National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for radiometer precipitable water

  1. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product Citation Details In-Document Search Title: G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) ...

  2. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

    2012-12-05

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

  3. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-122 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product A Koontz M Cadeddu December 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that

  4. ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) path Title: ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) ...

  5. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  6. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  7. ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and Precipitable Water Vapor Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and ...

  8. Posters Radar/Radiometer Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for retrieving cloud liquid water content and drizzle characteristics using a K -band Doppler radar (Kropfli et al. 1990) and microwave radiometer (Hogg et al. 1983). The...

  9. ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitable water Total amount ...

  10. MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THE ARCTIC MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN THE ARCTIC Cadeddu, Maria Argonne National Laboratory Category: Instruments A new G-band (183 GHz) vapor radiometer (GVR), developed and built by Prosensing Inc. (http://www.prosensing.com), was deployed in Barrow, Alaska, in April 2005. The radiometer was deployed as part of the ongoing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's effort to improve water vapor retrievals in the cold, dry Arctic

  11. Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddedu, MP

    2011-03-17

    The 90/150-GHz Vapor Radiometer provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  12. Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer J. C. Liljegren Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Radiometrics Corporation has developed a twelve-channel microwave radiometer capable of providing continuous, real-time vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and limited-resolution cloud liquid water from the surface to 10 km in nearly all weather conditions (Solheim et al. 1998a). Since

  13. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave ... used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). ...

  14. Validation of Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers M. M. Khaiyer and J. Huang Analytical Services & Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis, B. Lin, and W. L. Smith, Jr. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia A. Fan Science Applications International Corporation Hampton, Virginia A. Rapp Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Introduction Satellites are useful for monitoring climatological parameters over

  15. Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadeddu, MP

    2012-05-04

    The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

  16. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2) Citation Details In-Document ...

  17. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    2013-08-22

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  18. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  19. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMicrowave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation 2000.09.01 - 2001.03.31 Lead Scientist : James Liljegren For data sets, see below. Abstract The microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) is a new 12-channel radiometer developed by Radiometrics Corporation for measuring vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMicrowave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Microwave Radiometer Profiler Evaluation 2000.02.25 - 2000.08.22 Lead Scientist : James Liljegren For data sets, see below. Abstract The microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) is a new 12-channel radiometer developed by Radiometrics Corporation for measuring vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and

  2. Broadband radiometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannon, Theodore W.

    1994-01-01

    A broadband radiometer including (a) an optical integrating sphere having a enerally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample.

  3. Broadband radiometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  4. Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Integrating the Production of Biofuels and Bioproducts Integrating the Production of Biofuels and Bioproducts April 28, 2016 - 11:25am Addthis Non-food biomass such as the crop residue (the leftover material from crops like stalks, leaves, and husks of corn plants following harvest) pictured above can be converted to biofuels as well as high-value products such as plastics, chemicals, and fertilizers. Non-food biomass such as the crop residue (the leftover material from crops like

  5. Radiometer Calibration and Characterization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) software is a data acquisition and data archival system for performing Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL). RCC provides a unique method of calibrating solar radiometers using techniques that reduce measurement uncertainty and better characterize a radiometer’s response profile. The RCC software automatically monitors and controls many of the components that contribute to uncertainty in an instrument’s responsivity.

  6. Recovery of carboxylic acids from water by precipitation from organic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson; Starr, John

    1992-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are recovered from wet organic solutions by reducing the solutions' water content thus causing the acids to precipitate as recoverable crystals.

  7. Novel Cyclotron-Based Radiometal Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2013-10-31

    Accomplishments: (1) Construction of prototype solution target for radiometal production; (2) Testing of prototype target for production of following isotopes: a. Zr-89. Investigation of Zr-89 production from Y-89 nitrate solution. i. Defined problems of gas evolution and salt precipitation. ii. Solved problem of precipitation by addition of nitric acid. iii. Solved gas evolution problem with addition of backpressure regulator and constant degassing of target during irradiations. iv. Investigated effects of Y-89 nitrate concentration and beam current. v. Published abstracts at SNM and ISRS meetings; (3) Design of 2nd generation radiometal solution target. a. Included reflux chamber and smaller target volume to conserve precious target materials. b. Included aluminum for prototype and tantalum for working model. c. Included greater varicosities for improved heat transfer; and, (4) Construction of 2nd generation radiometal solution target started.

  8. Critical analysis of atmospheric turbidity and precipitable water at five Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.; Gueymard, C.

    1997-12-31

    Global and diffuse radiation and surface meteorological measurements at Edmonton, Montreal, Port Hardy, Toronto and Winnipeg for the years 1977--1984 are analyzed to yield estimates of atmospheric precipitable water and turbidity. Three methods of estimating the precipitable water and two methods of estimating the turbidity are used and compared. Measurements of pyranometer response as a function of zenith angle are used to correct the global radiation measurements. Turbidity is corrected for the effect of circumsolar radiation included in the direct radiation obtained from the global and diffuse radiation measurements. A comparison with earlier precipitable water and turbidity results is included.

  9. Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor Radiometer Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water Vapor Radiometer Pazmany, Andrew ProSensing Inc. Category: Instruments ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz, 1.5 mm wavelength) water vapor radiometer (GVR) for the measurement of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. The instrument's precipitable water vapor measurement precision is approximately 0.01 mm in dry (<2 mm vapor column) conditions. The ground-based

  10. Stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.; Gestin, J.F.

    1994-08-02

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials. No Drawings

  11. Stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Gestin, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to new rigid chelating structures, to methods for preparing these materials, and to their use in preparing radiometal labeled immunoconjugates. These new chelates include cyclohexyl EDTA monohydride, the trans forms of cyclohexyl DTPA and TTHA, and derivatives of these cyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate materials.

  12. Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

    2012-07-18

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  13. Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  14. An Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor R. T. Marchand and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction This paper offers some observations on the quality of Microwave Radiometer (MWR) retrievals of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP). The paper shows case study comparisons between the standard "statistical" approach and those obtained using an iterative solution of the microwave

  15. Retrieving moisture profiles from precipitable water measurements using a variational data assimilation approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.R.; Zou, X.; Kuo, Y.H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric moisture distribution is directly related to the formation of clouds and precipitation and affects the atmospheric radiation and climate. Currently, several remote sensing systems can measure precipitable water (PW) with fairly high accuracy. As part of the development of an Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System in support of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, retrieving the 3-D water vapor fields from PW measurements is an important problem. A new four dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system based on the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) has been developed by Zou et al. (1995) with the adjoint technique. In this study, we used this 4DVAR system to retrieve the moisture profiles. Because we do not have a set of real observed PW measurements now, the special soundings collected during the Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) in 1979 were used to simulate a set of PW measurements, which were then assimilated into the 4DVAR system. The accuracy of the derived water vapor fields was assessed by direct comparison with the detailed specific humidity soundings. The impact of PW assimilation on precipitation forecast was examined by conducting a series of model forecast experiments started from the different initial conditions with or without data assimilation.

  16. Precipitating clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A suggestion for a new focus on cloud microphysical process study in the ARM program 1. Retrieving precipitating mixed- phase cloud properties Zhien Wang University of Wyoming zwang@uwyo.edu Retrieving Precipitating Mixed-phase Cloud Properties Global distribution of supercooled water topped stratiform clouds (top > 1 km and length> 14km) Most of them are mixed-phase with precipitation or virga An multiple sensor based approach to provide water phase as well as ice phase properties

  17. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing : Part III. Long-term aluminum hydroxide precipitation tests in borated water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahn, C. B.; Kasza, K. E.; Shack, W. J.; Natesan, K.; Klein, P.

    2011-05-01

    Long-term aluminum (Al) hydroxide precipitation tests were conducted in slightly alkaline solutions containing 2500 ppm boron. The solution temperature was cycled to obtain a temperature history more representative of emergency core cooling system temperatures after a loss-of-coolant accident. The observed Al precipitation boundary was close to predicted results for amorphous precipitates, which are higher than the solubility expected for crystalline forms. Bench-scale and loop head loss test results under various conditions were successfully combined into single map in a temperature - 'pH + p[Al]{sub T}' domain, which yielded two bounding lines for Al hydroxide solubility in borated alkaline water that depend on whether or not loop head loss tests with Al alloy coupons are included. Precipitates were observed to form either as fine, cloudy suspensions, which showed very little tendency to settle, or as flocculated precipitates. The flocculation tendency of the precipitates can be qualitatively explained by a colloid stability theory or a phase diagram for protein solutions.

  18. Impacts of precipitation variability on plant species and community water stress in a temperate deciduous forest in the central US

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Sun, Ying

    2015-12-11

    Variations in precipitation regimes can shift ecosystem structure and function by altering frequency, severity and timing of plant water stress. There is a need for predictively understanding impacts of precipitation regimes on plant water stress in relation to species water use strategies. Here we first formulated two complementary, physiologically-linked measures of precipitation variability (PV) - Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) and Average Recurrence Interval of Effective Precipitation (ARIEP). We then used nine-year continuous measurements of Predawn Leaf Water Potential Integral (PLWPI) in a central US forest to relate PVI and ARIEP to actual plant water availability and comparative water stress responsesmore » of six species with different capacities to regulate their internal water status. We found that PVI and ARIEP explained nearly all inter-annual variations in PLWPI for all species as well as for the community scaled from species measurements. The six species investigated showed differential sensitivities to variations in precipitation regimes. Their sensitivities were reflected more in the responses to PVI and ARIEP than to the mean precipitation rate. Further, they exhibited tradeoffs between responses to low and high PV. Finally, PVI and ARIEP were closely correlated with temporal integrals of positive temperature anomalies and vapor pressure deficit. We suggest that the comparative responses of plant species to PV are part of species-specific water use strategies in a plant community facing the uncertainty of fluctuating precipitation regimes. In conclusion, PVI and ARIEP should be adopted as key indices to quantify physiological drought and the ecological impacts of precipitation regimes in a changing climate.« less

  19. Impacts of precipitation variability on plant species and community water stress in a temperate deciduous forest in the central US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Sun, Ying

    2015-12-11

    Variations in precipitation regimes can shift ecosystem structure and function by altering frequency, severity and timing of plant water stress. There is a need for predictively understanding impacts of precipitation regimes on plant water stress in relation to species water use strategies. Here we first formulated two complementary, physiologically-linked measures of precipitation variability (PV) - Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) and Average Recurrence Interval of Effective Precipitation (ARIEP). We then used nine-year continuous measurements of Predawn Leaf Water Potential Integral (PLWPI) in a central US forest to relate PVI and ARIEP to actual plant water availability and comparative water stress responses of six species with different capacities to regulate their internal water status. We found that PVI and ARIEP explained nearly all inter-annual variations in PLWPI for all species as well as for the community scaled from species measurements. The six species investigated showed differential sensitivities to variations in precipitation regimes. Their sensitivities were reflected more in the responses to PVI and ARIEP than to the mean precipitation rate. Further, they exhibited tradeoffs between responses to low and high PV. Finally, PVI and ARIEP were closely correlated with temporal integrals of positive temperature anomalies and vapor pressure deficit. We suggest that the comparative responses of plant species to PV are part of species-specific water use strategies in a plant community facing the uncertainty of fluctuating precipitation regimes. In conclusion, PVI and ARIEP should be adopted as key indices to quantify physiological drought and the ecological impacts of precipitation regimes in a changing climate.

  20. Desalination of brackish ground waters and produced waters using in-situ precipitation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn; Sattler, Allan Richard

    2004-08-01

    The need for fresh water has increased exponentially during the last several decades due to the continuous growth of human population and industrial and agricultural activities. Yet existing resources are limited often because of their high salinity. This unfavorable situation requires the development of new, long-term strategies and alternative technologies for desalination of saline waters presently not being used to supply the population growth occurring in arid regions. We have developed a novel environmentally friendly method for desalinating inland brackish waters. This process can be applied to either brackish ground water or produced waters (i.e., coal-bed methane or oil and gas produced waters). Using a set of ion exchange and sorption materials, our process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps. The ion exchange materials were chosen because of their specific selectivity for ions of interest, and for their ability to work in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. For anion exchange, we have focused on hydrotalcite (HTC), a layered hydroxide similar to clay in structure. For cation exchange, we have developed an amorphous silica material that has enhanced cation (in particular Na{sup +}) selectivity. In the case of produced waters with high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, a lime softening step is included.

  1. ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Authors: ...

  2. ARM: Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 3-meter height Title: ARM: Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 3-meter height Multi-Filter Radiometer ...

  3. ARM: GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) Authors: ...

  4. SRRL: Broadband Outdoor Radiometer CALibrations (BORCAL)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations Accurate measurements of solar radiation require regular recalibration of the radiometers used to make the irradiance measurement. NREL has developed the Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration (BORCAL) approach for the annual calibration of pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and pyrgeometers used by the Department of Energy. BORCALs are conducted at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) and at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's

  5. Observations of tropical cirrus properties in the pilot radiation observation experiment using lidar and the CSIRO ARM filter radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.J.; Patterson, G.R.

    1995-04-01

    A narrow beam fast filter radiometer has been developed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The radiometer is intended to operate alongside a lidar at ARM sites in a lidar/radiometer (LIRAD) configuration. The radiometer detects in three narrow bands at 8.62-, 10.86-, and 12.04-m central wavelengths in the atmospheric window. In addition, it has a variable field aperture that varies the radiance incident on the detector and also allows the field of view to be tailored to that of a lidar used in the LIRAD technique. The radiometer was deployed in the ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) at Kavieng, Papua New Guinea in January-February 1993. The radiometer worked satisfactorily and appeared to be very stable. The radiometer was compared with a previous CSIRO radiometer and the improved performance of the ARM instrument was very evident. The ARM radiometer was also compared with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratories (ETL) interferometer and gave closely equivalent radiances. The LIRAD method was used at Kavieng to obtain the optical properties of cirrus clouds. Continuous observations of water vapor path obtained by the NOAA ETL microwave radiometer were employed to allow for the strong tropical water vapor absorption and emission. Cirrus cells that developed on one morning, independent of other clouds, had measured infrared emittances varying from <0.1 to 1.0.

  6. Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) User's Manual...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (RCC) User's Manual: Windows Version 4.0 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) User's Manual: Windows Version 4.0 ...

  7. Rotating shadowband radiometer development and analysis of spectral shortwave data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.; Min, Q.

    1996-04-01

    Our goals in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are improved measurements of spectral shortwave radiation and improved techniques for the retrieval of climatologically sensitive parameters. The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) that was developed during the first years of the ARM program has become a workhorse at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. We have spent most of our effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had some success in calculating shortwave surface diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, we have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, we have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. The rest of the text will provide some detail regarding each of these efforts.

  8. ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 150GHz channel Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 150GHz channel Authors: Maria ...

  9. ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 90GHz channel Microwave Radiometer: High Frequency, calibration data for 90GHz channel Authors: Maria Cadeddu ...

  10. Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, GB; Michalsky, JJ

    2011-02-07

    The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using the diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

  11. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  12. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Hodges, Gary

    1993-07-04

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  13. Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx)/Orographic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The radiometers were used along with other instrumentation to estimate the liquid water ... in the region (by monitoring the liquid water path in the column) and observe the effect ...

  14. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-01-03

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for

  15. NREL: MIDC/ARM Radiometer Characterization System (36.606 N, 97.486 W, 320

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    m, GMT-6) ARM Radiometer Characterization System

  16. Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North

  17. Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons During the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquil, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Y. Han Science System Applications National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland S. Keihm

  18. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  19. A large scanning radiometer for characterizing fenestration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Klems, J.; Selkowitz, S.

    1987-11-01

    A large scanning radiometer for measuring the bidirectional transmittance and reflectance of fenestration systems and components is described. Examples of measured data obtained for simple non-specular samples using the radiometer are presented. A method of obtaining the overall bidirectional properties of systems by calculation from scanning radiometer measurements of components is suggested. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method appears promising.

  20. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-05-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  1. A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

  2. Maturation and Hardening of the Stabilized Radiometer Platforms...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Maturation and Hardening of the Stabilized Radiometer Platforms (STRAPS) Field Campaign Report Measurements of solar and infrared irradiance by instruments rigidly mounted ...

  3. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second resolution Authors: Annette Koontz ; R. Reynolds Publication Date: 2012-11-02 OSTI Identifier: 1095574 DOE Contract ...

  4. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Fast Rotating Shadowband Radiometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Portable Radiation Package: Fast Rotating Shadowband Radiometer full resolution 6-s sampling Authors: Annette Koontz ; R. Reynolds Publication Date: 2012-11-02 OSTI Identifier: ...

  5. Cloud Optical Properties from the Multifilter Shadowband Radiometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Min and Harrison (1996) developed an inversion method to infer the optical depth of liquid ... Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements (Harrison et al. 1994). ...

  6. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 â?? 300 ?¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  7. Island based radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud parameters during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenshow, D.H.; Mayer, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, simultaneous measurements were made with a vertically pointing cloud sensing radar and a microwave radiometer. The radar measurements are used to estimate stratus cloud drizzle and turbulence parameters. In addition, with the microwave radiometer measurements of reflectivity, we estimated the profiles of cloud liquid water and effective radius. We used radar data for computation of vertical profiles of various drizzle parameters such as droplet concentration, modal radius, and spread. A sample of these results is shown in Figure 1. In addition, in non-drizzle clouds, with the radar and radiometer we can estimate the verticle profiles of stratus cloud parameters such as liquid water concentration and effective radius. This is accomplished by assuming a droplet distribution with droplet number concentration and width constant with height.

  8. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    1993-09-01

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  9. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer 2008.01.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Mary Jane Bartholomew For data sets, see below. Abstract The Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband...

  11. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related

  12. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  13. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of precipitable water vapor by ground-based microwave radiometers and a global positioning unit (GPS) did not reveal these differences. However, both the Microwave Radiometer...

  14. ARM - Field Campaign - Long-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsLong-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Long-Term Microwave Radiometer Intercomparison 2001.04.01 - 2001.09.30 Lead Scientist : Richard Cederwall For data sets, see below. Summary Make the spare MWR operational. Ingest data from the spare MWR. Input the output data of the spare MWR and ingest to VAP. Provide data to IOP participants.

  15. Experimental characterization of edge force on the Crookes radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ventura, Austin L.; Ketsdever, Andrew D.; Gimelshein, Natalia E.; Gimelshein, Sergey F.

    2014-12-09

    The contribution of edge force on the Crookes radiometer is experimentally investigated with three vane geometries. This work examines increasing the force per unit weight of a radiometer vane for applications such as near-space propulsion by increasing the vanes perimeter while decreasing the total surface area of the vane by means of machined holes in the vanes. Experimental results are given for three vane geometries. These results indicate that although force to vane weight ratios can be improved, the maximum force is achieved by a vane geometry that contains no hole features.

  16. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  17. Streamflow and selected precipitation data for Yucca Mountain...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    water years 1983--85 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Streamflow and selected precipitation data for Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada, water years ...

  18. Cloud Optical Properties from the Multifilter Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSRCLDOD). An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, D. D.; McFarlane, S. A.; Riihimaki, L.; Shi, Y.; Lo, C.; Min, Q.

    2014-02-01

    The microphysical properties of clouds play an important role in studies of global climate change. Observations from satellites and surface-based systems have been used to infer cloud optical depth and effective radius. Min and Harrison (1996) developed an inversion method to infer the optical depth of liquid water clouds from narrow band spectral Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements (Harrison et al. 1994). Their retrieval also uses the total liquid water path (LWP) measured by a microwave radiometer (MWR) to obtain the effective radius of the warm cloud droplets. Their results were compared with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) retrieved values at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site (Min and Harrison 1996). Min et al. (2003) also validated the retrieved cloud optical properties against in situ observations, showing that the retrieved cloud effective radius agreed well with the in situ forward scattering spectrometer probe observations. The retrieved cloud optical properties from Min et al. (2003) were used also as inputs to an atmospheric shortwave model, and the computed fluxes were compared with surface pyranometer observations.

  19. Measurement of Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Exp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Experiment and WVIOP 2000 V. Y. Leuski and E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Introduction A scanning 5-mm-wavelength radiometer was deployed during two Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) at the Atmospheric Radiation

  20. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  1. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

    1996-11-12

    A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

  2. Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, C; Marshak, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, JC; Schmelzer, J

    2008-11-01

    The two-channel narrow field-of-view radiometer (NFOV2) is a ground-based radiometer that looks straight up and measures radiance directly above the instrument at wavelengths of 673 and 870 nm. The field-of-view of the instrument is 1.2 degrees, and the sampling time resolution is one second. Measurements of the NFOV2 have been used to retrieve optical properties for overhead clouds that range from patchy to overcast. With a one-second sampling rate of the NFOV2, faster than almost any other ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrument, we are able, for the first time, to capture changes in cloud optical properties at the natural time scale of cloud evolution.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  5. Experimental measurements and noise analysis of a cryogenic radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, S. M.; Woods, S. I.; Jung, T. M.; Carter, A. C.; Datla, R. U.

    2014-07-15

    A cryogenic radiometer device, intended for use as part of an electrical-substitution radiometer, was measured at low temperature. The device consists of a receiver cavity mechanically and thermally connected to a temperature-controlled stage through a thin-walled polyimide tube which serves as a weak thermal link. With the temperature difference between the receiver and the stage measured in millikelvin and the electrical power measured in picowatts, the measured responsivity was 4700 K/mW and the measured thermal time constant was 14 s at a stage temperature of 1.885 K. Noise analysis in terms of Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) was used to quantify the various fundamental and technical noise contributions, including phonon noise and Johnson-Nyquist noise. The noise analysis clarifies the path toward a cryogenic radiometer with a noise floor limited by fundamental phonon noise, where the magnitude of the phonon NEP is 6.5 fW/?(Hz) for the measured experimental parameters.

  6. The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) - precision infrared radiometer (PIR) platform in Fairbanks: Scientific objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamnes, K.; Leontieva, E.

    1996-04-01

    The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) and precision infrared radiometer (PIR) have been employed at the Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks to check their performance under arctic conditions. Drawing on the experience of the previous measurements in the Arctic, the PIR was equipped with a ventilator to prevent frost and moisture build-up. We adopted the Solar Infrared Observing Sytem (SIROS) concept from the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) to allow implementation of the same data processing software for a set of radiation and meteorological instruments. To validate the level of performance of the whole SIROS prior to its incorporation into the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site instrumental suite for flux radiatin measurements, the comparison between measurements and model predictions will be undertaken to assess the MFRSR-PIR Arctic data quality.

  7. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Detecting vegetation-precipitation ... information resources in energy science and technology. ... of upper and lower soil water contents, and their ...

  8. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Because of the large lower-tropospheric water vapor content, strong atmospheric winds and neutral moist static stability, some ARs can produce heavy precipitation by orographic ...

  9. New shortwave solar radiometer with information-based sparse sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.L.; Carnal, C.L.; Ericson, M.N.; Falter, D.D.; Falter, K.G.; Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Kryter, R.C.; Maddox, S.R.; Munro, J.K.; Rochelle, J.M.; Spratlin, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    A new concept for a real-time shortwave solar radiometer is presented, based on the premise that high resolution measurements of the shortwave solar spectrum are needed only in wavelength regions where the atmospheric physics are changing rapidly with respect to {Lambda}. The design features holographic optical elements (HOEs) for nonuniform sampling of the spectrum, customized photocells, and temperature-compensated monolithic wide dynamic range amplifiers. Preliminary results show full spectrum reconstruction accuracies to < 3% with a 10:1 reduction in the number of photocells required. 9 refs.

  10. Working Group Reports A Short-Wave Radiometer Array Across

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working Group Reports A Short-Wave Radiometer Array Across the Tropical Pacific Ocean as a Component of the TOGA-TAO Buoy Array R. M. Reynolds Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York Introduction The purpose of this document is to bring together pertinent information concerning the NOAA TOGA-TAO buoy array so that a decision can be made for the following questions: 1. Are the scientific gains from an array of short-wave radiation sensors in the equatorial Pacific Ocean sufficiently

  11. Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

  12. ARM - Word Seek: Precipitation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Precipitation Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Word Seek: Precipitation

  13. PRECIPITATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.L.

    1958-07-15

    An lmprovement in the separation of protactinium from aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. 1t covers the use of lead dioxide and tin dioxide as carrier precipitates for the protactinium. In carrying out the process, divalent lead or divalent tin is addcd to the solution and oxidized, causing formation of a carrier precipitate of lead dioxide or stannic oxide, respectively.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Precipitation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsPrecipitation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitation All liquid or solid phase aqueous particles that originate in the atmosphere and fall to the earth's surface. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  15. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  16. Characterization and calibration of 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system for SST-1 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siju, Varsha; Kumar, Dharmendra; Shukla, Praveena; Pathak, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2014-05-15

    An 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system (7486 GHz) is designed, characterized, and calibrated to measure the radial electron temperature profile by measuring Electron Cyclotron Emission spectrum at SST-1 Tokamak. The developed radiometer has a noise equivalent temperature of 1 eV and sensitivity of 5 10{sup 9} V/W. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperature, a calibration measurement of the radiometer system is performed using hot-cold Dicke switch method, which confirms the system linearity.

  17. URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

    1957-12-01

    A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

  18. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  19. Development of two-band infrared radiometer for irradiance calibration of target simulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei

    2015-07-15

    A detector-based spectral radiometer has been developed for the calibration of target simulator. Unlike the conventional spectral irradiance calibration method based on radiance and irradiance, the new radiometer is calibrated using image-space temperature based method. The image-space temperature based method improves the reproducibility in the calibration of radiometer and reduces the uncertainties existing in the conventional calibration methods. The calibrated radiometer is then used to establish the irradiance transfer standard for the target simulator. With the designed radiometer in this paper, a highly accurate irradiance calibration for target simulators of wavelength from 2.05 to 2.55 μm and from 3.7 to 4.8 μm can be performed with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of calibration of 2.18%. Last but not least, the infrared radiation of the target simulator was measured by the infrared radiometer, the effectiveness and capability of which are verified through measurement of temperature and irradiance and a comparison with the thermal imaging camera.

  20. PRECIPITATION OF ZIRCONIUM, NIOBIUM, AND RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, A.S.

    1958-08-12

    An improvement on the"head end process" for decontaminating dissolver solutions of their Zr, Ni. and Ru values. The process consists in adding a water soluble symmetrical dialkyl ketone. e.g. acetone, before the formation of the manganese dioxide precipitate. The effect is that upon digestion, the ruthenium oxide does not volatilize, but is carried on the manganese dioxide precipitate.

  1. Precipitation hardening austenitic superalloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K. (Wexford, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation hardening, austenitic type superalloys are described. These alloys contain 0.5 to 1.5 weight percent silicon in combination with about 0.05 to 0.5 weight percent of a post irradiation ductility enhancing agent selected from the group of hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum and scandium, alone or in combination with each other. In addition, when hafnium or yttrium are selected, reductions in irradiation induced swelling have been noted.

  2. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, L. R.; Prather, K.; Ralph, R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Spackman, R.; DeMott, P.; Fairall, C.; Fan, J.; Hagos, S.; Hughes, M.; Long, C.; Rutledge, S.; Waliser, D.; Wang, H.

    2014-09-01

    The western U.S. receives precipitation predominantly during the cold season when storms approach from the Pacific Ocean. The snowpack that accumulates during winter storms provides about 70-90% of water supply for the region. Understanding and modeling the fundamental processes that govern the large precipitation variability and extremes in the western U.S. is a critical test for the ability of climate models to predict the regional water cycle, including floods and droughts. Two elements of significant importance in predicting precipitation variability in the western U.S. are atmospheric rivers and aerosols. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow bands of enhanced water vapor associated with the warm sector of extratropical cyclones over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Because of the large lower-tropospheric water vapor content, strong atmospheric winds and neutral moist static stability, some ARs can produce heavy precipitation by orographic enhancement during landfall on the U.S. West Coast. While ARs are responsible for a large fraction of heavy precipitation in that region during winter, much of the rest of the orographic precipitation occurs in post-frontal clouds, which are typically quite shallow, with tops just high enough to pass the mountain barrier. Such clouds are inherently quite susceptible to aerosol effects on both warm rain and ice precipitation-forming processes.

  3. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Don L.; Pometto, III, Anthony L.

    1984-01-01

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  4. Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers Mentor Report and Baseline Surface Radiation Network Submission Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, G.

    2005-03-18

    There are currently twenty-four Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSR) operating within Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM). Eighteen are located within the Southern Great Plains (SGP) region, there is one at each of the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites, and one is part of the instrumentation of the ARM Mobile Facility. At this time there are four sites, all extended facilities within the SGP, that are equipped for a MFRSR but do not have one due to instrument failure and a lack of spare instruments. In addition to the MFRSRs, there are three other MFRSR derived instruments that ARM operates. They are the Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR), the Normal Incidence Multi-Filter Radiometer (NIMFR) and the Narrow Field of View (NFOV) radiometer. All are essentially just the head of a MFRSR used in innovative ways. The MFR is mounted on a tower and pointed at the surface. At the SGP Central Facility there is one at ten meters and one at twenty-five meters. The NSA has a MFR at each station, both at the ten meter level. ARM operates three NIMFRs; one is at the SGP Central Facility and one at each of the NSA stations. There are two NFOVs, both at the SGP Central Facility. One is a single channel (870) and the other utilizes two channels (673 and 870).

  5. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  6. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-02-03

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperaturemore » and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.« less

  7. Precipitation Process and Apparatus Therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, Jr, L C

    1950-12-05

    This invention concerns an apparatus for remotely-controlled precipitation and filtration operations. Liquid within a precipitation chamber is maintained above a porous member by introducing air beneath the member; pressure beneath the porous member is reduced to suck the liquid through the member and effect filtration.

  8. Microsoft Word - turner-dd3.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Westwater, E.R., and coauthors, 2001: Analysis of integrated cloud liquid and precipitable water vapor retrievals from microwave radiometers during the Surface Heat Budget of the ...

  9. Silica Precipitation and Lithium Sorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay Renew

    2015-09-20

    This file contains silica precipitation and lithium sorption data from the project. The silica removal data is corrected from the previous submission. The previous submission did not take into account the limit of detection of the ICP-MS procedure.

  10. A precise narrow-beam filter infrared radiometer and its use with lidar in the ARM Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.

    1992-05-01

    The first six months of the grant (December 1991--May 1992) have been taken up with the design and specification for the new narrow-beam radiometer. The radiometer will be built and tested at the Division of Atmospheric Research over the next three months. Improved algorithms for obtaining cloud extinction have also been developed. It is proposed during 1993 to use the radiometer in conjunction with a new CSIRO 3-wavelength lidar in the ARM PROBE experiment at Kavieng, New Guinea, which is a test mission under tropical conditions for the ARM CART Tropical West Pacific site, and is part of the TOGA COARE experiment. During the latter part of 1992, the radiometer will be tested thoroughly and tested at the Division of Atmospheric Research, Aspendale.

  11. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y. Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  12. Using a cold radiometer to measure heat loads and survey heat leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-29

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  13. GVR (G-Band Vapor Radiometer) M.P. Cadeddu and J.C. Liljegren Argonne Natl. Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MWR status M.P. Cadeddu New radiometers New radiometers ECO-00664 (MWR procurement) open Specifications have been written and submitted Draft of specifications sent to vendors last month A few changes were incorporated after vendors feedback. Final specification document will be sent next week. ECO-00664 (MWR procurement) open Specifications have been written and submitted Draft of specifications sent to vendors last month A few changes were incorporated after vendors feedback. Final

  14. Technical progress report: Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of atmospheric radiation measurement spectral shortwave data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1996-04-01

    Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the improvement of radiation models used in general circulation models (GCMs), especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. We have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) based on these Albany data sets. Much time has been spent developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from the direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral reflectance.

  15. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhien

    2006-01-04

    The project is concerned with the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the U.S. Department of Energy's ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF). To facilitate the production of integrated cloud product by applying different algorithms to the ARM data streams, an advanced cloud classification algorithm was developed to classified clouds into eight types at the SGP site based on ground-based active and passive measurements. Cloud type then can be used as a guidance to select an optimal retrieval algorithm for cloud microphysical property retrieval. The ultimate goal of the effort is to develop an operational cloud classification algorithm for ARM data streams. The vision 1 IDL code of the cloud classification algorithm based on the SGP ACRF site observations was delivered to the ARM cloud translator during 2004 ARM science team meeting. Another goal of the project is to study midlevel clouds, especially mixed-phase clouds, by developing new retrieval algorithms using integrated observations at the ACRF sites. Mixed-phase clouds play a particular role in the Arctic climate system. A multiple remote sensor based algorithm, which can provide ice water content and effective size profiles, liquid water path, and layer-mean effective radius of water droplet, was developed to study arctic mixed-phase clouds. The algorithm is applied to long-term ARM observations at the NSA ACRF site. Based on these retrieval results, we are studying seasonal and interannual variations of arctic mixed-phase cloud macro- and micro-physical properties.

  16. Evaluation of Global Monsoon Precipitation Changes based on Five Reanalysis Datasets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Renping; Zhou, Tianjun; Qian, Yun

    2014-02-01

    With the motivation to identify whether or not a reasonably simulated atmospheric circulation would necessarily lead to a successful reproduction of monsoon precipitation, the performances of five sets of reanalysis data (NCEP2, ERA40, JRA25, ERA-Interim and MERRA) in reproducing the climatology, interannual variation and long-term trend of global monsoon (GM) precipitation are comprehensively evaluated. In order to better understand the variability and long-term trend of GM precipitation, we also examined the major components of water budget, including evaporation, water vapor convergence and the change in local water vapor storage, based on five reanalysis datasets. The results show that all five reanalysis data reasonably reproduce the climatology of GM precipitation. The ERA-Interim (NCEP2) shows the highest (lowest) skill among the five datasets. The observed GM precipitation shows an increasing tendency during 1979-2001 along with a strong interannual variability, which is reasonably reproduced by the five sets of reanalysis data. The observed increasing trend of GM precipitation is dominated by the contribution from the North African, North American and Australian monsoons. All five data fail in reproducing the increasing tendency of North African monsoon precipitation. The wind convergence term in water budget equation dominate the GM precipitation variation, indicating a consistency between the GM precipitation and the seasonal change of prevailing wind.

  17. Stable isotopic study of precipitation and spring discharge on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingraham, N.L.; Jacobson, R.L.; Hess, J.W.; Lyles, B.F. . Water Resources Center Nevada Univ., Reno, NV . Water Resources Center)

    1990-07-01

    Precipitation was collected in southern Nevada (on the Nevada Test Site) on a semi-regular monthly basis at 41 locations for six years for stable isotopic analysis. The precipitation record shows two time-based regimes. For the first three years of collection, the precipitation was highly variable with several large events and several dry periods. During the last three years of collection, the precipitation was much more even with no large events. However, there is no correlation between the variability in the amount of precipitation and the stable isotopic composition of precipitation. In addition, the oxygen isotope composition and discharge of two springs, Whiterock Spring and Cane Spring, issuing from perched water tables, were monitored for five years in a similar time frame as for the precipitation. 17 refs., 42 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  19. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  20. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  1. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  2. ARM: G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria Cadeddu

    2008-04-01

    G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz

  3. Satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility in low-level marine stratiform clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Terai, C. R.; Wood, R.; Kubar, T. L.

    2015-09-05

    Quantifying the sensitivity of warm rain to aerosols is important for constraining climate model estimates of aerosol indirect effects. In this study, the precipitation sensitivity to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) in satellite retrievals is quantified by applying the precipitation susceptibility metric to a combined CloudSat/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data set of stratus and stratocumulus clouds that cover the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. We note that consistent with previous observational studies of marine stratocumulus, precipitation susceptibility decreases with increasing liquid water path (LWP), and the susceptibility of the mean precipitation rate R is nearly equalmore » to the sum of the susceptibilities of precipitation intensity and of probability of precipitation. Consistent with previous modeling studies, the satellite retrievals reveal that precipitation susceptibility varies not only with LWP but also with Nd. Puzzlingly, negative values of precipitation susceptibility are found at low LWP and high Nd. There is marked regional variation in precipitation susceptibility values that cannot simply be explained by regional variations in LWP and Nd. This suggests other controls on precipitation apart from LWP and Nd and that precipitation susceptibility will need to be quantified and understood at the regional scale when relating to its role in controlling possible aerosol-induced cloud lifetime effects.« less

  4. Satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility in low-level marine stratiform clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terai, C. R.; Wood, R.; Kubar, T. L.

    2015-09-05

    Quantifying the sensitivity of warm rain to aerosols is important for constraining climate model estimates of aerosol indirect effects. In this study, the precipitation sensitivity to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) in satellite retrievals is quantified by applying the precipitation susceptibility metric to a combined CloudSat/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data set of stratus and stratocumulus clouds that cover the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. We note that consistent with previous observational studies of marine stratocumulus, precipitation susceptibility decreases with increasing liquid water path (LWP), and the susceptibility of the mean precipitation rate R is nearly equal to the sum of the susceptibilities of precipitation intensity and of probability of precipitation. Consistent with previous modeling studies, the satellite retrievals reveal that precipitation susceptibility varies not only with LWP but also with Nd. Puzzlingly, negative values of precipitation susceptibility are found at low LWP and high Nd. There is marked regional variation in precipitation susceptibility values that cannot simply be explained by regional variations in LWP and Nd. This suggests other controls on precipitation apart from LWP and Nd and that precipitation susceptibility will need to be quantified and understood at the regional scale when relating to its role in controlling possible aerosol-induced cloud lifetime effects.

  5. Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1997-06-17

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

  6. Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1997-06-17

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

  7. U.S.DOE Global Monthly Station Temperature and Precipitation, 1738-1980

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The global monthly station temperature and precipitation data from the U.S. Department of Energy, a dataset hosted at, covers the time period from January, 1738 to December, 1980. The air temperature and precipitation levels are platform observations from ground and water surfaces. The data are maintained in the Research Data Archive at the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  8. Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) for remote sensing cloud studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phipps, G.S.; Grotbeck, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    A Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) has been developed as are relatively inexpensive ({approximately}$IM/copy), well-calibrated,imaging radiometer for aircraft studies of cloud properties. The instrument is designed to fly on an Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) platform at altitudes from the surface up to 20 km. MPIR is being developed to support the Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle portion of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurements program (ARM/UAV). Radiation-cloud interactions are the dominant uncertainty in the current General Circulation Models used for atmospheric climate studies. Reduction of this uncertainty is a top scientific priority of the US Global Change Research Program and the ARM program. While the DOE`s ARM program measures a num-ber of parameters from the ground-based Clouds and Radiation Testbed sites, it was recognized from the outset that other key parameters are best measured by sustained airborne data taking. These measurements are critical in our understanding of global change issues as well as for improved atmospheric and near space weather forecasting applications.

  9. Characterization of extreme precipitation within atmospheric river events over California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeon, S.; Prabhat,; Byna, S.; Gu, J.; Collins, W. D.; Wehner, M. F.

    2015-11-17

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are large, spatially coherent weather systems with high concentrations of elevated water vapor. These systems often cause severe downpours and flooding over the western coastal United States – and with the availability of more atmospheric moisture in the future under global warming we expect ARs to play an important role as potential causes of extreme precipitation changes. Therefore, we aim to investigate changes in extreme precipitation properties correlated with AR events in a warmer climate, which are large-scale meteorological patterns affecting the weather and climate of California. We have recently developed the TECA (Toolkit for Extreme Climatemore » Analysis) software for automatically identifying and tracking features in climate data sets. Specifically, we can now identify ARs that make landfall on the western coast of North America. Based on this detection procedure, we can investigate the impact of ARs by exploring the spatial extent of AR precipitation using climate model (CMIP5) simulations and characterize spatial patterns of dependence for future projections between AR precipitation extremes under climate change within the statistical framework. Our results show that AR events in the future RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway)8.5 scenario (2076–2100) tend to produce heavier rainfall with higher frequency and longer days than events from the historical run (1981–2005). We also find that the dependence between extreme precipitation events has a shorter spatial range, within localized areas in California, under the high future emissions scenario than under the historical run.« less

  10. Section 58

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Figure 1. Time series of integrated or "precipitable" water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP) from the microwave radiometer. Periods of precipitation were detected by a moisture sensor on the radiometer and are indicated by vertical bars. The circles indicate PWV derived by integrating the radiosondes. Ambient temperatures were acquired from a NEWNET monitoring station located near the radiometer by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The station was removed in mid-March 1996.

  11. ARM: 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Precipitation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precipitation Datastream Title: ARM: 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Precipitation Datastream 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Precipitation Datastream ...

  12. ARM: 1290-MHz Radar Wind Profiler, precipitation moments data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1290-MHz Radar Wind Profiler, precipitation moments data Title: ARM: 1290-MHz Radar Wind Profiler, precipitation moments data 1290-MHz Radar Wind Profiler, precipitation moments ...

  13. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  14. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

    2014-12-08

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  15. Informal Preliminary Report on Comparisons of Prototype SPN-1 Radiometer to PARSL Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Charles N.

    2014-06-17

    The prototype SPN-1 has been taking measurements for several months collocated with our PNNL Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory (PARSL) solar tracker mounted instruments at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, USA. The PARSL radiometers used in the following comparisons consist of an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) and a shaded Eppley model 8-48 “Black and White” pyrgeometer (B&W) to measure the direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance (SW), respectively. These instruments were calibrated in mid-September by comparison to an absolute cavity radiometer directly traceable to the world standard group in Davos, Switzerland. The NIP calibration was determined by direct comparison, while the B&W was calibrated using the shade/unshade technique. All PARSL data prior to mid-September have been reprocessed using the new calibration factors. The PARSL data are logged as 1-minute averages from 1-second samples. Data used in this report span the time period from June 22 through December 1, 2006. All data have been processed through the QCRad code (Long and Shi, 2006), which itself is a more elaborately developed methodology along the lines of that applied by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Archive (Long and Dutton, 2004), for quality control. The SPN-1 data are the standard total and diffuse SW values obtained from the analog data port of the instrument. The comparisons use only times when both the PARSL and SPN-1 data passed all QC testing. The data were further processed and analyzed by application of the SW Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long and Gaustad, 2004, Long et al., 2006) to detect periods of clear skies, calculate continuous estimates of clear-sky SW irradiance and the effect of clouds on the downwelling SW, and estimate fractional sky cover.

  16. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Mariner

    2004-11-09

    This report documents the development and validation of the in-drift precipitates/salts (IDPS) model. The IDPS model is a geochemical model designed to predict the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Application of the model in support of TSPA-LA is documented in ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156]) is the technical work plan (TWP) for this report. It called for a revision of the previous version of the report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167734]) to achieve greater transparency, readability, data traceability, and report integration. The intended use of the IDPS model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period. Specifically, the intended use is as follows: (1) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the presence and composition of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (i.e., effects on pH, ionic strength, deliquescence relative humidity, total concentrations of dissolved components in the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, and concentrations of the following aqueous species that potentially affect acid neutralizing capacity: HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, H{sup +}, HSO{sub 4}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CaHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, MgHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, HSiO{sub 3

  17. METATHESIS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATE WITH AN ALKALI

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffield, R.B.

    1960-04-01

    A plutonium fluoride precipitate is converted to plutonium hydroxide by digesting the precipitate with an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide solution.

  18. Mechanisms affecting swelling in alloys with precipitates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansur, L.K.; Haynes, M.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    In alloys under irradiation many mechanisms exist that couple phase instability to cavity swelling. These are compounded with the more familiar mechanisms associated with point defect behavior and the evolution of microstructure. The mechanisms may be classified according to three modes of operation. Some affect cavity swelling directly by cavity-precipitate particle association, others operate indirectly by precipitate-induced changes in sinks other than cavities and finally there are mechanisms that are mediated by precipitate-induced changes in the host matrix. The physics of one mechanism of each type is developed in detail and the results compared where possible to experimental measurements. In particular, we develop the theory necessary to treat the effects on swelling of precipitation-induced changes in overall sink density; precipitation-induced changes in point defect trapping by solute depletion and creation of precipitate particle-matrix interfacial trap sites.

  19. METHOD FOR REMOVING CONTAMINATION FROM PRECIPITATES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, G.W.

    1959-01-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process is presented for the recovery and purification of plutonium. When plutonium, in the tetravalent state, is carried on a bismuth phosphate precipitate, amounts of centain of the fission products are carried along with the plutonium. The improvement consists in washing such fission product contaminated preeipitates with an aqueous solution of ammonium hydrogen fluoride. since this solution has been found to be uniquely effective in washing fission production contamination from the bismuth phosphate precipitate.

  20. ARM - Will There be Increased Global Precipitation?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Very probable. Along with an increase in air temperature might be an increase in evaporation, which could lead to greater global precipitation. The

  1. ARM - Evaluation Product - Corrected Precipitation Radar Moments...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsCorrected Precipitation Radar Moments in Antenna Coordinates Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would...

  2. Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods and Observations from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods & Observations from Savannah River Site Dennis Jackson ...operatingops- experiencetritiumplant-info.html 14 15 DOE Nuclear & NRC ...

  3. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The

  4. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment a NOAA ship in the Pacific Ocean and on a DOE- sponsored plane over land and sea. These researchers will study: (1) water sources, evolution and structure of...

  5. Performance of Evapotranspirative Covers Under Enhanced Precipitation: Preliminary Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Anderson, Lloyd T. Desotell, David B. Hudson, Gregory J. Shott, Vefa Yucel

    2007-02-01

    Since January 2001, drainage lysimeter studies have been conducted at Yucca Flat, on the Nevada Test Site, in support of an evapotranspirative cover design. Yucca Flat has an arid climate with average precipitation of 16.5 cm annually. The facility consists of six drainage lysimeters 3 m in diameter, 2.4 m deep, and backfilled with a single layer of native soil. The bottom of each lysimeter is sealed and equipped with a small drain that enables direct measurement of saturated drainage. Each lysimeter has eight time-domain reflectometer probes to measure moisture content-depth profiles paired with eight heat-dissipation probes to measure soil-water potential depth profiles. Sensors are connected to dataloggers which are remotely accessed via a phone line. The six lysimeters have three different surface treatments: two are bare-soil; two were revegetated with native species (primarily shadscale, winterfat, ephedra, and Indian rice grass); and two were allowed to revegetate naturally with such species as Russian thistle, halogeton, tumblemustard and cheatgrass. Beginning in October 2003, one half of the paired cover treatments (one bare soil, one invader species, and one native species) were irrigated with an amount of water equal to two times the natural precipitation to achieve a three times natural precipitation treatment. From October 2003 through December 2005, all lysimeters received 52.8 cm precipitation, and the four irrigated lysimeters received an extra 105.6 cm of irrigation. No drainage has occurred from any of the nonirrigated lysimeters, but moisture has accumulated at the bottom of the bare-soil lysimeter and the native-plant lysimeter. All irrigated lysimeters had some drainage. The irrigated baresoil lysimeter had 48.3 cm of drainage or 26.4 percent of the combined precipitation and applied irrigation for the entire monitoring record. The irrigated invader species lysimeter had 5.8 cm of drainage, about 3.2 percent of the combined precipitation and

  6. ARM - VAP Process - gvrpwv

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Productsgvrpwv Documentation & Plots Technical Report Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP : G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Instrument Categories Radiometric The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 2000.09.18 - 2000.10.08 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Abstract Scientific hypothesis: 1. Microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of the 22 GHz water vapor line can accurately constrain the total column amount of water vapor (assuming a calibration accuracy of 0.5 degC or better, which

  8. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  9. A precise narrow-beam filter infrared radiometer and its use with lidar in the ARM Program. Progress report, 1 December 1991--31 May 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.

    1992-05-01

    The first six months of the grant (December 1991--May 1992) have been taken up with the design and specification for the new narrow-beam radiometer. The radiometer will be built and tested at the Division of Atmospheric Research over the next three months. Improved algorithms for obtaining cloud extinction have also been developed. It is proposed during 1993 to use the radiometer in conjunction with a new CSIRO 3-wavelength lidar in the ARM PROBE experiment at Kavieng, New Guinea, which is a test mission under tropical conditions for the ARM CART Tropical West Pacific site, and is part of the TOGA COARE experiment. During the latter part of 1992, the radiometer will be tested thoroughly and tested at the Division of Atmospheric Research, Aspendale.

  10. Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Infrared Radiance with the CSIRO/ARM Mark II Radiometer at the SGP CART Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Infrared Radiance with the CSIRO/ARM Mark II Radiometer at the SGP CART Site C. M. R. Platt and R. T. Austin Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado C. M. R. Platt and J. A. Bennett Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Atmospheric Research Aspendale, Victoria, Australia Abstract The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

  11. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  12. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  13. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooraghi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related to radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere, particularly the interactions among clouds and aerosols. ARM obtains continuous measurements and conducts field campaigns to provide data products that aid in the improvement and further development of climate models. All of the measurement campaigns include a suite of solar measurements. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports ARM's full suite of stations in a number of ways, including troubleshooting issues that arise as part of the data-quality reviews; managing engineering changes to the standard setup; and providing calibration services and assistance to the full fleet of solar-related instruments, including pyranometers, pyrgeometers, pyrheliometers, as well as the temperature/relative humidity probes, multimeters, and data acquisition systems that are used in the calibrations performed at the Southern Great Plains Radiometer Calibration Facility. This paper discusses all aspects related to the support provided to the calibration of the instruments in the solar monitoring fleet.

  14. A reactionless, bearingless linear shutter mechanism for the multispectral pushbroom imaging radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumel, L.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program is a multi-laboratory, interagency program as part of DOE`s principal entry into the US Global Change Research Program. Two issues addressed are the radiation budget and its spectral dependence, and radiative and other properties of clouds. Measures of solar flux divergence and energy exchanges between clouds, the earth, its oceans, and the atmosphere through various altitudes are sought. Additionally, the program seeks to provide measurements to calibrate satellite radiance products and validate their associated flux retrieval algorithms. Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles fly long, extended missions. MPIR is one of the primary instruments on the ARM-UAV campaigns. A shutter mechanism has been developed and flown as part of an airborne imaging radiometer having application to spacecraft or other applications requiring low vibration, high reliability, and long life. The device could be employed in other cases where a reciprocating platform is needed. Typical shutters and choppers utilize a spinning disc, or in very small instruments, a vibrating vane to continually interrupt incident light or radiation that enters the system. A spinning disk requires some sort of bearings that usually have limited life, and at a minimum introduce issues of reliability. Friction, lubrication and contamination always remain critical areas of concern, as well as the need for power to operate. Dual vibrating vanes may be dynamically well balanced as a set and are frictionless. However, these are limited by size in a practical sense. In addition, multiples of these devices are difficult to synchronize.

  15. Method to Calculate Uncertainty Estimate of Measuring Shortwave Solar Irradiance using Thermopile and Semiconductor Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.

    2011-07-01

    The uncertainty of measuring solar irradiance is fundamentally important for solar energy and atmospheric science applications. Without an uncertainty statement, the quality of a result, model, or testing method cannot be quantified, the chain of traceability is broken, and confidence cannot be maintained in the measurement. Measurement results are incomplete and meaningless without a statement of the estimated uncertainty with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) or to another internationally recognized standard. This report explains how to use International Guidelines of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to calculate such uncertainty. The report also shows that without appropriate corrections to solar measuring instruments (solar radiometers), the uncertainty of measuring shortwave solar irradiance can exceed 4% using present state-of-the-art pyranometers and 2.7% using present state-of-the-art pyrheliometers. Finally, the report demonstrates that by applying the appropriate corrections, uncertainties may be reduced by at least 50%. The uncertainties, with or without the appropriate corrections might not be compatible with the needs of solar energy and atmospheric science applications; yet, this report may shed some light on the sources of uncertainties and the means to reduce overall uncertainty in measuring solar irradiance.

  16. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luerkens, D. W.

    1983-07-01

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide.

  17. Flotation process for removal of precipitates from electrochemical chromate reduction unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeMonbrun, James R.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Williams, Everett H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved form of a conventional electrochemical process for removing hexavalent chromium or other metal-ion contaminants from cooling-tower blowdown water. In the conventional process, the contaminant is reduced and precipitated at an iron anode, thus forming a mixed precipitate of iron and chromium hydroxides, while hydrogen being evolved copiously at a cathode is vented from the electrochemical cell. In the conventional process, subsequent separation of the fine precipitate has proved to be difficult and inefficient. In accordance with this invention, the electrochemical operation is conducted in a novel manner permitting a much more efficient and less expensive precipitate-recovery operation. That is, the electrochemical operation is conducted under an evolved-hydrogen partial pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. As a result, most of the evolved hydrogen is entrained as bubbles in the blowdown in the cell. The resulting hydrogen-rich blowdown is introduced to a vented chamber, where the entrained hydrogen combines with the precipitate to form a froth which can be separated by conventional techniques. In addition to the hydrogen, two materials present in most blowdown act as flotation promoters for the precipitate. These are (1) air, with which the blowdown water becomes saturated in the course of normal cooling-tower operation, and (2) surfactants which commonly are added to cooling-tower recirculating-water systems to inhibit the growth of certain organisms or prevent the deposition of insoluble particulates.

  18. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Mariner

    2003-10-21

    As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases, the known values are used to approximate

  19. Correlation function analysis of the COBE differential microwave radiometer sky maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lineweaver, C.H.

    1994-08-01

    The Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite has detected anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. A two-point correlation function analysis which helped lead to this discovery is presented in detail. The results of a correlation function analysis of the two year DMR data set is presented. The first and second year data sets are compared and found to be reasonably consistent. The positive correlation for separation angles less than {approximately}20{degree} is robust to Galactic latitude cuts and is very stable from year to year. The Galactic latitude cut independence of the correlation function is strong evidence that the signal is not Galactic in origin. The statistical significance of the structure seen in the correlation function of the first, second and two year maps is respectively > 9{sigma}, > 10{sigma} and > 18{sigma} above the noise. The noise in the DMR sky maps is correlated at a low level. The structure of the pixel temperature covariance matrix is given. The noise covariance matrix of a DMR sky map is diagonal to an accuracy of better than 1%. For a given sky pixel, the dominant noise covariance occurs with the ring of pixels at an angular separation of 60{degree} due to the 60{degree} separation of the DMR horns. The mean covariance of 60{degree} is 0.45%{sub {minus}0.14}{sup +0.18} of the mean variance. The noise properties of the DMR maps are thus well approximated by the noise properties of maps made by a single-beam experiment. Previously published DMR results are not significantly affected by correlated noise.

  20. ARM - Evaluation Product - Precipitation Radar Moments Mapped...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Precipitation Radar Moments Mapped to a Cartesian Grid The Scanning...

  1. Intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on the projection of precipitation extremes has either focused on conceptual physical mechanisms that generate heavy precipitation or rigorous statistical methods that extrapolate tail behavior. However, informing both climate prediction and impact assessment requires concurrent physically and statistically oriented analysis. A combined examination of climate model simulations and observation-based reanalysis data sets suggests more intense and frequent precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios. Utilization of statistical extreme value theory and resampling-based uncertainty quantification combined with consideration of the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship reveals consistently intensifying trends for precipitation extremes at a global-average scale. However, regional and decadal analyses reveal specific discrepancies in the physical mechanisms governing precipitation extremes, as well as their statistical trends, especially in the tropics. The intensifying trend of precipitation extremes has quantifiable impacts on intensity-duration-frequency curves, which in turn have direct implications for hydraulic engineering design and water-resources management. The larger uncertainties at regional and decadal scales suggest the need for caution during regional-scale adaptation or preparedness decisions. Future research needs to explore the possibility of uncertainty reduction through higher resolution global climate models, statistical or dynamical downscaling, as well as improved understanding of precipitation extremes processes.

  2. ARM Data Help Improve Precipitation in Global Climate Models...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ARM Data Help Improve Precipitation in Global Climate Models Biological and Environmental ... ARM Data Help Improve Precipitation in Global Climate Models Cloud, radiation, and drizzle ...

  3. Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1995-06-27

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

  4. Improved Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurement Performance: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-294

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas, A. M.

    2015-02-01

    Under this Agreement, NREL will work with Participant to improve rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) performance characterizations. This work includes, but is not limited to, research and development for making the RSR a more accurate and fully characterized instrument for solar power technology development and commercial solar power project site assessment. Cooperative R&D is proposed in three areas: instrument calibration, instrument field configuration and operation, and measurement extrapolation and interpolation using satellite images. This work will be conducted at NREL and Participant facilities.

  5. Results of First Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2013-03-01

    The ACP and IRIS are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The first outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from January 28 to February 8, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of IRIS was within 1 W/m2. A difference of 5 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG).

  6. Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1995-06-27

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

  7. A precise passive narrow-beam filter infrared radiometer and its use with LIDAR in the ARM program. Progress report, 1 June 1992--31 May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.

    1993-05-01

    The work done divides conveniently into two parts. First, the completion of the design and manufacture of the new narrow-beam radiometer, which occupied the period of July to December, 1992. The second part of the report concerns participation of the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research (DAR) Lidar/radiometer team in the ARM PROBE experiment at Kavieng, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea as part of the international TOGA COARE experiment. The DAR team participated for about one month from mid-January. The PROBE experiment allowed the new radiometer to be tested under field conditions, a test which was very successful, with very few teething problems. It is proposed during the rest of 1993 and during 1994 to make further tests with the radiometer and particularly to look at using a stirling cycle liquid nitrogen detector to obviate the need for supplies of liquid nitrogen. It is proposed further during 1994 to carry out a thorough analysis of the PROBE data and collaborate with other US PROBE participants in studying and interpreting the observations as a whole. Some further work with the new ARM radiometer will be done during the CSIRO SOCEX experiment.

  8. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike

    2012-02-01

    A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

  9. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MWRRET Version 2 Evaluation Data Available for Southern Great Plains Bookmark and Share Data from the 3-channel microwave radiometer at the Southern Great Plains site are shown here. Data from the 3-channel microwave radiometer at the Southern Great Plains site are shown here. The optimal estimation retrieval of liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) have now been applied to the new 3-channel microwave radiometer at Southern Great Plains (SGP). Data for 2015 are now available

  10. Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Koontz, Annette S.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Barnard, James C.

    2013-09-11

    Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD) from AOD measurements, have shown great performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around the world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon) or when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999-2012) aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent) is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

  11. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts.

  12. Results of Second Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and InfraRed Integrating Sphere radiometer (IRIS) are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are un-windowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The second outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from September 30 to October 11, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of the IRIS was within 1 W/m2 (3 IRISs: PMOD + Australia + Germany). From the first and second comparisons, a difference of 4-6 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). This presentation includes results from the first and second comparison in an effort to establish the world reference for pyrgeometer calibrations, a key deliverable for the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the DOE-ASR.

  13. Precipitation in Pores: A Geochemical Frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    This article's purpose is to review some of the recent research in which geochemists have examined precipitation of solid phases in porous media, particularly in pores a few nanometers in diameter (nanopores). While this is a “review,” it is actually more forward-looking in that the list of things about this phenomenon that we do not know or cannot control at this time is likely longer than what we do know and can control. For example, there are three directly contradictory theories on how to predict how precipitation proceeds in a medium of varying pore size, as will be discussed below. The confusion on this subject likely stems from the complexity of the phenomenon itself: One can easily clog a porous medium by inducing a rapid, homogeneous precipitation directly from solution, or have limited precipitation occur that does not affect permeability or even porosity substantially. It is more difficult to engineer mineral precipitation in order to obtain a specific outcome, such as filling all available pore space over a targeted area for the purposes of contaminant sequestration. However, breakthrough discoveries could occur in the next five to ten years that enhance our ability to predict robustly and finely control precipitation in porous media by understanding how porosity and permeability evolve in response to system perturbations. These discoveries will likely stem (at least in part) from advances in our ability to 1) perform and interpret X-ray/neutron scattering experiments that reveal the extent of precipitation and its locales within porous media (Anovitz and Cole 2015, this volume), and 2) utilize increasingly powerful simulations to test concepts and models about the evolution of porosity and permeability as precipitation occurs (Steefel et al. 2015, this volume). A further important technique to isolate specific phenomena and understand reactivity is also microfluidics cell experiments that allow specific control of flow paths and fluid velocities

  14. Precipitation in pores: A geochemical frontier

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-07-29

    This article's purpose is to review some of the recent research in which geochemists have examined precipitation of solid phases in porous media, particularly in pores a few nanometers in diameter (nanopores). While this is a “review,” it is actually more forward-looking in that the list of things about this phenomenon that we do not know or cannot control at this time is likely longer than what we do know and can control. For example, there are three directly contradictory theories on how to predict how precipitation proceeds in a medium of varying pore size, as will be discussed below.more » The confusion on this subject likely stems from the complexity of the phenomenon itself: One can easily clog a porous medium by inducing a rapid, homogeneous precipitation directly from solution, or have limited precipitation occur that does not affect permeability or even porosity substantially. It is more difficult to engineer mineral precipitation in order to obtain a specific outcome, such as filling all available pore space over a targeted area for the purposes of contaminant sequestration. However, breakthrough discoveries could occur in the next five to ten years that enhance our ability to predict robustly and finely control precipitation in porous media by understanding how porosity and permeability evolve in response to system perturbations. These discoveries will likely stem (at least in part) from advances in our ability to 1) perform and interpret X-ray/neutron scattering experiments that reveal the extent of precipitation and its locales within porous media (Anovitz and Cole 2015, this volume), and 2) utilize increasingly powerful simulations to test concepts and models about the evolution of porosity and permeability as precipitation occurs (Steefel et al. 2015, this volume). A further important technique to isolate specific phenomena and understand reactivity is also microfluidics cell experiments that allow specific control of flow paths and fluid

  15. High volume, multiple use, portable precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.

    2011-10-25

    A portable high air volume electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a collection electrode adapted to carry a variety of collecting media. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section with a transversely positioned ionization wire to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows over the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. Air flow is maintained at but below turbulent flow, Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the selected medium which can be removed for analysis.

  16. Estimating Annual Precipitation in the Fenner Basin of the Eastern Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M.L.; Rose, T.P.

    2000-05-15

    Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California and Cadiz Inc. investigated the feasibility of storing Colorado River water in groundwater aquifers of the eastern Mojave Desert as a future drought mitigation strategy. This culminated in the public release of the Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply program Draft EIR, which included pilot percolation studies, groundwater modeling, and precipitation/runoff analysis in the Fenner groundwater basin, which overlies the proposed storage site. The project proposes to store and withdrawal Colorado River water over a 50-year period, but will not exceed the natural replenishment rates of the groundwater basin. Several independent analyses were conducted to estimate the rates of natural groundwater replenishment to the Fenner Groundwater Basin which was included in the Draft EIR. The US Geologic Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) officially submitted comments during public review and concluded that the natural groundwater replenishment rates calculated for the Draft EIR were too high. In the WRD review, they provided a much lower recharge calculation based on a Maxey-Eakin estimation approach. This approach estimates annual precipitation over an entire basin as a function of elevation, followed by calibration against annual recharge rates. Previous attempts to create precipitation-elevation functions in western Nevada have been difficult and result in large uncertainty. In the WRD data analysis, the effect of geographic scale on the precipitation-elevation function was overlooked. This contributed to an erroneous Maxey-Eakin recharge estimate.

  17. Effects of Aerosols on Autumn Precipitation over Mid-Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, J.; Qian, Yun; Ge, Jinming; Su, Jing

    2014-09-20

    Long-term observational data indicated a decreasing trend for the amount of autumn precipitation (i.e. 54.3 mm per decade) over Mid-Eastern China, especially after 1980s (~ 5.6% per decade). To examine the cause of the decreasing trend, the mechanisms associated with the change of autumn precipitation were investigated from the perspective of water vapor transportation, atmospheric stability and cloud microphysics. Results show that the decrease of convective available potential energy (i.e. 12.81 J kg-1/ decade) and change of cloud microphysics, which were closely related to the increase of aerosol loading during the past twenty years, were the two primary factors responsible for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Ours results showed that increased aerosol could enhance the atmospheric stability thus weaken the convection. Meanwhile, more aerosols also led to a significant decline of raindrop concentration and to a delay of raindrop formation because of smaller size of cloud droplets. Thus, increased aerosols produced by air pollution could be one of the major reasons for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Furthermore, we found that the aerosol effects on precipitation in autumn was more significant than in other seasons, partly due to the relatively more stable synoptic system in autumn. The impact of large-scale circulation dominated in autumn and the dynamic influence on precipitation was more important than the thermodynamic activity.

  18. Stable isotopes composition of precipitation fallen over Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between 2009-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puscas, R.; Feurdean, V.; Simon, V.

    2013-11-13

    The paper presents the deuterium and oxygen 18 content from All precipitations events, which have occured over Cluj-Napoca, Romania from 2009 until 2012. Time series for δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O values point out both the seasonal variation that has increased amplitude reflecting the continental character of the local climate as well as dramatic variations of isotopic content of successive precipitation events, emphasizing the anomalous values. These fluctuations are the footprint of the variations and trends in climate events. Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL), reflecting the δ{sup 2}H - δ{sup 18}O correlation, has the slop and the intercept slightly deviated from the GMWL, indicating that the dominant process affecting local precipitations are close to the equilibrium condition. LMWL has a slope smaller then that of the GMWL in the warm season due to lower humidity and a slope closest to the slop of GMWL in cold season with high humidity. The δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O values both for the precipitation events and monthly mean values are positively correlated with the temperature values with a very good correlation factor. The values of δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O are not correlated with amount of precipitation, the 'amount effect' of isotopic composition of precipitation is not observed for this site.

  19. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM CONTAINING CARRIER PRECIPITATE BY CARBONATE METATHESIS AND SEPARATION OF SULFIDE IMPURITIES THEREFROM BY SULFIDE PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for recovering plutonium from foreign products wherein a carrier precipitate of lanthanum fluoride containing plutonium is obtained and includes the steps of dissolving the carrier precipitate in an alkali metal carbonate solution, adding a soluble sulfide, separating the sulfide precipitate, adding an alkali metal hydroxide, separating the resulting precipitate, washing, and dissolving in a strong acid.

  20. Superconductor precursor mixtures made by precipitation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Bruce C.; Lamppa, Diana L.; Voigt, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus for preparing highly pure homogeneous precursor powder mixtures for metal oxide superconductive ceramics. The mixes are prepared by instantaneous precipitation from stoichiometric solutions of metal salts such as nitrates at controlled pH's within the 9 to 12 range, by addition of solutions of non-complexing pyrolyzable cations, such as alkyammonium and carbonate ions.

  1. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  2. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  3. PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

    2004-11-01

    The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This

  4. PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, S.G.

    1960-04-26

    A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

  5. Water softening process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheppard, John D.; Thomas, David G.

    1976-01-01

    This invention involves an improved process for softening hard water which comprises selectively precipitaing CaCO.sub.3 to form a thin layer thereof, increasing the pH of said water to precipitate magnesium as magnesium hydroxide and then filtering the resultant slurry through said layer. The CaCO.sub.3 layer serves as a thin permeable layer which has particularly useful application in cross-flow filtration applications.

  6. Radioactive demonstration of the late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  7. Technical bases for precipitate hydrolysis process operating parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.J.

    1992-10-05

    This report provides the experimental data and rationale in support of the operating parameters for precipitate hydrolysis specified in WSRC-RP-92737. The report is divided into two sections, the first dealing with lab-scale precipitate hydrolysis experimentation while the second part addresses large-scale runs conducted to demonstrate the revised operating parameters in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF).

  8. Radioactive demonstration of the ``late wash`` Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ``late wash`` flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  9. Geochemical and isotopic water results, Barrow, Alaska, 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Heikoop, Jeff; Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent

    2012-07-18

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  10. Disordered amorphous calcium carbonate from direct precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farhadi Khouzani, Masoud; Chevrier, Daniel M.; Güttlein, Patricia; Hauser, Karin; Zhang, Peng; Hedin, Niklas; Gebauer, Denis

    2015-06-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is known to play a prominent role in biomineralization. Different studies on the structure of biogenic ACCs have illustrated that they can have distinct short-range orders. However, the origin of so-called proto-structures in synthetic and additive-free ACCs is not well understood. In the current work, ACC has been synthesised in iso-propanolic media by direct precipitation from ionic precursors, and analysed utilising a range of different techniques. The data suggest that this additive-free type of ACC does not resemble clear proto-structural motifs relating to any crystalline polymorph. This can be explained by the undefined pH value in iso-propanolic media, and the virtually instantaneous precipitation. Altogether, this work suggests that aqueous systems and pathways involving pre-nucleation clusters are required for the generation of clear proto-structural features in ACC. Experiments on the ACC-to-crystalline transformation in solution with and without ethanol highlight that polymorph selection is under kinetic control, while the presence of ethanol can control dissolution re-crystallisation pathways.

  11. Disordered amorphous calcium carbonate from direct precipitation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Farhadi Khouzani, Masoud; Chevrier, Daniel M.; Güttlein, Patricia; Hauser, Karin; Zhang, Peng; Hedin, Niklas; Gebauer, Denis

    2015-06-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is known to play a prominent role in biomineralization. Different studies on the structure of biogenic ACCs have illustrated that they can have distinct short-range orders. However, the origin of so-called proto-structures in synthetic and additive-free ACCs is not well understood. In the current work, ACC has been synthesised in iso-propanolic media by direct precipitation from ionic precursors, and analysed utilising a range of different techniques. The data suggest that this additive-free type of ACC does not resemble clear proto-structural motifs relating to any crystalline polymorph. This can be explained by the undefined pH value inmore » iso-propanolic media, and the virtually instantaneous precipitation. Altogether, this work suggests that aqueous systems and pathways involving pre-nucleation clusters are required for the generation of clear proto-structural features in ACC. Experiments on the ACC-to-crystalline transformation in solution with and without ethanol highlight that polymorph selection is under kinetic control, while the presence of ethanol can control dissolution re-crystallisation pathways.« less

  12. Biogenicity of silica precipitation around geysers and hot-spring vents, North Island, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, B.; Renaut, R.W.; Rosen, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Before anthropogenic modifications, Ohaaki Pool (Broadlands-Ohaaki) and Dragon`s Mouth Geyser (Wairakei) emitted waters at temperatures of 93--98 C. The siliceous sinter that precipitated around their vents has the characteristics of geyserite, a dense laminated deposit of presumed abiogenic origin, that was precipitated from waters too hot (>73C) to support microbes other than thermophilic bacteria. Petrographic and SEM examinations of the sinters show that they incorporate columnar stromatolites and silicified, laminated stromatolitic mats that contain well-preserved filamentous microbes. At both localities the microbes lack evidence of desiccation or shrinkage, which implies that they were silicified rapidly at or shortly after their death. Although boiling and very hot (>90 C) waters were discharged, temperatures at many sites surrounding the vents remained sufficiently low and moist to support a microbial community that included thermophilic bacteria and cyanobacteria. In these cooler niches, the microbes and their biofilms served as highly favorable templates for the nucleation and growth of amorphous silica, and collectively provided a microbial framework for the laminated accretionary sinter. Some columnar, spicular, and stratiform geyserites are probably not abiotic precipitates, but are true silica stromatolites.

  13. On the relationship among cloud turbulence, droplet formation and drizzle as viewed by Doppler radar, microwave radiometer and lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feingold, G.; Frisch, A.S.; Cotton, W.R.

    1999-09-01

    Cloud radar, microwave radiometer, and lidar remote sensing data acquired during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) are analyzed to address the relationship between (1) drop number concentration and cloud turbulence as represented by vertical velocity and vertical velocity variance and (2) drizzle formation and cloud turbulence. Six cases, each of about 12 hours duration, are examined; three of these cases are characteristic of nondrizzling boundary layers and three of drizzling boundary layers. In all cases, microphysical retrievals are only performed when drizzle is negligible (radar reflectivity{lt}{minus}17dBZ). It is shown that for the cases examined, there is, in general, no correlation between drop concentration and cloud base updraft strength, although for two of the nondrizzling cases exhibiting more classical stratocumulus features, these two parameters are correlated. On drizzling days, drop concentration and cloud-base vertical velocity were either not correlated or negatively correlated. There is a significant positive correlation between drop concentration and mean in-cloud vertical velocity variance for both nondrizzling boundary layers (correlation coefficient r=0.45) and boundary layers that have experienced drizzle (r=0.38). In general, there is a high correlation (r{gt}0.5) between radar reflectivity and in-cloud vertical velocity variance, although one of the boundary layers that experienced drizzle exhibited a negative correlation between these parameters. However, in the subcloud region, all boundary layers that experienced drizzle exhibit a negative correlation between radar reflectivity and vertical velocity variance. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  14. ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP 2004.03.09 - 2004.04.09 Lead Scientist : Ed Westwater Data Availability http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2004/wviop/data will contain quicklooks of all of the data. For data sets, see below. Summary During the IOP, the Ground-based Scanning Radiometer of NOAA/ETL, and the ARM MicroWave

  15. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 22, 2014 [Data Announcements] Microwave Radiometer Retrieval Data Available for AMF Sites Bookmark and Share An example plot from the MWRRET VAP for 11/9/2007 at Black Forest, Germany: (top) Brightness temperatures measured by the microwave radiometer (MWR). Orange and blue lines indicate potential measurement spikes due to precipitation; (middle) retrieved precipitable water vapor from the new physical method (blue) and the original statistical method (green); (bottom) retrieved liquid

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ACAPEX Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerosols and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) 2015.01.14, Morris, AMF ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Ship-Based Ice Nuclei Collections 2015.01.14, DeMott, AMF ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerial Observations 2015.01.14, Leung, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or

  17. Method for Removing Precipitates in Biofuel - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Method for Removing Precipitates in Biofuel Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryAt ORNL the application of ultrasonic energy, or sonication, has been shown to successfully remove or prevent the formation of 50-90% of the precipitates in biofuels. Precipitates can plug filters as biodiesel is transported from one location to another, and often cannot be detected

  18. Flowsheet Development for the New Neptunium Oxalate Precipitation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    2001-08-16

    This report summarizes laboratory development work and provides flowsheet guidelines for neptunium (IV) oxalate precipitation in the new HB-Line.

  19. ARM: Auxiliary data for the Total Precipitation Sensor (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Atmospheric temperature; Horizontal wind; Precipitation Dataset File size NAView Dataset View Dataset DOI: ...

  20. Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Media -- Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in Porous Media -- ...

  1. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. ...

  2. Separating Cloud and Drizzle Radar Moments during Precipitation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Onset using Doppler Spectra Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Separating Cloud and Drizzle Radar Moments during Precipitation Onset using Doppler Spectra Authors: ...

  3. Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx)/Orographic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) field campaign after the launch of the GPM Core Satellite (Barros et al. 2014). ...

  4. Mechanisms Contributing to Suppressed Precipitation in Mt. Hua...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Consistent with the increase of air pollution in these regions, it has been argued that the precipitation trend is linked to aerosol microphysical effect on suppressing warm rain. ...

  5. Comparison of Uncertainty of Two Precipitation Prediction Models...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prediction Models at Los Alamos National Lab Technical Area 54 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison of Uncertainty of Two Precipitation Prediction Models ...

  6. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    North Africa from two climate models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two ...

  7. Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment Counter-Flow Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement validation campaign. The CSI was added to the Citation instrument suite to support the involvement of Jay Mace through the NASA ...

  8. An optimal merging technique for high-resolution precipitation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Precipitation products are currently available from various sources at higher spatial and temporal resolution than any time in the past. Each of the precipitation products has its strengths and weaknesses in availability, accuracy, resolution, retrieval techniques and quality control. By merging the precipitation data obtained from multiple sources, one can improve its information content by minimizing these issues. However, precipitation data merging poses challenges of scale-mismatch, and accurate error and bias assessment. In this paper we present Optimal Merging of Precipitation (OMP), a new method to merge precipitation data from multiple sources that are of different spatial and temporal resolutions and accuracies. This method is a combination of scale conversion and merging weight optimization, involving performance-tracing based on Bayesian statistics and trend-analysis, which yields merging weights for each precipitation data source. The weights are optimized at multiple scales to facilitate multiscale merging and better precipitation downscaling. Precipitation data used in the experiment include products from the 12-km resolution North American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) system, the 8-km resolution CMORPH and the 4-km resolution National Stage-IV QPE. The test cases demonstrate that the OMP method is capable of identifying a better data source and allocating a higher priority for them in the merging procedure, dynamically over the region and time period. This method is also effective in filtering out poor quality data introduced into the merging process.

  9. Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating continental cumulus event observed during the MC3E field campaign Title: Insights from modeling and ...

  10. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, John M.; Hancher, Charles M.; Hackett, Gail D.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a flocculating agent, separating precipitate-containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions.

  11. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-05-02

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles5 are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets7. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemicalmore » composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. Lastly, we suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events8.« less

  12. On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    Calcite is a mineral phase that frequently precipitates during subsurface remediation or geotechnical engineering processes. This precipitation can lead to changes in the overall behavior of the system, such as flow alternation and soil strengthening. Because induced calcite precipitation is typically quite variable in space and time, monitoring its distribution in the subsurface is a challenge. In this research, we conducted a laboratory column experiment to investigate the potential of complex conductivity as a mean to remotely monitor calcite precipitation. Calcite precipitation was induced in a glass bead (3 mm) packed column through abiotic mixing of CaCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. The experiment continued for 12 days with a constant precipitation rate of {approx}0.6 milimole/d. Visual observations and scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed two distinct phases of precipitation: an earlier phase dominated by well distributed, discrete precipitates and a later phase characterized by localized precipitate aggregation and associated pore clogging. Complex conductivity measurements exhibited polarization signals that were characteristic of both phases of calcite precipitation, with the precipitation volume and crystal size controlling the overall polarization magnitude and relaxation time constant. We attribute the observed responses to polarization at the electrical double layer surrounding calcite crystals. Our experiment illustrates the potential of electrical methods for characterizing the distribution and aggregation state of nonconductive minerals like calcite. Advancing our ability to quantify geochemical transformations using such noninvasive methods is expected to facilitate our understanding of complex processes associated with natural subsurface systems as well as processes induced through engineered treatments (such as environmental remediation and carbon sequestration).

  13. SEPARATION OF FISSION PRODUCTS FROM PLUTONIUM BY PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.; Davidson, N.R.

    1959-09-01

    Fission product separation from hexavalent plutonium by bismuth phosphate precipitation of the fission products is described. The precipitation, according to this invention, is improved by coprecipitating ceric and zirconium phosphates (0.05 to 2.5 grams/liter) with the bismuth phosphate.

  14. THE RESILIENCE OF UPLAND-OAK FOREST CANOPY TREES TO CHRONIC AND ACUTE PRECIPITATION MANIPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Paul J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Todd Jr, Donald E; Auge, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Implications of chronic ( 33 percent) and acute (-100 percent) precipitation change were evaluated for trees of upland-oak forests of the eastern United States. Chronic manipulations have been conducted since 1993, and acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were initiated in 2003. Through 12 years of chronic manipulations tree growth remained unaffected by natural or induced rainfall deficits even though severe drought conditions dramatically reduced canopy function in some years. The resilience of canopy trees to chronic-change was the result of a disconnect between tree growth phenology and late-season drought occurrence. Acute precipitation exclusion from the largest canopy trees also produced limited growth reductions from 2003 through 2005. Elimination of lateral root water sources for the acute treatment trees, via trenching midway through the 2004 growing-season, forced the conclusion that deep rooting was a key mechanism for large-tree resilience to severe drought.

  15. Thermodynamic micellization model of asphaltene precipitation from petroleum fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victorov, A.I.; Firoozabadi, A.

    1996-06-01

    A thermodynamic micellization model is proposed for the description of asphaltene precipitation from petroleum fluids. It describes the solubilization of asphaltene polar species by resin bipolar molecules in the micelles. A simple form of the standard Gibbs free energy of micellization is used. The petroleum fluid is assumed to be a dilute solution with respect to the monomeric asphaltenes, resins, and micelles. The Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) is applied to describe the fugacity of monomeric asphaltene in the bulk of the petroleum fluid. Intermicellar interactions as well as osmotic pressure effects are neglected. The proposed model shows promising results to describe asphaltene deposition from crude mixtures. It predicts the change in precipitation power of different alkane precipitants and the effect of pressure on asphaltene precipitation. The amount and the onset of predicted asphaltene precipitation are sensitive to the amount of resins in the crude. All these results are in line with laboratory observations and oil-field data.

  16. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  17. IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic

  18. MWRRET (Microwave Radiometer Retrievals)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plus Plus Andy Vogelmann, Dave Turner Andy Vogelmann, Dave Turner & Jennifer Comstock & Jennifer Comstock Min Min Susanne Crewell Susanne Crewell Ulrich L Ulrich L ö ö rnard rnard Jim Liljegren Jim Liljegren John Ogre John Ogre . Y. Matrosov . Y. Matrosov Sally McFarlane Sally McFarlane Warren Wiscombe, Christine Chiu, Sasha Marshak, Maria Warren Wiscombe, Christine Chiu, Sasha Marshak, Maria Cadeddu, Qilong Min, Susanne Crewell, Ulrich L Cadeddu, Qilong Min, Susanne Crewell, Ulrich L

  19. Radiometer Calibration Trends

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration | (NNSA) Programs / Nonproliferation / Global Material Security / Radiological Security Radiological Security Partnership Radiological Security Partnership Secure Your Business, Your Community, and Your Country. Sign Up Today for Services Provided by the Radiological Security Partnership. RSP Logo Initiative of the Global Material Security Program Formerly the Global Threat Reduction Initiative RSP Registration RSP More Info Learn More Radiological Security Partnership

  20. Radiometer Characterization System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Contact: James C. Liljegren Phone: 630-252-9540 Email: jcliljegren@anl.gov ... the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite. (See June 2002 ARM Facility Newsletter ...

  1. California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, P M

    2009-04-27

    In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

  2. Oil recovery improvement through profile modification by thermal precipitation. Final report, October 1, 1991--August 27, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this research project has been to investigate the potential for using temperature-dependent (thermal) precipitation of chemicals to reduce the porosity and permeability of porous rocks. The method consists of injecting hot water that is saturated in a chemical that will precipitate upon cooling. Through this process, the permeability of thief zones in oil reservoirs could be reduced, allowing improved recovery by secondary and tertiary recovery processes. The chemical literature was reviewed for environmentally safe chemicals that have a suitable temperature-dependent solubility for the thermal precipitation process. Four suitable chemicals were identified: boron oxide, potassium carbonate, sodium borate, and potassium chloride. An experimental apparatus was constructed to test the thermal precipitation process at high temperatures and pressures. Data was collected with clastic Berea sandstone cores using two chemicals: potassium carbonate and sodium borate. Data was also collected with limestone cores using potassium carbonate. The porosities and permeabilities were measured before and after being treated by the thermal precipitation process. A theoretical study of the process was also conducted. A model for predicting the fractional reduction in porosity was developed that is based on the temperature-dependent solubility of the chemical used. An empirical model that predicts the fractional reduction in permeability in terms of the fractional reduction in porosity was then developed for Berea sandstone. Existing theoretical models for estimating the permeability of porous media were tested against the measured data. The existing models, including the widely-used Carman-Kozeny equation, underpredicted the reduction in permeability for the thermal precipitation process. This study has shown that the thermal precipitation process has considerable potential for the controlled reduction in porosity and permeability in geologic formations.

  3. The role of precipitation size distributions in km-scale NWP simulations of intense precipitation: Evaluation of cloud properties and surface precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanWeverberg K.; Vogelmann A.; vanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbec, L.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties and surface precipitation to assumptions regarding the size distributions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a one-moment bulk microphysics scheme. Three sensitivity experiments were applied to two composites of 15 convective and 15 frontal stratiform intense precipitation events observed in a coastal midlatitude region (Belgium), which were evaluated against satellite-retrieved cloud properties and radar-rain-gauge derived surface precipitation. It is found that the cloud optical thickness distribution was well captured by all experiments, although a significant underestimation of cloudiness occurred in the convective composite. The cloud-top-pressure distribution was improved most by more realistic snow size distributions (including a temperature-dependent intercept parameter and non-spherical snow for the calculation of the slope parameter), due to increased snow depositional growth at high altitudes. Surface precipitation was far less sensitive to whether graupel or hail was chosen as the rimed ice species, as compared to previous idealized experiments. This smaller difference in sensitivity could be explained by the stronger updraught velocities and higher freezing levels in the idealized experiments compared to typical coastal midlatitude environmental conditions.

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - IPHEX/Orographic Precipitation Processes Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsIPHEX/Orographic Precipitation Processes Study Campaign Links Field Campaign Report IPHEX Web Page ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : IPHEX/Orographic Precipitation Processes Study 2013.12.01 - 2014.12.31 Lead Scientist : Ana Barros For data sets, see below. Abstract IPHEX - Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX Science Plan, 2013) is a field campaign led by

  5. ARM - Evaluation Product - Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the CSAPR ProductsQuantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR Precipitation rates from cloud systems can give a fundamental insight into the processes occurring in-cloud. While rain

  6. Warming and increased precipitation frequency on the Colorado Plateau: implications for biological soil crusts and soil processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelikova TJ; Housman DC; Grote EE; Neher DA; Belnap J

    2012-01-01

    Changes in temperature and precipitation are expected to influence ecosystem processes worldwide. Despite their globally large extent, few studies to date have examined the effects of climate change in desert ecosystems, where biological soil crusts are key nutrient cycling components. The goal of this work was to assess how increased temperature and frequency of summertime precipitation affect the contributions of crust organisms to soil processes. With a combination of experimental 2°C warming and altered summer precipitation frequency applied over 2 years, we measured soil nutrient cycling and the structure and function of crust communities. We saw no change in crust cover, composition, or other measures of crust function in response to 2°C warming and no effects on any measure of soil chemistry. In contrast, crust cover and function responded to increased frequency of summer precipitation, shifting from moss to cyanobacteria-dominated crusts; however, in the short timeframe we measured, there was no accompanying change in soil chemistry. Total bacterial and fungal biomass was also reduced in watered plots, while the activity of two enzymes increased, indicating a functional change in the microbial community. Taken together, our results highlight the limited effects of warming alone on biological soil crust communities and soil chemistry, but demonstrate the substantially larger effects of altered summertime precipitation.

  7. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerial Observations 2015.01.14...

  9. BASIC PEROXIDE PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINANTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

    1959-02-10

    A process is described for the separation from each other of uranyl values, tetravalent plutonium values and fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution. First the pH of the solution is adjusted to between 2.5 and 8 and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the solution causing precipitation of uranium peroxide which carries any plutonium values present, while the fission products remain in solution. Separation of the uranium and plutonium values is then effected by dissolving the peroxide precipitate in an acidic solution and incorporating a second carrier precipitate, selective for plutonium. The plutonium values are thus carried from the solution while the uranium remains flissolved. The second carrier precipitate may be selected from among the group consisting of rare earth fluorides, and oxalates, zirconium phosphate, and bismuth lihosphate.

  10. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S.S.; Zhang, G.; Williams, K.H.; Taylor, J.; Fujita, Y.; Smith, R.

    2011-07-15

    Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH{sub 4}{sup

  11. Geophysical Monitoring and Reactive Transport Modeling of Ureolytically-Driven Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuxin Wu; Jonathan B. Ajo-Franklin; Nicolas Spycher; Susan S. Hubbard; Guoxiang Zhang; Kenneth H. Williams; Joanna Taylor; Yoshiko Fujita; Robert Smith

    2011-09-01

    Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH4

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) govCampaignsIntegrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) 2014.03.01 - 2014.07.01 Lead Scientist : Gerald Mace For data sets, see below. Abstract IPHEX -

  13. Inducing Mineral Precipitation in Groundwater by Addition of Phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen E. Wright; Yoshiko Fujita; Thomas Hartmann; Mark Conrad

    2011-10-01

    Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace metals and radionuclides from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. Phosphate minerals can sequester trace elements by primary mineral formation, solid solution formation and/or adsorption, and they are poorly soluble under many environmental conditions, making them attractive for long-term sustainable remediation. The success of such engineered schemes will depend on the particular mineral phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for induced phosphate mineral precipitation rely on the stimulation of native groundwater populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 ml-1) within the precipitation medium. We also tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM). The experiments showed that the general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium carbonate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) by the end of the week-long experiments. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of 7 days the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all of the treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as results of Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data indicated that the treatments including organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in increased distortion of the HAP crystal lattice, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the phosphate minerals was decreased in the treatments

  14. Evaluation of Co-precipitation Processes for the Synthesis of Mixed-Oxide Fuel Feedstock Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Emory D; Voit, Stewart L; Vedder, Raymond James

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this report is the evaluation of various co-precipitation processes for use in the synthesis of mixed oxide feedstock powders for the Ceramic Fuels Technology Area within the Fuels Cycle R&D (FCR&D) Program's Advanced Fuels Campaign. The evaluation will include a comparison with standard mechanical mixing of dry powders and as well as other co-conversion methods. The end result will be the down selection of a preferred sequence of co-precipitation process for the preparation of nuclear fuel feedstock materials to be used for comparison with other feedstock preparation methods. A review of the literature was done to identify potential nitrate-to-oxide co-conversion processes which have been applied to mixtures of uranium and plutonium to achieve recycle fuel homogeneity. Recent studies have begun to study the options for co-converting all of the plutonium and neptunium recovered from used nuclear fuels, together with appropriate portions of recovered uranium to produce the desired mixed oxide recycle fuel. The addition of recycled uranium will help reduce the safeguard attractiveness level and improve proliferation resistance of the recycled fuel. The inclusion of neptunium is primarily driven by its chemical similarity to plutonium, thus enabling a simple quick path to recycle. For recycle fuel to thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs), the uranium concentration can be {approx}90% (wt.), and for fast spectrum reactors, the uranium concentration can typically exceed 70% (wt.). However, some of the co-conversion/recycle fuel fabrication processes being developed utilize a two-step process to reach the desired uranium concentration. In these processes, a 50-50 'master-mix' MOX powder is produced by the co-conversion process, and the uranium concentration is adjusted to the desired level for MOX fuel recycle by powder blending (milling) the 'master-mix' with depleted uranium oxide. In general, parameters that must be controlled for co-precipitation

  15. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    2008-01-15

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  16. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  17. Best Management Practice #4: Water-Efficient Landscaping

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Traditional landscapes require supplemental water to thrive in most locations. Kentucky bluegrass, for example, is native to regions that receive in excess of 40 inches per year of precipitation,...

  18. In-tank precipitation with tetraphenylborate: recent process and research results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.; Barnes, M.J.; Crawford, C.L.; Peterson, R.A.; Swingle, R.F.; Fink, S.D.

    1997-09-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the In-Tank Precipitation process uses sodium tetraphenylborate to decontaminate soluble waste by precipitating cesium-137.

  19. Method of treating waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deininger, James P.; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1995-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  20. Radiation-induced instability of MnS precipitates and its possible consequences on irradiation-induced stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Sanecki, J.E.; Garner, F.A.

    1996-12-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a significant materials issue for the light water reactor (LWR) industry and may also pose a problem for fusion power reactors that will use water as coolant. A new metallurgical process is proposed that involves the radiation-induced release into solution of minor impurity elements not usually thought to participate in IASCC. MnS-type precipitates, which contain most of the sulfur in stainless steels, are thought to be unstable under irradiation. First, Mn transmutes strongly to Fe in thermalized neutron spectra. Second, cascade-induced disordering and the inverse Kirkendall effect operating at the incoherent interfaces of MnS precipitates are thought to act as a pump to export Mn from the precipitate into the alloy matrix. Both of these processes will most likely allow sulfur, which is known to exert a deleterious influence on intergranular cracking, to re-enter the matrix. To test this hypothesis, compositions of MnS-type precipitates contained in several unirradiated and irradiated heats of Type 304, 316, and 348 stainless steels (SSs) were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. Evidence is presented that shows a progressive compositional modification of MnS precipitates as exposure to neutrons increases in boiling water reactors. As the fluence increases, the Mn level in MnS decreases, whereas the Fe level increases. The S level also decreases relative to the combined level of Mn and Fe. MnS precipitates were also found to be a reservoir of other deleterious impurities such as F and O which could be also released due to radiation-induced instability of the precipitates.

  1. Continuous Water Vapor Profiles for the Fixed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M; Troyan, D

    2006-01-09

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program defined a specific metric for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2006 to complete a continuous time series of the vertical profile of water vapor for selected 30-day periods from each of the fixed ARM sites. In order to accomplish this metric, a new technique devised to incorporate radiosonde data, microwave radiometer data and analysis information from numerical weather forecast models has been developed. The product of this analysis, referred to as the merged sounding value-added product, includes vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor concentration and several other important thermodynamic state variables at 1-minute time intervals and 266 vertical levels.

  2. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  3. Cesium cobaltdicarbollide-solubility, precipitation, and reactivity in basic aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D.J.; Fanning, J.C.; Hugg, L.A.; Smith, W.A.; Terrell, A.S.; Yasinsac, L.; Todd, L.J.; Jasper, S.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The title compound, Cs{sup +}[Co((3)-1,2-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}]{sup {minus}}(CsCDC), was precipitated with a NaCDC solution from solutions containing CsCl. The reaction was followed by measuring loss of light intensity as the precipitate formed. The [Cs{sup +}] and [CDC{sup {minus}}] at the point of precipitation were estimated and approximate values of the K{sub sp} for CsCDC determined at room temperature: 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (water), 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (1 M NaOH), and 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (5M NaCl/0.1 M KOH/1.0 M NaOH). In some cases, NaCDC precipitated from solution when added to the latter salt solution. For the medium, 5 M NaNO{sub 3}/0.1 M KOH/1.0 M NaOH a four-fold excess of NaCDC was added to a 10mM Cs{sup +} solution at 40{degrees}C and the [CDC{sup {minus}}] measured spectrophotometrically. Only CsCDC precipitated, and a K{sub sp} of 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} was determined. The solubilities of CsCDC were measured in NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl solutions at 30{sub C} as a function of the Na salt concentration. Reaction of the CDC{sup {minus}} with OH{sup {minus}} slowly produces B(OH{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, H{sub 2}, and CoO(OH). Reaction of 22 {mu}M CsCDC with 1M NaOH has a first order rate constant at 56{degrees}C of 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1}, while that for 14 mM NaCDC is 7.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s {sup {minus}1}. Activation energy for the reaction is 110 kJ.

  4. Dynamic simulation of the in-tank precipitation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, T.; Shanahan, K.L.; Gregory, M.V.; Walker, D.D.

    1993-12-31

    As part of the High-Level Waste Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility was designed to decontaminate the radioactive waste supernate by removing cesium as precipitated cesium tetraphenylborate. A dynamic computer model of the ITP process was developed using SPEEDUP{sup TM} software to provide guidance in the areas of operation and production forecast, production scheduling, safety, air emission, and process improvements. The model performs material balance calculations in all phase (solid, liquid, and gas) for 50 key chemical constituents to account for inventory accumulation, depletion, and dilution. Calculations include precipitation, benzene radiolytic reactions, evaporation, dissolution, adsorption, filtration, and stripping. To control the ITP batch operation a customized FORTRAN program was generated and linked to SPEEDUP{sup TM} simulation This paper summarizes the model development and initial results of the simulation study.

  5. Method of treating waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deininger, J. Paul; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1991-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Azores: Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) govCampaignsAzores: Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Campaign Links Azores Website Final Campaign Report Related Campaigns Azores: Above-Cloud Radiation Budget near Graciosa Island 2010.04.15, Miller, AMF Azores: Extension to Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 2010.01.01, Wood, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send

  7. Fabrication of anatase precipitated glass-ceramics possessing high transparency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masai, Hirokazu; Toda, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2009-04-13

    Transparent anatase precipitated glass-ceramics were fabricated using ZnO as a component. The particle size of precipitated anatase is several nanometers enough to possess high transparency. The preparation of the Bi-free transparent TiO{sub 2} glass-ceramic was attained by substitution of two different kinds of oxides for bismuth oxide. It is also noteworthy that we have demonstrated the crystallization of metastable anatase in the glass-ceramics as a main phase. The present bulk anatase glass-ceramics will open up an application field for a TiO{sub 2}-containing photocatalyst.

  8. Ferritic Alloys with Extreme Creep Resistance via Coherent Hierarchical Precipitates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Gian; Sun, Zhiqian; Li, Lin; Xu, Xiandong; Rawlings, Michael; Liebscher, Christian H.; Clausen, Bjørn; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Huang, Shenyan; Teng, Zhenke; Liu, Chain T.; Asta, Mark D.; Gao, Yanfei; Dunand, David C.; Ghosh, Gautam; Chen, Mingwei; Fine, Morris E.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-11-09

    There have been numerous efforts to develop creep-resistant materials strengthened by incoherent particles at high temperatures and stresses in response to future energy needs for steam turbines in thermal-power plants. However, the microstructural instability of the incoherent-particle-strengthened ferritic steels limits their application to temperatures below 900 K. Here, we report a novel ferritic alloy with the excellent creep resistance enhanced by coherent hierarchical precipitates, using the integrated experimental (transmission-electron microscopy/scanning-transmission-electron microscopy, in-situ neutron diffraction, and atom-probe tomography) and theoretical (crystal-plasticity finite-element modeling) approaches. This alloy is strengthened by nano-scaled L21-Ni2TiAl (Heusler phase)-based precipitates, which themselves contain coherent nano-scaled B2 zones. These coherent hierarchical precipitates are uniformly distributed within the Fe matrix. Our hierarchical structure material exhibits the superior creep resistance at 973 K in terms of the minimal creep rate, which is four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional ferritic steels. These results provide a new alloy-design strategy using the novel concept of hierarchical precipitates and the fundamental science for developing creep-resistant ferritic alloys. Finally, the present research will broaden the applications of ferritic alloys to higher temperatures.

  9. PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-02-24

    S>A method is described for separating plutonium, in a valence state of less than five, from an aqueous solution in which it is dissolved. The niethod consists in adding potassium and sulfate ions to such a solution while maintaining the solution at a pH of less than 7.1, and isolating the precipitate of potassium plutonium sulfate thus formed.

  10. METHOD OF IMPROVING THE CARRIER PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamack, H.J.; Balthis, J.H.

    1958-12-01

    Plutonium values can be recovered from acidic solutlons by adding lead nitrate, hydrogen fluoride, lantha num nitrate, and sulfurlc acid to the solution to form a carrler preclpitate. The lead sulfate formed improves the separatlon characteristics of the lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate,