dosimetry for nanoaerosols. The issue of the safe use of radon progeny in such measurements is discussed based on a comparison of measured exposure in 3 settings: general population, miners, and in a human experiment conducted at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. One of the properties of radon progeny is that they consist partly of 1 nm radioactive particles called unattached activity; having extremely small size and high diffusion coefficients, these particles can be potentially useful as radioactive tracers in the study of nanometer-sized aerosols. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the unattached activity and aerosol particle surface area, together with a description of its calibration and method for measurement of the unattached fraction.

  15. Transportation of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  16. Inversion formulas for the broken-ray Radon transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia Florescu; Vadim A. Markel; John C. Schotland

    2010-07-23

    We consider the inverse problem of the broken ray transform (sometimes also referred to as the V-line transform). Explicit image reconstruction formulas are derived and tested numerically. The obtained formulas are generalizations of the filtered backprojection formula of the conventional Radon transform. The advantages of the broken ray transform include the possibility to reconstruct the absorption and the scattering coefficients of the medium simultaneously and the possibility to utilize scattered radiation which, in the case of the conventional X-ray tomography, is typically discarded.

  17. Range descriptions for the spherical mean Radon transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Agranovsky; P. Kuchment; E. T. Quinto

    2006-09-02

    The transform considered in the paper averages a function supported in a ball in $\\RR^n$ over all spheres centered at the boundary of the ball. This Radon type transform arises in several contemporary applications, e.g. in thermoacoustic tomography and sonar and radar imaging. Range descriptions for such transforms are important in all these areas, for instance when dealing with incomplete data, error correction, and other issues. Four different types of complete range descriptions are provided, some of which also suggest inversion procedures. Necessity of three of these (appropriately formulated) conditions holds also in general domains, while the complete discussion of the case of general domains would require another publication.

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design togovCampaignsMASRAD: Pt.CampaignSTations2008) govCampaignsRadon

  19. A generic biokinetic model for noble gases with application to radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Marsh, James; Gregoratto, Demetrio; Blanchardon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently uses a dose conversion coefficient to calculate effective dose per unit exposure to radon and its progeny. The coefficient is derived by dividing the detriment associated with unit exposure to radon, as estimated from epidemiological studies, by the detriment per unit effective dose, as estimated mainly from atomic bomb survivor data and animal studies. In a recent statement the ICRP indicated that future guidance on exposure to radon and its progeny will be developed in the same way as guidance for any other radionuclide. That is, intake of radon and progeny will be limited on the basis of effective dose coefficients derived from biokinetic and dosimetric models. This paper proposes a biokinetic model for systemic (absorbed) radon for use in the calculation of dose coefficients for inhaled or ingested radon. The model is based largely on physical laws governing transfer of a non-reactive and soluble gas between materials. Model predictions are shown to be consistent with results of controlled studies of the fate of internally deposited radon in human subjects.

  20. Radon induced background processes in the KATRIN pre-spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fränkle, F M; Drexlin, G; Glück, F; Görhardt, S; Käfer, W; Mertens, S; Wandkowsky, N; Wolf, J

    2011-01-01

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a next generation, model independent, large scale tritium beta-decay experiment to determine the effective electron anti-neutrino mass by investigating the kinematics of tritium beta-decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c2 using the MAC-E filter technique. In order to reach this sensitivity, a low background level of 0.01 counts per second (cps) is required. This paper describes how the decay of radon in a MAC-E filter generates background events, based on measurements performed at the KATRIN pre-spectrometer test setup. Radon (Rn) atoms, which emanate from materials inside the vacuum region of the KATRIN spectrometers, are able to penetrate deep into the magnetic flux tube so that the alpha-decay of Rn contributes to the background. Of particular importance are electrons emitted in processes accompanying the Rn alpha-decay, such as shake-off, internal conversion of excited levels in the Rn daughter atoms and Auger electrons. While low-energy electrons (<...

  1. Method for separating boron isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  2. Isotop kl. B Supportlab.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isotop kl. B lab. Nærlager Supportlab. Supportlab. Supportlab. Lab. GMO1/BSL2 Supportlab. Supportlab. Supportlab. Supportlab. Lab. GMO1/BSL2 Vareindlevering post/frost Kontor Sofastue / Thekøkken. GMO1/BSL2 Supportlab. �velseslab, eksist. �velseslab, eksist. Forberedelseslab. Rum, køl/ centrifuge

  3. Generalized splines for Radon transform on compact Lie groups with applications to crystallography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanhild Bernstein; Svend Ebert; Isaac Z. Pesenson

    2012-04-27

    The Radon transform Rf of functions f on SO(3) has recently been applied extensively in texture analysis, i.e. the analysis of preferred crystallographic orientation. In practice one has to determine the orientation probability density function f \\in L2(SO(3)) from Rf \\in L2(S2\\times S2) which is known only on a discrete set of points. Since one has only partial information about Rf the inversion of the Radon transform becomes an ill-posed inverse problem. Motivated by this problem we define a new notion of the Radon transform Rf of functions f on general compact Lie groups and introduce two approximate inversion algorithms which utilize our previously developed generalized variational splines on manifolds. Our new algorithms fit very well to the application of Radon transform on SO(3) to texture analysis.

  4. Weighted Radon transforms for which the Chang approximate inversion formula is precise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman Novikov

    2011-01-17

    We describe all weighted Radon transforms on the plane for which the Chang approximate inversion formula is precise. Some subsequent results, including the Cormack type inversion for these transforms, are also given.

  5. Imaging of structure at and near the core mantle boundary using a generalized radon transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ping, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, concepts from inverse scattering and modem statistics are combined into a powerful tool for imaging interfaces in Earth's deep interior. Specially, a generalized Radon transform (GRT) approach is developed ...

  6. A METHOD FOR MEASURING THE EXHALATION OF RADON FROM BUILDING MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingersoll, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    per minute emitted by 1 pCi of radon and its daughters inat start of collection (pCi) This equation assumes thatof calibrating ing 20.7 pCi of radium. approximately 20

  7. Development and application of the scintillation flask technique for the measurement of indoor radon-222 concentrations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Gerard Michael

    1986-01-01

    Collection . Sample Counting . Data Reduction Flask Storage . Inadequacies of the Scintillation Flask Technique RESULTS Results of Flask Calibrations Suessary of Campus Results Location of Higher Radon Levels DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Calibration...-222 Concentration versus Time . 32 INTRODUCTION The potential health effects of Rn-222 and its daughters have been a major concern for several years. Radon-222, a daughter of Ra-226, is a naturally occurring, radioactive, noble gas with a 3. 8 day...

  8. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Study of temporal variation of radon concentrations in public drinking water supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    York, E.L. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for radon-222 in public drinking water supplies of 300 pCi/L. Proposed monitoring requirements include collecting quarterly grab samples for the first year, then annual samples for the remainder of the compliance cycle provided first year quarterly samples average below the MCL. The focus of this research was to study the temporal variation of groundwater radon concentrations to investigate how reliably one can predict an annual average radon concentration based on the results of grab samples. Using a {open_quotes}slow-flow{close_quotes} collection method and liquid scintillation analysis, biweekly water samples were taken from ten public water supply wells in North Carolina (6 month - 11 month sampling periods). Based on study results, temporal variations exist in groundwater radon concentrations. Statistical analysis performed on the data indicates that grab samples taken from each of the ten wells during the study period would exhibit groundwater radon concentrations within 30% of their average radon concentration.

  10. Industrial Technology of Decontamination of Liquid Radioactive Waste in SUE MosSIA 'Radon' - 12371

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamovich, Dmitry V.; Neveykin, Petr P.; Karlin, Yuri V.; Savkin, Alexander E. [SUE MosSIA 'Radon', 7th Rostovsky lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    SUE MosSIA 'RADON' - this enterprise was created more than 50 years ago, which deals with the recycling of radioactive waste and conditioning of spent sources of radiation in stationary and mobile systems in the own factory and operating organizations. Here is represented the experience SUE MosSIA 'Radon' in the field of the management with liquid radioactive waste. It's shown, that the activity of SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is developing in three directions - improvement of technical facilities for treatment of radioactive waters into SUE MosSIA 'RADON' development of mobile equipment for the decontamination of radioactive waters in other organizations, development of new technologies for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes as part of various domestic Russian and international projects including those related to the operation of nuclear power and nuclear submarines. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' has processed more than 270 thousand m{sup 3} of radioactive water, at that more than 7000 m{sup 3} in other organizations for more than 50 years. It is shown that a number of directions, particularly, the development of mobile modular units for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is a leader in the world. (authors)

  11. The ORNL Indoor Air Quality Study: Re-cap, Context, and Assessment on Radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Ternes, Mark P.

    2015-10-01

    As part of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program that was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an assessment of the impacts of weatherization on indoor air quality (IAQ) was conducted. This assessment included nearly 500 treatment and control homes across the country. Homes were monitored for carbon monoxide, radon, formaldehyde, temperature and humidity pre- and post-weatherization. This report focuses on the topic of radon and addresses issues not thoroughly discussed in the original IAQ report. The size, scope and rigor of the radon component of the IAQ study are compared to previous studies that assessed the impacts of weatherization on indoor radon levels. It is found that the ORNL study is by far the most extensive study conducted to date, though the ORNL results are consistent with the findings of the other studies. However, the study does have limitations related to its reliance on short-term measurements of radon and inability to attribute changes in radon levels in homes post-weatherization to specific weatherization measures individually or in combination.

  12. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Akerib, D. S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Araújo, H. M. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Bailey, A. J. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Balajthy, J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bernard, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Byram, D. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Cahn, S. B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Carmona-Benitez, M. C. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Chan, C. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Chapman, J. J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Chiller, A. A. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Chiller, C. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Coffey, T. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Currie, A. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); de Viveiros, L. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Dobi, A. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dobson, J. [Univ. of Edingburg, Edinburg (United Kingdom); Druszkiewicz, E. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Edwards, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Faham, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fiorucci, S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Flores, C. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Gaitskell, R. J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Gehman, V. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghag, C. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Gibson, K. R. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Gilchriese, M. G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hall, C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hertel, S. A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Horn, M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Huang, D. Q. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Ihm, M. [Univ. of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, R. G. [Univ. of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knoche, R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Larsen, N. A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lee, C. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Lindote, A. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, M. I. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Malling, D. C. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Mannino, R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); McKinsey, D. N. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Mei, D. -M. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Mock, J. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Moongweluwan, M. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Morad, J. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Murphy, A. St.J. [Univ. of Edingburg, Edinburg (United Kingdom); Nehrkorn, C. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Nelson, H. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Neves, F. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Ott, R. A. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Pangilinan, M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Parker, P. D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Pease, E. K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Pech, K. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Phelps, P. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Reichhart, L. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Shutt, T. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Silva, C. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily tagged and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.

  13. First detection of tracks of radon progeny recoils by MIMAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riffard, Q; Bosson, G; Bourrion, O; Descombes, T; Fourel, C; Guillaudin, O; Muraz, J -F; Colas, P; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Giomataris, I; Busto, J; Fouchez, D; Tao, C; Lebreton, L; Maire, D

    2015-01-01

    The MIMAC experiment is a $\\mu$-TPC matrix project for directional dark matter search. Directional detection is a strategy based on the measurement of the WIMP flux anisotropy due to the solar system motion with respect to the dark matter halo. The main purpose of MIMAC project is the measurement of the energy and the direction of nuclear recoils in 3D produced by elastic scattering of WIMPs. Since June 2012 a bi-chamber prototype is operating at the Modane underground laboratory. In this paper, we report the first ionization energy and 3D track observations of nuclear recoils produced by the radon progeny. This measurement shows the capability of the MIMAC detector and opens the possibility to explore the low energy recoil directionality signature.

  14. First detection of tracks of radon progeny recoils by MIMAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q. Riffard; D. Santos; G. Bosson; O. Bourrion; T. Descombes; C. Fourel; O. Guillaudin; J. -F. Muraz; P. Colas; E. Ferrer-Ribas; I. Giomataris; J. Busto; D. Fouchez; C. Tao; L. Lebreton; D. Maire

    2015-04-22

    The MIMAC experiment is a $\\mu$-TPC matrix project for directional dark matter search. Directional detection is a strategy based on the measurement of the WIMP flux anisotropy due to the solar system motion with respect to the dark matter halo. The main purpose of MIMAC project is the measurement of the energy and the direction of nuclear recoils in 3D produced by elastic scattering of WIMPs. Since June 2012 a bi-chamber prototype is operating at the Modane underground laboratory. In this paper, we report the first ionization energy and 3D track observations of nuclear recoils produced by the radon progeny. This measurement shows the capability of the MIMAC detector and opens the possibility to explore the low energy recoil directionality signature.

  15. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily taggedmore »and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.« less

  16. Radon fluxes in tropical forest ecosystems of Brazilian Amazonia: night-time CO2 net ecosystem exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    Radon fluxes in tropical forest ecosystems of Brazilian Amazonia: night-time CO2 net ecosystem exchange derived from radon and eddy covariance methods C H R I S T O P H E R S . M A R T E N S *, T H O M 97119.900, Brazil Abstract Radon-222 (Rn-222) is used as a transport tracer of forest canopy

  17. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynam, C.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1995-08-22

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of {sup 167}Er. The hyperfine structure of {sup 167}Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level. 3 figs.

  18. Laser isotope separation of erbium and other isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynam, Christopher A. (3035 Ferdale Ct., Pleasanton, CA 94566); Worden, Earl F. (117 Vereda del Ciervo, Diablo, CA 94528)

    1995-01-01

    Laser isotope separation is accomplished using at least two photoionization pathways of an isotope simultaneously, where each pathway comprises two or more transition steps. This separation method has been applied to the selective photoionization of erbium isotopes, particularly for the enrichment of .sup.167 Er. The hyperfine structure of .sup.167 Er was used to find two three-step photoionization pathways having a common upper energy level.

  19. Isotopically labeled compositions and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Jurgen G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kimball, David B. (Los Alamos, NM); Alvarez, Marc A. (Santa Fe, NM); Williams, Robert F. (Los Alamos, NM); Martinez, Rudolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-07-12

    Compounds having stable isotopes .sup.13C and/or .sup.2H were synthesized from precursor compositions having solid phase supports or affinity tags.

  20. Effects of finite sampling and additive noise on image reconstruction from Radon transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, E.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1988-12-01

    The Radon transform arises naturally in the problem of reconstructing an image or cross section from line integral measurements through a specified object. Each line integral or ray is a sample of the Radon transform of the object and the set of all samples at a particular angle is called a projection or view. Consequently, the set of all possible samples at all possible projections in a particular plane constitutes the two-dimensional Radon transform. Of course, it is impossible to acquire an infinite number of data points for the purpose of image reconstruction. However, with a sufficient set of Radon transform samples, an images can be determined through various Radon transform inversion techniques. From this statement, however, arises the question of just what constitutes a sufficient set of Radon transform samples. Acquiring an insufficient number of samples results in various artifacts in the reconstructed image. On the other hand, taking too many samples utilizes the data inefficiently. Thus, the problem of interest is to determine the optimum number of projections and the optimum number of samples per projection required to adequately represent the Radon transform such that the image can be accurately reconstructed. The problem of image reconstruction is further complicated if noise is introduced in the projection domain. Noise may be caused by round-off error in the sampled projection data or by various other factors inherent in data acquisition processes. However, several filtering techniques can be implemented to suppress the effects of noise. Therefore, a second problem of interest is to study the effectiveness of different filtering techniques in noise suppression.

  1. Viene descritto un metodo analitico per la determinazione dei flussi di radon dal suolo partendo da misure di concentrazione del gas nello strato limite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curci, Gabriele

    possono modulare l'emissione di radon. A volte anche l'attività sismica può influenzare la concentrazione

  2. RADIOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF NEUTRON DEFICIENT ACTINIDE ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Kimberly Eve

    2011-01-01

    Isotope Targets and Foils, AERE-R 5097, Paper 10 (1965). V.Isotope Targets and Foils, AERE-R 5097 Paper 12 (1965). K.M.Isotope Targets and Foils, AERE-R-5097 Paper 11 (1965). M.

  3. Advanced isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-04

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems.

  4. Radon transforms on generalized Cormack's curves and a new Compton scatter tomography This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Verger, Maï K.

    Radon transforms on generalized Cormack's curves and a new Compton scatter tomography modality:10.1088/0266-5611/27/12/125001 Radon transforms on generalized Cormack's curves and a new Compton/125001 Abstract In his seminal work of 1981, Cormack established that Radon transforms defined on two remarkable

  5. On new -line Radon transforms in and their inversion This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Verger, Maï K.

    On new -line Radon transforms in and their inversion This article has been downloaded from) doi:10.1088/1751-8113/44/7/075206 On new V-line Radon transforms in R2 and their inversion T T Truong1 December 2010 Published 28 January 2011 Online at stacks.iop.org/JPhysA/44/075206 Abstract Radon transforms

  6. The marine biogeochemistry of zinc isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Seth G

    2007-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) stable isotopes can record information about important oceanographic processes. This thesis presents data on Zn isotopes in anthropogenic materials, hydrothermal fluids and minerals, cultured marine phytoplankton, ...

  7. Isotope Research 229 Th production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isotope Research ­ 229 Th production We recently completed an ARRA-funded project of this type on 229 Th production reactions [Str11]. This long-lived isotope is important as a precursor to 225 Ac of accelerator production of 229 Th via the 230 Th(p,2n)229 Pa reaction. The 229 Pa decays primarily by electron

  8. Study on the influence of CR-39 detector size on radon progeny detection in indoor environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, L. A.; Hadler, J. C.; Lixandrão F, A. L.; Guedes, S.; Takizawa, R. H.

    2014-11-11

    It is well known that radon daughters up to {sup 214}Po are the real contaminants to be considered in case of indoor radon contamination. Assemblies consisting of 6 circular bare sheets of CR-39, a nuclear track detector, with radius varying from 0.15 to 1.2 cm were exposed far from any material surface for periods of approximately 6 months in 13 different indoor rooms (7 workplaces and 6 dwellings), where ventilation was moderate or poor. It was observed that track density was as greater as smaller was the detector radius. Track density data were fitted using an equation deduced based on the assumption that the behavior of radon and its progeny in the air was described by Fick's Law, i.e., when the main mechanism of transport of radon progeny in the air is diffusion. As many people spend great part of their time in closed or poorly ventilated environments, the confirmation they present equilibrium between radon and its progeny is an interesting start for dosimetric calculations concerning this contamination.

  9. An investigation of the geology and geochemistry of radon in shear zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumann, R.R.; Stanton, M.R.; Gundersen, L.C.S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Gates, A.E. [Rutgers--the State Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Geology; Schultz, A.P. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Speer, J.A. [North Carolina Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    1991-12-31

    In this study we will characterize the four principal geologic terrains that cause the highest and most extensive indoor radon problems in the United States, we will predict their national distribution, and we will define the climatic and chemical processes that affect uranium and radium siting in rocks and soils, and ultimately their emanation and radon potential. We have chosen nine sheared granite plutons from different climatic areas across the United States, two faulted carbonate terrains from an and area and a humid area, and three sites within the fractured Pierre shale and the glacial deposits derived from it in the northern Great Plains. The results of our studies for the last four years have established that in order to understand and accurately predict radon transport and availability in rocks, soils, and ground water, the factors affecting radon emanation must be quantitatively described and basic models developed to understand the processes involved. Three phases of the project were worked on this (1) Preliminary assessment of the Alleghenian granites and compilation of data for establishing the relation between heat flow and radon production and availability, (2) development of a field emanation protocol, and (3) ongoing geochemical examination of shear zone processes.

  10. Measurement of radon concentrations at SuperKamiokande Y.Takeuchi a , K.Okumura a , T.Kajita a , S.Tasaka g , M.Nemoto t , Y.Fukuda a , H.Okazawa o;\\Lambda ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    Measurement of radon concentrations at Super­Kamiokande Y.Takeuchi a , K.Okumura a , T.Kajita a , S; Abstract Radioactivity from radon is a major background for observing solar neutrinos at Super­ Kamiokande. In this paper, we describe the measurement of radon concentrations at Super­ Kamiokande, the method of radon

  11. Radon-222 progeny surface deposition and resuspension - residential materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    In evaluating the hazards from indoor {sup 222}Rn, it is imperative that the behavior of the four short-lived particulate progeny are fully understood since they are the radioisotopes that deliver most of the radiobiological damage to occupants. One known characteristic of these radon progeny is that they deposit (plate out) onto macroscopic surfaces. Some of these plated-out atoms become resuspended when they disintegrate and decay to the next progeny, in particular, {sup 218}Po. Both of these mechanisms, plateout and resuspension, affect the airborne population of the individual daughters and their impact on the radiation energy delivered to the human respiratory system. There are two specific and separate areas of concern, One is that monitoring {sup 222} Rn levels alone, such as with charcoal canisters, is obviously not sufficient to determine the radiation dose since the daughters are never in absolute equilibrium with {sup 222}Rn. Further, from an internal dose standpoint, the {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} fraction (free ions) of the daughters are believed, by virtue of their deeper tissue depositions in the tracheo-bronchial tract, to deliver the greatest dose in the body. Currently, there are virtually no data on the measurements of both plateout rates and resuspension factors for specific individual residential material surfaces. This report presents experimental data of plateout rates in an indoor house for typical indoor materials. Results of measurements of resuspension factors for some of the materials are provided.

  12. Upgrading of Sergiev Posad department of Moscow NPO Radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debieve, Pierre [BELGATOM, Avenue Ariane 4, B 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Delecaut, Gregory; Vanleeuw, Daniel [Institut National des Radioelements - IRE, 6220 Fleurus (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: BELGATOM and IRE Consortium has been awarded by the European Commission end of 2005 to conduct a project entitled 'Upgrading of Sergiev Posad Department of Moscow NPO Radon and the assessment of the radiological impact in the area nearby'. The main aims to achieve in the frame of this Europe-aid Project are: - Improvement of the performance and the safety level of the present radwaste management system, taking into account the additional waste expected from the Kurchatov Institute rehabilitation and from the forecast decommissioning of Research Reactors on the territory of Moscow. - Basic design and assistance for the procurement of upgrading equipment related to: - radwaste sorting and pretreatment - replacement of the hydraulic system of the existing super-compactor - characterisation system for radwaste 'Support for preparing the PSAR and PEIAR for new licensing' Assessment of the radiological impact in an area of 50 km radius around Sergiev Posad Department. - The initial duration of this Project is 3 years, starting beginning of 2006. This paper describes the difficulties encountered to start and implement the Project and its status at the half of the planned time schedule. (authors)

  13. Radon in HUD assisted multifamily housing: Policy recommendations to the Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The report complies with Section 1091 of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Amendments Act of 1988 which requires that the HUD Secretary report to the Congress on a recommended policy for addressing radon contamination in specified housing. The housing specified in the Act is virtually all rental housing predominantly for low-income and moderate-income households. Almost all of it is multifamily housing: row houses, walk-up apartment buildings, or high-rise buildings. There is inadequate information on the extent to which excessive concentrations of radon occur above the first floor of multistory buildings and on the variation in radon concentrations in attached houses in the same row. HUD's recommended policy is in the four topic areas specified in the Act: research, education, testing, and mitigation.

  14. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  15. Laser separation of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eerkens, J.W.; Puglishi, D.A.; Miller, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    There is an increasing demand for different separated isotopes as feed material for reactor and cyclotron-produced radioisotopes used by a fast-growing radiopharmaceutical industry. One new technology that may meet future demands for medical isotopes is molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS). This method was investigated for the enrichment of uranium in the 1970`s and 1980s by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Isotope Technologies, and others around the world. While South Africa and Japan have continued the development of MLIS for uranium and are testing pilot units, around 1985 the United States dropped the LANL MLIS program in favor of AVLIS (atomic vapor LIS), which uses electron-beam-heated uranium metal vapor. AVLIS appears difficult and expensive to apply to most isotopes of medical interest, however, whereas MLIS technology, which is based on cooled hexafluorides or other gaseous molecules, can be adapted more readily. The attraction of MLIS for radiopharmaceutical firms is that it allows them to operate their own dedicated separators for small-quantity productions of critical medical isotopes, rather than having to depend on large enrichment complexes run by governments, which are only optimal for large-quantity productions. At the University of Missouri, the authors are investigating LIS of molybdenum isotopes using MoF{sub 6}, which behaves in a way similar to UF{sub 6}, studied in the past.

  16. The application of a scintillation flask technique for the measurement of radon emanation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles, Martha

    1984-01-01

    after the specifications recommended by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HASL), which initially bor- rowed the design from the Ar entinian Comision Nacional de ~E' . EA A t' ' Co ' ' t d ty plastic block and fitted the cell with a single stop... are fitted on the flask to allow flow- through sample collection when desired. Sensitivities of the small and large radon flasks are reported to be 0. 7 cpm/pci/1 to 2 cpm/pci/1 after the daughters have grown to equilibrium 11 with radon (Ge76). The HASL...

  17. Release of radon contaminants from Yucca Mountain: The role of buoyancy driven flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Pescatore, C.

    1994-02-01

    The potential for the repository heat source to promote buoyancy driven flow and thereby cause release of radon gas out of Yucca Mountain has been examined through a critical review of the theoretical and experimental studies of this process. The review indicates that steady-state buoyancy enhanced release of natural radon and other contaminant gases should not be a major concern at Yucca Mountain. Barometric pumping and wind pumping are identified as two processes that will have a potentially greater effect on surface releases of gases.

  18. Development of a method for determination of radon emanation from small soil samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madonia, Michael Vincent

    1990-01-01

    the optimization of statistical considerations was discussed and implemented into a computer code developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The evaluated system and computer code were used to measure radon emanation from a variety of Danish soil types... in the closed loop system is determined and the radon emanation power calculated. 'n 11 n 11 n n ' n The Rn-222 concentration in the Lucas cell during each measurement is calculated by counting the rate of light flashes enutted in the cell over a...

  19. Apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K; Sessions, Henry T; Xiao, Xin

    2013-06-25

    The apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes is provided using dual columns, each column having an opposite hydrogen isotopic effect such that when a hydrogen isotope mixture feedstock is cycled between the two respective columns, two different hydrogen isotopes are separated from the feedstock.

  20. Compelling Research Opportunities using Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-23

    Isotopes are vital to the science and technology base of the US economy. Isotopes, both stable and radioactive, are essential tools in the growing science, technology, engineering, and health enterprises of the 21st century. The scientific discoveries and associated advances made as a result of the availability of isotopes today span widely from medicine to biology, physics, chemistry, and a broad range of applications in environmental and material sciences. Isotope issues have become crucial aspects of homeland security. Isotopes are utilized in new resource development, in energy from bio-fuels, petrochemical and nuclear fuels, in drug discovery, health care therapies and diagnostics, in nutrition, in agriculture, and in many other areas. The development and production of isotope products unavailable or difficult to get commercially have been most recently the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy program. The President's FY09 Budget request proposed the transfer of the Isotope Production program to the Department of Energy's Office of Science in Nuclear Physics and to rename it the National Isotope Production and Application program (NIPA). The transfer has now taken place with the signing of the 2009 appropriations bill. In preparation for this, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was requested to establish a standing subcommittee, the NSAC Isotope Subcommittee (NSACI), to advise the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics. The request came in the form of two charges: one, on setting research priorities in the short term for the most compelling opportunities from the vast array of disciplines that develop and use isotopes and two, on making a long term strategic plan for the NIPA program. This is the final report to address charge 1. NSACI membership is comprised of experts from the diverse research communities, industry, production, and homeland security. NSACI discussed research opportunities divided into three areas: (1) medicine, pharmaceuticals, and biology, (2) physical sciences and engineering, and (3) national security and other applications. In each area, compelling research opportunities were considered and the subcommittee as a whole determined the final priorities for research opportunities as the foundations for the recommendations. While it was challenging to prioritize across disciplines, our order of recommendations reflect the compelling research prioritization along with consideration of time urgency for action as well as various geopolitical market issues. Common observations to all areas of research include the needs for domestic availability of crucial stable and radioactive isotopes and the education of the skilled workforce that will develop new advances using isotopes in the future. The six recommendations of NSACI reflect these concerns and the compelling research opportunities for potential new discoveries. The science case for each of the recommendations is elaborated in the respective chapters.

  1. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harney, Robert C. (5665 Charlotte Way, No. 80, Livermore, CA 94550); Bloom, Stewart D. (141 Via Serena, Alamo, CA 94507)

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances.

  2. Novel hybrid isotope separation scheme and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, J.

    1991-06-18

    A method is described for yielding selectively a desired enrichment in a specific isotope including the steps of inputting into a spinning chamber a gas from which the specific isotope is to be isolated, radiating the gas with frequencies characteristic of the absorption of a particular isotope of the atomic or molecular gas, thereby inducing a photoionization reaction of the desired isotope, and collecting the specific isotope ion by suitable ion collection means. 3 figures.

  3. Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.

    1982-08-01

    This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost of the three systems. These analyses were based on a generic disposal site. Four different 3m thick earthen covers were tested and cost an average of $27/m/sup 2/. The least expensive earthen cover cost was about $21/m/sup 2/. The asphalt cover system (6 to 7 cm of asphalt topped with 0.6m of overburden) cost about $28/m/sup 2/. The four multilayer covers averaged $57/m/sup 2/, but materials handling problems encountered during the test inflated this cost above what was anticipated and significant cost reductions should be possible. The least expensive multilayer cover cost $43/m/sup 2/. Based on the results of the Grand Junction field test we estimated the cost of covering the tailings from three high priority sites, Durango, Shiprock, and Salt Lake City (Vitro). The cost of a 3m earthen cover ranged from $18 to 33/m/sup 2/ for the seven disposal sites (two or three at each location) studied. The cost of asphalt cover systems were $23 to 28/m/sup 2/ and the multilayer cover costs were between $31 to 36/m/sup 2/. The earthen cover costs are less than the Grand Junction field test cost primarily because cover material is available at or near most of the disposal sites selected. Earthen material was imported from 6 to 10 miles for the field test. Assuming more efficienct utilization of materials significantly reduced the cost of the multilayer covers.

  4. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haller, E. E., E-mail: eehaller@lbl.gov [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2010-07-15

    This paper is based on a tutorial presentation at the International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors (ICDS-25) held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in July 2009. The tutorial focused on a review of recent research involving isotopically controlled semiconductors. Studies with isotopically enriched semiconductor structures experienced a dramatic expansion at the end of the Cold War when significant quantities of enriched isotopes of elements forming semiconductors became available for worldwide collaborations. Isotopes of an element differ in nuclear mass, may have different nuclear spins and undergo different nuclear reactions. Among the latter, the capture of thermal neutrons which can lead to neutron transmutation doping, is the most prominent effect for semiconductors. Experimental and theoretical research exploiting the differences in all the properties has been conducted and will be illustrated with selected examples.

  5. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections of the Palladium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    CROSS SECTIONS OF THE PALLADIUM ISOTOPES R.B. Firestone ? ,? ? for all stable Palladium isotopes with the guidedscheme is complete. The Palladium isotope decay schemes are

  6. Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer therapy gets a boost from new isotope Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium A new medical isotope project shows promise for rapidly producing major...

  7. Relation between Fresnel transform of input light field and Radon transform of Wigner function of the field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong-yi Fan; Li-yun Hu

    2008-08-21

    We prove a new theorem about the relationship between optical field Wigner function's Radon transform and optical Fresnel transform of the field, i.e., when an input field Phi(x') propagates through an optical [D(-B)(-C)A] system, the energy density of the output field is equal to the Radon transform of the Wigner function of the input field, where the Radon transform parameters are D,B. We prove this theorem in both spatial-domain and frequency-domain.

  8. LONG-TERM DETERMINATION OF AIRBORNE RADON PROGENY CONCENTRATIONS USING LR 115 DETECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong 2 Environmental Radiation Effects Research interesting observation of a low equilibrium factors for 220 dose in the lung is mainly due to short-lived radon progeny, i.e. 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 214 Po

  9. Weighted Radon transforms for which the Chang approximate inversion formula is precise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Weighted Radon transforms for which the Chang approximate inversion formula is precise R.G. Novikov formula is precise. Some subsequent results, including the Cormack type inversion for these transforms, are also given. 1.Introduction We consider the weighted ray transformation PW defined by the formula PW f

  10. Four Years of Practical Arrangements between IAEA and Moscow SIA 'Radon': Preliminary Results - 13061

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batyukhnova, O.G.; Karlina, O.K.; Neveikin, P.P. [SUE SIA 'Radon', The 7-th Rostovsky Lane 2/14, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation)] [SUE SIA 'Radon', The 7-th Rostovsky Lane 2/14, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The International Education Training Centre (IETC) at Moscow State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association 'Radon' (SIA 'Radon'), in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has developed expertise and provided training to waste management personnel for the last 15 years. Since 1997, the educational system of the enterprise with the support of the IAEA has acquired an international character: more than 470 experts from 35 countries- IAEA Member States completed the professional development. Training is conducted at various thematic courses or fellowships for individual programs and seminars on IAEA technical projects. In June 2008 a direct agreement (Practical Arrangements) was signed between SIA 'Radon' and the IAEA on cooperation in the field of development of new technologies, expert's advice to IAEA Member States, and, in particular, the training of personnel in the field of radioactive waste management (RWM), which opens up new perspectives for fruitful cooperation of industry professionals. The paper summarizes the current experience of the SIA 'Radon' in the organization and implementation of the IAEA sponsored training and others events and outlines some of strategic educational elements, which IETC will continue to pursue in the coming years. (authors)

  11. Averages along polynomial sequences in discrete nilpotent groups: singular Radon transforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ionescu, Alexandru D; Wainger, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of operators defined by taking averages along polynomial sequences in discrete nilpotent groups. In this paper we prove $L^2$ boundedness of discrete singular Radon transforms along general polynomial sequences in discrete nilpotent groups of step 2.

  12. Filter for on-line air monitor unaffected by radon progeny and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D. (Aiken, SC); Edwards, Howard D. (Augusta, GA)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The apparatus includes a sampling box having an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air. The sampling box includes a filter made of a plate of sintered stainless steel. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough. A method of testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The method includes providing a testing apparatus that has a sampling box with an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air, and has a sintered stainless steel filter disposed within said sampling box; drawing air from a source into the sampling box using a vacuum pump; passing the air through the filter; monitoring the contaminants trapped by the filter; and providing an alarm when a selected level of contaminants is reached. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough.

  13. THE EFFECT OF RADON TRANSPORT IN GROUNDWATER UPON GAMMA-RAY BOREHOLE LOGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Radon-222 (uci/1) Radium-226 (pCi/D Location 16(AT) 16(UB)in the M3 water was about 1 pCi per l i t e r (Fritz et aaverage value of Ey is 1.57 pCi/gm, equivalent to: E = 1.57

  14. 395NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL.37 NO.4, AUGUST 2005 CONSTRUCTION OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL RADON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    395NUCLEAR ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL.37 NO.4, AUGUST 2005 CONSTRUCTION OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL RADON MONITORING SYSTEM USING CR-39 NUCLEAR TRACK DETECTORS GIL HOON AHN* and JAI-KI LEE1 National Nuclear Management & Control Agency 305-600, POX 114 Yuseong, Daejeon, Korea 1 Dept. of Nuclear

  15. Involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, F.C.; Dagle, G.E.; Cross, F.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    In this paper we examine the role of growth factors (GF) and their receptors (GFR) in radon-induced rat lung tumors. Inhalation exposure of radon and its daughters induced lung tumors in rats, but the molecule/cellular mechanisms are not known. Recent evidence suggests that GF/GFR play a critical role in the growth and development of lung cancer in humans and animals. We have developed immunocytochemical methods for identifying sites of production and action of GF/GFR at the cellular level; for example, the avidin-biotin horseradish peroxidase technique. In radon-induced rat epidermoid carcinomas, epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF-receptors (EGF-R), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}), and bombesin were found to be abnormally expressed. These abnormal expressions, mainly associated with epidermoid carcinomas of the lung, were not found in any other lung tumor types. Our data suggest that EGF, EGF-R, TGF-{alpha}, and bombesin are involved in radon oncogenesis in rat lungs, especially in epidermoid carcinomas, possibly through the autocrine/paracrine pathway.

  16. Effect of radon dose on cleanup criteria and using RESRAD for chemical risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.-J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Wallo, A. III (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has used RESRAD, a pathway analysis program developed at Argonne National Laboratory, in conjunction with the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle to develop site-specific residual radioactive material guidelines (cleanup criteria) for many sites. This study examines the effects of the radon pathway, recently added to the RESRAD program, on the calculation of uranium, radium, and thorium cleanup criteria. The results show that the derived uranium guidelines will not be affected by the radon ingrowth considerations. The effect of radon on radium and thorium generic guidelines is more significant, but the model does indicate that at the generic soil limits used for radium and thorium the indoor radon decay product concentrations would be below the 0.02 working level standard. This study also examines the feasibility of applying RESRAD to chemical risk assessment. The results show that RESRAD can perform risk assessment of toxic chemicals after simple modifications. Expansion of the RESRAD database to include chemical compounds will increase its capability to handle chemical risk assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. AIR AND RADON PATHWAY MODELING FOR THE F AREA TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.; Phifer, M.

    2010-07-30

    An air and radon pathways analysis was conducted for the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) to estimate the flux of volatile radionuclides and radon at the ground surface due to residual waste remaining in the tanks following closure. This analysis was used as the basis to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for the air pathway per Curie (Ci) of each radionuclide remaining in the combined FTF waste tanks. For the air pathway analysis, several gaseous radionuclides were considered. These included carbon-14 (C-14), chlorine-36 (Cl-36), iodine-129 (I-129), selenium-79 (Se-79), antimony-125 (Sb-125), tin-126 (Sn-126), tritium (H-3), and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The dose to the MEI was estimated at the SRS Boundary during the 100 year institutional control period. For the 10,000 year post closure compliance period, the dose to the MEI was estimated at the 100 m compliance point. Additionally, the dose to the MEI was estimated at a seepage outcrop located 1600 m from the facility. For the radon pathway analysis, five parent radionuclides and their progeny were analyzed. These parent radionuclides included uranium-238 (U-238), plutonium-238 (Pu-238), uranium-234 (U-234), thorium-230 (Th-230), and radium-226 (Ra-226). The peak flux of radon-222 due to each parent radionuclide was estimated for the simulation period of 10,100 years.

  18. Tensor products of AC* charges and AC Radon measures are not always AC* charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buczolich, Zoltán

    Tensor products of AC* charges and AC Radon measures are not always AC* charges] the tensor problem was stated for the tensor product of AC* charges and the Lebesgue measure. Later W: non-absolute integrals, variational measure, tensor product. 1

  19. Seismic imaging with the generalized Radon transform: A curvelet transform perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hart F.

    Seismic imaging with the generalized Radon transform: A curvelet transform perspective M V de Hoop1@purdue.edu Abstract. A key challenge in the seismic imaging of reflectors using surface reflection data. Introduction 1.1. Seismic Imaging with Arrays ­ Beyond Current Capabilities Much research in modern

  20. Seasonal Variation of Indoor Radon Concentration in the Tropics: Comparative studies between Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahat, R. H.; Amin, Y. M. [Physics Department, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jojo, P. J. [Physics Department, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); CARPS, Department of Physics, Fatima Mata National College, Kerala (India); Pereira, C. E. [CARPS, Department of Physics, Fatima Mata National College, Kerala (India)

    2011-03-30

    The radiation dose received by man from indoor radon and its progeny is the largest at more than 50% of total dose received. The seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration in Kerala, India and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were studied. The Southwest coast of the Kerala state in India is known to have very high levels of natural background radiation owing to the rare earths rich monazite sand available in large amount. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia used to be a famous tin mining area where it was done using open cast system. One-year measurements of radon concentration in houses were done for these two regions. It was found that there is considerable seasonal variation in the levels of radon in Kerala but the variation in Kuala Lumpur is only less than 10%.

  1. Fine scale imaging of structures at and near the mantle transition zone using a generalized Radon transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamm, Rosalee Alicia

    2006-01-01

    We apply a generalized Radon transform (GRT) to the study of the transition zone discontinuities. The transition zone discontinuities, e.g. the '410' and '660', result from mineral phase changes that occur at depths ...

  2. Three-dimensional passive seismic waveform imaging around the SAFOD site, California, using the generalized Radon transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Hilst, Robert D.

    We apply a three-dimensional (3D) generalized Radon transform (GRT) to scattered P-waves from 575 local earthquakes recorded at 68 temporary network stations for passive-source imaging of (near-vertical) structures close ...

  3. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Impact of Exhaust-Only Ventilation on Radon and Indoor Humidity - A Field Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigg, Scott

    2014-09-01

    The study described here sought to assess the impact of exhaust-only ventilation on indoor radon and humidity in single-family homes that had been treated by the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP).

  4. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  5. Method for the simultaneous preparation of Radon-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Astatine-211, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed (East Setauket, NY); Lambrecht, Richard M. (Quogue, NY)

    1987-01-01

    A method for simultaneously preparing Radon-211, Astatine-211, Xenon-125, Xenon-123, Iodine-125 and Iodine-123 in a process that includes irradiating a fertile metal material then using a one-step chemical procedure to collect a first mixture of about equal amounts of Radon-211 and Xenon-125, and a separate second mixture of about equal amounts of Iodine-123 and Astatine-211.

  6. AVLIS enrichment of medical isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynam, C.A.; Scheibner, K.F.; Stern, R.C.; Worden, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Under the Sponsorship of the United states Enrichment Corporation (USEC), we are currently investigating the large scale separation of several isotopes of medical interest using atomic vapor isotope separation (AVLIS). This work includes analysis and experiments in the enrichment of thallium 203 as a precursor to the production of thallium 201 used in cardiac imaging following heart attacks, on the stripping of strontium 84 from natural strontium as precursor to the production of strontium 89, and on the stripping of lead 210 from lead used in integrated circuits to reduce the number of alpha particle induced logic errors.

  7. Online Catalog of Isotope Products from DOE's National Isotope Development Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The Isotope subprogram supports the production, and the development of production techniques of radioactive and stable isotopes that are in short supply for research and applications. Isotopes are high-priority commodities of strategic importance for the Nation and are essential for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research; a goal of the program is to make critical isotopes more readily available to meet domestic U.S. needs. This subprogram is steward of the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) facility at BNL, and hot cell facilities for processing isotopes at ORNL, BNL and LANL. The subprogram also coordinates and supports isotope production at a suite of university, national laboratory, and commercial accelerator and reactor facilities throughout the Nation to promote a reliable supply of domestic isotopes. The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) at ORNL coordinates isotope production across the many facilities and manages the business operations of the sale and distribution of isotopes.

  8. Isotope Development & Production | Nuclear Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Separation & Processing Strategic Isotope Production Super Heavy Element Discovery Nuclear Security Science & Technology Nuclear Systems Modeling, Simulation & Validation...

  9. Isotope Cancer Treatment Research at LANL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Weidner, John; Nortier, Meiring

    2014-06-02

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced medical isotopes for diagnostic and imaging purposes for more than 30 years. Now LANL researchers have branched out into isotope cancer treatment studies. New results show that an accelerator-based approach can produce clinical trial quantities of actinium-225, an isotope that has promise as a way to kill tumors without damaging surrounding healthy cells.

  10. Radon backgrounds in the DRIFT-II directional dark matter experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daw, E; Gauvreau, J -L; Gold, M; Harmon, L J; Landers, J M; Lee, E R; Loomba, D; Miller, E H; Murphy, A StJ; Paling, S M; Pipe, M; Robinson, M; Sadler, S; Scarff, A; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Walker, D

    2013-01-01

    Low pressure gas Time Projection Chambers being developed for directional Dark Matter searches offer a technology with high particle identification power, combined with poten- tial to produce a definitive detection of galactic Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) Dark Matter. A source of background events in such experiments, able to mimic genuine WIMP in- duced nuclear recoil tracks, arises from potential radon contamination and the recoils that result from associated daughter nuclei, termed Radon Progeny Recoils (RPRs). We present here experi- mental data from a long-term study of this background using the DRIFT-II directional dark matter experiment at the Boulby Underground Laboratory. By detailed examination of event classes in both spatial and time coordinates using 5.5 years of data we show ability to determine the origin of 4 specific background populations and describe development of new technology and mitigation strategies to suppress them.

  11. Initiation, promotion, initiation experiments with radon and cigarette smoke: Lung tumors in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moolgavkar, S.H.

    1990-02-01

    Much recent attention has focused on the recessive oncogenesis model according to which inactivation of both alleles of a tumor suppressor gene (anti-oncogene) leads to cancer. Over the past decade Dr. Moolgavkar has been involved in the development and testing of a two-mutation model for carcinogenesis, which may be viewed as a mathematical generalization of the recessive oncogenesis model. In a series of papers this model has been shown to be consistent with a large body of epidemiologic and experimental data. Thus, the current project funded under the auspices of DOE, is part of a much larger program. The goals of this larger program are: the mathematical development of the two-mutation model for application to various epidemiologic and experimental data sets; investigation of the statistical properties of the model and development of software for fitting the model to various data sets, including cohort and case-control data in epidemiology. Directly relevant to the radon program, we have completed an analysis of radon-induced lung tumors in rats within the context of the two-mutation model. We found that the model described the data well. The results indicate that fractionation of exposure increased the lifetime probability of tumor. Examination of the parameters of the model suggests that the effect of fractionation can be explained by the relative effects of radon daughters on the mutation rates and on the kinetics of growth of initiated cells. The first mutation rate is very strongly dependent upon the rate of exposure to radon daughters, the second mutation rate much less so, suggesting that the nature of the two mutational events is different.

  12. Radon and material radiopurity assessment for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Cebrián; J. Pérez; I. Bandac; L. Labarga; V. Álvarez; A. I. Barrado; A. Bettini; F. I. G. M. Borges; M. Camargo; S. Cárcel; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; E. Conde; T. Dafni; J. Díaz; R. Esteve; L. M. P. Fernandes; M. Fernández; P. Ferrario; E. D. C. Freitas; L. M. P. Fernandes; V. M. Gehman; A. Goldschmidt; J. J. Gómez-Cadenas; D. González-Díaz; R. M. Gutiérrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; I. G. Irastorza; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; N. López-March; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzón; A. Marí; J. Martín-Albo; A. Martínez; G. Martínez-Lema; T. Miller; F. Monrabal; M. Monserrate; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Muñoz Vidal; M. Nebot-Guinot; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; A. Ortiz de Solórzano; J. L. Pérez Aparicio; M. Querol; J. Renner; L. Ripoll; J. Rodríguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; L. Serra; D. Shuman; A. Simón; C. Sofka; M. Sorel; J. F. Toledo; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; J. F. C. A. Veloso; J. A. Villar; R. C. Webb; J. T. White; N. Yahlali

    2015-05-26

    The Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC (NEXT), intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with Xe enriched in 136Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Spain, requires ultra-low background conditions demanding an exhaustive control of material radiopurity and environmental radon levels. An extensive material screening process is underway for several years based mainly on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors in Canfranc but also on mass spectrometry techniques like GDMS and ICPMS. Components from shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage elements and energy and tracking readout planes have been analyzed, helping in the final design of the experiment and in the construction of the background model. The latest measurements carried out will be presented and the implication on NEXT of their results will be discussed. The commissioning of the NEW detector, as a first step towards NEXT, has started in Canfranc; in-situ measurements of airborne radon levels were taken there to optimize the system for radon mitigation and will be shown too.

  13. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  14. Development of high sensitivity radon detectors Y.Takeuchi a1 , K.Okumura a , T.Kajita a , S.Tasaka b , H.Hori b , M.Nemoto c , H.Okazawa d

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeuchi, Yasuo

    Development of high sensitivity radon detectors Y.Takeuchi a1 , K.Okumura a , T.Kajita a , S detectors for radon in air and in water have been developed. We use electrostatic collection and a PIN. As a result of the calibration study, the absolute humidity dependence of the radon detector for air

  15. Inversion of a new circular-arc Radon transform for Compton scattering tomography This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Verger, Maï K.

    Inversion of a new circular-arc Radon transform for Compton scattering tomography This article has:10.1088/0266-5611/26/6/065005 Inversion of a new circular-arc Radon transform for Compton scattering-arc Radon transform arising from the mathematical modeling of image formation in a new modality of Compton

  16. Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

  17. Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, A. H.; Jafaar, M. S.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04{+-}0.01 mSv to 0.547{+-}0.018 mSv, (2.832{+-}0.22)x10{sup -5} to (11.972{+-}2.09)x10{sup -5} mSv, and (0.056 {+-}0.01) x10{sup -5} to (0.239{+-}0.01)x10{sup -5} mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

  18. Dynamics of soil gas radon concentration in a highly permeable soil based on a long-term high temporal resolution observation series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horváth, Ákos

    Dynamics of soil gas radon concentration in a highly permeable soil based on a long-term high University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, 1117 Budapest, Hungary b Institute for Soil Sciences and Agricultural periodicity Time series analysis a b s t r a c t This paper studies the temporal variation of soil gas radon

  19. S. 2844: A Bill to provide for radon testing. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, September 29, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Bill S. 2844 provides for radon testing and is cited as the Department of Housing and Urban Development Policy Act. The bill provides the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) with a mandate to establish a departmental radon policy and program. The department will be required to use its programs to assist the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) address radon contamination. The bill also requires HUD, in coordination with the EPA, to develop a radon assessment and mitigation program which utilizes EPA recommended guidelines and standards to ensure that occupants of housing covered under this act are not exposed to elevated levels of radon. The entire contents of the bill are presented in eight sections entitled: Short Title, findings, Purpose, Definitions, Program, Information, Cooperation with Environmental Protection Agency, and Authorization. The bill was referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs.

  20. Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian; Aaron, W Scott; Hart, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

  1. EIS-0249: Medical Isotopes Production Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to establish a production capability for molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes.

  2. Strategic Isotope Production | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing facility (IMET) are routinely used in the production, purification, packaging, and shipping of a number of isotopes of national importance, including: 75Se, 63Ni,...

  3. Stable Isotope Protocols: Sampling and Sample Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa A; Currin, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    plants, benthic microalgae [BMI], benthic macroalgae) andin a dessicator, prior to analysis. A.2 Benthic microalgaeBenthic microalgae (BMI) can be collected for isotope

  4. Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction-Transport Models of EGS For Exploration, Evaluation of Water-Rock Interaction, and Impacts of Water Chemistry on Reservoir...

  5. Determination of radon concentration in water using RAD7 with RAD H{sub 2}O accessories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, M. F. I.; Rabaiee, N. A.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2015-04-24

    In the last decade, the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Radon exposure occurs when using water for showering, washing dishes, cooking and drinking water. RAD7 and Rad H20 accessories were used in order to measure radon concentration in water sample. In this study, four types of water were concerns which are reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Reverse osmosis (drinking water) and mineral water were bought from the nearest supermarket while tap water and well water were taken from selected areas of Pulau Pinang and Kedah. Total 20 samples were taken with 5 samples for each type of water. The measured radon concentration ranged from 2.9±2.9 to 79.5±17 pCi/L, 2.9±2.9 to 67.8±16 pCi/L, 15.97±7 to 144.25±24 pCi/L and 374.89±37 to 6409.03±130 pCi/L in reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Well water has the highest radon compared to others. It was due to their geological element such as granite. Results for all types of water are presented and compared with maximum contamination limit (MCL) recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which is 300pCi/L. Reverse osmosis water, mineral water and tap water were fall below MCL. However, well water was exceeded maximum level that was recommended. Thus, these findings were suggested that an action should be taken to reduce radon concentration level in well water as well as reduce a health risk towards the public.

  6. Discovery of Isotopes of Elements with Z $\\ge$ 100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Thoennessen

    2012-03-09

    Currently, 163 isotopes of elements with Z $\\ge$ 100 have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U),more »i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.« less

  8. Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galanina, L. I., E-mail: galan_lidiya@mail.ru; Zelenskaja, N. S. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and (t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of {sup 6}Li (0{sup +}, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the {sup 9}Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that {sup 11}Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a {sup 9}Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

  9. Uranium molecular laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.J.; Sullivan, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Molecular Laser Isotope Separation program is moving into the engineering phase, and it is possible to determine in some detail the plant cost terms involved in the process economics. A brief description of the MLIS process physics is given as a motivation to the engineering and economics discussion. Much of the plant cost arises from lasers and the overall optical system. In the paper, the authors discuss lasers as operating units and systems, along with temporal multiplexing and Raman shifting. Estimates of plant laser costs are given.

  10. On the injectivity of the circular Radon transform arising in thermoacoustic tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaik Ambartsoumian; Peter Kuchment

    2004-12-25

    The circular Radon transform integrates a function over the set of all spheres with a given set of centers. The problem of injectivity of this transform (as well as inversion formulas, range descriptions, etc.) arises in many fields from approximation theory to integral geometry, to inverse problems for PDEs, and recently to newly developing types of tomography. The article discusses known and provides new results that one can obtain by methods that essentially involve only the finite speed of propagation and domain dependence for the wave equation.

  11. Radon transform on the cylinder and tomography of a particle on the circle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Asorey; P. Facchi; V. I. Man'ko; G. Marmo; S. Pascazio; E. G. C. Sudarshan

    2007-03-28

    The tomographic probability distribution on the phase space (cylinder) related to a circle or an interval is introduced. The explicit relations of the tomographic probability densities and the probability densities on the phase space for the particle motion on a torus are obtained and the relation of the suggested map to the Radon transform on the plane is elucidated. The generalization to the case of a multidimensional torus is elaborated and the geometrical meaning of the tomographic probability densities as marginal distributions on the helix discussed.

  12. AIR AND RADON PATHWAY MODELING FOR THE F-AREA TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K; Mark Phifer, M

    2007-09-17

    The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) is located within F-Area in the General Separations Area (GSA) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) as seen in Figure 1. The GSA contains the F and H Area Separations Facilities, the S-Area Defense Waste Processing Facility, the Z-Area Saltstone Facility, and the E-Area Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities. The FTF is a nearly rectangular shaped area and comprises approximately 20 acres, which is bounded by SRS coordinates N 76,604.5 to N 77,560.0 and E 52,435.0 to E 53,369.0. SRS is in the process of preparing a Performance Assessment (PA) to support FTF closure. As part of the PA process, an analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential magnitude of gaseous release of radionuclides from the FTF over the 100-year institutional control period and 10,000-year post-closure compliance period. Specifically, an air and radon pathways analysis has been conducted to estimate the flux of volatile radionuclides and radon at the ground surface due to residual waste remaining in the tanks following closure. This analysis was used as the basis to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for the air pathway per Curie (Ci) of each radionuclide remaining in the combined FTF waste tanks. For the air pathway analysis, several gaseous radionuclides were considered. These included carbon-14 (C-14), chlorine-36 (Cl-36), iodine-129 (I-129), selenium-79 (Se-79), antimony-125 (Sb-125), tin-126 (Sn-126), tritium (H-3), and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The dose to the MEI was estimated at the SRS Boundary during the 100 year institutional control period. For the 10,000 year post closure compliance period, the dose to the MEI was estimated at the 100 m compliance point. For the radon pathway analysis, five parent radionuclides and their progeny were analyzed. These parent radionuclides included uranium-238 (U-238), plutonium-238 (Pu-238), uranium-234 (U-234), thorium-230 (Th-230), and radium-226 (Ra-226). The peak flux of radon-222 due to each parent radionuclide was estimated for the simulation period of 10,100 years.

  13. Ground radon survey of a geothermal area in Hawaii | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View New PagesInformationEnergyInformation radon survey of a

  14. Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic...

  15. Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Gas At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Welhan, Et Al., 1988) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic...

  16. BETA DECAY MEASUREMENTS OF NEUTRON DEFICIENT CESIUM ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parry, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    OF NEUTRON DEFICIENT CESIUM ISOTOPES by Roger Franklin Parryof Neutron Deficient Cesium Isotopes Table of ContentsReferences Wapstra xenon and cesium mass excess values 108

  17. Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected and Marcellus Formation Water after Hydraulic Fracturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strontium Isotopes...

  18. Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Atom-Probe Tomographic Measurement of Trapped Hydrogen Isotopes Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group...

  19. Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Advances in Hydrogen Isotope Separation Using Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) Presentation...

  20. Hydrogen Isotope Research Center (HRC), University of Toyama...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen Isotope Research Center (HRC), University of Toyama Hydrogen Isotope Research Center (HRC), University of Toyama Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group Meeting...

  1. 2008 Workshop on The Nation's Needs for Isotopes: Present and...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    and radioactive isotope products that are used worldwide. Hundreds of applications in medicine, industry, national security and research depend on isotopes as vital components. The...

  2. Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and Diffusion-Limited Regimes Permeation of Multiple Isotopes in the Transition Between Surface- and...

  3. Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Kennedy & Van Soest, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic...

  4. Positive and inverse isotope effect on superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian De Cao

    2009-09-04

    This article improves the BCS theory to include the inverse isotope effect on superconductivity. An affective model can be deduced from the model including electron-phonon interactions, and the phonon-induced attraction is simply and clearly explained on the electron Green function. The focus of this work is on how the positive or inverse isotope effect occurs in superconductors.

  5. [Carbon isotope fractionation inplants]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Leary, M.H.

    1990-12-31

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  6. The Quest for the Heaviest Uranium Isotope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Schramm; D. Gridnev; D. V. Tarasov; V. N. Tarasov; W. Greiner

    2012-01-17

    We study Uranium isotopes and surrounding elements at very large neutron number excess. Relativistic mean field and Skyrme-type approaches with different parametrizations are used in the study. Most models show clear indications for isotopes that are stable with respect to neutron emission far beyond N=184 up to the range of around N=258.

  7. Efficient palladium isotope chromatograph for hydrogen (EPIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Embury, M.C.; Ellefson, R.E.; Melke, H.B. )

    1992-03-01

    The Efficient Palladium Isotope Chromatograph (EPIC) is a rapid cycling, computer-operated displacement chromatograph for the separation of hydrogen isotopes. EPIC incorporates several features that optimize product throughput and purity. This paper describes this palladium displacement chromatograph, the operations with protium and deuterium, and the design modifications for operation with tritium.

  8. ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lederer, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    constructed to enrich liquid UF6 slightly as feed for thej) b. Optimum a. s: .X. UF6 feed, (kg per year) XBL 7912 -

  9. ISOTOPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lederer, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    scale use of gas centrifuges for uranium is imminent, andUranium Enrichment (1978). United States Gas Centrifuge

  10. Isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenryInhibitingInteractivePGAS andUniversityCancer therapy gets

  11. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  12. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation of lead-210 isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Haynam, Christopher A. (Pleasanton, CA); Johnson, Michael A. (Pleasanton, CA); Worden, Earl F. (Diablo, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An isotopically selective laser process and apparatus for removal of Pb-210 from natural lead that involves a one-photon near-resonant, two-photon resonant excitation of one or more Rydberg levels, followed by field ionization and then electrostatic extraction. The wavelength to the near-resonant intermediate state is counter propagated with respect to the second wavelength required to populate the final Rydberg state. This scheme takes advantage of the large first excited state cross section, and only modest laser fluences are required. The non-resonant process helps to avoid two problems: first, stimulated Raman Gain due to the nearby F=3/2 hyperfine component of Pb-207 and, second, direct absorption of the first transition process light by Pb-207.

  13. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation of lead-210 isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheibner, K.F.; Haynam, C.A.; Johnson, M.A.; Worden, E.F.

    1999-08-31

    An isotopically selective laser process and apparatus for removal of Pb-210 from natural lead that involves a one-photon near-resonant, two-photon resonant excitation of one or more Rydberg levels, followed by field ionization and then electrostatic extraction. The wavelength to the near-resonant intermediate state is counter propagated with respect to the second wavelength required to populate the final Rydberg state. This scheme takes advantage of the large first excited state cross section, and only modest laser fluences are required. The non-resonant process helps to avoid two problems: first, stimulated Raman Gain due to the nearby F=3/2 hyperfine component of Pb-207 and, second, direct absorption of the first transition process light by Pb-207. 5 figs.

  14. Control of contamination of radon-daughters in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jillings, Chris; Collaboration: DEAP Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    DEAP-3600 is a 3600kg single-phase liquid-argon dark matter detector under construction at SNOLAB with a sensitivity of 10{sup ?46}cm{sup 2} for a 100 GeV WIMP. The argon is held an an acrylic vessel coated with wavelength-shifting 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB). Acrylic was chosen because it is optically transparent at the shifted wavelength of 420 nm; an effective neutron shield; and physically strong. With perfect cleaning of the acrylic surface before data taking the irreducible background is that from bulk {sup 210}Pb activity that is near the surface. To achieve a background rate of 0.01 events in the 1000-kg fiducial volume per year of exposure, the allowed limit of Pb-210 in the bulk acrylic is 31 mBq/tonne (= 1.2 × 10{sup ?20}g/g). We discuss how pure acrylic was procured and manufactured into a complete vessel paying particular attention to exposure to radon during all processes. In particular field work at the acrylic panel manufacturer, RPT Asia, and acrylic monomer supplier, Thai MMA Co. Ltd, in Thailand is described. The increased diffusion of radon during annealing the acrylic at 90C as well as techniques to mitigate against this are described.

  15. A model system to study the effects of beta-carotene on radon-stimulated oncogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifter, E.; Mendecki, J.; Dawson, H.; Goodwin, P.; Friedenthal, E. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Work from our laboratory has established that, in mice, the radioprotective action of supplemental beta-carotene provides protection against several insults: low-dose, gamma-irradiation-enhanced mammary tumor appearance and death in C3H mice carrying the mammary tumor virus but not in mouse strains not carrying the virus; low-dose, whole-body, gamma-irradiation-stimulated lung metastasis of Swiss and C57 mice bearing transplants of 10{sup 4} Lewis lung tumor cells injected into the hind limb, but not causing lung tumors in mice inoculated only with a buffer carrier or the same carrier containing 10{sup 2} tumor cells. Similarly, gamma-irradiation or the radiomimetic chemical cyclophosphamide decreased the amount of viral inoculum (Moloney sarcoma virus) required to cause sarcomas at the injection site, i.e., it decreased the TD{sub 50}. We now propose long-term (20- to 30-mo) studies on the effects of exposure to radon in these systems. The second aim of this study (and major thrust of this paper) is to determine how supplemental beta-carotene might modify the effect of exposure to radon in mice subjected to the insults described.

  16. Noise properties of low-dose X-ray CT sinogram data in Radon space , Hongbing Lu2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noise properties of low-dose X-ray CT sinogram data in Radon space Jing Wang1 , Hongbing Lu2 statistical moments will improve low-dose CT image reconstruction for screening applications. Keywords: Low-dose]. However, clinical use of CT frequently exposes the patients to excessive X-ray radiation [4

  17. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  18. Apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMullen, John W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheeler, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Cullingford, Hatice S. (Houston, TX); Sherman, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas(es) is (are) stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forming at a significantly lower temperature).

  19. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    This report completes Clarkson University`s study of the chemical and physical behavior of the {sup 218}Po atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity in the sub-10 nm size range result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. In order to pursue this general goal, two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical processes that affect the progeny`s atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. Thus, two sets of specific goals have been established for this project. The specific tasks of the controlled laboratory studies are (1) Determine the formation rates of {circ}OH radicals formed by the radiolysis of air following radon decay; (2) Examine the formation of particles by the radiolytic oxidation of substances like SO{sub 2}, ethylene, and H{sub 2}S to lower vapor pressure compounds and determine the role of gas phase additives such as H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} in determining the particle size; (3) Measure the rate of ion-induced nucleation using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber, and (4) Measure the neutralization rate of {sup 218}PoO{sub x}{sup +} in O{sub 2} at low radon concentrations.

  20. Isotopic Studies of Contaminant Transport at the Hanford Site, WA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, J.N.; Conrad, M.E.; DePaolo, D.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    1977. Subcommission on geochronology: Convention on the useby W. Sharp, Berkeley Geochronology Center). Isotopic

  1. Short course on St-02 applications of isotope dilutions and isotopic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P.

    1998-01-05

    This short course includes information on these topics and subtopics: (I) Nuclear Properties: (A) Historic roots; (B) Nomenclature; (C) Nuclear Stability and abundance; (D) Uses of isotopic techniques; (II) Instrumentation: (A) Sources; (B) Mass resolving elements; (C) Detectors; (III) Making Isotopic Measurements by ICP-MS: (A) Deadtime Correction; (B) Mass Discrimination; (C) Signal /Noise considerations; (IV) Applications and examples: (A) Isotope dilution; (B) Double Spike; (C) Biological Application; (D) Environmental Application; (E) Geological.

  2. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 450 (2000) 568}572 Uncertainty in radon measurements with CR39 detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 450 (2000) 568}572 Uncertainty in radon onto avail- able inner surfaces before decay. The deposition changes the irradiation geometry

  3. Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope systematics between Wild 2 particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope 2012 Keywords: oxygen isotope ratios crystalline silicate comet 81P/Wild 2 solar system formation Stardust Abstract: Oxygen three-isotope ratios of nine crystalline silicate particles from comet Wild 2

  4. Neutron Deficient Isotopes of Rhodium and Palladium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perlman, I.

    2010-01-01

    S OF RHODI U! \\~ AFD PALLADIUM by Manfred Lindner and I.Isotopes of B." odinm. and Palladium Hanfred Lindner and 1.i.a ABSTRACT A palladium activit;)r assigned to mass

  5. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  6. Nonequilibrium clumped isotope signals in microbial methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, David T.

    Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its ...

  7. A SUPERCONDUCTING-SOLENOID ISOTOPE SPECTROMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    A SUPERCONDUCTING-SOLENOID ISOTOPE SPECTROMETER FOR PRODUCTION OF NEUTRON-RICH NUCLEI ( 136 Xe Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's weekly \\Green Sheet," 30 July 1999 #12; c Thomas W. O'Donnell 2000 All

  8. Photodisintegration of the isotope {sup 116}Cd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyshev, S. S.; Ishkhanov, B. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)] [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Orlin, V. N.; Stopani, K. A.; Khankin, V. V.; Shvedunov, N. V., E-mail: gg.swedn@gmail.com [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    The results obtained by measuring the yields of photodisintegration of the isotope {sup 116}Cd irradiated with bremsstrahlung photons whose spectrum had an endpoint energy of 55 MeV are presented and compared with the results of theoretical calculations.

  9. The Isotopic Abundances of Magnesium in Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pamela Gay; David L. Lambert

    1999-11-11

    Isotopic abundance ratios 24^Mg:25^Mg:26^Mg are derived for 20 stars from high- resolution spectra of the MgH A-X 0-0 band at 5140AA. With the exception of the weak g-band giant HR 1299, the stars are dwarfs that sample the metallicity range -1.8 < [Fe/H] <0.0. The abundance of 25^Mg amd 26^Mg relative to the dominant isotope 24^Mg decreases with decreasing [Fe/H] in fair accord with predictions from a recent model of galactic chemical evolution in which the Mg isotopes are synthesised by massive stars. Several stars appear especially enriched in the heavier Mg isotopes suggesting contamination by material from the envelopes of intermediate-mass AGB stars.

  10. GEOL 715: STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY (Spring, 2015)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , nomenclature, standards -kinetic and equilibrium fractionation processes -mass and isotope budgets -Rayleigh in terrestrial plants and plankton -applications: carbon budgets, tracking anthropogenic CO2, carbon export rates sources, trophic levels, terrestrial vs marine sources 3. Recent advances: -mass independent fractionation

  11. The Giant Monopole Resonance in Pb isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elias Khan

    2009-07-20

    The extraction of the nuclear incompressibility from the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (GMR) measurements is analysed. Both pairing and mutually enhanced magicity (MEM) effects play a role in the shift of the GMR energy between the doubly closed shell $^{208}$Pb nucleus and other Pb isotopes. Pairing effects are microscopically predicted whereas the MEM effect is phenomenologically evaluated. Accurate measurements of the GMR in open-shell Pb isotopes are called for.

  12. Environmental assessment: special isotope separation process selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the differences in potential environmental impacts between two plutonium Special Isotope Separation (SIS) technologies: Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) and Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS). Both SIS technologies use PuO/sub 2/ as feed; AVLIS converts feed to plutonium metal and MLIS converts feed to PuF/sub 6/. The AVLIS process uses laser energy to selectively photoionize and electrostatically separate plutonium isotopes from an atomic vapor stream. The MLIS process uses laser energy to selectively disassociate specific isotopes of plutonium in the form of PuF/sub 6/ molecules to create PuF/sub 5/ for collection and further processing. Both processes produce plutonium metal as their product. An evaluation of differences in potential environmental impacts attributed to the construction of an SIS facility, based on either technology, included a comparison of construction materials, land areas required, and the size of the design and construction workforce. The differences in potential environmental impacts from operating an SIS facility were also compared. No large differences in potential environmental impacts would be expected from the use of process chemicals. An AVLIS or an MLIS facility would produce operating effluents that would meet all applicable radiation, chemical, and hazardous waste standards and would be constructed to protect workers, the public and the environment. This EA has not revealed any significant differences in the potential environmental impacts that could occur as a result of deploying either the AVLIS or the MLIS Special Isotope Separation technology.

  13. Radon and material radiopurity assessment for the NEXT double beta decay experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cebrián, S; Bandac, I; Labarga, L; Álvarez, V; Barrado, A I; Bettini, A; Borges, F I G M; Camargo, M; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Conde, E; Dafni, T; Díaz, J; Esteve, R; Fernandes, L M P; Fernández, M; Ferrario, P; Freitas, E D C; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; González-Díaz, D; Gutiérrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Irastorza, I G; Laing, A; Liubarsky, I; López-March, N; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzón, G; Marí, A; Martín-Albo, J; Martínez, A; Martínez-Lema, G; Miller, T; Monrabal, F; Monserrate, M; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Vidal, J Muñoz; Nebot-Guinot, M; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C A B; de Solórzano, A Ortiz; Aparicio, J L Pérez; Querol, M; Renner, J; Ripoll, L; Rodríguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Serra, L; Shuman, D; Simón, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; Villar, J A; Webb, R C; White, J T; Yahlali, N

    2015-01-01

    The Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC (NEXT), intended to investigate the neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with Xe enriched in 136Xe at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in Spain, requires ultra-low background conditions demanding an exhaustive control of material radiopurity and environmental radon levels. An extensive material screening process is underway for several years based mainly on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors in Canfranc but also on mass spectrometry techniques like GDMS and ICPMS. Components from shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage elements and energy and tracking readout planes have been analyzed, helping in the final design of the experiment and in the construction of the background model. The latest measurements carried out will be presented and the implication on NEXT of their results will be discussed. The commissioning of the NEW detector, as a first step towards NEXT, has star...

  14. Radon backgrounds in the DEAP-1 liquid argon based Dark Matter detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amaudruz, P -A; Beltran, B; Boudjemline, K; Caldwell, M G Boulay B Cai T; Chen, M; Chouinard, R; Cleveland, B T; Contreras, D; Dering, K; Duncan, F; Ford, R; Giuliani, R Gagnon F; Golovko, M Gold V V; Gorel, P; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hakobyan, R; Hallin, A L; Harvey, P; Hearns, C; Jillings, C J; Ku?niak, M; Lawson, I; Li, O; Lidgard, J; Liimatainen, P; Lippincott, W H; Mathew, R; McDonald, A B; McElroy, T; McFarlane, K; McKinsey, D; Muir, A; Nantais, C; Nicolics, K; Nikkel, J; Noble, T; O'Dwyer, E; Olsen, K S; Ouellet, C; Pasuthip, P; Pollmann, T; Rau, W; Retiere, F; Ronquest, M; Skensved, P; Sonley, T; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Veloce, L; Ward, M

    2012-01-01

    The DEAP-1 \\SI{7}{kg} single phase liquid argon scintillation detector was operated underground at SNOLAB in order to test the techniques and measure the backgrounds inherent to single phase detection, in support of the DEAP-3600 Dark Matter detector. Backgrounds in DEAP are controlled through material selection, construction techniques, pulse shape discrimination and event reconstruction. This report details the analysis of background events observed in three iterations of the DEAP-1 detector, and the measures taken to reduce them. The $^{222}$Rn decay rate in the liquid argon was measured to be between 16 and \\SI{26}{\\micro\\becquerel\\per\\kilogram}. We found that the background spectrum near the region of interest for Dark Matter detection in the final DEAP-1 detector generation is well described considering events from three sources: radon daughters decaying on the surface of the active volume, the expected rate of electromagnetic events misidentified as nuclear recoils due to inefficiencies in the pulse sh...

  15. Regularity properties of stationary harmonic functions whose Laplacian is a Radon measure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rémy Rodiac

    2015-04-28

    We study the regularity of Radon measures $\\mu$ which satisfy that there exists a function $h_\\mu$ in $H^1(\\Omega)$, stationary harmonic such that $\\Delta h_\\mu =\\mu$ in $\\Omega$ (here $\\Omega$ is an open set of $\\mathbb{R}^2$). Such conditions appear in physical contexts such as the study of a limiting vorticity measure associated to a family $(u_\\varepsilon)_\\varepsilon$ of solutions of the Ginzburg-Landau system without magnetic field. Under these conditions we prove that locally there exists a harmonic function $H$ such that the support of the measure is contained in the set of zeros of $H$. Using the local structure of the set of zeros of harmonic functions we can thus obtain that locally the support of $\\mu$ is a union of smooth simple

  16. Robust Hydraulic Fracture Monitoring (HFM) of Multiple Time Overlapping Events Using a Generalized Discrete Radon Transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ely, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In this work we propose a novel algorithm for multiple-event localization for Hydraulic Fracture Monitoring (HFM) through the exploitation of the sparsity of the observed seismic signal when represented in a basis consisting of space time propagators. We provide explicit construction of these propagators using a forward model for wave propagation which depends non-linearly on the problem parameters - the unknown source location and mechanism of fracture, time and extent of event, and the locations of the receivers. Under fairly general assumptions and an appropriate discretization of these parameters we first build an over-complete dictionary of generalized Radon propagators and assume that the data is well represented as a linear superposition of these propagators. Exploiting this structure we propose sparsity penalized algorithms and workflow for super-resolution extraction of time overlapping multiple seismic events from single well data.

  17. Measurement and reduction of low-level radon background in the KATRIN experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fränkle, F. M. [F.M. Fränkle Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [F.M. Fränkle Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2013-08-08

    The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment is a next generation, model independent, large scale experiment to determine the mass of the electron anti-neutrino by investigating the kinematics of tritium beta decay with a sensitivity of 200 meV/c{sup 2}. The measurement setup consists of a high luminosity windowless gaseous molecular tritium source (WGTS), a differential and cryogenic pumped electron transport and tritium retention section, a tandem spectrometer section (pre-spectrometer and main spectrometer) for energy analysis, followed by a detector system for counting transmitted beta decay electrons. Measurements performed at the KATRIN pre-spectrometer test setup showed that the decay of radon (Rn) atoms in the volume of the KATRIN spectrometers is a major background source. Rn atoms from low-level radon emanation of materials inside the vacuum region of the KATRIN spectrometers are able to penetrate deep into the magnetic flux tube so that the alpha decay of Rn contributes to the background. Of particular importance are electrons emitted in processes accompanying the Rn alpha decay, such as shake-off, internal conversion of excited levels in the Rn daughter atoms and Auger electrons. Lowenergy electrons (< 100 eV) directly contribute to the background in the signal region. High-energy electrons can be stored magnetically inside the volume of the spectrometer and are able to create thousands of secondary electrons via subsequent ionization processes with residual gas molecules. In order to reduce the Rn induced background different active and passive counter measures were developed and tested. This proceeding will give an overview on Rn sources within the KATRIN spectrometer, describes how Rn decays inside the spectrometer produce background events at the detector and presents different counter measures to reduce the Rn induced background.

  18. Bulk chemical and Hfâ??W isotopic consequences of incomplete accretion during planet formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Christina A; Nimmo, Francis; Chambers, John E

    2015-01-01

    Bulk chemical and Hf–W isotopic consequences of incompletestyle affects the bulk chemical and isotopic outcomes ofto investigate the bulk chemical and isotopic consequences

  19. COUPLING LEAD ISOTOPE ANALYSIS AND PETROGRAPHY TO CHARACTERIZE FABRICS OF STORAGE AND TRADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claeys, Philippe

    COUPLING LEAD ISOTOPE ANALYSIS AND PETROGRAPHY TO CHARACTERIZE FABRICS OF STORAGE AND TRADE of petrography and lead isotopes within pottery provenance study. KEYWORDS: LEAD ISOTOPES, THIN SECTION, SHERD

  20. TRIFID (TRansuranic Isotopic Fraction Interrogation Device): A second generation plutonium isotopic analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleissner, J G; Coressel, T W; Freier, D A; Macklin, L L

    1989-01-01

    The TRIFID (Transuranic Isotopic Fraction Interrogation Device) system is a second generation plutonium isotopic analysis system which incorporates many new and unique features in the area of isotopic data acquisition and isotopic analysis instrument consisting of a Canberra Series 95-MCA interfaced to a Compaq 386 computer. The entire TRIFID software package, including MCA communications and isotopic analysis routines, was developed using the C programming language. Extensive use has been made of user friendly screens and menus for ease of operation and training and to facilitate use by technical level operators. Automated TRIFID features provide for MCA/ADC setup and acquisition, spectral storage, isotopic analysis, and report generation. One unique feature of the TRIFID system design allows it to be pre-programed for an entire day's counting. The isotopic analysis module (EPICS) contains an expert system formalism which is used to detect and assay for spectral interferences, and to automatically adjust peak fitting constraints based on spectral intensity variations. A TRIFID system has been in operation in a production laboratory at the Rocky Flats Plant since September 1988. Marked decreases in training and hands-on operation time have been achieved in comparison to the older, preceding isotopic systems. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Non-linear relationship of cell hit and transformation probabilities in low dose of inhaled radon progenies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balásházy, Imre; Madas, Balázs Gergely; Hofmann, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Cellular hit probabilities of alpha particles emitted by inhaled radon progenies in sensitive bronchial epithelial cell nuclei were simulated at low exposure levels to obtain useful data for the rejection or in support of the linear-non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis. In this study, local distributions of deposited inhaled radon progenies in airway bifurcation models were computed at exposure conditions, which are characteristic of homes and uranium mines. Then, maximum local deposition enhancement factors at bronchial airway bifurcations, expressed as the ratio of local to average deposition densities, were determined to characterize the inhomogeneity of deposition and to elucidate their effect on resulting hit probabilities. The results obtained suggest that in the vicinity of the carinal regions of the central airways the probability of multiple hits can be quite high even at low average doses. Assuming a uniform distribution of activity there are practically no multiple hits and the hit probability as a funct...

  2. Resolving the stellar sources of isotopically rare presolar silicate grains through Mg and Fe isotopic analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ann N.; Messenger, Scott, E-mail: lan-anh.n.nguyen@nasa.gov [Robert M. Walker Laboratory for Space Science, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We conducted multi-element isotopic analyses of 11 presolar silicate grains from the Acfer 094 meteorite having unusual O isotopic compositions. Eight grains are {sup 18}O-rich, one is {sup 16}O-rich, and two are extremely {sup 17}O-rich. We constrained the grains' stellar sources by measuring their Si and Mg isotopic ratios, and also the {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe and {sup 57}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios for five grains. The Mg and Fe isotopic measurements were conducted after surrounding matrix grains were removed for more accurate ratios. Most of the {sup 18}O-rich silicates had anomalous Mg isotopic ratios, and their combined isotopic constraints are consistent with origins in low-mass Type II supernovae (SNe II) rather than high-metallicity stars. The isotopic ratios of the {sup 16}O-rich silicate are also consistent with an SN origin. Mixing small amounts of interior stellar material with the stellar envelope replicated all measured isotopic ratios except for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si and {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe in some grains. The {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si ratios of all SN-derived grains are matched by doubling the {sup 29}Si yield in the Ne- and Si-burning zones. The {sup 54}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios of the grains imply elemental fractionation in the Si/S zone, or introduction of isotopically solar Fe by secondary processing. The two highly {sup 17}O-rich silicates exhibited significant {sup 25}Mg and/or {sup 26}Mg enrichments and their isotopic ratios are best explained by strong dilution of 1.15 M {sub ?} CO nova matter. We estimate that ?12% and 1% of presolar silicates have SN and nova origins, respectively, similar to presolar SiC and oxides. This implies that asymptotic giant branch stars are the dominant dust producers in the galaxy.

  3. Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

    2004-09-15

    Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

  4. Collaborative Proposal: DUSEL R&D at the Kimballton Underground Facility (ICP-MS Confirmation, Material Assay, and Radon Reduction)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning O. Back

    2010-11-30

    Experiments measuring rare events, such as neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, and those searching for, or measuring very weakly interacting particles, such as low energy solar neutrino experiments or direct dark matter searches, require ever lower backgrounds; particularly those from radioactive contamination of detector materials. The underground physics community strives to identify and develop materials with radioactive contamination at permissible levels, and to remove radioactive contaminants from materials, but each such material represents a separate dedicated research and development effort. This project attempted to help these research communities by expanding the capabilities in the United States, for indentifying low levels of radioactive contamination in detector materials through gamma ray spectroscopy. Additionally the project tried to make a cross comparison between well established gamma ray spectroscopy techniques for identifying radioactive contaminations and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy, which is a relatively new method for searching for uranium and thorium in materials. The project also studied the removal of radioactive radon gas for laboratory air, which showed that an inexpensive technologically simple radon scrubber can potentially be used for homes or businesses with high radon levels even after the employment of other mitigation techniques.

  5. THE ATTENUATED RADON TRANSFORM: APPLICATION TO SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE PRESENCE OF A VARIABLE ATTENUATING MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gullberg, Grant T.

    1980-03-01

    The properties of the attenuated Radon transform and its application to single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT) are analyzed in detail. In nuclear medicine and biological research, the objective of ECT is to describe quantitatively the position and strengths of internal sources of injected radiopharmaceuticals and radionuclides where the attenuation between the sources and detector is unknown. The problem is mathematically and practically quite different from well-known methods in transmission computed tomography (TCT) where only the attenuation is unknown. A mathematical structure using function theory and the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces is developed to better understand the spectral properties of the attenuated Radon transform. The continuous attenuated Radon transform is reduced to a matrix operator for discrete angular and lateral sampling, and the reconstruction problem reduces to a system of linear equations. For variable attenuation coefficients frequently found in imaging internal organs, the numerical methods developed in this paper involve iterative techniques of performing the generalized inverse. Its application to nuclear medicine is demonstrated by reconstructions of transverse sections of the brain, heart, and liver.

  6. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotope Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carty, J.

    2004-10-05

    This presentation provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Isotopes Program. The charter of the Isotope Programs covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, associated byproducts, surplus materials, and related isotope services.

  7. Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two dimensional crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Lozada-Hidalgo; S. Hu; O. Marshall; A. Mishchenko; A. N. Grigorenko; R. A. W. Dryfe; B. Radha; I. V. Grigorieva; A. K. Geim

    2015-11-20

    One-atom-thick crystals are impermeable to atoms and molecules, but hydrogen ions (thermal protons) penetrate through them. We show that monolayers of graphene and boron nitride can be used to separate hydrogen ion isotopes. Employing electrical measurements and mass spectrometry, we find that deuterons permeate through these crystals much slower than protons, resulting in a separation factor of 10 at room temperature. The isotope effect is attributed to a difference of about 60 meV between zero-point energies of incident protons and deuterons, which translates into the equivalent difference in the activation barriers posed by two dimensional crystals. In addition to providing insight into the proton transport mechanism, the demonstrated approach offers a competitive and scalable way for hydrogen isotope enrichment.

  8. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  9. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-03-30

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  10. Apparatus for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for recovering hydrogen and separating its isotopes. The apparatus includes a housing bearing at least a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet. A baffle is disposed within the housing, attached thereto by a bracket. A hollow conduit is coiled about the baffle, in spaced relation to the baffle and the housing. The coiled conduit is at least partially filled with a hydride. The hydride can be heated to a high temperature and cooled to a low temperature quickly by circulating a heat transfer fluid in the housing. The spacing between the baffle and the housing maximizes the heat exchange rate between the fluid in the housing and the hydride in the conduit. The apparatus can be used to recover hydrogen isotopes (protium, deuterium and tritium) from gaseous mixtures, or to separate hydrogen isotopes from each other.

  11. Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two dimensional crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozada-Hidalgo, M; Marshall, O; Mishchenko, A; Grigorenko, A N; Dryfe, R A W; Radha, B; Grigorieva, I V; Geim, A K

    2015-01-01

    One-atom-thick crystals are impermeable to atoms and molecules, but hydrogen ions (thermal protons) penetrate through them. We show that monolayers of graphene and boron nitride can be used to separate hydrogen ion isotopes. Employing electrical measurements and mass spectrometry, we find that deuterons permeate through these crystals much slower than protons, resulting in a separation factor of 10 at room temperature. The isotope effect is attributed to a difference of about 60 meV between zero-point energies of incident protons and deuterons, which translates into the equivalent difference in the activation barriers posed by two dimensional crystals. In addition to providing insight into the proton transport mechanism, the demonstrated approach offers a competitive and scalable way for hydrogen isotope enrichment.

  12. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using, a metal hydride.

  13. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland

    2004-05-14

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P species. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of Si in Ge was measured over the temperature range of 550 C to 900 C using a buried Si layer in an epitaxially grown Ge layer.

  14. PHYSICAL, MAGNETIC, SEDIMENTOLOGICAL, GEOCHEMICAL, ISOTOPIC AND MICROPALEONTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF RAPIDLY DEPOSITED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PHYSICAL, MAGNETIC, SEDIMENTOLOGICAL, GEOCHEMICAL, ISOTOPIC AND MICROPALEONTOLOGICAL FEATURES Sediments, Québec City. Symposium preceedings: 103-108. ABSTRACT: Sedimentological, geochemical, isotopic

  15. Method for production of an isotopically enriched compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watrous, Matthew G.

    2012-12-11

    A method is presented for producing and isolating an isotopically enriched compound of a desired isotope from a parent radionuclide. The method includes forming, or placing, a precipitate containing a parent radionuclide of the desired daughter isotope in a first reaction zone and allowing sufficient time for the parent to decay into the desired gaseous daughter radioisotope. The method further contemplates collecting the desired daughter isotope as a solid in a second reaction zone through the application of temperatures below the freezing point of the desired isotope to a second reaction zone that is connected to the first reaction zone. Specifically, a method is presented for producing isotopically enriched compounds of xenon, including the radioactive isotope Xe-131m and the stable isotope Xe-131.

  16. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Wednesday, 24 September 2008 00:00...

  17. Oxygen isotope records of carboniferous seasonality on the Russian platform 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Huayu

    1998-01-01

    Seven isotopic and eight trace element (TE) profiles across shell growth lines are presented, based on over 1000 stable isotope and electron microprobe analyses on six brachiopod shells (Gigantoproductus), to quantify seasonal temperature change...

  18. Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    2012-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...

  19. Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui Sitindra S studied the controls on the fractionation of hydrogen isotopes during lipid biosynthesis by Haloarcula marismortui, a halophilic archaea, in pure culture experiments by varying organic substrate, the hydrogen

  20. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  1. Coherent photonuclear reactions for isotope transmutation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Ejiri; S. Date

    2011-02-22

    Coherent photonuclear isotope transmutation (CPIT) produces exclusively radioactive isotopes (RIs) by coherent photonuclear reactions via E1 giant resonances. Photons to be used are medium energy photons produced by laser photons backscattered off GeV electrons. The cross sections are as large as 0.2 - 0.6 b, being independent of individual nuclides. A large fraction of photons is effectively used for the photonuclear reactions, while the scattered GeV electrons remain in the storage ring to be re-used. CPIT with medium energy photons provides specific/desired RIs with the high rate and the high density for nuclear science, molecular biology and for nuclear medicines.

  2. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowley, Brooke E.; Carter, Melinda L.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Koch, Paul L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    of sample treatment and diagenesis on the isotopic integrityHare PE (1986) Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon,

  3. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kathawa; C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-01-20

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathawa, J.; Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M., E-mail: thoennessen@nscl.msu.edu

    2013-01-15

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  5. Discovery of Cesium, Lanthanum, Praseodymium and Promethium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. May; M. Thoennessen

    2011-09-08

    Currently, forty-one cesium, thirty-five lanthanum, thirty-two praseodymium, and thirty-one promethium, isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Tetrahymena thermophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen isotope fractionation during lipid biosynthesis by Tetrahymena thermophila Sitindra S Accepted 7 September 2013 Available online 16 September 2013 a b s t r a c t Hydrogen isotope ratio values from recording the hydrogen isotope composition of ambient water, dD values of lipids also depend

  7. Discovery of Gallium, Germanium, Lutetium, and Hafnium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, J L

    2011-01-01

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  8. Discovery of Gallium, Germanium, Lutetium, and Hafnium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Gross; M. Thoennessen

    2011-09-28

    Currently, twenty-eight gallium, thirty-one germanium, thirty-five lutetium, and thirty-six hafnium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-03-06

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    such as adsorption of S-bearing com- pounds on surfaces of solids (13). Magnetic isotope effects are expressedEvidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction Harry Oduroa,b,1 S are attributed to a magnetic isotope effect (MIE) associated with the formation of thiol-disulfide, ion

  11. Discovery of Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium, Technetium, and Ruthenium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Nystrom; M. Thoennessen

    2011-02-11

    Currently, thirty-four yttrium, thirty-five zirconium, thirty-four niobium, thirty-five technetium, and thirty-eight ruthenium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  12. Discovery of Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium, Technetium, and Ruthenium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nystrom, A

    2011-01-01

    Currently, thirty-four yttrium, thirty-five zirconium, thirty-four niobium, thirty-five technetium, and thirty-eight ruthenium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract:Variations in the 18 O/16 O ratios isotope stratigraphy, however, is hampered by the lack of unaltered authigenic marine sediments. Chapter.6. Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy 188 10.6.1. Cenozoic 188 10.6.2. Mesozoic 191 10.6.3. Paleozoic 193

  14. Discovery of Samarium, Europium, Gadolinium, and Terbium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. May; M. Thoennessen

    2012-01-19

    Currently, thirty-four samarium, thirty-four europium, thirty-one gadolinium, and thirty-one terbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  15. Discovery of the thallium, lead, bismuth, and polonium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-01-21

    Currently, forty-two thallium, forty-two lead, forty-one bismuth, and forty-two polonium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  16. Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium and ytterbium isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Fry; M. Thoennessen

    2012-05-26

    Currently, 31 dysprosium, 32 holmium, 32 erbium, 33 thulium and 31 ytterbium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Discovery of Tantalum, Rhenium, Osmium, and Iridium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Robinson; M. Thoennessen

    2011-09-02

    Currently, thirty-eight tantalum, thirty-eight rhenium, thirty-nine osmium, and thirty-eight iridium, isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  18. Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Bond

    2006-07-01

    Laser Isotope Enrichment for Medical and Industrial Applications by Jeff Eerkens (University of Missouri), Jay Kunze (Idaho State University), and Leonard Bond (Idaho National Laboratory) The principal isotope enrichment business in the world is the enrichment of uranium for commercial power reactor fuels. However, there are a number of other needs for separated isotopes. Some examples are: 1) Pure isotopic targets for irradiation to produce medical radioisotopes. 2) Pure isotopes for semiconductors. 3) Low neutron capture isotopes for various uses in nuclear reactors. 4) Isotopes for industrial tracer/identification applications. Examples of interest to medicine are targets to produce radio-isotopes such as S-33, Mo-98, Mo-100, W-186, Sn-112; while for MRI diagnostics, the non-radioactive Xe-129 isotope is wanted. For super-semiconductor applications some desired industrial isotopes are Si-28, Ga-69, Ge-74, Se-80, Te-128, etc. An example of a low cross section isotope for use in reactors is Zn-68 as a corrosion inhibitor material in nuclear reactor primary systems. Neutron activation of Ar isotopes is of interest in industrial tracer and diagnostic applications (e.g. oil-logging). . In the past few years there has been a sufficient supply of isotopes in common demand, because of huge Russian stockpiles produced with old electromagnetic and centrifuge separators previously used for uranium enrichment. Production of specialized isotopes in the USA has been largely accomplished using old ”calutrons” (electromagnetic separators) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These methods of separating isotopes are rather energy inefficient. Use of lasers for isotope separation has been considered for many decades. None of the proposed methods have attained sufficient proof of principal status to be economically attractive to pursue commercially. Some of the authors have succeeded in separating sulfur isotopes using a rather new and different method, known as condensation repression. In this scheme a gas, of the selected isotopes for enrichment, is irradiated with a laser at a particular wavelength that would excite only one of the isotopes. The entire gas is subject to low temperatures sufficient to cause condensation on a cold surface. Those molecules in the gas that the laser excited are not as likely to condense as are the unexcited molecules. Hence the gas drawn out of the system will be enriched in the isotope that was excited by the laser. We have evaluated the relative energy required in this process if applied on a commercial scale. We estimate the energy required for laser isotope enrichment is about 20% of that required in centrifuge separations, and 2% of that required by use of "calutrons".

  19. Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water Sven P. Nielsen Risø National Laboratory Working OF INVESTIGATION 11 3 DESCRIPTION OF INVESTIGATION 12 4 RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER 13 5 SAMPLING 15 6 27 #12;4 #12;5 Preface This project for investigation of radioactivity in drinking water shall

  20. Water isotopes and the general circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noone, David

    quantities are equator to pole temperature gradient, and the vertical thermal stratification #12;Isotopic" is the fractionation factor is a function of temperature F depends on large scale circulation and thermal state Both, temperature gradient/condensation) 2. Entrainment of non-depleted water (humidity, stratification/sheer) #12

  1. INTRODUCTION The oxygen isotopic compositions of minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    González, Luis A.

    .5 ka) and the associated migration of prairie into and out of the area (the prairie period; Dorale et of the Gulf of Mexico, Pacific, andArctic air masses (Bryson, 1966; Fig. 1). Gulf of Mexico air sup- plies of Mexico air masses and its precipitation is isotopically more negative than gulf moisture (e.g., typically

  2. Non-canonical mass laws in equilibrium isotopic fractionations: Evidence from the vapor pressure isotope effect of SF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    Non-canonical mass laws in equilibrium isotopic fractionations: Evidence from the vapor pressure report experimental observations of the vapor pressure isotope effect, including 33 S/32 S and 34 S/32. That equilibrium involves a reversed vapor pressure isotope effect; i.e., vapor is between 2& and 3& higher in 34 S

  3. Environmental factors affecting long-term stabilization of radon suppression covers for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, J.K.; Long, L.W.; Reis, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. To help determine design stresses for the tailings piles, environmental parameters are characterized for the five active uranium-producing regions on a site-specific basis. Only conventional uranium mills that are currently operating or that are scheduled to open in the mid 1980s are considered. Available data indicate that flooding has the most potential for disrupting a tailings pile. The arid regions of the Wyoming Basins and the Colorado Plateau are subject to brief storms of high intensity. The Texas Gulf Coast has the highest potential for extreme precipitation from hurricane-related storms. Wind data indicate average wind speeds from 3 to 6 m/sec for the sites, but extremes of 40 m/sec can be expected. Tornado risks range from low to moderate. The Colorado Plateau has the highest seismic potential, with maximum acceleration caused by earthquakes ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 g. Any direct effect from volcanic eruption is negligible, as all mills are located 90 km or more from an igneous or hydrothermal system.

  4. An investigation of radon release and mobility in the subsurface environment. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.

    1997-06-01

    Processes affecting transport of volatile species in the shallow soil column have recently been recognized as having a substantial impact on a broad array of real world problems. Investigations of volatile transport have ranged from studies of probable health impacts of radon infiltration into homes to pesticide and volatile organic contaminant mobility in the soil column. The objectives of many of these studies has been the development of numerical models of vapor phase (and solute) transport in shallow soils. An early model, LEACHM, developed by Hutson and Wagenent was recently modified enabling it to describe both solute and vapor phase transport of volatile chemicals in the soil. Subsequent tests of the latter model, named LEACHV, showed that use outside of a very restricted range of soil conditions resulted in large mass balance errors and unreasonable values for soil gas concentrations and vapor flux. The present research was undertaken in an effort to identify and correct the subroutines responsible for the problems and to allow the model to describe vapor phase transport in a much broader range of soil conditions.

  5. A series of algebras generalizing the octonions and Hurwitz-Radon identity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sophie Morier-Genoud; Valentin Ovsienko

    2011-02-11

    We study non-associative twisted group algebras over $(\\Z_2)^n$ with cubic twisting functions. We construct a series of algebras that extend the classical algebra of octonions in the same way as the Clifford algebras extend the algebra of quaternions. We study their properties, give several equivalent definitions and prove their uniqueness within some natural assumptions. We then prove a simplicity criterion. We present two applications of the constructed algebras and the developed technique. The first application is a simple explicit formula for the following famous square identity: $(a_1^2+...+a_{N}^2)\\,(b_1^2+...+b_{\\rho(N)}^2)= c_1^2+...+c_{N}^2$, where $c_k$ are bilinear functions of the $a_i$ and $b_j$ and where $\\rho(n)$ is the Hurwitz-Radon function. The second application is the relation to Moufang loops and, in particular, to the code loops. To illustrate this relation, we provide an explicit coordinate formula for the factor set of the Parker loop.

  6. Analysis of Gamma Radiation from a Radon Source: Indications of a Solar Influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter A. Sturrock; Gideon Steinitz; Ephraim Fischbach; Daniel Javorsek, II; Jere H. Jenkins

    2012-05-01

    This article presents an analysis of about 29,000 measurements of gamma radiation associated with the decay of radon in a sealed container at the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI) Laboratory in Jerusalem between 28 January 2007 and 10 May 2010. These measurements exhibit strong variations in time of year and time of day, which may be due in part to environmental influences. However, time-series analysis reveals a number of periodicities, including two at approximately 11.2 year$^{-1}$ and 12.5 year$^{-1}$. We have previously found these oscillations in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and we have suggested that these oscillations are attributable to some form of solar radiation that has its origin in the deep solar interior. A curious property of the GSI data is that the annual oscillation is much stronger in daytime data than in nighttime data, but the opposite is true for all other oscillations. This may be a systematic effect but, if it is not, this property should help narrow the theoretical options for the mechanism responsible for decay-rate variability.

  7. Strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, K.R.; Halley, R.B.; Simmons, K.R.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1988-02-01

    /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios determined for samples from a 350 m core of Neogene lagoonal, shallow-water limestones from Enewetak Atoll display a remarkably informative trend. Like the recently published data for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) carbonates, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr at Enewetak increases monotonically but not smoothly from the early Miocene to the Pleistocene. The data show intervals of little or no change in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr, punctuated by sharp transitions to lower values toward greater core depths. The sharp transitions correlate with observed solution disconformities caused by periods of subaerial erosion, whereas the intervals of little or no change in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr correspond to intervals of rapid accumulation of shallow-water carbonate sediments. When converted to numerical ages using the published DSDP 590B trend, the best-resolved time breaks are at 282 m (12.3 to 18.2 Ma missing) and 121.6 m (3.0 to 5.3 Ma missing) below the lagoon floor. At Enewetak, Sr isotopes offer a stratigraphic resolution for these shallow-marine Neogene carbonates comparable to that of nannofossil zonation in deep-sea carbonates (0.3-3 m.y.). In addition, the correlation of times of Sr-isotope breaks at Enewetak with times of rapid Sr-isotope change in the DSDP 590B samples confirms the importance of sea-level changes in the evolution of global-marine Sr isotopes and shows that the Sr-isotope response to sea-level falls is rapid.

  8. Enriching stable isotopes: Alternative use for Urenco technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhorst, H.; de Jong, P.G.T.; Dawson, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    The International Urenco Group utilizes a technologically advanced centrifuge process to enrich uranium in the fissionable isotope {sup 235}U. The group operates plants in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Germany and currently holds a 10% share of the multibillion dollar world enrichment market. In the early 1990s, Urenco embarked on a strategy of building on the company`s uniquely advanced centrifuge process and laser isotope separation (LIS) experience to enrich nonradioactive isotopes colloquially known as stable isotopes. This paper summarizes the present status of Urenco`s stable isotopes business.

  9. Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1986-12-16

    This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2], corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H[sub 2]O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered. 1 fig.

  10. Environmental Radioactivity 47 (2000) 189}199 E!ects of air conditioning, dehumidi"cation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    2000-01-01

    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 47 (2000) 189}199 E!ects of air conditioning, dehumidi to lower the Rn levels, while air conditioning is the next. Dehumidi"cation provides only a marginal and pressure. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Radon; Thoron; Buildings; Air

  11. Pressure Differential Analysis of a Laboratory Animal Room 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, X.; Liu, Z.; Yoshida, H.; Tang, B.

    2006-01-01

    RADON AND THORON, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 2001, Vol. 93, No. 4: 357~368 [5] K. YAMAGUTSI? Basic research of indoor air distribution, OSAKA University, Ph.D. Thesis, 1979 [6] Bao Han-ling, Chen Peng, Wu Yu-ying: Prediction of Wing Boundary...

  12. Undesirable options - The U. S. isotope crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    When a Canadian reactor failed in late 1990, it shut off a principle supply of iridium-192, an isotope critical to gamma radiography. Following the failure of the Canadian reactor, iridium sources inside the US were largely undependable in terms of both cost and schedule. The scheduling problems are outlined in the following testimony; prices increased 35% on one occasion, and then saw another increase of 60%. On August 3, 1992 Congressman Mike Synar requested that ASNT member Donny Dicharry present testimony on behalf of ASNT, the Nondestructive Testing Management Association (NDTMA), and Source Production and Equipment Co., Inc. (SPEC) concerning the Department of Energy's isotope program and the iridium-192 shortage. Excerpts from the testimony are given.

  13. Regioselective synthesis using the deuterium isotope effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyano, M.

    1981-04-24

    Dehydration of 1a by various procedures invariably produced more exo olefin 2a than endo olefin 3a. This could be reversed by introduction of deuterium in the Me-21 group of the starting material. Thus, dehydration of 1b could afford more endo olefin 3b than exo olefin 2b due to the deuterium isotope effect. A regioselective synthesis of 18-oxoprogesterone (15a) from 3..beta..-hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one (5a) was carried out taking advantage of the deuterium isotope effect as depicted in Scheme I. The key steps were dehydration of 7b to predominantly endo olefin 9b and removal of the deuteriums from 18-oxoprogesterone-17..cap alpha..,21,21,21-d/sub 4/ (15b) to give 15a.

  14. Hydrogen isotopic exchange over palladium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carstens, D.H.W.; Encinias, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently developed the laser-Raman technique as a means of unambiguously measuring the partial pressures of all possible hydrogen isotopes in the gas phase. Using this technique we have investigated the hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a number of metals. This report presents detailed data for isotopic exchange in the palladium hydride system over the temperature range 26{degree}C to -100{degree}C at a pressure of 7 atm. First order kinetic rate constants and activation energies are summarized for the forward (hydride to deuteride) and reverse (deuteride to hydride) exchange processes. In addition, we have found that small amounts (100 ppm) of impurities in the exchange gases considerably slow the exchange kinetics with the effect increasing down the series CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

    2011-04-01

    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  16. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (?15N and ?18O) but all methods testedmore »are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions.« less

  17. First AID (Atom counting for Isotopic Determination).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, J. L. (Jeffrey L.); Israel, K. M. (Kimberly M.); Steiner, R. E. (Robert E.); Duffy, C. J. (Clarence J.); Roench, F. R. (Fred R.)

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has established an in vitro bioassay monitoring program in compliance with the requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. One aspect of this program involves monitoring plutonium levels in at-risk workers. High-risk workers are monitored using the ultra-sensitive Therrnal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) technique to ensure compliance with DOE standards. TIMS is used to measure atom ratios of 239Pua nd 240Puw ith respect to a tracer isotope ('Pu). These ratios are then used to calculate the amount of 239Pu and 240Pup resent. This low-level atom counting technique allows the calculation of the concentration levels of 239Pu and 240Pu in urine for at risk workers. From these concentration levels, dose assessments can be made and worker exposure levels can be monitored. Detection limits for TIMS analysis are on the order of millions of atoms, which translates to activity levels of 150 aCi 239Pua nd 500 aCi for 240Pu. pCi for Our poster presentation will discuss the ultra-sensitive, low-level analytical technique used to measure plutonium isotopes and the data verification methods used for validating isotopic measurements.

  18. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1991-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  19. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1991-08-20

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen. 4 figures.

  20. Hydrogen isotope separation utilizing bulk getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knize, Randall J. (Los Angeles, CA); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    Tritium and deuterium are separated from a gaseous mixture thereof, derived from a nuclear fusion reactor or some other source, by providing a casing with a bulk getter therein for absorbing the gaseous mixture to produce an initial loading of the getter, partially desorbing the getter to produce a desorbed mixture which is tritium-enriched, pumping the desorbed mixture into a separate container, the remaining gaseous loading in the getter being deuterium-enriched, desorbing the getter to a substantially greater extent to produce a deuterium-enriched gaseous mixture, and removing the deuterium-enriched mixture into another container. The bulk getter may comprise a zirconium-aluminum alloy, or a zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy. The partial desorption may reduce the loading by approximately fifty percent. The basic procedure may be extended to produce a multistage isotope separator, including at least one additional bulk getter into which the tritium-enriched mixture is absorbed. The second getter is then partially desorbed to produce a desorbed mixture which is further tritium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed from the container for the second getter, which is then desorbed to a substantially greater extent to produce a desorbed mixture which is deuterium-enriched. The last-mentioned mixture is then removed so that the cycle can be continued and repeated. The method of isotope separation is also applicable to other hydrogen isotopes, in that the method can be employed for separating either deuterium or tritium from normal hydrogen.

  1. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr 206 - 213 and Fr 221

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2014-11-07

    We present the isotope shifts of the 7s1/2 to 7p1/2 transition for francium isotopes ²???²¹³Fr with reference to ²²¹Fr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7s1/2 to 7p3/2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D? and D? transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  2. Isotope shifts in francium isotopes Fr 206 - 213 and Fr 221

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; FrPNC Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We present the isotope shifts of the 7s1/2 to 7p1/2 transition for francium isotopes ²???²¹³Fr with reference to ²²¹Fr collected from two experimental periods. The shifts are measured on a sample of atoms prepared within a magneto-optical trap by a fast sweep of radio-frequency sidebands applied to a carrier laser. King plot analysis, which includes literature values for 7s1/2 to 7p3/2 isotope shifts, provides a field shift constant ratio of 1.0520(10) and a difference between the specific mass shift constants of 170(100) GHz amu between the D? and D? transitions, of sufficient precision to differentiate between ab initio calculations.

  3. Measurements of radon concentration in geothermal fluids at Cerro Prieto are evaluated with respect to spatial and temporal variations in reservoir thermodynamic conditions and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semprini, Lewis

    significantly suggesting an increase in the steam saturation in this part of the reservoir due to exploitation to spatial and temporal variations in reservoir thermodynamic conditions and the rock -- fluid mass ratio be attributed to the higher steam fraction in the reservoir fluid. Regression analysis of radon concentration

  4. Rogers, V.C., K.K. Nielson, 1991, "Multiphase Radon Generation and Transport in Porous Minerals," Health Physics Vol. 60, No. 6, 807-813.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radioactivity (TENR) Cause by Non-Uranium Mining, October 16-19, Szczyrk, Poland. Usman, S.S., H.Spitz, and J Limited presented at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Uranium Recovery Licensing Workshop, January 11 to Monitor Radon Emissions from Uranium Tailings," Contract Number EP-D-05-002, Work Assignment No. 4

  5. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  6. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of tellurium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomandl, I.; Honzatko, J.; von Egidy, T.; Wirth, H.-F.; Belgya, T.; Lakatos, M.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Revay, Zs.; Molnar, G.L.; Firestone, R.B.; Bondarenko, V.

    2004-03-01

    New values for thermal neutron capture cross sections of the tellurium isotopes 122Te, 124Te, 125Te, 126Te, 128Te, and 130Te are reported. These values are based on a combination of newly determined partial g-ray cross sections obtained from experiments on targets contained natural Te and gamma intensities per capture of individual Te isotopes. Isomeric ratios for the thermal neutron capture on the even tellurium isotopes are also given.

  7. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this study was to investigate the relationship between known geothermal resources with deep, fault hosted permeable fluid flow pathways and the helium Isotopic composition of the...

  8. Hydrogeological And Isotopic Survey Of Geothermal Fields In The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogeological And Isotopic Survey Of Geothermal Fields In The Buyuk Menderes Graben, Turkey Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  9. Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date - 2004 Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The study was undertaken to refine understanding of...

  10. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References Hisatoshi Ito, Kazuhiro Tanaka (1995) Insights On The...

  11. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date 1989 - 2000 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The purpose of this study was to analyze deep core...

  12. Isotopic Analysis- Rock At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Analysis- Rock Activity Date - 2004 Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis The study was undertaken to refine understanding of...

  13. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Dissolved Sulfate and Water from Hot Springs and Shallow Drillholes Jump to: navigation, search...

  14. Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search...

  15. An Oxygen Isotope Study Of Silicates In The Larderello Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stable-isotope analyses were carried out on hydrothermal minerals sampled from the deep metamorphic units at Larderello, Italy. The D18O values obtained for the most...

  16. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Rao...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid At Valles Caldera - Redondo Area (Rao, Et Al., 1996) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles...

  17. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area (Rao, Et Al., 1996) Exploration Activity Details Location Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1996 - 1996...

  18. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Et Al., 1996) Exploration Activity Details Location Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date 1996 - 1996...

  19. Isotope Geochemistry of Thermal and Nonthermal Waters in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Canyon. Isotopic evidence shows that these springs consist of three components: (1) deep geothermal fluid, (2) surficial andor near-surface groundwater, and (3) relatively old,...

  20. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Christenson, B. W.; Kennedy, B. M.; Adams, M. C.; Bjornstad, S. C.; Buck, C. . 182007. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of the coso east flank hydrothermal fluids:...

  1. Isotopic Composition of Carbon in Fluids from the Long Valley...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Isotopic Composition of Carbon in Fluids from the Long Valley Geothermal System, California, In- Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Hydrologic and Geochemical Monitoring in the...

  2. Temperature effects on the behavior of liquid hydrogen isotopes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    liquid hydrogen isotopes inside a spherical-shell directly driven inertial confinement fusion target Kim, K.; Mok, L.S. 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; LASER TARGETS;...

  3. A Helium Isotope Perspective On The Dixie Valley, Nevada, Hydrothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System. Geothermics. () . Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (4) Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Laney, 2005) Isotopic...

  4. Hydrochemical and isotopic effects associated with petroleum fuel biodegradation pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Hydrochemical and isotopic effects associated with petroleum fuel biodegradation pathways attenuation capacity in this dual- porosity aquifer. D 2005 Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: MTBE; BTEX

  5. Chemical and Isotopic Prediction of Aquifer Temperatures in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Chemical and Isotopic Prediction of Aquifer Temperatures in the Geothermal System at Long...

  6. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid Activity Date - 1982 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters in and around the Valles...

  7. Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid Activity Date - 1982 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters in and around the Valles...

  8. Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical And Isotopic Investigation Of Warm Springs Associated With Normal Faults In Utah Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  9. Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft river geothermal area and environs, Cassia County, Idaho, Box Elder county, Utah Jump to: navigation,...

  10. Isotope Specific Remediation Media and Systems - 13614

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denton, Mark S.; Mertz, Joshua L. [Kurion, Inc. Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Kurion, Inc. Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Morita, Keisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Fukushima Project Team, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Fukushima Project Team, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, now two years ago, the magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan earthquake, Tohoku, hit off the Fukushima coast of Japan. While, of course, most of the outcome of this unprecedented natural and manmade disaster was a negative, both in Japan and worldwide, there have been some extremely invaluable lessons learned and new emergency recovery technologies and systems developed. As always, the mother of invention is necessity. Among these developments has been the development and full-scale implementation of proven isotope specific media (ISMs) with the intent of surgically removing specific hazardous isotopes for the purpose of minimizing dose to workers and the environment. The first such ISMs to be deployed at the Fukushima site were those removing cesium (Cs-137) and iodine (I-129). Since deployment on June 17, 2011, along with treated cooling water recycle, some 70% of the curies in the building liquid wastes have been removed by the Kurion system alone. The current levels of cesium are now only 2% of the original levels. Such an unprecedented, 'external cooling system' not only allowed the eventual cold shut down of the reactors in mid-December, 2011, but has allowed workers to concentrate on the cleanup of other areas of the site. Water treatment will continue for quite some time due to continued leakage into the buildings and the eventual goal of cleaning up the reactors and fuel pools themselves. With the cesium removal now in routine operation, other isotopes of concern are likely to become priorities. One such isotope is that of strontium, and yttrium (Sr-90 and Y-90), which is still at original levels causing further dose issues as well as impediments to discharge of the treated waste waters. For over a year now, a new synthetic strontium specific media has been under development and testing both in our licensed facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, but also in confirmatory tests by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in Japan for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The tests have proven quite successful, even in high salt conditions, and, with loading and dose calculations being completed, will be proposed to add to the existing cesium system. There is no doubt, as high gamma isotopes are removed, other recalcitrant isotopes such as this will require innovative removal media, systems and techniques. Also coming out of this international effort are other ISM media and systems that can be applied more broadly to both Commercial Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) as well as in Department of Energy (DOE) applications. This cesium and strontium specific media has further been successfully tested in 2012 at a Magnox station in the UK. The resulting proposed mitigation systems for pond and vault cleanup look quite promising. An extremely unusual ISM for carbon 14 (C-14), nickel (Ni-63) and cesium (Cs-137) has been developed for Diablo Canyon NPP for dose reduction testing in their fuel pool. These media will be deployed in Submersible Media Filter (SMF) and Submersible Columns (SC) systems adapted to standard Tri-Nuclear{sup R} housings common in the U.S. and UK. External Vessel Systems (mini-Fukushima) have also been developed as a second mitigation system for D and D and outages. Finally, technetium (Tc- 99) specific media developed for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) recycle or condensate (secondary) waste streams (WM 2011) are being further perfected and tested for At-Tank Tc-99 removal, as well as At Tank Cs media. In addition to the on-going media development, systems for deploying such media have developed over the last year and are in laboratory- and full-scale testing. These systems include the fore mentioned Submersible Media Filters (SMF), Submersible Columns (SC) and external pilot- and full-scale, lead-lag, canister systems. This paper will include the media development and testing, as well as that of the deployment systems themselves. (authors)

  11. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucester, MA); Marcucci, Rudolph V. (Danvers, MA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  12. Final Report "Structure of Rare Isotopes"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papenbrock, Thomas

    2012-05-09

    The Junior Investigator grant 'Structure of Rare Isotopes' (DE-FG02-07ER41529) supported research in low-energy nuclear theory from September 1, 2007 to August 31, 2010. It was the main goal of the proposed research to develop and optimize an occupation-number-based energy functional for the computation of nuclear masses, and this aim has been reached. Furthermore, progress was made in linking two and three-body forces from low-momentum interactions to pairing properties in nuclear density functionals, and in the description of deformed nuclei within an effective theory.

  13. Holocene hydrologic balance of tropical South America from oxygen isotopes of lake sediment opal, Venezuelan Andes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Holocene hydrologic balance of tropical South America from oxygen isotopes of lake sediment opal.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: oxygen isotopes; biogenic opal; hydrologic balance; Holocene; Venezuela

  14. Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography of Stable Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the development of a new molecular imaging technique using inelastic scattering of fast neutrons. Earlier studies characteristic gamma photons through inelastic scattering of an external neutron beam. These stable isotopes canNeutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography of Stable Isotopes Carey E. Floyd Jr.*ab , Calvin

  15. Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2012-01-18

    The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

  16. Packed bed reactor for photochemical sup 196 Hg isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes a photochemical reactor useful for the isotopic enrichment of a predetermined isotope of mercury comprising a reactor cell and a monoisotopic light source It comprises: a plurality of transparent, straight reactor cell tubes disposed axially within the internal volume of the reactor cell to increase the surface area thereof for production deposition.

  17. Nitrogen isotope effects on glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abell, L.M.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1988-05-03

    The nitrogen isotope effect on the decarboxylation of glutamic acid by glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli has been measured by comparison of the isotopic composition of the amino nitrogen of the product ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid isolated after 10-20% reaction with that of the starting glutamic acid. At pH 4.7, 37 /sup 0/C, the isotope effect is k/sup 14//k/sup 15/ = 0.9855 +/- 0.0006 when compared to unprotonated glutamic acid. Interpretation of this result requires knowledge of the equilibrium nitrogen isotope effect for Schiff base formation. This equilibrium isotope effect is K/sup 14//K/sup 15/ - 0.9824 for the formation of the unprotonated Schiff base between unprotonated valine and salicylaldehyde. Analysis of the nitrogen isotope effect on decarboxylation of glutamic acid and of the previously measured carbon isotope effect on this same reaction shows that decarboxylation and Schiff base formation are jointly rate limiting. The enzyme-bound Schiff base between glutamate and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate partitions approximately 2:1 between decarboxylation and return to the starting state. The nitrogen isotope effect also reveals that the Schiff base nitrogen is protonated in this intermediate.

  18. Lithium Isotope History of Cenozoic Seawater: Changes in Silicate Weathering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    Lithium Isotope History of Cenozoic Seawater: Changes in Silicate Weathering and Reverse Weathering 70 Ma · Overview of the Marine Lithium Cycle · Analytical Challenges · 68 Million Year Seawater Lithium Isotope Record (Forams) · Interpretation Standard: NIST L-SVEC Li (SRM 8545) #12;100 Ma Climate

  19. Tracking the lithium isotopic evolution of the mantle using carbonatites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Tracking the lithium isotopic evolution of the mantle using carbonatites Ralf Halama a,, William F. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: lithium isotopes; carbonatites; mantle geochemistry 1. Introduction Lithium (Li) is an incompatible element that is typi- cally enriched 10 to 50-fold in crustal

  20. Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor concept.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coats, Richard Lee; Dahl, James J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor and hot cell facility concepts. The reactor proposed is designed to be capable of producing 100% of the U.S. demand for the medical isotope {sup 99}Mo. The concept is novel in that the fuel for the reactor and the targets for the {sup 99}Mo production are the same. There is no driver core required. The fuel pins that are in the reactor core are processed on a 7 to 21 day irradiation cycle. The fuel is low enriched uranium oxide enriched to less than 20% {sup 235}U. The fuel pins are approximately 1 cm in diameter and 30 to 40 cm in height, clad with Zircaloy (zirconium alloy). Approximately 90 to 150 fuel pins are arranged in the core in a water pool {approx}30 ft deep. The reactor power level is 1 to 2 MW. The reactor concept is a simple design that is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days. The fuel fabrication, reactor design and operation, and {sup 99}Mo production processing use well-developed technologies that minimize the technological and licensing risks. There are no impediments that prevent this type of reactor, along with its collocated hot cell facility, from being designed, fabricated, and licensed today.

  1. Supported palladium materials for isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutherford, W.M.; Ellis, R.E.; Abell, G.C.

    1988-01-21

    Several palladium packing materials were investigated for their suitability for use in the separation of hydrogen isotopes by displacement chromatography. The materials included palladium on Chromosorb and several formulations of palladium on commercially available alpha-alumina-based catalyst supports. All materials showed some degradation upon being subjected to repeated hydriding-dehydriding cycles; however, the degradation did not lead to unacceptably low permeability to gas flow. Dynamic performance of the packings was evaluated by displacement of deuterium with protium at several temperatures and flow rates. Isotopic exchange was generally rapid. However, high surface area packings (greater than 4 m/sup 2//g) yielded transition zones that were initially sharp, but had long ''tails'' at deuterium concentrations below 5%. Best results were obtained with a packing containing 48.2% palladium on Norton catalyst support No. SA5*21 (surface area = 0.33 m/sup 2//g). Improved performance was observed as the displacement temperature was increased to 80/sup 0/C from 22/sup 0/C. The slight decrease in equilibrium separation was more than offset by improved kinetics at the higher temperature. 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Process for recovery of daughter isotopes from a source material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J.; Todd, Terry A.; Lewis, Leroy C.; Henscheid, Joseph P.

    2005-10-04

    The invention includes a method of separating isotopes from a mixture containing at least two isotopes in a solution. A first isotope is precipitated and is collected from the solution. A daughter isotope is generated and collected from the first isotope. The invention includes a method of producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product from a material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232. A solution is formed containing nitric acid and the material and iodate is added to form a thorium iodate precipitate. A supernatant is separated from the thorium iodate precipitate and a second volume of nitric acid is added to the precipitate. The precipitate is stored and a decay product comprising actinium-225 and bismuth-213 is generated in the second volume of nitric acid which is then separated from the thorium iodate precipitate, filtered, and treated using at least one chromatographic procedure. The invention also includes a system for producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product.

  3. Special isotope separation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.D.

    1989-02-03

    The SIS facilities will include a Plutonium Processing Facility (PPF), a Laser Support Facility (LSF), and all associated equipment required for isotope separation. The SIS Plant will process fuel-grade plutonium into weapons-grade plutonium using Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) and supporting chemical processes. The AVLIS process uses precisely tuned visible laser light to selectively ionize or excite specific plutonium isotopes in a vapor stream. The ionized plutonium isotopes (Pu 240, Pu 238 and Pu 241) are then separated from the plutonium isotope of interest (Pu 239). Chemical processes are required to (1) prepare the AVLIS plutonium feed for processing, remove americium-241, and cast plutonium metal into forms that meet AVLIS processing requirements; (2) recover and, if required, purify the AVLIS plutonium product; and (3) recover and process the AVLIS separated by-products. This presentation describes the production facility and some of the plutonium processes.

  4. A modeling study of the effect of depth of burial of depleted uranium and thorium on radon gas flux at a dry desert alluvial soil radioactive waste management site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    An integral part of designing low-level waste (LLW) disposal pits and their associated closure covers in very dry desert alluvium is the use of a radon gas transport and fate model. Radon-222 has the potential to be a real heath hazard. The production of radon-222 results from the radioactive decay (a particle emission) of radium-226 in the uranium-235 and 238 Bateman chains. It is also produced in the thorium-230 series. Both long lived radionuclides have been proposed for disposal in the shallow land burial pits in Area 5 RWMS compound of Nevada Test Site (NTS). The constructed physics based model includes diffusion and barometric pressure-induced advection of an M-chain of radionuclides. The usual Bateman decay mechanics are included for each radionuclide. Both linear reversible and linear irreversible first order sorption kinetics are assumed for each radionuclide. This report presents the details of using the noble gas transport model, CASCADR9, in an engineering design study mode. Given data on the low-level waste stream, which constitutes the ultimate source of radon-222 in the RWMS, CASCADR9 is used to generate the surface flux (pCi/cm{sup 2}-sec) of radon-222 under the realistic atmospheric and alluvial soil conditions found in the RWMS at Area 5, of the NTS. Specifically, this study examines the surface flux of radon-222 as a function of the depth of burial below the land surface.

  5. Shell model description of Ge isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. G. Hirsch; P. C. Srivastava

    2012-04-12

    A shell model study of the low energy region of the spectra in Ge isotopes for $38\\leq N\\leq 50$ is presented, analyzing the excitation energies, quadrupole moments, $B(E2)$ values and occupation numbers. The theoretical results have been compared with the available experimental data. The shell model calculations have been performed employing three different effective interactions and valence spaces.We have used two effective shell model interactions, JUN45 and jj44b, for the valence space $f_{5/2} \\, p \\,g_{9/2}$ without truncation. To include the proton subshell $f_{7/2}$ in valence space we have employed the $fpg$ effective interaction due to Sorlin {\\it et al.}, with $^{48}$Ca as a core and a truncation in the number of excited particles.

  6. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Scime, Earl E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  7. Giant Quadrupole-Resonance in Ni Isotopes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW; Garg, U.; Peterson, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5 MAY 1992 Giant quadrupole resonance in Ni isotopes D. H. Youngblood and Y.-%. Lui Texas A&M UniUersity, College Station, Texas 77843 U. Garg University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana 46556 R. J. Peterson University... (%) 58+12 76+14 78+14 90+16 Cp 0.80+0.04 0.84+0.04 0.82+0. 12 1.05+0. 10 2174 YOUNGBLOOD, LUI, GARG, AND PETERSON 45 1000 100 60Ni(n, n') E = 129 MeV 1 000 100 58Ni(n, n') 10 10 100 z' 1000 64Ni(n, n') 1OO~y 64 Ni 100 10 I s & & I...

  8. Chemical and isotopic determination from complex spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zardecki, A.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1995-07-01

    Challenges for proliferation detection include remote, high- sensitivity detection of chemical effluents from suspect facilities and enhanced detection sensitivity for nuclear material. Both the identification of chemical effluents with lidar and enhanced nuclear material detection from radiation sensors involve determining constituents from complex spectra. In this paper, we extend techniques used to analyze time series to the analysis of spectral data. Pattern identification methods are applied to spectral data for domains where standard matrix inversion may not be suitable because of detection statistics. We use a feed-forward, back-propagation neural network in which the nodes of the input layer are fed with the observed spectral data. The nodes of the output layer contain the identification and concentration of the isotope or chemical effluent the sensor is to identify. We will discuss the neural network architecture, together with preliminary results obtained from the training process.

  9. Laser-isotope-separation technology. [Review; economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.J.; Blair, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS) process currently under development is discussed as an operative example of the use of lasers for material processing. The MLIS process, which uses infrared and ultraviolet lasers to process uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) resulting in enriched uranium fuel to be used in electrical-power-producing nuclear reactor, is reviewed. The economics of the MLIS enrichment process is compared with conventional enrichment technique, and the projected availability of MLIS enrichment capability is related to estimated demands for U.S. enrichment service. The lasers required in the Los Alamos MLIS program are discussed in detail, and their performance and operational characteristics are summarized. Finally, the timely development of low-cost, highly efficient ultraviolet and infrared lasers is shownd to be the critical element controlling the ultimate deployment of MLIS uranium enrichment. 8 figures, 7 tables.

  10. Temperature dependence of carbon isotope fractionation in CAM plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deleens, E.; Treichel, I.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1985-09-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17/sup 0/C nights, 23/sup 0/C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4% per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in /sup 13/C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0% per thousand at 27/sup 0/C/33/sup 0/C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process. 28 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  11. Hydrogen Isotope Exchange Properties of Porous Solids Containing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEUNG, LEUNGK.

    2004-08-18

    Porous solids such as activated alumina, silica and molecular sieves generally contain significant amounts of hydrogen atoms in the form of H2O or OH even at high temperature and low humidity environment. A significant amount of this hydrogen is available for reversible isotopic exchange. This exchange reaction is slow under normal conditions and does not render itself to practical applications. But if the exchange kinetics is improved this reaction has the potential to be used for tritium removal from gas streams or for hydrogen isotopic separation.The use of catalysts to improve the exchange kinetics between hydrogen isotope in the gas phase and that in the solid phase was investigated. Granules of alumina, silica and molecular sieve were coated with platinum or palladium as the catalyst. The granules were packed in a 2-cm diameter column for isotope exchange tests. Gas streams containing different concentrations of deuterium in nitrogen or argon were fed through the protium saturated column. Isotope concentration in column effluent was monitored to generate isotope break-through curves. The curves were analyzed to produce information on the kinetics and capacity of the material. The results showed that all materials tested provided some extent of isotope exchange but some were superior both in kinetics and capacity. This paper will present the test results.

  12. A. Paytan and E.T. Gray Chapter 9 Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    A. Paytan and E.T. Gray Chapter 9 Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract: The sulfur isotopic.4. Measurement and Materials for Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy 171 9.4.1. Isotope Analyses 171 9.4.2. Materials. The features in the record can also be used to correlate between stratigraphic sections and sequences

  13. Evolution of the geothermal fluids at Los Azufres, Mexico, as traced by noble gas isotopes, 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evolution of the geothermal fluids at Los Azufres, Mexico, as traced by noble gas isotopes, 18 O, D: Noble gases Strontium isotopes Helium isotopes Geothermal energy Los Azufres Araró Mexico Isotopes of noble gases, CO2, H2O and Sr were measured in 10 geothermal wells and 8 hot springs, fumaroles and mud

  14. The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

  15. Coupled molybdenum, iron and uranium stable isotopes as oceanic paleoredox proxies during the Paleoproterozoic Shunga Event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupled molybdenum, iron and uranium stable isotopes as oceanic paleoredox proxies during isotopes Uranium isotopes Iron isotopes Paleoproterozoic Euxinic The Paleoproterozoic Era was a time that the studied section was deposited under dominantly euxinic conditions (anoxic and sulfidic) and that the lower

  16. Standard practice for the ion exchange separation of uranium and plutonium prior to isotopic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    Standard practice for the ion exchange separation of uranium and plutonium prior to isotopic analysis

  17. Direct analysis of air filter samples for alpha emitting isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohagheghi, A.H.; Ghanbari, F.; Ebara, S.B.; Enghauser, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bakhtiar, S.N. [Westinghouse WIPP, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The traditional method for determination of alpha emitting isotopes on air filters has been to process the samples by radiochemical methods. However, this method is too slow for cases of incidents involving radioactive materials where the determination of personnel received dose is urgent. A method is developed to directly analyze the air filters taken from personal and area air monitors. The site knowledge is used in combination with alpha spectral information to identify isotopes. A mathematical function is developed to estimate the activity for each isotope. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are discussed.

  18. Method for isotopic analysis of chlorinated organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, B.D.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention provides a method for preparing a VOC sample for carbon and chlorine isotope ratio analysis by mass spectrometer. A VOC sample is placed in a combustion tube and reacted with CuO to form CO{sub 2} and CuCl. The CO{sub 2} is then extracted and analyzed for the carbon isotope ratio. The CuCl is separated from the excess CuO and reacted with CH{sub 3}I to form CH{sub 3}Cl, extracted and analyzed for chlorine isotope ratio. 9 figs.

  19. Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division annual report, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, J.H.; Lindberg, H.A. (eds.)

    1984-05-01

    This report describes progress in the major research and development programs carried out in FY 1983 by the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division. It covers radiochemical diagnostics of weapons tests; weapons radiochemical diagnostics research and development; other unclassified weapons research; stable and radioactive isotope production, separation, and applications (including biomedical applications); element and isotope transport and fixation; actinide and transition metal chemistry; structural chemistry, spectroscopy, and applications; nuclear structure and reactions; irradiation facilities; advanced analytical techniques; development and applications; atmospheric chemistry and transport; and earth and planetary processes.

  20. Cost Estimate for Laser Isotope Separation for RIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibner, K

    2004-11-01

    Isotope enrichment of some elements is required in support of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) in order to obtain the beam intensities, source efficiencies and/or source lifetime required by RIA. The economics of using Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology as well as ElectroMagnetic (EM) separation technology has been evaluated. It is concluded that such an AVLIS would be about 10 times less expensive than a facility based on electromagnetic separation - $17 M versus $170 M. In addition, the AVLIS facility footprint would be about 10 times smaller, and operations would require about 4 years (including 2 years of startup) versus about 11 years for an EM facility.

  1. Multiple-sulfur isotope effects during photolysis of carbonyl sulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Ying

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine sulfur isotope effects during ultraviolet photolysis of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) to carbon monoxide (CO) and elemental sulfur (S[superscript 0]). The OCS gas at 3.7 to 501 ...

  2. The HIgh Flux Isotope Reactor: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beierschmitt, Kelly J [ORNL; Farrar, Mike B [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    HFIR construction began in 1965 and completed in 1966. During the first 15 years of operation, the heavy actinide isotope production mission was dominant. HFIR is now positioned as one of the most versataile research reactors in the world.

  3. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hindin, Saul G. (Mendham, NJ); Roberts, George W. (Westfield, NJ)

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  4. AN ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY STUDY OF THE KILAUEA VOLCANO AREA, HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY STUDY OF THE KILAUEA VOLCANO AREA, HAWAII STUDY OF THE KILAUEA VOLCANO AREA, HAWAII M.A. Scholl, S.E. Ingebritsen, C.J. Janik, and J.P. Kauahikaua

  5. Carbon stable isotopes suggest that hippopotamus-vectored nutrients subsidize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewison, Rebecca

    Carbon stable isotopes suggest that hippopotamus-vectored nutrients subsidize aquatic consumers that hippopotamus-vectored nutrients subsidize aquatic consumers in an East African river. Ecosphere 6(4):52. http

  6. A Strontium Isotopic Study Of Newberry Volcano, Central Oregon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    content with 87Sr86Sr suggests that some isotopic ratios reflect shallow crustal contamination, but the data also suggest that two mantle sources, a prominent one at 0.7036 and...

  7. The marine geochemistry of iron and iron isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergquist, Bridget A., 1973-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis addressed questions about the Fe cycle by measuring detailed profiles and transects of Fe species in the ocean and also by exploring the use of a new tracer of Fe, Fe isotopic fractionation. In the subtropical ...

  8. Extraction of -cellulose from mummified wood for stable isotopic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gedalof, Ze'ev

    Extraction of -cellulose from mummified wood for stable isotopic analysis Benjamin A. Hook a cellulose can provide valuable paleocli- matic information at annual and subannual resolution, from time the trees grew. In the mummified wood, polysaccharides (hemicellulose, -cellulose) are frequently

  9. COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF sup 26Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR...

  10. Global isotopic signatures of oceanic island basalts / by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oschmann, Lynn A

    1991-01-01

    Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic analyses of 477 samples representing 30 islands or island groups, 3 seamounts or seamount chains, 2 oceanic ridges and 1 oceanic plateau [for a total of 36 geographic features] are compiled to form ...

  11. Surface-cycling of rhenium and its isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Christian Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The application of elemental and isotopic metal palaeoredox tracers to the geologic past rests on an understanding of modern metal cycles. This study reevaluates the surface-cycling of Mo and Re in near-surface reservoirs. ...

  12. RESOLUTION OF URANIUM ISOTOPES WITH KINETIC PHOSPHORESCENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, Sarah M.; Hylden, Anne T.; Friese, Judah I.

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to test the ability of the Chemchek™ Kinetic Phosphorescence Analyzer Model KPA-11 with an auto-sampler to resolve the difference in phosphorescent decay rates of several different uranium isotopes, and therefore identify the uranium isotope ratios present in a sample. Kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA) is a technique that provides rapid, accurate, and precise determination of uranium concentration in aqueous solutions. Utilizing a pulsed-laser source to excite an aqueous solution of uranium, this technique measures the phosphorescent emission intensity over time to determine the phosphorescence decay profile. The phosphorescence intensity at the onset of decay is proportional to the uranium concentration in the sample. Calibration with uranium standards results in the accurate determination of actual concentration of the sample. Different isotopes of uranium, however, have unique properties which should result in different phosphorescence decay rates seen via KPA. Results show that a KPA is capable of resolving uranium isotopes.

  13. The isotopic composition of plant and soil biomarkers of pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randerson, JT; Pataki, DE; Wang, W; Herzenach, M; Grulke, NE

    2010-01-01

    these isotopes are “decoupled”. Wankel et al. (2006) studied15:1301–1346 Kendall C, Elliott EM, Wankel SD (2007) Tracingmapping. Springer, Berlin Wankel SD, Kendall C, Francis CA,

  14. Delayed neutron energy spectrum measurements of actinide waste isotopes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comfort, Christopher M.

    1998-01-01

    was irradiated using the Texas A&M Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR). Three proton recoil detectors, operating individually, in conjunction with MCNP calculated response functions, were used to measure the delayed neutron energy spectra of each isotope...

  15. Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oduro, Harry D.

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction experiments with simple amino acid and dilute concentrations of sulfate reveal significant degrees of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation. Enrichments of up to 13‰ for [superscript ...

  16. Uranium accountancy in Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carver, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The AVLIS program pioneers the large scale industrial application of lasers to produce low cost enriched uranium fuel for light water reactors. In the process developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, normal uranium is vaporized by an electron beam, and a precisely tuned laser beam selectively photo-ionizes the uranium-235 isotopes. These ions are moved in an electromagnetic field to be condensed on the product collector. All other uranium isotopes remain uncharged and pass through the collector section to condense as tails. Tracking the three types of uranium through the process presents special problems in accountancy. After demonstration runs, the uranium on the collector was analyzed for isotopic content by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Their results were checked at LLNL by analysis of parallel samples. The differences in isotopic composition as reported by the two laboratories were not significant.

  17. FY09 PROGRESS: MULTI-ISOTOPE PROCESS (MIP) MONITOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Christensen, Richard; Laspe, Amy R.; Ward, Rebecca M.

    2009-10-18

    Model and experimental estimates of the Multi-Isotope Process Monitor performance for determining burnup after dissolution and acid concentration during solvent extraction steps during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel are presented.

  18. Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Casa Diablo Hot Spring:...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Casa Diablo Hot Spring: Magmatic CO2 near Mammoth Lakes, CA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference...

  19. Isotopic Anomalies in CP Stars: Helium, Mercury, Platinum, and Calcium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. R. Cowley; S. Hubrig; F. Castelli

    2007-11-15

    We review the classical observational results for isotopic abundance variations for several elements in CP stars. We concentrate on the "newest" anomaly, in calcium. The cosmically very rare isotope, Ca-48 can rival and even dominate the more common, alpha nuclide, Ca-40. Relevant examples are found in the hot, non-magnetic HgMn stars, and the field horizontal-branch star, Feige 86. The calcium anomaly is also present in cool, magnetic stars, including the notorious HD 101065, Przybylski's star.

  20. Separation of the isotopes of boron by chemical exchange reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    The isotopes of boron, .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B, are separated by means of a gas-liquid chemical exchange reaction involving the isotopic equilibrium between gaseous BF.sub.3 and a liquid BF.sub.3 . donor molecular addition complex formed between BF.sub.3 gas and a donor chosen from the group consisting of: nitromethane, acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or diisobutyl ketone.

  1. Configuration mixing effects in neutron-rich carbon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. X. Yuan; F. R. Xu; C. Qi

    2015-07-24

    Shell model calculations are done to study the structure of neutron-rich carbon isotopes. For both even-A and odd-A neutron-rich carbon isotopes, the energy levels are strongly affected by the configuration mixing of valence neutrons. The calculated energy levels in the nucleus $^{17}$C are significantly improved compared with experimental values when the model space of the three valence neutrons is enlarged from pure $\

  2. Configuration mixing effects in neutron-rich carbon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, C X; Qi, C

    2015-01-01

    Shell model calculations are done to study the structure of neutron-rich carbon isotopes. For both even-A and odd-A neutron-rich carbon isotopes, the energy levels are strongly affected by the configuration mixing of valence neutrons. The calculated energy levels in the nucleus $^{17}$C are significantly improved compared with experimental values when the model space of the three valence neutrons is enlarged from pure $\

  3. Measurement of zinc stable isotope ratios in biogeochemical matrices by double-spike MC-ICPMS and determination of the isotope ratio pool available for plants from soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    of the isotope ratio pool available for plants from soil Timto characterize the Zn isotope pool available to plants in athe composition of the Zn pool available to the plants [21,

  4. Proton radii of Be, B, and C isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshiko Kanada-En'yo

    2014-11-04

    We investigate the neutron number $(N)$ dependence of root mean square radii of point proton distribution (proton radii) of Be, B, and C isotopes with the theoretical method of variation after spin-parity projection in the framework of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). The proton radii in Be and B isotopes changes rapidly as $N$ increases, reflecting the cluster structure change along the isotope chains, whereas, those in C isotopes show a weak $N$ dependence because of the stable proton structure in nuclei with $Z=6$. In neutron-rich Be and B isotopes, the proton radii are remarkably increased by the enhancement of the two-center cluster structure in the prolately deformed neutron structure. We compare the $N$ dependence of the calculated proton radii with the experimental ones reduced from the charge radii determined by isotope shift and those deduced from the charge changing interaction cross section. It is found that the $N$ dependence of proton radii can be a probe to clarify enhancement and weakening of cluster structures.

  5. METALLICITY-DEPENDENT GALACTIC ISOTOPIC DECOMPOSITION FOR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Christopher; Heger, Alexander, E-mail: west0482@umn.edu, E-mail: alexander.heger@monash.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    All stellar evolution models for nucleosynthesis require an initial isotopic abundance set to use as a starting point. Generally, our knowledge of isotopic abundances of stars is fairly incomplete except for the Sun. We present a first model for a complete average isotopic decomposition as a function of metallicity. Our model is based on the underlying nuclear astrophysics processes, and is fitted to observational data, rather than traditional forward galactic chemical evolution modeling which integrates stellar yields beginning from big bang nucleosynthesis. We first decompose the isotopic solar abundance pattern into contributions from astrophysical sources. Each contribution is then assumed to scale as a function of metallicity. The resulting total isotopic abundances are summed into elemental abundances and fitted to available halo and disk stellar data to constrain the model's free parameter values. This procedure allows us to use available elemental observational data to reconstruct and constrain both the much needed complete isotopic evolution that is not accessible to current observations, and the underlying astrophysical processes. As an example, our model finds a best fit for Type Ia contributing {approx_equal} 0.7 to the solar Fe abundance, and Type Ia onset occurring at [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -1.1, in agreement with typical values.

  6. Lithium isotopic systematics of A-type granites and their mafic enclaves: Further constraints on the Li isotopic composition of the continental crust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Lithium isotopic systematics of A-type granites and their mafic enclaves: Further constraints form 6 February 2009 Accepted 15 February 2009 Editor: D.B. Dingwell Keywords: Lithium isotopes A-type granite Mafic enclave Continental crust Lithium concentrations and isotopic compositions of 39 A

  7. The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-09

    This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management`s position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

  8. Laser separation of uranium chosen for scaleup. [Atomic vapor laser isotope separation, molecular laser isotope separation, and plasma separation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, R.L.

    1982-05-17

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) has been selected by the Department of Energy to go into large-scale engineering development and demonstration over two other advanced technologies, molecular laser isotope separation and plasma separation. DOE will continue to support development of another uranium enrichment technology, gas centrifugation. By or around 1990, the most promising gas centrifuge technique will be compared to the further developed AVLIS process, and a selection will be made between the two to replace the current technology, gaseous diffusion. The AVLIS process, plasma separation, and molecular laser isotope separation use the elective absorption of radiation of a particular energy level by the /sup 235/U isotope. The plasma separation process selectively energizes /sup 235/U by ion cyclotron resonance. The AVLIS and molecular laser isotope separation processes both use a carefully tuned laser to excite /sup 235/U isotope selectively. In the AVLIS process, uranium metal feed material is melted and vaporized to form an atomic uranium vapor stream. When this vapor stream passes through the beam of copper vapor lasers, the /sup 235/U atoms absorb the light and become ionized. These ionized atoms are collected by electromagnetic fields while the neutral /sup 238/U atoms pass through the magnetic field and are collected as tailings. The AVLIS process has the potential for significantly reducing the cost of enriching uranium. The status of dvelopment, cost, advantages and drawbacks of the five processes, (gaseous diffusion, gas centrifugation, AVLIS, molecular laser separation, plasma separation) are discussed. (ATT)

  9. Laser separation of uranium chosen for scaleup. [Atomic vapor laser isotope separation, molecular laser isotope separation plasma separation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawls, R.L.

    1982-05-17

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) has been selected by the Department of Energy to go into large-scale engineering development and demonstration over two other advanced technologies, molecular laser isotope separation and plasma separation. DOE will continue to support development of another uranium enrichment technology, gas centrifugation. By or around 1990, the most promising gas centrifuge technique will be compared to the further developed AVLIS process, and a selection will be made between the two to replace the current technology, gaseous diffusion. The AVLIS process, plasma separation, and molecular laser isotope separation use the selective absorption of radiation of a particular energy level by the /sup 235/U isotope. The plasma separation process selectively energizes /sup 235/U by ion cyclotron resonance. The AVLIS and molecular laser isotope separation processes both use a carefully tuned laser to excite /sup 235/U isotope selectively. In the AVLIS process, uranium metal feed material is melted and vaporized to from an atomic uranium vapor stream. When this vapor stream passes through the beam of copper vapor lasers, the /sup 235/U atoms absorb the light and become ionized. These ionized atoms are collected by electromagnetic fields while the neutral /sup 238/U atoms pass through the magnetic field and are collected as tailings. The AVLIS process has the potential for significantly reducing the cost of enriching uranium. The status of development, cost, advantages and drawbacks of the five processes (gaseous diffusion, gas centrifugation, AVLIS, molecular laser separation, plasma separation) are discussed. (ATT)

  10. M. van Ginkel, L.J. van Vliet, P.W. Verbeek, M.A. Kraaijveld, E.P. Reding and H.J. Lammers, Robust Curve Detection using a Radon Transform in Orientation Space Applied to Fracture Detection in Borehole Images, in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Curve Detection using a Radon Transform in Orientation Space Applied to Fracture Detection in Borehole Detection using a Radon Transform in Orientation Space Applied to Fracture Detection in Borehole Images M information, thus reducing the amount of false detections. The method is applied to fracture detection

  11. IUPAC Periodic Table of Isotopes for the Educational Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden N. E.; Holden,N.E.; Coplen,T.B.

    2012-07-15

    John Dalton first proposed the concept of atomic weights of the elements in the first decade of the nineteenth century. These atomic weights of the chemical elements were thought of as constants of nature, similar to the speed of light. Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the atomic weights of the elements in ascending order of value and used the systematic variation of their chemical properties to produce his Periodic Table of the Elements in 1869. Measurement of atomic weight values became an important chemical activity for a century and a half. Theodore Richards received a Noble Prize for his work in this area. In 1913, Fredrick Soddy found a species of radium, which had an atomic weight value of 228, compared to the familiar radium gas value of 226. Soddy coined the term 'isotope' (Greek for 'in the same place') to account for this second atomic weight value in the radium position of the Periodic Table. Both of these isotopes of radium are radioactive. Radioactive isotopes are energetically unstable and will decay (disintegrate) over time. The time it takes for one half of a sample of a given radioactive isotope to decay is the half-life of that isotope. In addition to having different atomic weight values, radium-226 and radium-228 also have different half-life values. Around the same time as Soddy's work, J.J. Thomson (discoverer of the electron) identified two stable (non-radioactive) isotopes of the same element, neon. Over the next 40 years, the majority of the known chemical elements were found to have two or more stable (or long-lived radioactive isotopes that contribute significantly to the determination of the atomic weights of the elements).

  12. Comparison of Ambient Radon Concentrations in Air in the Northern Mojave Desert from Continuous and Integrating Instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David S. Shafer; David McGraw; Lynn H. Karr; Greg McCurdy; Tammy L. Kluesner; Karen J. Gray; Jeffrey Tappen

    2010-05-18

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline environmental parameters, ambient radon-222 (Rn) monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, NV, the closest community to Yucca Mountain. Passive integrating and continuous Rn monitoring instruments were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) station in Amargosa Valley. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated Rn measurements, verified the meteorological data collected by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument, and for provided instrumentation for evaluating the relationships between meteorological conditions and Rn concentrations. Hourly Rn concentrations in air measured by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument (AlphaGUARD®) were compared to the average hourly values for the integrating Rn measurements (E-PERM®) by dividing the total Rn measurements by the number of hours the instruments were deployed. The results of the comparison indicated that average hourly ambient Rn concentrations as measured by both methods ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 pico-curies per liter of air. Ambient Rn values for the AlphaGUARD exhibited diurnal variations. When Rn concentrations were compared with measurements of temperature (T), barometric pressure, and relative humidity, the correlation (inversely) was highest with T, albeit weakly.

  13. Method for the simultaneous preparation of radon-211, xenon-125, xenon-123, astatine-211, iodine-125 and iodine-123

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, S.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1985-07-01

    The invention relates to a practical method for commercially producing radiopharmaceutical activities and, more particularly, relates to a method for the preparation of about equal amount of Radon-211 (/sup 211/Rn) and Xenon-125 (/sup 125/Xe) including a one-step chemical procedure following an irradiation procedure in which a selected target of Thorium (/sup 232/Th) or Uranium (/sup 238/U) is irradiated. The disclosed method is also effective for the preparation in a one-step chemical procedure of substantially equal amounts of high purity /sup 123/I and /sup 211/At. In one preferred arrangement of the invention almost equal quantities of /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe are prepared using a onestep chemical procedure in which a suitably irradiated fertile target material, such as thorium-232 or uranium-238, is treated to extract those radionuclides from it. In the same one-step chemical procedure about equal quantities of /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I are prepared and stored for subsequent use. In a modified arrangement of the method of the invention, it is practiced to separate and store about equal amounts of only /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe, while preventing the extraction or storage of the radionuclides /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I.

  14. Isotope Ratio Triangulation: A Method for Determining Uranium Isotope Ratios and Application to the Search for Uranium Isotope Anomalies in the Mineral Titanite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Joseph Roger

    2014-11-10

    The U-Pb dating methods used in many geochronology laboratories take advantage of a mixed 235U-233U spike for precise uranium isotopic measurements and current data reduction algorithms assume a uniform 238U/235U value of 137.88. Recent re...

  15. Biophysical modelling of the effects of inhaled radon progeny on the bronchial epithelium for the estimation of the relationships applied in the two stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madas, Balázs G

    2013-01-01

    There is a considerable debate between research groups applying the two stage clonal expansion model for lung cancer risk estimation, whether radon exposure affects initiation and transformation or promotion. The objective of the present study is to quantify the effects of radon progeny on these stages with biophysical models. For this purpose, numerical models of mutation induction and clonal growth were applied in order to estimate how initiation, transformation and promotion rates depend on tissue dose rate. It was found that rates of initiation and transformation increase monotonically with dose rate, while effective promotion rate decreases with time, but increases in a supralinear fashion with dose rate. Despite the uncertainty of the results due to the lack of experimental data, present study suggests that effects of radon exposure on both mutational events and clonal growth are significant, and should be considered in epidemiological analyses applying mathematical models of carcinogenesis.

  16. Examining the stability of thermally fissile Th and U isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharat Kumar; S. K. Biswal; S. K. Singh; S. K. Patra

    2015-08-03

    The properties of recently predicted thermally fissile Th and U isotopes are studied within the framework of relativistic mean field (RMF) approach using axially deformed basis. We calculated the ground, first intrinsic excited state and matter density for highly neutron-rich thorium and uranium isotopes. The possible modes of decay like $\\alpha$-decay and $\\beta$-decay are analyzed. We found that the neutron-rich isotopes are stable against $\\alpha$-decay, however they are very much unstable against $\\beta$-decay. The life time of these nuclei predicted to be tens of second against $\\beta$-decay. If these nuclei utilize before their decay time, a lots of energy can be produced within the help of multi-fragmentation fission. Also, these nuclei have a great implication in astrophysical point of view. The total nucleonic densities distribution are calculated, from which the clusters inside the parent nuclei are determined. %Most of the thorium isotopes are $\\alpha$ emitters, where as some %of them have short half-lives. In some cases, we found the isomeric states with energy range from 2 to 3 MeV and three minima in the potential energy surface of $^{228-230}$Th and $^{228-234}$U isotopes.

  17. System for recovery of daughter isotopes from a source material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID) [Aberdeen, ID; Lewis, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Henscheid, Joseph P. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-04

    A method of separating isotopes from a mixture containing at least two isotopes in a solution is disclosed. A first isotope is precipitated and is collected from the solution. A daughter isotope is generated and collected from the first isotope. The invention includes a method of producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product from a material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232. A solution is formed containing nitric acid and the material containing thorium-229 and thorium-232, and iodate is added to form a thorium iodate precipitate. A supernatant is separated from the thorium iodate precipitate and a second volume of nitric acid is added to the thorium iodate precipitate. The thorium iodate precipitate is stored and a decay product comprising actinium-225 and bismuth-213 is generated in the second volume of nitric acid, which is then separated from the thorium iodate precipitate, filtered, and treated using at least one chromatographic procedure. A system for producing an actinium-225/bismuth-213 product is also disclosed.

  18. The use of carbon stable isotope ratios in drugs characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdas, D. A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Cristea, G., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Bot, A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Mirel, V., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) is an effective toll to be used for drug product authentication. The isotopic composition could be used to assist in the differentiation between batches of drugs and assist in the identification of counterfeit materials on the market. Only two factors affect the isotopic ratios in pharmaceutical components: the isotopic composition of the raw materials and the synthetic processes performed upon them. Counterfeiting of pharmaceutical drugs threatens consumer confidence in drug products companies' economical well-being. In this preliminary study, the analyzed samples consist in two types of commercially available analgesics, which were purchases from Romanian pharmacies. Differences in ?{sup 13}C between batches from ?29.7 to ?31.6% were observed, demonstrating that this method can be used to differentiate among individual drug batches and subsequently identify counterfeits on the market. On the other hand, carbon isotopic ratios differences among producers were recorded, the variations being between ?31.3 to ?34.9% for the same type of analgesic, but from different manufactures.

  19. On the origin of the lightest Molybdenum isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob Lund Fisker; Robert D. Hoffman; Jason Pruet

    2009-01-15

    We discuss implications of recent precision measurements for the Rh93 proton separation energy for the production of the lightest molybdenum isotopes in proton-rich type II supernova ejecta. It has recently been shown that a novel neutrino-induced process makes these ejecta a promising site for the production of the light molybdenum isotopes and other "p-nuclei" with atomic mass near 100. The origin of these isotopes has long been uncertain. A distinguishing feature of nucleosynthesis in neutrino-irradiated outflows is that the relative production of Mo92 and Mo94 is set by a competition governed by the proton separation energy of Rh93. We use detailed nuclear network calculations and the recent experimental results for this proton separation energy to place constraints on the outflow characteristics that produce the lightest molybdenum isotopes in their solar proportions. It is found that for the conditions calculated in recent two-dimensional supernova simulations, and also for a large range of outflow characteristics around these conditions, the solar ratio of Mo92 to Mo94 cannot be achieved. This suggests that either proton-rich winds from type II supernova do not exclusively produce both isotopes, or that these winds are qualitatively different than calculated in today's supernova models.

  20. Isotopically Enriched Films and Nanostructures by Ultrafast Pulsed Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pronko

    2004-12-13

    This project involved a systematic study to apply newly discovered isotopic enrichment effects in laser ablation plumes to the fabrication of isotopically engineered thin films, superlattices, and nanostructures. The approach to this program involved using ultrafast lasers as a method for generating ablated plasmas that have preferentially structured isotopic content in the body of the ablation plasma plumes. In examining these results we have attempted to interpret the observations in terms of a plasma centrifuge process that is driven by the internal electro-magnetic fields of the plasma itself. The research plan involved studying the following phenomena in regard to the ablation plume and the isotopic mass distribution within it: (1) Test basic equations of steady state centrifugal motion in the ablation plasma. (2) Investigate angular distribution of ions in the ablation plasmas. (3) Examine interactions of plasma ions with self-generated magnetic fields. (3) Investigate ion to neutral ratios in the ablation plasmas. (5) Test concepts of plasma pumping. (6) Fabricate isotopically enriched nanostructures.