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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

2

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

Cadeddu, Maria

3

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource ProgramModification andinterface of water.OrganicNov 4 5

4

Total Precipitable Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Millimeter-wave Radiometer for High Sensitivity Water Vapor Profiling in Arid Regions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract - ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz) water Vapor Radiometer (GVR) for long-term, unattended measurements of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. Precipitable water vapor and liquid water path are estimated from zenith brightness temperatures measured from four double-sideband receiver channels, centered at 183.31 1, 3 and 7, and 14 GHz. A prototype ground-based version of the instrument was deployed at the DOE ARM program?s North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow AK in April 2005, where it collected data continuously for one year. A compact, airborne version of this instrument, packaged to operate from a standard 2-D PMS probe canister, has been tested on the ground and is scheduled for test flights in the summer of 2006. This paper presents design details, laboratory test results and examples of retrieved precipitable water vapor and liquid water path from measured brightness temperature data.

Pazmany, Andrew

2006-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

6

Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 90/150-GHz Vapor Radiometer provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

Caddedu, MP

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

7

-Assessment of current water conditions -Precipitation Forecast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;-Assessment of current water conditions - Precipitation Forecast - Recommendations for Drought of the mountains, so early demand for irrigation water should be minimal as we officially move into spring. Western, it is forecast to bring wet snow to the eastern slope of the Rockies, with less accumulations west of the divide

8

Microwave Radiometer – 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

Cadeddu, MP

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

9

Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

Morris, VR

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from MODIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from such as cloud mask, atmos- pheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties vapor amount, aerosol particles, and the subsequently formed clouds [9]. Barnes et al. [2] provide

Sheridan, Jennifer

11

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-122 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganizationElectronic Reading2Q)38232 Revision2 G-Band Vapor

12

Broadband radiometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

Cannon, T.W.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

13

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared Land SurfaceVirus-Infected Macaques

14

Ocean Water Vapor and Cloud Burden Trends Derived from the Topex Microwave Radiometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

algorithm is a log-linear regression algorithm with coefficients that are stratified by wind speed and water. TMR OBSERVATIONS The TMR flew in a 10-day non-sun-synchronous exact repeat orbit with an inclination

Ruf, Christopher

15

Polar Precipitation Measurement Mission A Mission Concept for Earth Explorer 8  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regional and global energy-water cycle budgets. Measurement of precipitation at the high latitudes the middle to high latitudes. To improve global precipitation estimates through the synergistic use of space borne radar and radiometer measurements. Orbital characteristics To achieve full sensitivity an orbit

16

Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348 270 300 219 255Retrievals of Temperature and Water

17

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records precipitation, decreases with time in the polluted regions and remains unchanged where no pollution sources were

Daniel, Rosenfeld

18

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skies and for ship-based observations is discussed.

Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Min, Q.; Edwards, R.; Smith, S.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Novel Cyclotron-Based Radiometal Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accomplishments: (1) Construction of prototype solution target for radiometal production; (2) Testing of prototype target for production of following isotopes: a. Zr-89. Investigation of Zr-89 production from Y-89 nitrate solution. i. Defined problems of gas evolution and salt precipitation. ii. Solved problem of precipitation by addition of nitric acid. iii. Solved gas evolution problem with addition of backpressure regulator and constant degassing of target during irradiations. iv. Investigated effects of Y-89 nitrate concentration and beam current. v. Published abstracts at SNM and ISRS meetings; (3) Design of 2nd generation radiometal solution target. a. Included reflux chamber and smaller target volume to conserve precious target materials. b. Included aluminum for prototype and tantalum for working model. c. Included greater varicosities for improved heat transfer; and, (4) Construction of 2nd generation radiometal solution target started.

DeGrado, Timothy R. [Mayo Clinic] [Mayo Clinic (United States)

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 24, NO. 3, 2007, 509526 Variational Assimilation of GPS Precipitable Water Vapor and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Precipitable Water Vapor and Hourly Rainfall Observations for a Meso- Scale Heavy Precipitation Event During Atmospheric water vapor plays a significant role in numerical weather predictions (NWP) of heavy rain- fall of the precipitable water vapor (PWV) from delayed signals transmitted by GPS satellites, which can be assimilated

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Drought and Precipitation Monitoring for Enhanced Integrated Water Resources Management in the Caribbean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drought and Precipitation Monitoring for Enhanced Integrated Water Resources Management for water resource management in Jamaica, Grenada and Guyana. A key element to ensuring the success for Water Resources Management, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, 21111 Lakeshore Rd., Ste. Anne de

Barthelat, Francois

22

atmospheric precipitable water: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: a crucial role in Earth's energy and water cycles through absorbing solar and infrared radiation, releasing latent heat, transporting water, and forming...

23

Precipitates Suppress Mobility Of Metals in Soil and Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and water with hazardous metals ­ such as cadmium, copper, lead, and nickel ­ is a national environ- mental increased over time. This increase may be due to activi- ties at industries like tanneries and smelters

Sparks, Donald L.

24

Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

25

drinking water. On the basis of the volume of ZnS precipitated in the biofilm, we estimate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

drinking water. On the basis of the volume of ZnS precipitated in the biofilm, we estimate, 647 (1964). 6. W. J. Drury, Water Environ. Res. 71, 1244 (1999). 7. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Current Drinking Water Standards (2000). 8

Kurapov, Alexander

26

Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere -- in the Metric System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TR-16 1968 Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere?in the Metric System W.O. Eihle R.J. Powers R.A. Clark...

Eihle, W. O.; Powers, R. J.; Clark, R.A.

27

Orographic Precipitation and Water Vapor Fractionation over the Southern Andes RONALD B. SMITH AND JASON P. EVANS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Orographic Precipitation and Water Vapor Fractionation over the Southern Andes RONALD B. SMITH (Smith and Barstad 2004) to predict the patterns of orographic pre- Corresponding author address: Ronald B. Smith, Depa

Evans, Jason

28

Radiometer Characterization System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323Program2 Radiometer Characterization System

29

Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation.

Wu, X.; Diak, G.R.; Hayden, C.M.; Young, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

High-frequency precipitation and stream water quality time series from Plynlimon, Wales: an openly accessible data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-frequency precipitation and stream water quality time series from Plynlimon, Wales: an openly Colin Vincent,6 Kathryn Lehto,6 Simon Grant,2 Jeremy Williams,7 Margaret Neal,1 Heather Wickham,1 Sarah-element high- frequency water quality data set that is openly accessible to the research community. The data

Kirchner, James W.

31

Modelled effects of precipitation on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ongoing changes in the global climate expose the world s ecosystems not only to increasing CO2 concentrations and temperatures but also to altered precipitation (P) regimes. Using four well-established process-based ecosystem models (LPJ, DayCent, ORCHIDEE, TECO), we explored effects of potential P changes on water limitation and net primary production (NPP) in seven terrestrial ecosystems with distinctive vegetation types in different hydroclimatic zones. We found that NPP responses to P changes differed not only among sites but also within a year at a given site. The magnitudes of NPP change were basically determined by the degree of ecosystem water limitation, which was quantified here using the ratio between atmospheric transpirational demand and soil water supply. Humid sites and/or periods were least responsive to any change in P as compared with moderately humid or dry sites/periods. We also found that NPP responded more strongly to doubling or halving of P amount and a seasonal shift in P occurrence than that to altered P frequency and intensity at constant annual amounts. The findings were highly robust across the four models especially in terms of the direction of changes and largely consistent with earlier P manipulation experiments and modelling results. Overall, this study underscores the widespread importance of P as a driver of change in ecosystems, although the ultimate response of a particular site will depend on the detailed nature and seasonal timing of P change.

Gerten, Dieter [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Le Maire, Guerric [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Parton, William [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Keough, Cindy [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Beier, Claus [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Cramer, Wolfgang [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Dukes, Jeff [University of Massachusetts, Boston; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Linder, Sune [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden; Nepstad, Daniel [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Rustad, Lindsey [USDA Forest Service; Sowerby, ALWYN [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd, United Kingdom

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Recent Climate Changes in Precipitable Water in the Global Tropics as Revealed in NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Recent Climate Changes in Precipitable Water in the Global Tropics as Revealed in NCEP: 1 (808) 956-2877 Email: chu@hawaii.edu #12;2 Abstract For the first time, long-term climate changes/NCAR Reanalysis Igor I. Zveryaev and Pao-Shin Chu* P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, Moscow, Russia

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

33

Spectroscopy with Multichannel Correlation Radiometers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correlation radiometers make true differential measurements in power with high accuracy and small systematic errors. This receiver architecture has been used in radio astronomy for measurements of continuum radiation for over 50 years; this article examines spectroscopy over broad bandwidths using correlation techniques. After general discussions of correlation and the choice of hybrid phase, experimental results from tests with a simple laboratory multi-channel correlation radiometer are shown. Analysis of the effect of the input hybrid's phase shows that a 90 degree hybrid is likely to be the best general choice for radio astronomy, depending on its amplitude match and phase flatness with frequency. The laboratory results verify that the combination of the correlation architecture and an analog lag correlator is an excellent method for spectroscopy over very wide bandwidths.

A. I. Harris

2005-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

34

Simultaneous Retreival of Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate using Radar and Radiometer Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to simultaneously retrieve the vertical profile of precipitation and the near-surface wind speed. ResultsSimultaneous Retreival of Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate using Radar and Radiometer Measurements simultaneously estimates the over ocean near-surface wind speed and rain rate profile using data from a 10.7 GHz

Ruf, Christopher

35

Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave radiometer data are systematically compared to models to quantify and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave a systematic evaluation of clouds in forecast models. Clouds and their associated microphysical processes for end users of weather forecasts, who may be interested not only in cloud cover, but in other variables

Hogan, Robin

36

Modeled Interactive Effects of Precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on Ecosystem Carbon and Water Dynamics in Different Climatic Zones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interactive effects of multiple global change factors on ecosystem processes are complex. It is relatively expensive to explore those interactions in manipulative experiments. We conducted a modeling analysis to identify potentially important interactions and to stimulate hypothesis formulation for experimental research. Four models were used to quantify interactive effects of climate warming (T), altered precipitation amounts [doubled (DP) and halved (HP)] and seasonality (SP, moving precipitation in July and August to January and February to create summer drought), and elevated [CO2] (C) on net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem production (NEP), transpiration, and runoff.We examined those responses in seven ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and heathlands in different climate zones. The modeling analysis showed that none of the threeway interactions among T, C, and altered precipitation was substantial for either carbon or water processes, nor consistent among the seven ecosystems. However, two-way interactive effects on NPP, Rh, and NEP were generally positive (i.e. amplification of one factor s effect by the other factor) between T and C or between T and DP. A negative interaction (i.e. depression of one factor s effect by the other factor) occurred for simulated NPP between T and HP. The interactive effects on runoff were positive between T and HP. Four pairs of two-way interactive effects on plant transpiration were positive and two pairs negative. In addition, wet sites generally had smaller relative changes in NPP, Rh, runoff, and transpiration but larger absolute changes in NEP than dry sites in response to the treatments. The modeling results suggest new hypotheses to be tested in multifactor global change experiments. Likewise, more experimental evidence is needed for the further improvement of ecosystem models in order to adequately simulate complex interactive processes.

Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Gerten, Dieter [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Le Maire, Guerric [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Parton, William [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Zhou, Xuhuui [University of Oklahoma; Keough, Cindy [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Beier, Claus [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Cramer, Wolfgang [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Dukes, Jeff [University of Massachusetts, Boston; Emmett, Bridget [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd, United Kingdom; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Linder, Sune [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden; Nepstad, Daniel [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Rustad, Lindsey [USDA Forest Service

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Water vapor variability in the tropics and its links to dynamics and precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide doubling [e.g., Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2001]. This uncertainty stems P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia Richard P. Allan to understanding feedbacks and processes operating within the climate system. Column-integrated water vapor (CWV

Allan, Richard P.

38

Macroscale water fluxes 1. Quantifying errors in the estimation of basin mean precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

October 2002. [1] Developments in analysis and modeling of continental water and energy balances of gauges therein. Neither index requires restrictive statistical assumptions (such as spatial homogeneity (median area of 51,000 km2 ) river basins of the world for which contemporaneous, continuous (missing

39

Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for assessing aerosol effects on cold season precipitation in California.

Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

40

ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

Hodges, Gary

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using the diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

Hodges, GB; Michalsky, JJ

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

42

Correlation between water-vapor transport from the Gulf of Mexico and precipitation in the eastern United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precipitation inland, are very much appreciated. There is little doubt that the Gulf has a great influence on the amount and character of precipit. tion that does occur in the eastern United States, i. e. , the area generally east of the Rocky Mountains... moisture flux. Cobb found that precipitation which is signif icantly greater than normal did not occur when the flux of moisture was unusually small, and that a large moisture flux does not result in abnormally high precipitation if it is associated...

Wright, John Vinson

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARMnumber concentration

44

Affinity precipitation using thermo-responsive, water-soluble polymers as matrix; synthetic studies toward the ageliferins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was explored for the isolation of natural product receptors. This polymer displays physical properties that make it an ideal matrix for protein isolation and purification. The parent polymer is soluble in aqueous solution at 4 °C and precipitates once...

Zhou, Min

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

45

Precipitation over South America during the Last Glacial Maximum: An analysis of the "amount effect" with a water isotope-enabled general circulation model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Precipitation over South America during the Last GlacialPrecipitation over South America during the Last Glacialand subtropical regions of South America also suggest

Lee, Jung-Eun; Johnson, Kathleen; Fung, Inez

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

A new radiometer for earth radiation budget studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for radiation balance studies. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on (small) satellites, aircraft, or Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs). Some considerations for the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite are given. 17 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 â�� 300 �¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

48

Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

Westwater, Edgeworth

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

49

Four absolute cavity radiometer (pyrheliometer) intercomparisons at New River, Arizona: radiometer standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four detailed intercomparisons were made for a number of models of cavity-type self-calibrating radiometers (pyrheliometers). Each intercomparison consisted of simultaneous readings of pyrheliometers at 30-second intervals in runs of 10 minutes, with at least 15 runs per intercomparison. Twenty-seven instruments were in at least one intercomparison, and five were in all four. Summarized results and all raw data are provided from the intercomparisons.

Estey, R.S.; Seaman, C.H.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

Stoffel, Tom; Kay, Bev; Habte, Aron; Anderberg, Mary; Kutchenreiter, Mark

51

Corrigendum to Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 81–101, 2014  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the paper “Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust” by J. Fan et al., wrong versions of Fig. 8 and Fig. 12 were published. Please find the correct figures below.

Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, A.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Vertical structure of tropical oceanic convective clouds and its relation to precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

data are collocated with precipitation rates from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR high tops that are nearly two km deeper than moderately raining or non- raining high clouds. Rain rate.1029/2007GL032811. 1. Introduction [2] Tropical convection plays an important role in the energy and moisture

Hartmann, Dennis

53

Observational Analysis of Cloud and Precipitation in Midlatitude Cyclones: Northern versus Southern Hemisphere Warm Fronts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System Extratropical cyclones produce the bulk of the cold- season precipitation in middle and high latitudes and are key contributors to the meridional transport of energy between the equator and the poles. Though

54

Retrieval of Hydrometeor Profiles in Tropical Cyclones and Convection from Combined Radar and Radiometer Observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of understanding the global energy and water cycles by providing four-dimensional distributions of latent heat- ing related to latent heating, ice water content (IWC) and liquid water content (LWC) have implications A retrieval algorithm is described to estimate vertical profiles of precipitation ice water content and liquid

Jiang, Haiyan

55

Correlation of globe thermometer response and a YSI radiometer response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CORRELATION OF GLOBE THERMOMETER RESPONSE AND A YSI RADIOMETER RESPONSE A Thesis by ROBERT HOWARD FRANKNECHT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subjects Industrial Hygiene CORRELATION OF GLOBE THERMOMETER RESPONSE AND A YSI RADIOMETER RESPONSE A Thesis by ROBERT HOMARD FRANKNECHT Approved as to sty1e and content by: C'6~& . ~ Chairman of Committee ead...

Franknecht, Robert Howard

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Direct effects: Quantity related to precipitation Direct effects: Quantity related to precipitation and temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Adequate and sufficient water supply: (storage, snow pack reservoir and groundwater levels)snow pack temperature extremes, heat waves and heavy precipitation. Precipitation increases in high latitudes and decreases in most sub-tropical land regions. Increases in annual river runoff and water availability

Fay, Noah

57

Response of METEOSAT water vapour channel (*) M. Roulleau, M.-M. Poc, N. Scott and A. Chedin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

which connects the radiative energy received by the radiometer to the meteoro- logical parameters in the spectral range covered by the radiometer filter, this model determines high resolution transmissionBCm METEOSAT radiometer (water vapour channel) and the numerical parameters associated to each point

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

Posters Radar/Radiometer Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006PhotovoltaicSeptember 22, 2014SocietyJ. Dudhia51 Posters75

59

Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

The effect of energetic electron precipitation on middle mesospheric night-time ozone during and after a moderate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mainly by large fluxes of high-energy protons with energies >100 MeV, has been observed and modeled 14 November 2012. [1] Using a ground-based microwave radiometer at Troll Station, Antarctica (72 S, 2 satellite data were used to identify the precipitating particles and to characterize their energy, spatial

Bergen, Universitetet i

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Completion strategy includes clay and precipitate control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the conditions which are necessary for a successful oil well completion in the Mississippi and Cherokee zones of South Central Kansas. Topics considered include paraffin precipitation, clay swelling and migration, and iron precipitation. Clays in these zones are sensitive to water-base treating fluids and tend to swell and migrate to the well bore, thereby causing permeability damage. The presence of iron in the Mississippi and Cherokee formations has been indicated by cuttings, core samples, and connate water samples.

Sandy, T.; Gardner, G.R.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

62

Sequential precipitation of a new goethite-calcite nanocomposite and its1 possible application in the removal of toxic ions from polluted water2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

neutralise acidic wastewater by slight calcite dissolution, enhancing the removal of heavy20 metals (e.g. Cu: Goethite; Calcite; Nanocomposite; Precipitation; Removal; Metalloids;1 Heavy metals2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 a major role in the fate and transport of several6 metalloids and heavy metal trace elements and organic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Research on the Morphology of Precipitation and Runoff in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TR-15 1969 Research on the Morphology of Precipitation and Runoff in Texas R.A. Clark Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

Clark, R.A.

65

Impact of GPS Zenith Tropospheric Delay data on precipitation forecasts in Mediterranean France and Spain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

implies that the GPS data has good potential for influencing numerical models in rapidly developing, high for the forecasting of rainfall. Water vapor plays an important role in energy transfer and in the formation of clouds. 1992]. Rocken et al. (1993)] demonstrated agreement between water vapor radiometers and GPS derived

Haase, Jennifer

66

Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

Myers, D. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

Myers, D. R.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two-channel narrow field-of-view radiometer (NFOV2) is a ground-based radiometer that looks straight up and measures radiance directly above the instrument at wavelengths of 673 and 870 nm. The field-of-view of the instrument is 1.2 degrees, and the sampling time resolution is one second. Measurements of the NFOV2 have been used to retrieve optical properties for overhead clouds that range from patchy to overcast. With a one-second sampling rate of the NFOV2, faster than almost any other ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrument, we are able, for the first time, to capture changes in cloud optical properties at the natural time scale of cloud evolution.

Chiu, C; Marshak, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, JC; Schmelzer, J

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) - precision infrared radiometer (PIR) platform in Fairbanks: Scientific objectives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) and precision infrared radiometer (PIR) have been employed at the Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks to check their performance under arctic conditions. Drawing on the experience of the previous measurements in the Arctic, the PIR was equipped with a ventilator to prevent frost and moisture build-up. We adopted the Solar Infrared Observing Sytem (SIROS) concept from the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) to allow implementation of the same data processing software for a set of radiation and meteorological instruments. To validate the level of performance of the whole SIROS prior to its incorporation into the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Cloud and Radiation Testbed Site instrumental suite for flux radiatin measurements, the comparison between measurements and model predictions will be undertaken to assess the MFRSR-PIR Arctic data quality.

Stamnes, K.; Leontieva, E. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Precipitation over South America during the Last Glacial Maximum: An analysis of the "amount effect" with a water isotope-enabled general circulation model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF THE ‘‘AMOUNT EFFECT’’ Hoffmann, G. , M. Werner, and M.A. , A. N. LeGrande, and G. Hoffmann (2007), Water isotopeare prescribed as 0.5 [Hoffmann et al. , 1998] and 1.7% [

Lee, Jung-Eun; Johnson, Kathleen; Fung, Inez

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Determination of leaf area index of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and its relationship to site water balance across a large precipitation gradient in East Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was estimated using the Thornthwaite and Mather (1957) model to predict potential and actual evapotranspiration and moisture deficit. LAI and site water balance were estimated in both 1994 and 1995. 1 hypothesized that LAI would be positively correlated...

Hebert, Mark Thomas

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

ECE RADIOMETER UPGRADE ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK A271 ECE RADIOMETER UPGRADE ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK. The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) heterodyne radiometer diagnostic on DIII-D has been upgraded with the addition of eight channels for a total of 40. The new, higher frequency channels allow measurements of electron temperature into the magnetic axis in discharges at maximum field, 2.15 T. The complete set now extends over the full usable range of second harmonic emission frequencies at 2.0 T covering radii from the outer edge inward to the location of third harmonic overlap on the high field side. Full coverage permits the measurement of heat pulses and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations on both sides of the magnetic axis. In addition, the symmetric measurements are used to fix the location of the magnetic axis in tokamak magnetic equilibrium reconstructions. Also, the new higher frequency channels have been used to determine central T{sub e} with good time resolution in low field, high density discharges using third harmonic ECE in the optically gray and optically thick regimes.

AUSTIN, ME; LOHR, J

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

The Tropical Atmospheric El Nio Signal in Satellite Precipitation Data and a Global Climate Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ABSTRACT Aspects of the tropical atmospheric response to El Niño related to the global energy and water and the Advanced Micro- wave Scanning Radiometer-E and simulations from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies are highly correlated, but anomalies in stratiform­convective rainfall partitioning in the two datasets

75

Ten channel background alpha radiometer for nondestructive analysis of low activity samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The description of a ten-channel alpha-radiometer based on large-area semiconductor detectors is presented in this paper. The radiometer is intended for determination of soil pollution by alpha-active radionuclides using thick samples. The analysis of isotopes is also provided. The concentrations of Pu and Am isotopes in soil samples are determined.

Pugatch, V.M.; Pavlenko, Y.N.; Vasiliev, Y.O.; Nenakhov, A.N.; Tkatch, N.M.; Barabash, L.I.; Berdnichenko, S.V.; Litovchenko, P.G.; Rosenfeld, A.B.; Zinets, O.S. (Inst. for Nuclear Research, Kiev (USSR))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Regional summer precipitation events in Asia and their changes in the past decades  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the enhanced water vapor supply related to the strengthened monsoon flow over southeastern China and the anomalous easterlies over northwestern China. It is also associated with the decreased water vapor supply in precipitation amount and precipitation days for total, extreme, heavy, and light-moderate precipitations

Qian, Weihong

77

Calibration of a Solar Absolute Cavity Radiometer with Traceability to the World Radiometric Reference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the present method of establishing traceability of absolute cavity radiometers to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) through the process employed in the International Pyrheliometer Comparisons (IPC). This method derives the WRR reduction factor for each of the participating cavity radiometers. An alternative method is proposed, described, and evaluated as a way to reduce the uncertainty in the comparison process. The two methods are compared using a sample of data from the recent IPC-VIII conducted from September 25th to October 13th, 1995 at the World Radiation Center in Davos, Switzerland. A description of absolute cavity radiometers is also included, using a PMO-6 as an example of active cavity radiometers, and a HF as an example of passive cavity radiometers.

Reda, I.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

E-Print Network 3.0 - agua precipitable pwv Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

South China. The ground-based GPS Precipitable Wa- ter Vapor (PWV) measurements... for water vapor dur- ing the heavy precipitation processes over South China. 3 GPS PWV data......

79

Spatial predictive distribution for precipitation based on numerical weather predictions (NWP)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for precipitation based on NWP #12;Motivation, hydro power production How much water comes when? With uncertainty Precipitation Data Meteorological model NWP Short term optimalization Run off Hydrological model Past Future

Steinsland, Ingelin

80

The Planck/LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model ...

Herreros, J M; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Miccolis, M; Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Franceschet, C; Lopez, M; Alcala, C; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12008

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Characterization and calibration of 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system for SST-1 tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system (74–86 GHz) is designed, characterized, and calibrated to measure the radial electron temperature profile by measuring Electron Cyclotron Emission spectrum at SST-1 Tokamak. The developed radiometer has a noise equivalent temperature of 1 eV and sensitivity of 5 × 10{sup 9} V/W. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperature, a calibration measurement of the radiometer system is performed using hot-cold Dicke switch method, which confirms the system linearity.

Siju, Varsha; Kumar, Dharmendra; Shukla, Praveena; Pathak, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Determination of cloud liquid water distribution using 3D cloud tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but they provide a less direct measurement of cloud water content (since radar reflectivity depends strongly, the number of scanning angles, the radiometer characteristics (e.g., noise level, beam width), the physical accuracy. For a setup consisting of four microwave radiometers of typical noise level 0.3 K, the tomography

83

Retrieving snow mass from GRACE terrestrial water storage change with a land surface model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radio- meter (AVHRR) is decreasing since middle 1980s in response to global are variations in surface albedo and surface energy budgets, sensible heat and water vapor fluxes-chan- nel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) provide a capa

Yang, Zong-Liang

84

Sea surface temperature for climate from the along-track scanning radiometers   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the construction of a sea surface temperature (SST) dataset from Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) observations suitable for climate applications. The algorithms presented here are now used at ...

Embury, Owen

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

85

Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Precipitation hardening austenitic superalloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Precipitation hardening, austenitic type superalloys are described. These alloys contain 0.5 to 1.5 weight percent silicon in combination with about 0.05 to 0.5 weight percent of a post irradiation ductility enhancing agent selected from the group of hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum and scandium, alone or in combination with each other. In addition, when hafnium or yttrium are selected, reductions in irradiation induced swelling have been noted.

Korenko, Michael K. (Wexford, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Response of a modern cave system to large seasonal precipitation variability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and responds within hours to storm events during the height of the rainy season. Rainwater and drip water d18 O source influences rainwater isotopes through individual storm events, it has less influence on drip water of calcite precipitation upflow from the drip water collection site (prior calcite precipitation) occurs

Montañez, Isabel Patricia

88

Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

ARM - Word Seek: Precipitation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAre the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach HomeWillPrecipitation

90

Evaluation of Radiometers in Full-Time Use at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the evaluation of the relative performance of the complement of solar radiometers deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL).

Wilcox, S. M.; Myers, D. R.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

The physical basis for increases in precipitation extremes in simulations of 21st-century climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming is expected to lead to a large increase in atmospheric water vapor content and to changes in the hydrological cycle, which include an intensification of precipitation extremes. The intensity of precipitation ...

O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

92

Precipitation extremes under climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

O'Gorman, Paul A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A 16-channel heterodyne electron cyclotron emission radiometer on J-TEXT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To study equilibrium temporal dynamics and the mechanisms of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, a 16-channel heterodyne electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer has been developed to view the J-TEXT tokamak from the low field side. The ECE radiometer detects second-harmonic extraordinary mode in the frequency band of 94-125 GHz which corresponds to resonances from 1.8 T to 2.2 T. This ECE system consists of an ECE transmission line, a radio frequency unit, and two 8-channel intermediate frequency units. An in situ blackbody calibration source is applied for system calibration by comparison of hot and cold sources in order to provide an absolute temperature measurement.

Yang, Z. J.; Zhuang, G.; Xiao, J. S.; Wang, Z. J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Fusion and Advanced Electromagnetic Technology Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Phillips, P. E.; Huang, H.; Rowan, W. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Outgassing, Temperature Gradients and the Radiometer Effect in LISA: A Torsion Pendulum Investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal modeling of the LISA gravitational reference sensor (GRS) includes such effects as outgassing from the proof mass and its housing and the radiometer effect. Experimental data in conditions emulating the LISA GRS are required to confidently predict the GRS performance. Outgassing and the radiometer effect are similar in characteristics and are difficult to decouple experimentally. The design of our torsion balance allows us to investigate differential radiation pressure, the radiometer effect, and outgassing on closely separated conducting surfaces with high sensitivity. A thermally controlled split copper plate is brought near a freely hanging plate-torsion pendulum.We have varied the temperature on each half of the copper plate and have measured the resulting forces on the pendulum. We have determined that to first order the current GRS model for the radiometer effect, outgassing, and radiation pressure are mostly consistent with our torsion balance measurements and therefore these thermal effects do not appear to be a large hindrance to the LISA noise budget. However, there remain discrepancies between the predicted dependence of these effects on the temperature of our apparatus.

Scott E Pollack; Stephan Schlamminger; Jens H Gundlach

2007-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

95

Potential Soil Moisture Products from the Aquarius Radiometer and Scatterometer Using an Observing System Simulation Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE), we investigate the potential soil moisture retrieval capability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aquarius radiometer (L-band 1.413 GHz) and scatterometer (L-band, 1.260 GHz). We estimate potential errors in soil moisture retrievals and identify the sources that could cause those errors. The OSSE system includes (i) a land surface model in the NASA Land Information System, (ii) a radiative transfer and backscatter model, (iii) a realistic orbital sampling model, and (iv) an inverse soil moisture retrieval model. We execute the OSSE over a 1000 2200 km2 region in the central United States, including the Red and Arkansas river basins. Spatial distributions of soil moisture retrieved from the radiometer and scatterometer are close to the synthetic truth. High root mean square errors (RMSEs) of radiometer retrievals are found over the heavily vegetated regions, while large RMSEs of scatterometer retrievals are scattered over the entire domain. The temporal variations of soil moisture are realistically captured over a sparely vegetated region with correlations 0.98 and 0.63, and RMSEs 1.28% and 8.23% vol/vol for radiometer and scatterometer, respectively. Over the densely vegetated region, soil moisture exhibits larger temporal variation than the truth, leading to correlation 0.70 and 0.67, respectively, and RMSEs 9.49% and 6.09% vol/vol respectively. The domain-averaged correlations and RMSEs suggest that radiometer is more accurate than scatterometer in retrieving soil moisture. The analysis also demonstrates that the accuracy of the retrieved soil moisture is affected by vegetation coverage and spatial aggregation.

Luo, Yan [I.M. Systems Group at NOAA/NCEP/EMC; Feng, Xia [George Mason University; Houser, Paul [George Mason University; Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Fan, Xingang [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green; De Lannoy, Gabrielle [Ghent University, Belgium; Zhan, Xiwu [NOAA/NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and Research; Dabbiru, Lalitha [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Evaluation of Global Monsoon Precipitation Changes based on Five Reanalysis Datasets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the motivation to identify whether or not a reasonably simulated atmospheric circulation would necessarily lead to a successful reproduction of monsoon precipitation, the performances of five sets of reanalysis data (NCEP2, ERA40, JRA25, ERA-Interim and MERRA) in reproducing the climatology, interannual variation and long-term trend of global monsoon (GM) precipitation are comprehensively evaluated. In order to better understand the variability and long-term trend of GM precipitation, we also examined the major components of water budget, including evaporation, water vapor convergence and the change in local water vapor storage, based on five reanalysis datasets. The results show that all five reanalysis data reasonably reproduce the climatology of GM precipitation. The ERA-Interim (NCEP2) shows the highest (lowest) skill among the five datasets. The observed GM precipitation shows an increasing tendency during 1979-2001 along with a strong interannual variability, which is reasonably reproduced by the five sets of reanalysis data. The observed increasing trend of GM precipitation is dominated by the contribution from the North African, North American and Australian monsoons. All five data fail in reproducing the increasing tendency of North African monsoon precipitation. The wind convergence term in water budget equation dominate the GM precipitation variation, indicating a consistency between the GM precipitation and the seasonal change of prevailing wind.

Lin, Renping; Zhou, Tianjun; Qian, Yun

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Electrostatic precipitator having high strength discharge electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is disclosed an electrostatic precipitator with a discharge electrode having dimensional and configuration characteristics which provide high field strength and high current density particularly in a wet electrostatic precipitator. The round cylindrical collector tube of length (L) and with an inner diameter (D) has a coaxially positioned discharge electrode having an electrode supporting mast of a diameter from 0.25 to 40 D with an electrically conducting closed screw fli secured to the mast. The screw flight has an overall diameter (D) of from 0.33 to 0.67 D with a pitch of from d-d/2 to d-d and an overall length of from one screw revolution to l-(D-d), preferably one-half L or less and most preferably one to two revolutions. The short screw flight is economical and readily adjusted. The screw flight has a thickness of from about 0.05 to 15 inch and has a symmetrically curved outer edge. Collector tube is flared at its lower end to direct water away from the electrode mast as the water is discharged from the tube. The discharge electrode is supported from above and centered by means of adjustable tie rods at its lower end.

Bakke, E.; Willett, H.P.

1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

98

Skin temperature of the sea as determined by radiometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Differences Temperature Vapor Press Skin Skin Bkt Skin Bkt -Bkt -Air -Air -Air -Air 120100 120200 120400 120500 1 20600 1 20700 1 20800 1 20900 1 21000 130100 130200 130300 130400 130500 130600 130700 130800 131000 131100 . 6235 . 6732.... FORTRAN program. 57 6. Stepwise analysis of error in radiation temperature of the sea. 65 LIST OF FIGURES Number Page 1. Tracks of Cruise 62 -H-10 along which radiation data were obtained, 2. Comparison of i. nfrared emissivities of water vapor. 14...

Boudreau, Robert Donald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

99

Asphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the production of crude oil in deep-water environments and the operations of enhanced oil recovery by miscible asphaltenes and resins. Asphaltenes are defined as the fraction separated from crude oil or petroleum productsAsphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments Eduardo Buenrostro

Wu, Jianzhong

100

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Precipitation Measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

credits: Marty Bahamonde/FEMA, Darin Leach/USDA, Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA, Matt and Kim Rudge This graphic and condenses to form clouds, and falls again to the surface as precipitation. About 75 percent of the energy condenses into clouds latent heat is released--warming the atmosphere. Conversely, when liquid water

Waliser, Duane E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Response of Orographic Precipitation over Idealized Midlatitude Mountains Due to Global Increases in CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precipitation replenishes a large fraction of the world's freshwater supply. About 26% of the world's population regions (Beniston 2005). Heavy orographic precipitation on the other hand, can have less benign impacts constant, im- plying through the Clausius­Clapeyron (CC) equation an increase in atmospheric water vapor

102

U.S.DOE Global Monthly Station Temperature and Precipitation, 1738-1980  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The global monthly station temperature and precipitation data from the U.S. Department of Energy, a dataset hosted at, covers the time period from January, 1738 to December, 1980. The air temperature and precipitation levels are platform observations from ground and water surfaces. The data are maintained in the Research Data Archive at the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

103

Impact of Convective Organization on the Response of Tropical Precipitation Extremes to Warming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of Convective Organization on the Response of Tropical Precipitation Extremes to Warming extremes to warming in organized convection is ex- amined using a cloud-resolving model. Vertical shear, the fractional increase of precipitation extremes is similar to that of surface water vapor, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

Development of a new radiometer for the thermodynamic measurement of high temperature fixed points  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has developed a new radiometer to measure the thermodynamic melting point temperatures of high temperature fixed points with ultra-low uncertainties. In comparison with the NPL's Absolute Radiation Thermometer (ART), the 'THermodynamic Optical Radiometer' (THOR) is more portable and compact, with a much lower size-of-source effect and improved performance in other parameters such as temperature sensitivity. It has been designed for calibration as a whole instrument via the radiance method, removing the need to calibrate the individual subcomponents, as required by ART, and thereby reducing uncertainties. In addition, the calibration approach has been improved through a new integrating sphere that has been designed to have greater uniformity.

Dury, M. R.; Goodman, T. M.; Lowe, D. H.; Machin, G.; Woolliams, E. R. [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)] [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

105

Electron cyclotron emission radiometer upgrade on the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The capabilities of the Joint European Torus (JET) electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics have recently been extended with an upgrading of the heterodyne radiometer. The number of channels has been doubled to 96 channels, with a frequency separation corresponding to <1 cm for JET magnetic field gradient, and with a frequency response of 1 MHz. This enhancement has increased the radial coverage of the ECE electron temperature measurements in JET to approximately the full plasma column (limited at R>2.6 m for the X-mode due to harmonic overlap) at almost all magnetic field values used at JET (1.7 Tradiometer is presented along with some results showing its performance.

Luna, E. de la; Sanchez, J.; Tribaldos, V.; Conway, G.; Suttrop, W.; Fessey, J.; Prentice, R.; Gowers, C.; Chareau, J. M. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); IPP-EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Associations, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); European Commission, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles Brad,McCurdy Greg,Chapman Jenny,Miller Julianne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

New Technique for Retrieving Liquid Water Path over Land using Satellite Microwave Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a new methodology for retrieving liquid water path over land using satellite microwave observations. As input, the technique exploits the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for earth observing plan (EOS) (AMSR-E) polarization-difference signals at 37 and 89 GHz. Regression analysis performed on model simulations indicates that over variable atmospheric and surface conditions the polarization-difference signals can be simply parameterized in terms of the surface emissivity polarization difference ({Delta}{var_epsilon}), surface temperature, liquid water path (LWP), and precipitable water vapor (PWV). The resulting polarization-difference parameterization (PDP) enables fast and direct (noniterative) retrievals of LWP with minimal requirements for ancillary data. Single- and dual-channel retrieval methods are described and demonstrated. Data gridding is used to reduce the effects of instrumental noise. The methodology is demonstrated using AMSR-E observations over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during a six day period in November and December, 2003. Single- and dual-channel retrieval results mostly agree with ground-based microwave retrievals of LWP to within approximately 0.04 mm.

Deeter, M.N.; Vivekanandan, J.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

108

Preliminary separation of galactic and cosmic microwave emission for the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary models of microwave emission from the Milky Way Galaxy based on COBE and other data are constructed for the purpose of distinguishing cosmic and Galactic signals. Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) maps, with the modeled Galactic emission removed, are fitted for a quadrupole distribution. Autocorrelation functions for individual Galactic components are presented. When Galactic emission is removed from the DMR data, the residual fluctuations are virtually unaffected, and therefore they are not dominated by any known Galactic emission component. 42 refs.

Bennet, C.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Hinshaw, G.; Wright, E.L.; Kogut, A.; De Amici, G.; Meyer, S.S.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Gulkis, S. (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States) California, University, Berkeley (United States) Universities Space Research Association, Boulder, CO (United States) California, University, Los Angeles (United States) MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States) Princeton University, NJ (United States) JPL, Pasadena, Ca (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Calibration of a 32 channel electron cyclotron emission radiometer on the HL-2A tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel 32-channel electron cyclotron emission radiometer has been designed and tested for the measurement of electron temperature profiles on the HL-2A tokamak. This system is based on the intermediate frequency filter detection technique, and has the features of wide working frequency range and high spatial resolution. Two relative calibration methods have been investigated: sweeping the toroidal magnetic field and hopping the output frequency of the local oscillator. Preliminary results show that both methods can ensure reasonable profiles.

Shi, Z. B., E-mail: shizb@swip.ac.cn; Jiang, M.; Huang, X. L.; Zhong, W. L.; Chen, W.; Che, Y. L.; Liu, Z. T.; Ding, X. T.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Using a cold radiometer to measure heat loads and survey heat leaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P. [Cryogenics and Fluids Branch, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

111

Development of multichannel intermediate frequency system for electron cyclotron emission radiometer on KSTAR Tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma experiments on KSTAR are scheduled to start up this year (2008). We have developed an electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer to measure the radial electron temperature profiles in KSTAR experiments. The radiometer system consists, briefly, of two downconversion stages, amplifiers, bandpass filter banks, and video detectors. These components are made commercially or developed in house. The system detects ECE power in the frequency range from 110 to 196 GHz, the detected signal being resolved by means of 48 frequency windows. Before installation of this system on KSTAR, we installed a part of this system on large helical device (LHD) to study the system under similar plasma conditions. In this experiment, the signal amplitude, considered to be proportional to the electron temperature, is measured. The time-dependent traces of the electron temperature measured by this radiometer are in good agreement with those provided by the LHD Michelson spectrometer. The system noise level which limits the minimum measurable temperature (converted to the electron temperature) is about 30 eV.

Kogi, Yuichiro; Sakoda, Takuya; Mase, Atsushi; Ito, Naoki; Yokota, Yuya [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Nagayama, Yoshio; Kawahata, Kazuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Jeong, Seung H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Myeun [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Validation of Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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113

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration -Lowell L. Wood,3, BPA earned net3rdKSTHE

114

Wet electrostatic precipitator eliminates over 90% of previous emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After ten years of searching for an effective air pollution control device, engineers at Teledyne Wah Chang Albany (TWCA) found that zirconium was the best metal in withstanding the gases generated in the manufacturing process of zirconium and hafnium. The best equipment was a two-stage, modular wet electrostatic precipitator to collect the submicron-size particulates in the form of metal oxides, ammonium sulfate, ammonium sulfite and ammonium bisulfite. All nonmetal components of the precipitator were fabricated entirely from industrial grade reinforced thermoset plastics. All metal components, including process water spray components, pipe fittings, and emitting electrodes - to be charged at 45,000 V - were fabricated from zirconium. Stack emission tests indicate the precipitator has eliminated over 90% of previous particulate emissions. Operation has been virtually maintenance free. The zirconium components show no signs of corrosion to date. (DP)

Not Available

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

OAK 270 - The use of Lidar/radiometer (LIRAD) in the ARM program to obtain optical properties and microphysics of high and midlevel clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK 270 - The use of Lidar/Radiometer (LIRAD) in the ARM program to obtain optical properties and microphysics of high and midlevel clouds

C.M.R. Platt; R.T. Austin; S.A. Young; and G.L. Stephens

2002-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

117

Changes in precipitation characteristics and extremes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

changes in two different climate scenarios. In the Mediterranean region, precipitation amount, frequencyChanges in precipitation characteristics and extremes Comparing Mediterranean to change Swiss with climate change, with potentially severe impacts on human society and ecosystems. This study analyses

Allan, Richard P.

118

Carbide Precipitation in Steel Weld Metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbide Precipitation in Steel Weld Metals www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans #12 diffusion into austenite Carbon diffusion into austenite and carbide precipitation in ferrite Carbide precipitation from austenite CASE 2: elimination of carbides #12;#12;#12;0.110.090.070.050.03 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Cambridge, University of

119

High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of T{sub e}(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83–130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ?1–3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6–0.8 cm) resolution T{sub e} measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels’ IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2–4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters’ center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83–130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a “zoomed-in” analysis of a ?2–4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial T{sub e} measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

Truong, D. D., E-mail: dtruong@wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

122

Precipitation kinetics in ultra-high lime softening  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The second model used the crystal growth rate as an alternate measure of supersaturation. The growth rate obtained from a settling procedure correlated well with values for silica removal rates for experiments grouped by pH and recycie conditions... of precipitation processes specific applications to lime soFtening and silica removal can be addressed. Mechanisms oF silica raawal. Many of the processes studied for specific removal of silica From industrial water have relied on adsorption...

Peacock, Edward Dale

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Dynamics of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We formulate and model the dynamics of spatial patterns arising during the precipitation of calcium carbonate from a supersaturated shallow water flow. The model describes the formation of travertine deposits at geothermal hot springs and rimstone dams of calcite in caves. We find explicit solutions for travertine domes at low flow rates, identify the linear instabilities which generate dam and pond formation on sloped substrates, and present simulations of statistical landscape evolution.

Nigel Goldenfeld; Pak Yuen Chan; John Veysey

2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

124

Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). In general, higher [H4SiO4] leads to lower dissolution rates. It has often been observed that the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alteration products can cause the dissolution of the glass to increase, even after the rate has decreased significantly. However, it has also been observed that in the concentrations of these silica-bearing solution species do not significantly decrease while other elements continue to be released. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a silica-bearing alteration product, analcime (Na(AlSi2O6)?H2O). In this initial study and to simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH)3), and amorphous silica. The ‘cross affinity’ code option allowed us to account for the fact that glass is a thermodynamically unstable solid with respect to its alteration products in contact with water. The cross-affinity option in the Geochemist’s Workbench geochemical code allowed us to substitute the amorphous silica equilibrium-constant matrix for the glass equilibrium-constant matrix. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution rate constant at a constant analcime precipitation rate constant. In all cases, our results indicate that the glass dissolution rate controls the rate of analcime precipitation in the long term. Our results, compared in general terms with experiments, show the importance of the gel layer that forms during glass alteration. The meaning of these results pertinent to long-term glass durability is discussed.

Strachan, Denis M.; Neeway, James J.

2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

125

In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the development and validation of the in-drift precipitates/salts (IDPS) model. The IDPS model is a geochemical model designed to predict the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Application of the model in support of TSPA-LA is documented in ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156]) is the technical work plan (TWP) for this report. It called for a revision of the previous version of the report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167734]) to achieve greater transparency, readability, data traceability, and report integration. The intended use of the IDPS model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period. Specifically, the intended use is as follows: (1) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the presence and composition of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (i.e., effects on pH, ionic strength, deliquescence relative humidity, total concentrations of dissolved components in the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, and concentrations of the following aqueous species that potentially affect acid neutralizing capacity: HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, H{sup +}, HSO{sub 4}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CaHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, MgHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, HSiO{sub 3}{sup -}, and MgOH{sup +}); (2) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, mineral precipitation resulting from the evaporation of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (specifically, minerals of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O); (3) To provide a means for abstracting these effects into a set of lookup tables that provide input to downstream models used for performance assessment. The presence and composition of liquid water in the drift depend upon relative humidity, temperature, incoming water composition, in-drift gas composition, and relative rates of evaporation and seepage. In downstream applications of this model, intended input values for these parameters are abstracted results from thermal-hydrological-chemical models, water sample measurements, dust leachate samples, and values used in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses that encompass the expected ranges of these parameters.

P. Mariner

2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

126

Multi-Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) for remote sensing studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Multi-spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) has been developed as a well-calibrated, imaging radiometer for studies of cloud properties from an unmanned aerospace vehicle platform. The instrument is designed to fly at altitudes up to 20 km and produce data from nine spectral detector modules. Each module has its own telescope optics, linear detector array, spectral filter, and necessary electronics. Cryogenic cooling for the long-wavelength infrared modules, as well as temperature regulation of the short- wavelength modules, is provided by a liquid nitrogen system designed to operate for multi-day missions. Pre- and post-flight calibration, combined with an on-board calibration chopper, provide an instrument with state-of-the-art radiometric measurement accuracies. Each module has a {+-}40{degree} across-track field-of-view and images a curved footprint onto its linear detector array. The long-wavelength array types have 256 detector elements while the short-wavelength arrays can have 512 elements. A modular design allows individual spectral bands to be changed to match the requirements for a particular mission.

Phipps, GS; Grotbeck, CL

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) for remote sensing cloud studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Multi Spectral Pushbroom Imaging Radiometer (MPIR) has been developed as are relatively inexpensive ({approximately}$IM/copy), well-calibrated,imaging radiometer for aircraft studies of cloud properties. The instrument is designed to fly on an Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) platform at altitudes from the surface up to 20 km. MPIR is being developed to support the Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle portion of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurements program (ARM/UAV). Radiation-cloud interactions are the dominant uncertainty in the current General Circulation Models used for atmospheric climate studies. Reduction of this uncertainty is a top scientific priority of the US Global Change Research Program and the ARM program. While the DOE`s ARM program measures a num-ber of parameters from the ground-based Clouds and Radiation Testbed sites, it was recognized from the outset that other key parameters are best measured by sustained airborne data taking. These measurements are critical in our understanding of global change issues as well as for improved atmospheric and near space weather forecasting applications.

Phipps, G.S.; Grotbeck, C.L.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Retrieval of Optical And Size Parameters of Aerosols Utilizing a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer and Inter-Comparison with CIMEL Sun Photometer and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiometer and Inter-Comparison with CIMEL Sun Photometer and MICROTOPS Sun Photometer Antonio Aguirre Radiometer (MFRSR) and comparing with data from a CIMEL Sun Photometer and a MICROTOPS Sun Photometer. Using the inverse cosine of the angle between the sun and the vertical. A Langley plot provides a linear regression

129

Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

H. Douville D. Salas-Me lia S. Tyteca On the tropical origin of uncertainties in the global land precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 2005). Global warming also leads to a systematic increase in total precipitable water, soH. Douville � D. Salas-Me´ lia � S. Tyteca On the tropical origin of uncertainties in the global land precipitation response to global warming Received: 17 August 2005 / Accepted: 25 October 2005

Ribes, Aurélien

131

A modelling approach to carbon, water and energy feedbacks and interactions across the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer BOREAS - (the) BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study C - Carbon CABi A modelling approach to carbon, water and energy feedbacks and interactions across the land partitioning of energy, the evapotranspiration of water and if the land-surface is a sink or a source of CO2

132

Satellite Microwave remote sensing of contrasting surface water inundation changes within the ArcticBoreal Region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-atmosphere water, energy and carbon (CO2, CH4) fluxes, and potential feedbacks to climate change. Here we report fractional open water (Fw) cover from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E). The AMSR ) of regions above 49°N (Brown et al., 1998). Although permafrost is widespread at high latitudes due to low

Montana, University of

133

Caustic Precipitation of Plutonium and Uranium with Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The caustic precipitation of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) from Pu and U-containing waste solutions has been investigated to determine whether gadolinium (Gd) could be used as a neutron poison for precipitation with greater than a fissile mass containing both Pu and enriched U. Precipitation experiments were performed using both process solution samples and simulant solutions with a range of 2.6-5.16 g/L U and 0-4.3:1 U:Pu. Analyses were performed on solutions at intermediate pH to determine the partitioning of elements for accident scenarios. When both Pu and U were present in the solution, precipitation began at pH 4.5 and by pH 7, 99% of Pu and U had precipitated. When complete neutralization was achieved at pH > 14 with 1.2 M excess OH{sup -}, greater than 99% of Pu, U, and Gd had precipitated. At pH > 14, the particles sizes were larger and the distribution was a single mode. The ratio of hydrogen:fissile atoms in the precipitate was determined after both settling and centrifuging and indicates that sufficient water was associated with the precipitates to provide the needed neutron moderation for Gd to prevent a criticality in solutions containing up to 4.3:1 U:Pu and up to 5.16 g/L U.

VISSER, ANN E.; BRONIKOWSKI, MICHAEL G.; RUDISILL, TRACY S.

2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

134

3742 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference Detection Algorithms: A Comparative Study Sidharth Misra, Priscilla N is with Halliburton Energy Services, Houston, TX 77032 USA. J. R. Piepmeier is with the Microwave Instrument growth recently in satellite telecommunica- tion, in high-bandwidth point-to-point terrestrial wireless

Ruf, Christopher

135

Modification of the collective Thomson scattering radiometer in the search for parametric decay on TEXTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strong scattering of high-power millimeter waves at 140 GHz has been shown to take place in heating and current-drive experiments at TEXTOR when a tearing mode is present in the plasma. The scattering signal is at present supposed to be generated by the parametric decay instability. Here we describe the heterodyne detection system used to characterize the newly discovered signal measured at TEXTOR, and we present spectral shapes in which the signal can appear under different conditions. The radiation is collected by the receiver through a quasi-optical transmission line that is independent of the electron cyclotron resonance heating transmission line, and so the scattering geometry is variable. The signal is detected with 42 frequency channels ranging from 136 to 142 GHz. We demonstrate that the large signal does not originate from gyrotron spurious radiation. The measured signal agrees well with independent backscattering radiometer data.

Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P.; Stejner, M. [Association EURATOM - DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Risoe Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bongers, W.; Moseev, D.; Westerhof, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM - FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Oosterbeek, J. W. [Department of Applied Physics, Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

137

Informal Preliminary Report on Comparisons of Prototype SPN-1 Radiometer to PARSL Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The prototype SPN-1 has been taking measurements for several months collocated with our PNNL Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory (PARSL) solar tracker mounted instruments at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) located in Richland, Washington, USA. The PARSL radiometers used in the following comparisons consist of an Eppley Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) and a shaded Eppley model 8-48 “Black and White” pyrgeometer (B&W) to measure the direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance (SW), respectively. These instruments were calibrated in mid-September by comparison to an absolute cavity radiometer directly traceable to the world standard group in Davos, Switzerland. The NIP calibration was determined by direct comparison, while the B&W was calibrated using the shade/unshade technique. All PARSL data prior to mid-September have been reprocessed using the new calibration factors. The PARSL data are logged as 1-minute averages from 1-second samples. Data used in this report span the time period from June 22 through December 1, 2006. All data have been processed through the QCRad code (Long and Shi, 2006), which itself is a more elaborately developed methodology along the lines of that applied by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Archive (Long and Dutton, 2004), for quality control. The SPN-1 data are the standard total and diffuse SW values obtained from the analog data port of the instrument. The comparisons use only times when both the PARSL and SPN-1 data passed all QC testing. The data were further processed and analyzed by application of the SW Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long and Gaustad, 2004, Long et al., 2006) to detect periods of clear skies, calculate continuous estimates of clear-sky SW irradiance and the effect of clouds on the downwelling SW, and estimate fractional sky cover.

Long, Charles N.

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

138

The precipitation synthesis of broad-spectrum UV absorber nanoceria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the possibility of nanoceria as broad-spectrum UV absorber was evaluated. Nanoceria were synthesized by precipitation process from cerium nitrate solution and ammonium hydroxide as precipitant agent. Isopropanol was mixed with water as solvent to prevent hard agglomeration. The structure of resulting nanoceria was characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The transparency in the visible light and efficiency of protection in UV A region were studied using ultraviolet-visible (UV - Vis) spectrophotometer. The results show that nanoceria possess good tranparency in visible light and high UV light absorption. The critical absorption wavelenght of 368 nm was obtained which is desirable for excellent broad-spectrum protection absorbers. Moreover, analysis of photodegradation nanoceria to methylene blue solution shows poor photocatalytic activity. It indicates that nanoceria suitable for used as UV absorber in personal care products.

Nurhasanah, Iis; Sutanto, Heri; Puspaningrum, Nurul Wahyu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedarto, S.H, Tembalang Semarang 50275 (Indonesia)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universitas Diponegoro Jl. Prof. Soedarto, S.H, Tembalang Semarang 50275 (Indonesia)

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

139

Copper precipitation in cobalt-alloyed precipitation-hardened stainless steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copper precipitation in cobalt-alloyed precipitation-hardened stainless steel Arpana S. Murthy online 1 March 2012 The influence of cobalt addition on precipitation of copper in a high-strength stainless steel was investigated using three-dimen- sional atom probe tomography. A decrease in copper

Medvedeva, Julia E.

140

A Hydrometeorological Study Related to the Distribution of Precipitation and Runoff over Small Drainage Basins -- Urban Versus Rural Areas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TR-28 1970 A Hydrometeorological Study Related to the Distribution of Precipitation and Runoff over Small Drainage Basins?Urban Versus Rural Areas R.G. Feddes R.A. Clark R.C. Runnels Texas Water...

Feddes, R. G.; Clark, R.A.; Runnels, R. C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Dissolution of ordered precipitates under ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stability of the ordered {gamma}{prime} precipitates under 300-keV Ni{sup +} irradiation was investigated between room temperature and 623 K. The two competing mechanisms of destabilization by cascade producing irradiation, i.e. disordering and dissolution of the {gamma}{prime} precipitates in Nimonic PE16 alloy, has been studied separately by electron microscopy and field-ion microscopy with atom probe. At high temperatures, the precipitates are stable. At intermediate temperatures, the precipitates dissolve by ballistic mixing into the matrix, but the interface is restored by the radiation-enhanced atomic jumps. The order in the precipitates remains stable. At low temperatures, the precipitates are dissolved by atomic mixing. The dissolution proceeds in a diffusional manner with a diffusion coefficient normalized by the displacement rate D/K = 0.75 nm{sup 2}dpa{sup {minus}1}. The precipitates become disordered by a fluence of 0.1 dpa, whereas precipitate dissolution needs much higher fluences.

Camus, E.; Bourdeau, F.; Abromeit, C.; Wanderka, N.; Wollenberger, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution First author: Amir Givati The Hebrew January 2004 #12;ABSTRACT: Urban and industrial air pollution has been shown qualitatively to suppress of the ratio of hill/coast precipitation during the 20th century in polluted areas in line with the increasing

Li, Zhanqing

143

Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in Petroleum Mixtures C. Lira-Galeana and A, Berkeley, CIA 94720 A thermodynamic pamework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum only recently have attempts been made to develop a thermodynamic description. Published methods

Firoozabadi, Abbas

144

Method for Removing Precipitates in Biofuel  

Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

At ORNL the application of ultrasonic energy, or sonication, has been shown to successfully remove or prevent the formation of 50–90% of the precipitates in biofuels. Precipitates can plug filters as biodiesel is transported from one location to another, and often cannot be detected by visual inspection....

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

145

Flow preconditioner for electrostatic precipitator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A flow preconditioner for an electrostatic precipitator removes particulate matter from a stream of polluted gas immediately after it passes through a tangential inlet at the lower end of a vertical cylindrical housing and straightens and divides the stream into laminations parallel to the axis of the housing. It comprises an annular ledge or choke ring extending inwardly from said housing above the inlet and an assembly of vanes above said ledge extending radially from the axis of the housing and angularly spaced apart. Each of said vanes has a flow receiving edge directed toward said inlet, a curved portion extending upwardly and away from said inlet, and a flat portion extending upwardly from said curved portion in a plane parallel to the housing axis. The curved portion of each vane defines a trough having a camber which gradually decreases along its span from the outer end of the vane towards the axis of the housng, together with means to vary the centrifugal flow distribution relative to the housing to render the preconditioner adjustable for various flow capacities.

Honacker, H.; Drlik, R.J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The ultimate goal is to improve our cloud classification algorithm into a VAP.

Wang, Zhien

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

147

In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases, the known values are used to approximate the values for the rest of the temperature range. Although such treatment contributes to uncertainty in model outputs, the model validation test cases indicate that the model, with its associated uncertainty, is valid for its intended use. The intended use of this model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period.

P. Mariner

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

148

Intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent research on the projection of precipitation extremes has either focused on conceptual physical mechanisms that generate heavy precipitation or rigorous statistical methods that extrapolate tail behavior. However, informing both climate prediction and impact assessment requires concurrent physically and statistically oriented analysis. A combined examination of climate model simulations and observation-based reanalysis data sets suggests more intense and frequent precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios. Utilization of statistical extreme value theory and resampling-based uncertainty quantification combined with consideration of the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship reveals consistently intensifying trends for precipitation extremes at a global-average scale. However, regional and decadal analyses reveal specific discrepancies in the physical mechanisms governing precipitation extremes, as well as their statistical trends, especially in the tropics. The intensifying trend of precipitation extremes has quantifiable impacts on intensity-duration-frequency curves, which in turn have direct implications for hydraulic engineering design and water-resources management. The larger uncertainties at regional and decadal scales suggest the need for caution during regional-scale adaptation or preparedness decisions. Future research needs to explore the possibility of uncertainty reduction through higher resolution global climate models, statistical or dynamical downscaling, as well as improved understanding of precipitation extremes processes.

Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Iowa Water Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

our land management systems perform well under both sides of the precipitation norm? How will water? A variety of issues linking land management and water quantity and quality at multiple scales require precipitation, should be questioned. Do our land management systems perform well under both sides

150

Global estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water balance model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Advanced Very High Res- olution Radiometer Lai data, Climate Research Unit climate dataGlobal estimation of evapotranspiration using a leaf area index-based surface energy and water-relative-humidity-based two-source (ARTS) E model that simulates the surface energy balance, soil water balance

Martin, Timothy

151

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificially heated waters Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu) Summary: exchanger, and water-to-water heat pumps have been developed and validated separately... from precipitation, and latent...

152

Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

Myers, D. R.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Processing NPP Bottoms by Ferrocyanide Precipitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of work is a laboratory test of a technological scheme for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides by use of ozonization, ferrocyanide precipitation, filtration and selective sorption. At carrying out the ferrocyanide precipitation after ozonization, the specific activity of bottoms by Cs{sup 137} is reduced in 100-500 times. It has been demonstrated that the efficiency of ferrocyanide precipitation depends on the quality of consequent filtration. Pore sizes of a filter has been determined to be less than 0.2 {micro}m for complete separation of ferrocyanide residue. The comparison of two technological schemes for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides, characterized by presence of the ferrocyanide precipitation stage has been performed. Application of the proposed schemes allows reducing volumes of radioactive waste in many times.

Savkin, A. E.; Slastennikov Y. T.; Sinyakin O. G.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

154

A reactionless, bearingless linear shutter mechanism for the multispectral pushbroom imaging radiometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program is a multi-laboratory, interagency program as part of DOE`s principal entry into the US Global Change Research Program. Two issues addressed are the radiation budget and its spectral dependence, and radiative and other properties of clouds. Measures of solar flux divergence and energy exchanges between clouds, the earth, its oceans, and the atmosphere through various altitudes are sought. Additionally, the program seeks to provide measurements to calibrate satellite radiance products and validate their associated flux retrieval algorithms. Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles fly long, extended missions. MPIR is one of the primary instruments on the ARM-UAV campaigns. A shutter mechanism has been developed and flown as part of an airborne imaging radiometer having application to spacecraft or other applications requiring low vibration, high reliability, and long life. The device could be employed in other cases where a reciprocating platform is needed. Typical shutters and choppers utilize a spinning disc, or in very small instruments, a vibrating vane to continually interrupt incident light or radiation that enters the system. A spinning disk requires some sort of bearings that usually have limited life, and at a minimum introduce issues of reliability. Friction, lubrication and contamination always remain critical areas of concern, as well as the need for power to operate. Dual vibrating vanes may be dynamically well balanced as a set and are frictionless. However, these are limited by size in a practical sense. In addition, multiples of these devices are difficult to synchronize.

Krumel, L.J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

155

Method to Calculate Uncertainty Estimate of Measuring Shortwave Solar Irradiance using Thermopile and Semiconductor Solar Radiometers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The uncertainty of measuring solar irradiance is fundamentally important for solar energy and atmospheric science applications. Without an uncertainty statement, the quality of a result, model, or testing method cannot be quantified, the chain of traceability is broken, and confidence cannot be maintained in the measurement. Measurement results are incomplete and meaningless without a statement of the estimated uncertainty with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) or to another internationally recognized standard. This report explains how to use International Guidelines of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to calculate such uncertainty. The report also shows that without appropriate corrections to solar measuring instruments (solar radiometers), the uncertainty of measuring shortwave solar irradiance can exceed 4% using present state-of-the-art pyranometers and 2.7% using present state-of-the-art pyrheliometers. Finally, the report demonstrates that by applying the appropriate corrections, uncertainties may be reduced by at least 50%. The uncertainties, with or without the appropriate corrections might not be compatible with the needs of solar energy and atmospheric science applications; yet, this report may shed some light on the sources of uncertainties and the means to reduce overall uncertainty in measuring solar irradiance.

Reda, I.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurementsÃ?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

Dr. Sergey Matrosov

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Precipitable water structure in tropical systems as estimated from TOVS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for approximately 75% of the variance of PW compared to radiosonde data. Large scale features that readily appear in daily and mean PW fields and synoptic scale features found on daily maps coincide with those seen in microwave data. Daily PW values are used...

Hatfield, Eric

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Evaluation of ground-based remotely sensed liquid water cloud properties using shortwave radiation measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

properties of low level water clouds. A number of remote sensing retrieval techniques provide either radar-only retrie- vals or combine millimeter-wave radar with microwave radiometer measurements (Frisch et al., 1995 radiation measurements from the ground. The remote sensing observations of radar reflectivity, microwave

Haak, Hein

159

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION VOL. 35, NO.5 AMERICANWATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION OCTOBER 1999  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Very High Resolu- tion Radiometer (AVILRR), were transformed linearly into monthly evaporation rates for transforming NDVI values into evaporation estimates under both wet and water- limiting conditions without to it (Brutsaert, 1982:4). Reliable evapora- tion estimates are critical to the fields of hydrology, meteorology

Szilagyi, Jozsef

160

Regional trends and local variability in monsoon precipitation in the northern Chihuahuan Desert, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, monsoon precipitation can affect changes to the land surface, vege- tation communities and ecosystem throughout the 20th century and continues to affect the biotic and abiotic components of southwestern US ecology locally and regionally (Snyder and Tartowski, 2006). In many water-driven ecosystems, vegetation

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

The Arctic Oscillation, climate change and the effects on precipitation in Israel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Mediterranean basin. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Climate change Arctic Oscillation) investigated the effect of climate change on water resources of Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East regionThe Arctic Oscillation, climate change and the effects on precipitation in Israel Amir Givati b

Daniel, Rosenfeld

162

Effects of Aerosols on Autumn Precipitation over Mid-Eastern China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long-term observational data indicated a decreasing trend for the amount of autumn precipitation (i.e. 54.3 mm per decade) over Mid-Eastern China, especially after 1980s (~ 5.6% per decade). To examine the cause of the decreasing trend, the mechanisms associated with the change of autumn precipitation were investigated from the perspective of water vapor transportation, atmospheric stability and cloud microphysics. Results show that the decrease of convective available potential energy (i.e. 12.81 J kg-1/ decade) and change of cloud microphysics, which were closely related to the increase of aerosol loading during the past twenty years, were the two primary factors responsible for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Ours results showed that increased aerosol could enhance the atmospheric stability thus weaken the convection. Meanwhile, more aerosols also led to a significant decline of raindrop concentration and to a delay of raindrop formation because of smaller size of cloud droplets. Thus, increased aerosols produced by air pollution could be one of the major reasons for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Furthermore, we found that the aerosol effects on precipitation in autumn was more significant than in other seasons, partly due to the relatively more stable synoptic system in autumn. The impact of large-scale circulation dominated in autumn and the dynamic influence on precipitation was more important than the thermodynamic activity.

Chen, Siyu; Huang, J.; Qian, Yun; Ge, Jinming; Su, Jing

2014-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

163

Stable isotopes composition of precipitation fallen over Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between 2009-2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper presents the deuterium and oxygen 18 content from All precipitations events, which have occured over Cluj-Napoca, Romania from 2009 until 2012. Time series for ?{sup 2}H and ?{sup 18}O values point out both the seasonal variation that has increased amplitude reflecting the continental character of the local climate as well as dramatic variations of isotopic content of successive precipitation events, emphasizing the anomalous values. These fluctuations are the footprint of the variations and trends in climate events. Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL), reflecting the ?{sup 2}H - ?{sup 18}O correlation, has the slop and the intercept slightly deviated from the GMWL, indicating that the dominant process affecting local precipitations are close to the equilibrium condition. LMWL has a slope smaller then that of the GMWL in the warm season due to lower humidity and a slope closest to the slop of GMWL in cold season with high humidity. The ?{sup 2}H and ?{sup 18}O values both for the precipitation events and monthly mean values are positively correlated with the temperature values with a very good correlation factor. The values of ?{sup 2}H and ?{sup 18}O are not correlated with amount of precipitation, the 'amount effect' of isotopic composition of precipitation is not observed for this site.

Puscas, R.; Feurdean, V. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Simon, V. [Babes-Bolyai University Faculty of Physics (Romania)] [Babes-Bolyai University Faculty of Physics (Romania)

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

164

The Effects of Secondary Mineral Precipitates on 90Sr Mobility at the Hanford Site, USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of secondary precipitates on 90Sr transport at the Hanford Site were investigated using quartz column experiments with simulated caustic tank waste leachates (STWL). Significantly enhanced retardation of Sr transport was observed in the column contacted with STWL due to Sr sorption and co-precipitation with neo-formed nitratecancrinite. However, the column results also suggest that neo-formed secondary precipitates could behave like native mobile colloids that can enhance Sr transport. Initially immobilized Sr within secondary precipitates could remobilize given a change in the porewater background conditions. The mobility of the neo-formed Sr-bearing precipitates increased with increased solution flow rate. In the field, porewater contents and flow rates can be changed by snowmelt (or storm water) events or artificial infiltration. The increased porewater flow rate caused by these events could affect the mobility of 90Sr-containing secondary precipitates, which can be a potential source for facilitated Sr transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

165

Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni{sup 2+} precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni{sup 2+} form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni{sup 2+}. On the other hand, presence of Al{sup 3+} facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni{sup 2+} in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator{trademark}, Version 1.01) lets the user change the order of kinetic components of a reaction which was set to stoichiometric constant with which the species appear in the reaction in KINSIM by default. For instance, in the case of LDH precipitation, the new program allows to change the order of species in the reactions associated with Al{sup 3+} and let the Ni{sup 2+} reactions take over. This could be carried on iteratively until a good fit between the experimental data and the predictions were observed. However for such studies availability of accurate equilibrium constants (especially for the solubility products for the solid phase) is a prerequisite.

Bora Mavis

2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

166

The R/V Discoverer cruise to Manus Island. The BNL Portable Radiometer Package (PRP) evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Laboratory installed and operated a Portable Radiation Package (PRP) on the NOAA ship R/V DISCOVERER as part of the Combined Sensor Program cruise in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean. The DISCOVERER transported a collection of radiation and atmospheric instrumentation to positions offshore of manus Island to compare cloud and radiation fields to like instruments measured from a station on the island. The ship sailed NW from Pago Pago, American Samoa, on 14 March 1996 to a latitude of 1{degree}S then due West until it approached manus Island (2{degree}S and 148{degree}E) on approximately 7 April. The ship then turned SW and approached Manus Island in three steps. This route was reversed during the ship`s return to Hawaii. The PRP package is a compact low-power integration of simple sensors that measure long- and short-wave irradiance from moving platforms. A rapid rotating shadowband radiometer that is designed to provide good estimates of diffuse (sky) radiation even from moving buoys or ships was being evaluated. The PRP provided the only means of making diffuse (sky) radiation measurements from the ship. The CSP cruise provided an excellent opportunity to intercompare the PRP with other like instruments in the TWP locale. The unit was located on the starboard flying bridge which was fully exposed to direct sunlight during the ship`s westward transit. When the ship was at its closest approach to manus, the PRP was moved to the island where careful intercomparison with the Manus instrumentation was conducted.

Reynolds, R.M.; Smith, S.

1996-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

167

High volume, multiple use, portable precipitator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable high air volume electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a collection electrode adapted to carry a variety of collecting media. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section with a transversely positioned ionization wire to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows over the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. Air flow is maintained at but below turbulent flow, Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the selected medium which can be removed for analysis.

Carlson, Duane C. (N. Augusta, SC)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

168

Results of First Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ACP and IRIS are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The first outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from January 28 to February 8, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of IRIS was within 1 W/m2. A difference of 5 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG).

Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.; Stoffel, T.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

170

Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

171

Cloud Properties and Precipitation Formation Processes Observed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of spring time precipitation that develops in the Riyadh, Saudi Arabia region. · What are the cloud properties for developing cloud in the Riyadh, Saudi Arabia region. Research Objective #12;#12;Quality is based on calibration conducted by Kelly bosch and Dennis Afseth at Weather Modification Inc. (WMI) on 22

Delene, David J.

172

ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

Jensen, Mike

173

ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

Jensen, Mike

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD) from AOD measurements, have shown great performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around the world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon) or when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999-2012) aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent) is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Koontz, Annette S.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Barnard, James C.

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

175

Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match well the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations, and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recent...

Chan, Pak Yuen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Iowa Water Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precipitation, should be questioned. Do our land management systems perform well under both sides and human health? A variety of issues linking land management and water quantity and quality at multiple precipitation, should be questioned. Do our land management systems perform well under both sides

177

Iowa Water Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be questioned. Do our land management systems perform well under both sides of the precipitation norm? How health? A variety of issues linking land management and water quantity and quality at multiple scales be questioned. Do our land management systems perform well under both sides of the precipitation norm? How

178

PROGRESS REPORT OF FY 2004 ACTIVITIES: IMPROVED WATER VAPOR AND CLOUD RETRIEVALS AT THE NSA/AAO  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud coverage, with a focus on the Arctic conditions of cold temperatures and low concentrations of water vapor. The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Although several technologies have been investigated to measure these column amounts, microwave radiometers (MWR) have been used operationally by the ARM program for passive retrievals of these quantities: precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated water liquid (IWL). The technology of PWV and IWL retrievals has advanced steadily since the basic 2-channel MWR was first deployed at ARM CART sites Important advances are the development and refinement of the tipcal calibration method [1,2], and improvement of forward model radiative transfer algorithms [3,4]. However, the concern still remains that current instruments deployed by ARM may be inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and IWL. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important because of the possibility of scaling and/or quality control of radiosondes by the water amount. Extremely dry conditions, with PWV less than 3 mm, commonly occur in Polar Regions during the winter months. Accurate measurements of the PWV during such dry conditions are needed to improve our understanding of the regional radiation energy budgets. The results of a 1999 experiment conducted at the ARM North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site during March of 1999 [5] have shown that the strength associated with the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line makes radiometry in this frequency regime suitable for measuring low amounts of PWV. As a portion of our research, we conducted another millimeter wave radiometric experiment at the NSA/AAO in March-April 2004. This experiment relied heavily on our experiences of the 1999 experiment. Particular attention was paid to issues of radiometric calibration and radiosonde intercomparisons. Our theoretical and experimental work also supplements efforts by industry (F. Solheim, Private Communication) to develop sub-millimeter radiometers for ARM deployment. In addition to quantitative improvement of water vapor measurements at cold temperature, the impact of adding millimeter-wave window channels to improve the sensitivity to arctic clouds was studied. We also deployed an Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) during this experiment, both for measuring continuous day-night statistics of the study of cloud coverage and identifying conditions suitable for tipcal analysis. This system provided the first capability of determining spatial cloud statistics continuously in both day and night at the NSA site and has been used to demonstrate that biases exist in inferring cloud statistics from either zenith-pointing active sensors (lidars or radars) or sky imagers that rely on scattered sunlight in daytime and star maps at night [6].

E. R. Westwater; V. V. Leuskiy; M. Klein; A. J. Gasiewski; and J. A. Shaw

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Remote Sensing of Soil and Water Quality in Agroecosystems Vincent de Paul Obade & Rattan Lal & Jiquan Chen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and reflection radiometer ASD Analytical spectral device AVIRIS Airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer near real-time information on soil and water quality in the context of major land use practices SPOT Satellites pour l'observation de la terre or earth-observing satellites SWIR Short-wave infrared

Chen, Jiquan

180

Enhancing the estimation of continental-scale snow water equivalent by assimilating MODIS snow cover with the ensemble Kalman filter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Received 28 July 2007; revised 30 October 2007; accepted 10 January 2008; published 30 April 2008. [1] High Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) estimates (in particular regions) are used to evaluate is a very important component of the climate system which controls surface energy and water balances. Its

Yang, Zong-Liang

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

E-Print Network 3.0 - active cavity radiometer Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science, University of Michigan Collection: Geosciences 20 NIST Measurement Services: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration Summary: water Aperture Cavity Figure 3. Transfer standard...

182

Results of Second Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and InfraRed Integrating Sphere radiometer (IRIS) are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are un-windowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The second outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from September 30 to October 11, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of the IRIS was within 1 W/m2 (3 IRISs: PMOD + Australia + Germany). From the first and second comparisons, a difference of 4-6 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). This presentation includes results from the first and second comparison in an effort to establish the world reference for pyrgeometer calibrations, a key deliverable for the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the DOE-ASR.

Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in a model Ti-Mo-Al alloy studied by direct coupling of transmission Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta...

184

The precipitation sequence in Al-Mg-Si alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fine-scale precipitation that occurs during age hardening of Al alloy 6061 has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the precipitation sequence is: independent clusters of Mg and Si atoms {yields} co-clusters that contain Mg and Si atoms {yields} small precipitates of unknown structure {yields} {beta}{double_prime} needle-shaped precipitates {yields} B{prime} lath-shaped precipitates and {beta}{prime} rod-shaped precipitates. A new structure is proposed for the {beta}{double_prime} precipitate. It was found that the Mg:Si ratio in the intermediate precipitates and co-clusters was close to 1:1.

Edwards, G.A.; Dunlop, G.L. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)] [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Stiller, K. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Couper, M.J. [Comalco Research Centre, Thomastown, Victoria (Australia)] [Comalco Research Centre, Thomastown, Victoria (Australia)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

A critical analysis of bulk precipitation recycling models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Precipitation recycling is the contribution of local land evaporation to the precipitation of a region. The significant local evaporative contribution to rainfall in many continental regions highlights the potential ...

Fitzmaurice, Jean Anne

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Diurnal Precipitation Variations in South-Central New Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Orographic forcing of diurnal precipitation variations in south-central New Mexico is examined. Harmonic analysis reveals a strong diurnal cycle in precipitation frequency at all stations studied. In addition, relatively ...

Tucker, Donna F.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropical rainforests are known to exhibit low intraseasonal precipitation variability compared with oceanic areas with similar mean precipitation in observations and models. In the present study, the potential role of ...

Lee, Jung-Eun

188

Global estimation of precipitation using opaque microwave bands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the use of opaque microwave bands for global estimation of precipitation rate. An algorithm was developed for estimating instantaneous precipitation rate for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) ...

Chen, Frederick Wey-Min, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Sensitivity of tropical precipitation extremes to climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Precipitation extremes increase in intensity over many regions of the globe in simulations of a warming climate1, 2, 3. The rate of increase of precipitation extremes in the extratropics is consistent across global climate ...

O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

190

Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at nano-crystalline ZrO2SiO2Si Interfaces . Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at...

191

ammonium polyuranate precipitation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and CoAgMet stations. From top to bottom, and left to right: most recent 7-days of accumulated precipitation in inches; current month-to-date accumulated precipitation in...

192

Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with Lightning Information  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used lightning information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located lightning data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the lightning information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters. Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.

Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; Hsu, Kuo-Lin [University of California, Irvine; Behrangi, Ali [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Estimating Continental and Terrestrial Precipitation Averages from Raingauge Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precipitation, and in areas with s trong precipitation gradients and stat ion-densi ty gradients . 414 C. J. WILLMOTT, S. M. ROBESON AND J. J. FEDDEMA Sampling the LW climatology at the NCAR station locations suggests that many yearly NCAR station densities.... Higher resolution deployments should coincide with high-frequency (in the spatial domain) precipitation variability. Spatial shifts in the precipitation field with time (on seasonal and interannual time-scales, for example) also should be considered...

Willmott, Cort J.; Robeson, Scott M.; Feddema, Johannes J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Inhibition of nickel precipitation by organic ligands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wastewaters from electroplating are very complex due to the composition of the plating baths. A nickel plating bath typically consists of a nickel source (nickel chloride or nickel sulfate), complexing agents to solubilize nickel ions controlling their concentration in the solution, buffering agents to maintain pH, brighteners to improve brightness of the plated metal, stabilizers (inhibitors) to prevent undesired reactions, accelerators to enhance speed of reactions, wetting agents to reduce surface tension at the metal surface, and reducing agents (only for electroless nickel plating) to supply electrons for reduction of the nickel. Alkaline precipitation is the most common method of recovering nickel from wastewaters. However, organic constituents found in the wastewaters can mask or completely inhibit the precipitation of nickel. The objective of this study was to conduct an equilibrium study to explore the inhibition behavior of various organic ligands on nickel precipitation. This will lay the groundwork for development of technologies efficacious in the treatment of complexed nickel. The organic ligands used in this study are EDTA, triethanolamine (TEA), gluconate, and tartrate.

Hu, H.L.; Nikolaidis, N.P.; Grasso, D. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

2011 Baird Holm LLP Storm Water Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for control of storm water runoff has been the use of best management practices ("BMPs") ­ Notwithstanding© 2011 Baird Holm LLP Storm Water Management ­ Shifting Paradigms John P. Heil, Esq. Baird Holm LLP@bairdholm.com #12;© 2011 Baird Holm LLP Introductory Summary · Storm water runoff is generated when precipitation

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

196

Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source waste disposal, acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water of the 1987-1989 drought years, and the flood of 93 and 95, water quantity has become a major topic of concern

197

Neptunium_Oxide_Precipitation_Kinetics_AJohnsen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We evaluate the proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation system at elevated temperatures to obtain primary information on the effects of temperature, ionic strength, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Experiments conducted on unfiltered solutions at 10{sup -4} M NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq), neutral pH, and 200 C indicated that solution colloids strongly affect precipitation kinetics. Subsequent experiments on filtered solutions at 200, 212, and 225 C showed consistent and distinctive temperature-dependent behavior at reaction times {le} 800 hours. At longer times, the 200 C experiments showed unexpected dissolution of neptunium solids, but experiments at 212 C and 225 C demonstrated quasi steady-state neptunium concentrations of 3 x 10{sup -6} M and 6 x 10{sup -6} M, respectively. Solids from a representative experiment analyzed by X-ray diffraction were consistent with NpO{sub 2}(cr). A 200 C experiment with a NaCl concentration of 0.05 M showed a dramatic increase in the rate of neptunium loss. A 200 C experiment in an argon atmosphere resulted in nearly complete loss of aqueous neptunium. Previously proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation mechanisms in the literature specified a 1:1 ratio of neptunium loss and H{sup +} production in solution over time. However, all experiments demonstrated ratios of approximately 0.4 to 0.5. Carbonate equilibria can account for only about 40% of this discrepancy, leaving an unexpected deficit in H+ production that suggests that additional chemical processes are occurring.

Johnsen, A M; Roberts, K E; Prussin, S G

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

198

The precipitation response to the desiccation of Lake Chad  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Located in the semi-arid African Sahel, Lake Chad has shrunk from a surface area of 25000 km2 in 1960 to about 1350 km2 due to a series of droughts and anthropogenic influences. The disappearance of such a large open-water body can be expected to have a noticeable effect on the meteorology in the surroundings of the lake. The impact could extend even further to the west as westward propagating convective systems pass Lake Chad in the rainfall season. This study examines the sensitivity of the regional hydrology and convective processes to the desiccation of the lake using a regional atmospheric model. Three Lake Chad scenarios are applied reflecting the situation in 1960, the current situation and a potential future scenario in which the lake and the surrounding wetlands have disappeared. The model simulations span the months July-September in 2006, which includes the rainfall season in the Lake Chad area. Total precipitation amounts and the components of the hydrological cycle are found to be hardly affected by the existence of the lake. A filled Lake Chad does, however, increase the precipitation at the east side of the lake. The model results indicate that the boundary layer moisture and temperature are significantly altered downwind of the lake. By investigating a mesoscale convective system (MCS) case, this is found to affect the development and progress of the system. At first, the MCS is intensified by the more unstable boundary layer air but the persistence of the system is altered as the cold pool propagation becomes less effective. The proposed mechanism is able to explain the differences in the rainfall patterns nearby Lake Chad between the scenarios. This highlights the local sensitivity to the desiccation of Lake Chad whereas the large-scale atmospheric processes are not affected.

Lauwaet D.; VanWeverberg K.; vanLipzig, N. P. M., Weverberg, K. V., Ridderb, K. D., and Goyens, C.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Generated using version 3.2 of the official AMS LATEX template The Response of Orographic Precipitation over Idealized1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;1. Introduction27 Orographic precipitation replenishes a large fraction of the world's fresh water supply.28 About 26% of the world's population lives within mountains or their foothills, and over 40%29 live in river basins originating in mountainous regions (Beniston 2005). Heavy orographic30

200

A 6-year AMSU-based climatology of upper-level troughs and associated precipitation distribution in the Mediterranean region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

orography surrounding the Mediterranean sea, and the large supply of water vapor at low levels, are all conditions such as heavy precipitation and floods, strong winds and droughts. In our study we focus on heavy that intrude into and affect the Medi- terranean region as well as on the occurrence of moderate to heavy

Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match well the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations, and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recently proposed for stalactite growth, and calculate the linear stability spectrum of both travertine domes and stalactites. Lastly, we apply the theory to the problem of precipitation pattern formation arising from turbulent flow down an inclined plane, and identify a linear instability that underlies scale-invariant travertine terrace formation at geothermal hot springs.

Pak Yuen Chan; Nigel Goldenfeld

2007-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

202

Our Forests in the [Water] Balance Water: Brought by a forest near you  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the amount and type of precipitation that falls across the western United States. Research shows a trend1 Our Forests in the [Water] Balance Water: Brought by a forest near you Water is a crucial, industry, energy, recreation, and the natural resources we manage and care about. While most citizens

203

Heavy precipitation events in the southeastern United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oriented east. to west during the occurrence of light precipitation. . . . . . . . . . 60 15h 16b 16c 16d 16e 16f Composite 1000-500 mb thickness pattern (60 m increments) accompanying fronts oriented north to south during the occurrence of light... oriented north to south 12 h prior to the occurrence of heavy precipitation. . . . . . . . -. . . . ~ 22 b Composite 300 mb height field (120 m increments) accompanying fronts oriented east to west 12 h prior to the occurrence of heavy precipitation...

Soptei, Robert Julius

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Precipitation chemistry: its behavior and its calculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purposes of this paper are twofold. The first of these is to present a rational basis for examining the aggregate set of scavenging-calculation techniques, and for guiding the reader in his course toward choosing the most appropriate technique for his particular application. The second purpose of this paper is to present a somewhat brief survey of our current understanding of scavenging and precipitation chemistry. Both objectives will be implemented by a flowchart approach, which attempts to draw the various facets of scavenging calculations together and present a generalized approach to the problem in total. The mathematical level of this paper is restricted to the presentation of the equations necessary to provide the reader with a basic appreciation of the fundamental concepts involved. References to more detailed mathematical treatments are cited at appropriate juncture points, for the reader interested in more detailed pursuit.

Hales, J.M.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Electrode supporting base for electrostatic precipitators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a base for supporting hollow cylindrical and circular in cross section collector electrodes for an electrostatic precipitator. The base comprises a central portion and is generally circular; a plurality of arcuate venturi and collector trough assemblies which are generally circular and which intersect radially disposed drain troughs; said venturi and collector trough assemblies being concentric with said center portion of said base and drain troughs extending radially outward from said center portion; a circular wall structure secured to outer ends of said drain troughs; fixture means for securing said collector electrodes on said drain troughs; uppermost portions of said drain troughs and said venturi and collector troughs being substantially flush with each other and said venturi and collector trough assemblies disposed on a common plane to provide for uniform laminar flow relative to the collector electrodes.

Honacker, H.

1981-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

206

A unified approach to asphaltene precipitation: Laboratory measurement and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A unified approach to evaluating asphaltene precipitation based on laboratory measurement and modeling is presented. This approach used an organic deposition cell for measuring asphaltene drop out onset conditions. Asphaltene precipitation was detected by changes in optical fluorescence, electrical conductance, and visual observation. A series of experiments measured the effects of changing pressure, temperature and composition on asphaltene precipitation. A fully-compositional V-L-S mathematical model completed the analysis by matching the experimental results. The model was then used to forecast asphaltene precipitation under a variety of production scenarios including response to gas-lift operations, and to evaluate the possible location of a tar-mat.

MacMillan, D.J.; Tackett, J.E. Jr.; Jessee, M.A.; Monger-McClure, T.G.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation in the sediments under alkaline and saline conditions . Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and...

208

Changes in concurrent monthly precipitation and temperature extremes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

changes in daily climate extremes of temperature J. Geophys.Bayesian spatial modeling of extreme precipitation returnand Mearns L 2000 Climate extremes: observations, modeling,

Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Joint probability analysis of precipitation and streamflow extremes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis focuses on evaluation of joint occurrence of extreme precipitation and streamflow events at several hydrologic structures in South Florida. An analysis of twelve… (more)

Lin, Chia-hung.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

An analysis of winter precipitation in the northeast and a winter weather precipitation type forecasting tool for New York City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

center, (ii) a pool of high humidity spreading to the coast, and (iii) temperatures between 0 and -5 C at the coastal area. Goree and Younkin (1966) described favored locations for the occurrence of heavy snow with respect to certain atmospheric.... Precipitation Type Precipitation type is dependent on the thermal structure of the lower atmosphere. Temperatures below freezing (0 C) from the level where precipitation forms to the surface result in snow. A layer of significant depth above the surface...

Gordon, Christopher James

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

211

Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte- Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

Wang, Yi; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel; Kutzbach, John E.

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

Nano-precipitation in hot-pressed silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat treatments at 1300 degrees C, 1400 degrees C, 1500 degrees C, and 1600 degrees C in Ar were found to produce nanoscale precipitates in hot-pressed silicon carbide containing aluminum, boron, and carbon sintering additives (ABC-SiC). The precipitates were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nano-probe energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (nEDS). The precipitates were plate-like in shape, with a thickness, length and separation of only a few nanometers, and their size coarsened with increasing annealing temperature, accompanied by reduced number density. The distribution of the precipitates was uniform inside the SiC grains, but depleted zones were observed in the vicinity of the SiC grain boundaries. A coherent orientation relationship between the precipitates and the SiC matrix was found. Combined high-resolution electron microscopy, computer simulation, and nEDS identified an Al4C3-based structure and composition for the nano-precipitates. Most Al ions in SiC lattice exsolved as precipitates during the annealing at 1400 to 1500 degrees C. Formation mechanism and possible influences of the nanoscale precipitates on mechanical properties are discussed.

Zhang, Xiao Feng; Sixta, Mark E.; Chen, Da; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

213

Modelling precipitation of niobium carbide in austenite: multicomponent diffusion, capillarity,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelling precipitation of niobium carbide in austenite: multicomponent diffusion, capillarity, and coarsening N. Fujita and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia The growth of niobium carbide in austenite involves for the overall transformation kinetics of niobium carbide precipitation in austenite that takes into account

Cambridge, University of

214

Diffusion with dissolution and precipitation in a porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffusion with dissolution and precipitation in a porous media approximation by a finite volume. Quelques tests numériques sont ensuite montrés. KEYWORDS: diffusion, dissolution­precipitation, porous­ ficiency of such disposals relies on material barriers. For such a use, cement concrete offers

Herbin, Raphaèle

215

Diffusion with dissolution and precipitation in a porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diffusion with dissolution and precipitation in a porous media approximation by a finite volume numériques sont ensuite montrés. KEYWORDS: diffusion, dissolution-precipitation, porous media, finite volumes barriers. For such a use, cement concrete offers the advantage of having a weak porosity. However, disposal

Herbin, Raphaèle

216

An analysis of radar estimated precipitation to rain gauge measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the surface. These levels included 1.0 1.5@ 2.0 @ 2.5 km, and 3.0 km. Radar precipitation estimates were calculated at each 1.4 2 level using Z = 30ORand Z = 25OR" . The precipitation amounts, as measured by both the gauges and the radar,were used...

Gleason, Byron Edward

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Molecular Thermodynamics of Asphaltene Precipitation in Reservoir Fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular Thermodynamics of Asphaltene Precipitation in Reservoir Fluids Jianzhong Wu and John M the- ory, is used to correlate experimental asphaltene-precipitation data at high-temperature and pressure conditions. In this framework, asphaltenes and resins are represented by pseudopure components

Wu, Jianzhong

218

Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe Matthew J. Swann;Abstract Flood and wind damage to property and livelihoods resulting from extreme precipitation events variability of these extreme events can be closely related to the large-scale atmospheric circulation

Feigon, Brooke

219

Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

A New Approach to Tracing Particulates from Produced Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in comparison with three suggest that the heavy metals in produced water may be more toxic than originally of buoyant particles com- prised of heavy metal precipitates sequestered onto oil droplets that were is diluted with seawater. These precipitates are more toxic than the dissolved fraction, can flocculate

Taggart, Christopher

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Afghanistan water constraints overview analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Afghanistan's already severe water supply problems are expected to intensify as Afghan refugees resettle in former conflictive zones. The report examines the technical, economic, cultural, and institutional facets of the country's water supply and suggests steps to mitigate existing and anticipated water supply problems. Chapter 2 presents information on Afghanistan's water resources, covering the country's climate, precipitation, glaciers/snow packs, and watersheds; the principal patterns of water flow and distribution; and comprehensive estimates. Chapter 3 examines water resource development in the country from 1945 to 1979, including projects involving irrigation and hydroelectric power and strategies for improving the drinking water supply.

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Oil recovery improvement through profile modification by thermal precipitation. Final report, October 1, 1991--August 27, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research project has been to investigate the potential for using temperature-dependent (thermal) precipitation of chemicals to reduce the porosity and permeability of porous rocks. The method consists of injecting hot water that is saturated in a chemical that will precipitate upon cooling. Through this process, the permeability of thief zones in oil reservoirs could be reduced, allowing improved recovery by secondary and tertiary recovery processes. The chemical literature was reviewed for environmentally safe chemicals that have a suitable temperature-dependent solubility for the thermal precipitation process. Four suitable chemicals were identified: boron oxide, potassium carbonate, sodium borate, and potassium chloride. An experimental apparatus was constructed to test the thermal precipitation process at high temperatures and pressures. Data was collected with clastic Berea sandstone cores using two chemicals: potassium carbonate and sodium borate. Data was also collected with limestone cores using potassium carbonate. The porosities and permeabilities were measured before and after being treated by the thermal precipitation process. A theoretical study of the process was also conducted. A model for predicting the fractional reduction in porosity was developed that is based on the temperature-dependent solubility of the chemical used. An empirical model that predicts the fractional reduction in permeability in terms of the fractional reduction in porosity was then developed for Berea sandstone. Existing theoretical models for estimating the permeability of porous media were tested against the measured data. The existing models, including the widely-used Carman-Kozeny equation, underpredicted the reduction in permeability for the thermal precipitation process. This study has shown that the thermal precipitation process has considerable potential for the controlled reduction in porosity and permeability in geologic formations.

Reis, J.C.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Southern Research Institute is developing a compact, wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) to control acid mist missions from high-sulfur coal combustion. The WESP is being developed as a retrofit technology for existing coal-fired power plants, particularly those equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers. Acid mist emissions can be a significant problem at these facilities because the sulfuric acid vapor in the flue gas is converted to a very fine mist that is not collected in the scrubber system. Conventional mist eliminators are not adequate in this application due to the very fine size of the mist droplets. The potential for corrosion also makes it difficult to use a fabric filter or a conventional, dry ESP in this application. Therefore, this research project has been structured around the development of a compact WESP that could be retrofit on top of an existing scrubber or within an existing flue gas duct. This paper describes the development and testing of a prototype WESP for the utility acid mist application. Testing was conducted with combustion of sulfur-doped gas to simulate the acid mist alone, and with a combination of coal and sulfur-doped gas to simulate the mixture of acid mist and fly ash downstream from a scrubber. The performance of the WESP test unit was modeled using two different cylindrical-geometry computer models: a current-seeking'' model and a current-specific'' model. 8 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Dahlin, R.S.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project addresses the acid mist that is formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. An acid mist can be formed whenever the flue gas temperature approaches the prevailing acid dew point. This commonly occurs when the gas is subjected to rapid adiabatic cooling in a wet scrubber system for flue gas desulfurization. Acid mists can also sometimes result from unexpected temperature excursions caused by air inleakage, load cycling, and start-up operations. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attach glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. Therefore, this program has been structured around the use of a compact, wet ESP to control acid mist emissions. Progress to date is discussed. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project addresses the acid mist that is formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. An acid mist can be formed whenever the flue gas temperature approaches the prevailing acid dew point. This commonly occurs when the gas is subjected to rapid adiabatic cooling in a wet scrubber system for flue gas desulfurization. Acid mists can also sometimes result from unexpected temperature excursions caused by air inleakage, load cycling, and start-up operations. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attack glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. Therefore, this program has been structured around the use of a compact, wet ESP to control acid mist emissions. 7 refs.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic conditions, but the concentration later returned to below the clean-up level. Speciation analysis was conducted on soil collected from the treated column after rebound testing. The experimental results show that: (a) The mass of uranium resolubilized in more than four months of column testing was much lower than the amount precipitated. (b) The majority of the uranium was precipitated in the first few inches of the treated column. The majority of the uranium precipitated was associated with iron oxides or in other immobile/sequestered phases. It is important to contrast this result with the results reported by Bryan (2003) who shows that most of the uranium associated with contaminated aquifer solids at Fernald under the existing natural attenuation/pump and treat with reinjection conditions is carbonate bound. Carbonate bound forms are traditionally seen as fairly mobile, but may not be under a calcite/dolomite saturated condition. Fernald is currently conducting further studies to investigate the mobility of the carbonate bound forms. (c) Though reoxidation concentrations from the bench-scale column exceeded 30 {micro}g/L for a time, they later returned to below this value. Effluent concentrations from the treated column are expected to over predict full-scale concentrations for reasons discussed in depth in the text. Finally, these results must be viewed in light of the site's ongoing pump-and-treat with reinjection system. There is reason to believe that although the pump-and-treat technology is currently effectively controlling the uranium plume and reducing the groundwater concentration, it may not be able to reach the treatment standard of 30 {micro}g/L within an economical operating lifetime and then maintain that concentration without rebound. This study suggests that Enhanced Anaerobic Reductive Precipitation can change the speciation and thus reduce the mobility of uranium at the site and expedite closure.

Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the quality of Missouri drinking water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity mine areas, hazardous waste disposal, acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems. Because of the 1987-1989 drought years, and the flood of '93 and '95, water quantity has become a major

228

An investigation of precipitation attenuation and its application in a dual-frequency radar morphology of subtropical precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the gases, Ap represents the attenuation by precipitation, and rp is the one-way path length through the precipitation. Attenuation b Atmos heric Gases The principal investigator of attenuation by atmospheric gases has been Van Vleck [16, 34, 35], who...

Greene, Douglas Richard

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

2014-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

230

Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report deals with the second part (Phase 2) of a two-phased study of the control of acid mist emissions using a compact, wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). The goal of the study was to determine the degree of acid mist control that could be achieved when a compact WESP was used to replace or augment the mist eliminators in a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Phase 1 of the study examined the electrical operation of a lab-scale WESP collecting an acid mist from a coal combustion pilot plant equipped with a spray chamber. The results of this study were used to develop and validate a computer model of the WESP. In Phase 2, measurements were made at two utility scrubber installations to determine the loadings of acid mist, fly ash, and scrubber carryover. These measurements were used as input to the computer model to project the performance of retrofitted WESPs at both of the utility test sites. Phase 1 results showed that excellent electrical operating conditions could be achieved, but very high loadings of acid mist or the fine fly ash tended to degrade electrical operation because of space charge suppression of the corona current. Measurements made at the utility sites under Phase 2 showed that acid mist accounted for 40 to 57% of the total particulate mass, while fly ash and scrubber solids accounted for 40 to 55% and 1.0 to 3.4%. Impactor samples from both test sites showed an increase in acid content with decreasing particle size. 9 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

Dahlin, R.S.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Best Management Practice #4: Water-Efficient Landscaping  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Traditional landscapes require supplemental water to thrive in most locations. Kentucky bluegrass, for example, is native to regions that receive in excess of 40 inches per year of precipitation,...

232

June 1, 2010 -Assessment of current water conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and no more concern that the reservoirs will not fill for the high demand season. The forecast for the regionJune 1, 2010 #12;-Assessment of current water conditions - Precipitation Forecast - Recommendations

233

A stochastic technique for synthesis of hourly precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Table 1. Classes of amounts of hourly precipitation 2. Possible sequences of wet and dry states during six periods when the last period is dry 3. Scheme of the sixth-order model Page 21 Observed frequencies of hourly precipitation by cl. ass 5...-5) were equal to 1 hr. Time (t-6) ends with the hour immediately preceding the hour represented by time (t-5). The time (t-6) was defined as wet or dry depending on whether precipitation was recorded during any hour of this period. The complete...

Huddle, John Paul

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH{sub 4}{sup +} production during urea hydrolysis were incorporated in the model and captured critical changes in the major metal species. The electrical phase increases were potentially due to ion exchange processes that modified charge structure at mineral/water interfaces. Our study revealed the potential of geophysical monitoring for geochemical changes during urea hydrolysis and the advantages of combining multiple approaches to understand complex biogeochemical processes in the subsurface.

Wu, Y.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S.S.; Zhang, G.; Williams, K.H.; Taylor, J.; Fujita, Y.; Smith, R.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Intermediate frequency band digitized high dynamic range radiometer system for plasma diagnostics and real-time Tokamak control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An intermediate frequency (IF) band digitizing radiometer system in the 100-200 GHz frequency range has been developed for Tokamak diagnostics and control, and other fields of research which require a high flexibility in frequency resolution combined with a large bandwidth and the retrieval of the full wave information of the mm-wave signals under investigation. The system is based on directly digitizing the IF band after down conversion. The enabling technology consists of a fast multi-giga sample analog to digital converter that has recently become available. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are implemented to accomplish versatile real-time data analysis. A prototype system has been developed and tested and its performance has been compared with conventional electron cyclotron emission (ECE) spectrometer systems. On the TEXTOR Tokamak a proof of principle shows that ECE, together with high power injected and scattered radiation, becomes amenable to measurement by this device. In particular, its capability to measure the phase of coherent signals in the spectrum offers important advantages in diagnostics and control. One case developed in detail employs the FPGA in real-time fast Fourier transform (FFT) and additional signal processing. The major benefit of such a FFT-based system is the real-time trade-off that can be made between frequency and time resolution. For ECE diagnostics this corresponds to a flexible spatial resolution in the plasma, with potential application in smart sensing of plasma instabilities such as the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) and sawtooth instabilities. The flexible resolution would allow for the measurement of the full mode content of plasma instabilities contained within the system bandwidth.

Bongers, W. A.; Beveren, V. van; Westerhof, E.; Goede, A. P. H.; Krijger, B.; Berg, M. A. van den; Graswinckel, M. F.; Schueller, F. C. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Thoen, D. J. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Nuij, P. J. W. M. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Control Systems Technology Group, and Applied Physics Department, PO Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Baar, M. R. de; Donne, A. J. H.; Hennen, B. A. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Control Systems Technology Group, and Applied Physics Department, PO Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kantor, M. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Forschungszentrum Juelich GMBH, Institute of Energy and Climate research, Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Ioffe Institute, RAS, Saint-Petersburg, 195256 (Russian Federation)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

237

Interannual variability of summer precipitation in Texas and its implication to summer drought  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since Texas normally receives most of its precipitation in the warm season, precipitation deficits in summertime may bring serious agricultural and hydrological disasters. While the underlying physical processes of summer precipitation deficit...

Myoung, Boksoon

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

A Micro-Alloyed Ferritic Steel Strengthened by Nanoscale Precipitates...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

microscope (TEM), fine carbides with an average diameter of 10 nm were observed in the ferrite matrix of the 0.08%Ti steel, and some cubic M23C6 precipitates were also observed at...

239

A micro-alloyed ferritic steel strengthened by nanoscale precipitates...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(TEM), fine carbides TiC with an average diameter of 10 nm were observed in the ferrite matrix of the 0.08%Ti steel, and some cubic M23C6 precipitates were also observed at...

240

Copper gettering by aluminum precipitates in aluminum-implanted silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper in Si is shown to be strongly gettered by Al-rich precipitates formed by implanting Al to supersaturation and followed by annealing. At temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C a layer containing Al precipitates is found to getter Cu from Cu silicide located on the opposite side of a 0.25-mm Si wafer, indicating a substantially lower chemical potential for the Cu in the molten-A1 phase. Cu gettering proceeds rapidly until an atomic ratio of approximately 2 Cu atoms to 1 Al atom is reached in the precipitated Al region, after which the gettering process slows. Redistribution of Cu from one Al-rich layer to another at low Cu concentrations demonstrates that a segregation-type gettering mechanism is operating. Cu gettering occurs primarily in the region containing the precipitated Al rather than the region where the Al is entirely substitutional.

PETERSEN,GARY A.; MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Stochastic Simulation Methods for Precipitation and Streamflow Time Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One major acknowledged challenge in daily precipitation is the inability to model extreme events in the spectrum of events. These extreme events are rare but may cause large losses. How to realistically simulate extreme behavior of daily...

Li, Chao

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Merging Cloud and Precipitation Radar Data Provides a Better  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Merging Cloud and Precipitation Radar Data Provides a Better View of Tropical Rain Clouds For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.gov...

243

Aerosol-Cloud interactions : a new perspective in precipitation enhancement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increased industrialization and human activity modified the atmospheric aerosol composition and size-distribution during the last several decades. This has affected the structure and evolution of clouds, and precipitation ...

Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Mesoscale predictability of an extreme warm-season precipitation event  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During the period of June 29 through July 6, 2002, an extreme precipitation event occurred over Texas, resulting in catastrophic flooding. Operational forecasts performed poorly, neither predicting the copious amounts of rain nor its longevity...

Odins, Andrew Michael

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

245

Observed Global Precipitation Variability During the 20th Century  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of warming and other regional-scale features, including changes in wind patterns, precipitation and some aspects of extremes and of ice. n The models used in AR4 were judged to have improved representation

Anisimov, Mikhail

246

Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source waste disposal acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water of the 1987-89 drought years and the floods of 1993 and 1995, water quantity has become a major topic

247

Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's drinking water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non, hazardous waste disposal acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water of the 1987-89 drought years and the floods of 1993 and 1995, water quantity has become a major topic

248

Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

Liu, Guosheng

249

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced precipitation radar Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

clutter Summary: of precipitation for every pixel in a Meteosat-8 scene. Via pixel-level image fusion of the radar data... and the Precipitating Clouds product, supervised...

250

E-Print Network 3.0 - affects regional precipitation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of precipitation trends over the two regions, as they are also directly affected by the South Asian monsoon... Regional summer precipitation events in Asia and their...

251

Inducing Mineral Precipitation in Groundwater by Addition of Phosphate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace metals and radionuclides from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. Phosphate minerals can sequester trace elements by primary mineral formation, solid solution formation and/or adsorption, and they are poorly soluble under many environmental conditions, making them attractive for long-term sustainable remediation. The success of such engineered schemes will depend on the particular mineral phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for induced phosphate mineral precipitation rely on the stimulation of native groundwater populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 ml-1) within the precipitation medium. We also tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM). The experiments showed that the general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium carbonate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) by the end of the week-long experiments. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of 7 days the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all of the treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as results of Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data indicated that the treatments including organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in increased distortion of the HAP crystal lattice, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the phosphate minerals was decreased in the treatments with cells and organic acids, compared to the control. The results of the experiments enable a greater understanding of the challenges associated with phosphate-based remediation schemes for contaminated environments.

Karen E. Wright; Yoshiko Fujita; Thomas Hartmann; Mark Conrad

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Assessment of operating parameter variation on electrostatic precipitator performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lignite coal were collected and resistivity analysis performed for varying conditions of temperature and humidity. As a result of the laboratory analysis, it was determined that moisture and temperature conditioning of Texas lignite coal fly ash... results. I 5. Sample 8 moisturi ed test results. 57 64 66 69 77 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Lignite coal deposit formations in East Texas. Z. The electrostatic precipitator system 3. Electrostatic precipitator in operation. 4. Electrostatic...

Gunn, Roam Anthony

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Radiation-induced instability of MnS precipitates and its possible consequences on irradiation-induced stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a significant materials issue for the light water reactor (LWR) industry and may also pose a problem for fusion power reactors that will use water as coolant. A new metallurgical process is proposed that involves the radiation-induced release into solution of minor impurity elements not usually thought to participate in IASCC. MnS-type precipitates, which contain most of the sulfur in stainless steels, are thought to be unstable under irradiation. First, Mn transmutes strongly to Fe in thermalized neutron spectra. Second, cascade-induced disordering and the inverse Kirkendall effect operating at the incoherent interfaces of MnS precipitates are thought to act as a pump to export Mn from the precipitate into the alloy matrix. Both of these processes will most likely allow sulfur, which is known to exert a deleterious influence on intergranular cracking, to re-enter the matrix. To test this hypothesis, compositions of MnS-type precipitates contained in several unirradiated and irradiated heats of Type 304, 316, and 348 stainless steels (SSs) were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. Evidence is presented that shows a progressive compositional modification of MnS precipitates as exposure to neutrons increases in boiling water reactors. As the fluence increases, the Mn level in MnS decreases, whereas the Fe level increases. The S level also decreases relative to the combined level of Mn and Fe. MnS precipitates were also found to be a reservoir of other deleterious impurities such as F and O which could be also released due to radiation-induced instability of the precipitates.

Chung, H.M.; Sanecki, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Am/Cm Oxalate Precipitation and Washing Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to discuss the findings of the Am/Cm Oxalate Precipitation and Washing Demonstration carried out at TNX during December 1995. This demonstration consisted of two steps: oxalate precipitation and precipitate washing. The first step reacted Am/Cm stimulant solution with oxalic acid resulting in the formation of insoluble lanthanide oxalates and soluble metal oxalates. The second step consisted of washing the precipitate with equal volumes of a nitric acid/oxalic acid solution to remove unwanted cations (miscellaneous metals) from the slurry. Quantitative results consist of: the solubility of the metallic impurities and lanthanide oxalates under process conditions, the settling rate of the oxalates, the specific volume of the oxalate precipitate, and the minimum distance the solution transfer jet can be place from the oxalate solids to prevent entrainment. Finally, discussion of how to decrease lanthanide losses is presented in terms of transfer jet location, initial nitric acid concentration, and wash nitric acid concentration. Solubilizing the precipitate and adjusting the nitric acid concentration prior to vitrification were not performed in this demonstration.

Beck, S.B.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

255

Extracellular iron-sulfur precipitates from growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have examined extracellular iron-bearing precipitates resulting from the growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in a basal medium with lactate as the carbon source and ferrous sulfate. Black precipitates were obtained when D. desulfuricans was grown with an excess of FeSO{sub 4}. When D. desulfuricans was grown under conditions with low amounts of FeSO{sub 4}, brown precipitates were obtained. The precipitates were characterized by iron K-edge XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure), {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer-effect spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. Both were noncrystalline and nonmagnetic (at room temperature) solids containing high-spin Fe(III). The spectroscopic data for the black precipitates indicate the formation of an iron-sulfur phase with 6 nearest S neighbors about Fe at an average distance of 2.24(1) {angstrom}, whereas the brown precipitates are an iron-oxygen-sulfur phase with 6 nearest O neighbors about Fe at an average distance of 1.95(1) {angstrom}.

Antonio, M. R.; Tischler, M. L.; Witzcak, D.

1999-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

256

Precipitation in 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu maraging steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two maraging steels with the compositions 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu-4Mo (wt%) and 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu and with small additions of Al and Ti were investigated using atom probe field ion microscopy. Tomographic atom probe investigations were performed to clarify the spatial distribution of elements in and close to the precipitates. Materials heat treated at 475 C for 5, 25 min, 1, 2, 4 and 400 h were analyzed. Precipitates in the Mo-rich material were observed already after 5 min of aging, while in the material without MO, precipitation started later. In both materials precipitation begins with the formation of Cu-rich particles which work as nucleation sites for a Ni-rich phase of type Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Al). A Mo-rich phase was detected in the Mo-rich steel after 2 h of aging. The distribution of alloying elements in the precipitates, their role in the precipitation process, and the mechanism of hardening in the two materials are discussed.

Stiller, K.; Haettestrand, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physics] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Danoix, F. [Univ. de Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Ionique] [Univ. de Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Ionique

1998-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

257

Method of treating waste water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

Deininger, James P. (Colorado Springs, CO); Chatfield, Linda K. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Data Qualification Report: Precipitation Chloride Data for Use on the Yucca Mountain Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The data covered by this qualification report have been cited in analysis/model reports (AMRs) to support the Site Recommendation in determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository for high level nuclear waste. Those analyses cited both qualified and unqualified hydrochemical data. This report evaluates unqualified precipitation chloride data based on the pedigree of the data and within the context of supporting analyses on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The following AMRs use the unqualified chloride data considered in this report: (1) AMR S0040, ''Geochemical and Isotopic Constraints on Groundwater Flow Directions, Mixing and Recharge at Yucca Mountain'' (ANL-NBS-HS-000021) (Kwicklis 2000)--an analysis of groundwater recharge rates, flow directions and velocities, and mixing proportions of water from different source areas based on groundwater geochemical and isotopic data. (2) AMR U0085, ''Analysis of Geochemical Data for the Unsaturated Zone'' (ANL-NBS-HS-000017) (Fabryka-Martin 2000)--identifies fluid geochemical parameters for the unsaturated zone, local precipitation, and surface water; discusses the occurrence and origins of fracture minerals; and presents a thermal history of the unsaturated zone. These data are being evaluated for inclusion in technical products to include AMRs and Process Modeling Reports (PMRs) that support the Site Recommendation and that may also be used to support the License Application. A finding that the precipitation chloride data are qualified means that the data are adequate for generalized use and can be appropriately used in a wide variety of applications, so long as consideration is given to limitations on the accuracy, precision and representativeness of the data for an intended use in a technical product.

C. Wilson

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

259

Radiometer Calibration Trends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, and 323Program

260

MWRRET (Microwave Radiometer Retrievals)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration -Lowell L.FallU . S . D e pPlus Plus Andy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Cesium cobaltdicarbollide-solubility, precipitation, and reactivity in basic aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The title compound, Cs{sup +}[Co((3)-1,2-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}]{sup {minus}}(CsCDC), was precipitated with a NaCDC solution from solutions containing CsCl. The reaction was followed by measuring loss of light intensity as the precipitate formed. The [Cs{sup +}] and [CDC{sup {minus}}] at the point of precipitation were estimated and approximate values of the K{sub sp} for CsCDC determined at room temperature: 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (water), 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (1 M NaOH), and 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (5M NaCl/0.1 M KOH/1.0 M NaOH). In some cases, NaCDC precipitated from solution when added to the latter salt solution. For the medium, 5 M NaNO{sub 3}/0.1 M KOH/1.0 M NaOH a four-fold excess of NaCDC was added to a 10mM Cs{sup +} solution at 40{degrees}C and the [CDC{sup {minus}}] measured spectrophotometrically. Only CsCDC precipitated, and a K{sub sp} of 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} was determined. The solubilities of CsCDC were measured in NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl solutions at 30{sub C} as a function of the Na salt concentration. Reaction of the CDC{sup {minus}} with OH{sup {minus}} slowly produces B(OH{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, H{sub 2}, and CoO(OH). Reaction of 22 {mu}M CsCDC with 1M NaOH has a first order rate constant at 56{degrees}C of 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1}, while that for 14 mM NaCDC is 7.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s {sup {minus}1}. Activation energy for the reaction is 110 kJ.

McCabe, D.J.; Fanning, J.C.; Hugg, L.A.; Smith, W.A.; Terrell, A.S.; Yasinsac, L.; Todd, L.J.; Jasper, S.A. Jr.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Effect of V and Ta on the precipitation behavior of 12%Cr reduced activation ferrite/martensite steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

12%Cr reduced activation ferrite/martensite steels are promising candidate materials for good corrosion and irradiation resistance used for supercritical water-cooled reactor cladding and in-core components. V and Ta are considered to have improved the creep strength of high Cr steels by precipitating as MX phase. In this paper, a series of trial products microalloyed with V and V–Ta are produced, and the microstructure is characterized after quenching at 1050 °C and tempering at 780 °C by using TEM method to investigate the effect of these elements on the precipitation behavior of 12%Cr reduced activation ferrite/martensite steel. The results from both the experimental observations and thermodynamic and kinetic calculations reveal that V and V–Ta can promote the stable MX precipitation instead of M{sub 2}X, thus increasing the volume fraction of M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. Two-phase separation behavior of the (Ta, V)(C, N) carbonitride into a Ta(V)C(N) phase and a V(Ta)N(C) phase in 12Cr3WVTa steel is observed and further discussed. - Highlights: • Microalloyed with V and V-Ta can promote the precipitation of MX instead of M{sub 2}X. • The presence of delta-ferrite in microstructure affects the morphology of MX. • Two-phase separation of MX carbonitride was observed in 12Cr3WVTa steel.

Xiao, Xiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Guoquan, E-mail: g.liu@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Hu, Benfu; Wang, Jinsan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ullah, Asad [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Mathematics, Karakoram International University, Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Method of treating waste water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

Deininger, J. Paul (Colorado Springs, CO); Chatfield, Linda K. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

A Novel Retrieval Algorithm for Cloud Optical Properties from the Atmopsheric Radiation Measurement Program's Two-Channel Narrow-Field-of-View Radiometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cloud optical depth is the most important of all cloud optical properties, and vital for any cloud-radiation parameterization. To estimate cloud optical depth, the atmospheric science community has widely used ground-based flux measurements from either broadband or narrowband radiometers in the past decade. However, this type of technique is limited to overcast conditions and, at best, gives us an "effective" cloud optical depth instead of its "local" value. Unlike flux observations, monochromatic narrow-field-of-view (NFOV) radiance measurements contain information of local cloud properties, but unfortunately, the use of radiance to interpret optical depth suffers from retrieval ambiguity. We have pioneered an algorithm to retrieve cloud optical depth in a fully three-dimensional cloud situation using new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) ground-based passive two-channel (673 and 870 nm) NFOV measurements. The underlying principle of the algorithm is that these two channels have similar cloud properties but strong spectral contrast in surface reflectance. This algorthm offers the first opportunity to illustrate cloud evolution with high temporal resolution retrievals. A combination of two-channel NFOV radiances with multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) fluxes for the retrieval of cloud optical properties is also discussed.

Wiscombe, Warren J.; Marshak, A.; Chiu, J.-Y. C.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Barnard, James C.; Luo, Yi

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

265

Nitrogen oxides removal by pulsed corona enhanced wet electrostatics precipitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a bench-scale pulsed-corona enhanced wet electrostatic precipitator (wESP) application for removal of nitrogen oxides. This wESP is designed to operate wet/dry, positive/negative, and pulsed/non-pulsed conditions. The applied pulsed voltage is varied from 0 to 60 kV at 70 Hz. Gas flow rate is a nominal 7 m{sup 3}/hr and the collecting electrode area is 0.20 m{sup 2}. A simulated flue gas with NO concentration up to 1,200 ppm{sub v} has been used to determine the feasibility of NO{sub x} removal in the wESP. NO has to be oxidized to N{sub 2} before any removal takes place. NO{sub x} removal efficiency increased with gas residence time, inlet NO concentration and applied corona power. In the air stream with 10 seconds gas residence time, up to 20% of 1,000 ppm NO (or 22% NO{sub x}) was removed from an air stream of 1.9x10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3}/s with a water flow of 6.3 x 10{sup {minus}5} m{sup 3}/sec and 20 W, 70 Hz pulsed corona. Both ammonia and ozone injections improve the NO{sub x} removal for both the corona and non-corona cases. With the inclusion of NH{sub 3} (NH{sub 3}/NO{sub x} ratio 1.3) and 25 watts corona power, NO removal efficiency was increased from 28% to 57%. The amount of in-situ ozone is not enough to be considered as a major NO{sub x} removal mechanism in this wESP. However, the additional injection of ozone improves the NO removal from 29% to 38% for both the corona and non-corona cases. When the oxygen concentration is dropped to 3% in a simulated flue gas with 12% CO{sub 2} and 800 ppm NO and 70% relative humidity at 11.5 s of gas residence time, the removal efficiency of NO is only 5%. Adding NH{sub 3} (NH{sub 3}/NO{sub x} ratio 1) at 76 watts corona power, NO removal is increased to 13%.

Tseng, C.H.; Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Continuous Precipitation of Ceria Nanoparticles from a Continuous Flow Micromixer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cerium oxide nanoparticles were continuously precipitated from a solution of cerium(III) nitrate and ammonium hydroxide using a micro-scale T-mixer. Findings show that the method of mixing is important in the ceria precipitation process. In batch mixing and deposition, disintegration and agglomeration dominates the deposited film. In T-mixing and deposition, more uniform nanorod particles are attainable. In addition, it was found that the micromixing approach reduced the exposure of the Ce(OH)3 precipates to oxygen, yielding hydroxide precipates in place of CeO2 precipitates. Advantages of the micro-scale T-mixing approach include shorter mixing times, better control of nanoparticle shape and less agglomeration.

Tseng, Chih Heng; Paul, Brian; Chang, Chih-hung; Engelhard, Mark H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ESTIMATION IN PUERTO RICO USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ESTIMATION IN PUERTO RICO USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING Eric. W Management of water resources relies on estimates of the hydrologic water balance within defined and/or similar land use. Components of the water balance include precipitation, actual

Gilbes, Fernando

268

Electrostatic precipitator for metal and particulate emission control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving air pollution control systems is crucial for incinerators to be an option for sewage sludge disposal. Combinations of venturi and tray tower scrubbers are the most popular air pollution control system for sewage sludge incinerators. Recently wet electrostatic precipitators have been installed downstream of the scrubbing system to ensure the compliance of new regulations. Performance and stack tests were conducted on sludge incinerators at Somerset Raritan Valley Sewage Authority and New England Treatment Company. Efficiencies in terms of heavy metal and particulate removals are presented. This paper also describes sewage sludge incinerators, existing air pollution control systems, design considerations of the wet electrostatic precipitator, as well as sampling and analysis methods.

Yang, C.L.; Beltran, M.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Diffusion-driven precipitate growth and ripening of oxygen precipitates in boron doped silicon by dynamical x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray Pendellösung fringes from three silicon single crystals measured at 900?°C are analyzed with respect to density and size of oxygen precipitates within a diffusion-driven growth model and compared with TEM investigations. It appears that boron doped (p+) material shows a higher precipitate density and a higher strain than moderately (p-) boron crystals. In-situ diffraction reveals a diffusion-driven precipitate growth followed by a second growth regime in both materials. An interpretation of the second growth regime in terms of Ostwald ripening yields surface energy values (around 70?erg/cm{sup 2}) similar to published data. Further, an increased nucleation rate by a factor of ?13 is found in the p+ sample as compared to a p- sample at a nucleation temperature of 450?°C.

Will, J., E-mail: will@krist.uni-erlangen.de; Gröschel, A.; Bergmann, C.; Magerl, A. [Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Spiecker, E. [Center for Nanoanalysis and Electron Microscopy, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Cauerstr. 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

270

Evaluation of Continental Precipitation in 20th-Century Climate Simulations: The Utility of Multi-Model Statistics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), simulations of 20th-century climate have been performed recently with some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. In view of its central importance for biological and socio-economic systems, model-simulated continental precipitation is evaluated relative to three observational estimates at both global and regional scales. Many models are found to display systematic biases, deviating markedly from the observed spatial variability and amplitude/phase of the seasonal cycle. However, the point-wise ensemble mean of all the models usually shows better statistical agreement with the observations than does any single model. Deficiencies of current models that may be responsible for the simulated precipitation biases as well as possible reasons for the improved estimate afforded by the multi-model ensemble mean are discussed. Implications of these results for water-resource managers also are briefly addressed.

Phillips, T J; Gleckler, P J

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Capacitance studies of cobalt oxide films formed via electrochemical precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prepared by electrochemically precipitating the hydroxide and heating it in air to form Co3O4 the need to identify more suitable materials. One promising route is the use of transi- tion metal oxides to batteries, are referred to as Faradaic or pseudocapacitors. However, the high cost of these materials has

Weidner, John W.

272

Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid Daniel M. Dabbs, Usha as an agent for increasing the solubility of aluminum oxyhydroxides in aqueous solutions of high (>2.47 mol/mol) hydroxide-to-aluminum ratios. Conversely, citric acid also colloidally stabilizes particles in aqueous

Aksay, Ilhan A.

273

Late Neoproterozoic cap carbonates: Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada: precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbonate is thus interpreted to have formed in two steps: (1) during initial marine ice melting accompaniedLate Neoproterozoic cap carbonates: Mackenzie Mountains, northwestern Canada: precipitation and global glacial meltdown Noel P. James, Guy M. Narbonne, T. Kurtis Kyser Abstract: The 3­27 m-thick cap

Narbonne, Guy

274

Joint probability of precipitation and discharge deficits in the Netherlands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Joint probability of precipitation and discharge deficits in the Netherlands Jules J. Beersma and T. Adri Buishand Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands Received 14 April] The Netherlands are situated at the downstream end of the Rhine River. A large part of the country can be supplied

Beersma, Jules

275

Spatial variability of summer precipitation related to the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the observed diurnal patterns of precipitation over the central U.S. #12;Shading ­ meridional wind speed (Shading denotes meridional wind speed) P winds #12; Air temperature (shading; K) and zonal temperature #12;Convective P frequency Vertical wind in the model Moisture convergence at 850 hPa Vertical

Yang, Zong-Liang

276

Dendroclimatic Analysis for Changes of Air Temperature and Precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

periodsClimate change viewed over different periods #12;Northern Russia:Northern Russia: Raspopov increase in the pastincrease in the past 250 years250 years #12;Climate change viewed over differentDendroclimatic Analysis for Changes of Air Temperature and Precipitation in Southwestern Bulgaria

University of Forestry (Bulgaria)

277

Nitrate-Cancrinite Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrate-Cancrinite Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions B A R R Y R . B minerals at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington. Nitrate-cancrinite began's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington since the late 1950s (1). To predict the fate

Illinois at Chicago, University of

278

Spectroscopic Evidence for Uranium Bearing Precipitates in Vadose Zone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectroscopic Evidence for Uranium Bearing Precipitates in Vadose Zone Sediments at the Hanford 300, Advanced Light Source, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, United States Geological Survey Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 Uranium (U) solid-state speciation in vadose zone sediments

279

STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS Rick Katz Institute of the validity of this analysis." -- Emil Gumbel #12;3 Outline (1) Introduction (2) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Classical Approach (3) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Modern Approach (4) Extreme

Katz, Richard

280

Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source pollution is of major precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water Quantity: Missouri has a history of either inadequate amounts of rainfall, or spring floods. Because of the 1987-1989 drought years

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Effects of petroleum resins on asphaltene aggregation and water-in-oil emulsion formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of petroleum resins on asphaltene aggregation and water-in-oil emulsion formation P; accepted 30 December 2002 Abstract Asphaltenes from four crude oils were fractionated by precipitation) indicated the onset of asphaltene precipitation occurred at lower toluene volume fractions (0.1Á/0.2) than

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

282

Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic to that in gas condensates. As a result of pressure decrease (at a constant tem- perature), the amount is undesirable. The flowlines may be plugged by wax deposition. For both crude oils and gas condensates, one may

Firoozabadi, Abbas

283

Process for removing metals from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

284

11/12/13 11:57 AMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 1 of 13http://climate.colostate.edu/%7Edrought/current_assessment.php  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edrought/current_assessment.php PRECIPITATION The images above use daily precipitation statistics from NWS:57 AMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 2 of 13http://climate.colostate.edu/%7Edrought/current_assessment.php;11/12/13 11:57 AMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 3 of 13http://climate.colostate.edu/%7Edrought/current_assessment.php

285

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

286

Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation/conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

P. Somasundaran

2008-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

287

Intensification of precipitation extremes with warming in a cloud resolving model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cloud-resolving model is used to investigate the effect of warming on high percentiles of precipitation (precipitation extremes) in the idealized setting of radiative-convective equilibrium. While this idealized setting ...

Muller, Caroline

288

Statistical Relationships of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation and Large-scale Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The relationship between precipitation and large-flow is important to understand and characterize in the climate system. We examine statistical relationships between the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3B42 gridded precipitation...

Borg, Kyle

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

289

Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High Temperature NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloy. Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High Temperature NiTiHf...

290

Characteristics of warm season precipitating storms in the Arkansas–Red River basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[1] Analysis of a multisensor precipitation product enables us to extract the precipitation from individual storms in the Arkansas–Red River drainage basin over a period of 11 years. We examine the year-to-year and ...

Tucker, Donna F.; Li, Xingong

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

291

Scaling of Precipitation Extremes over a Wide Range of Climates Simulated with an Idealized GCM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extremes of precipitation are examined in a wide range of climates simulated with an idealized aquaplanet GCM. The high percentiles of daily precipitation increase as the climate warms. Their fractional rate of increase ...

O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

292

Future credible precipitation occurrences in Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I have studied many factors thought to have influenced past climatic change. Because they might recur, they are possible suspects for future climatic alterations. Most of these factors are totally unpredictable; therefore, they cast a shadow on the validity of derived climatic predictions. Changes in atmospheric conditions and in continental surfaces, variations in solar radiation, and in the earth's orbit around the sun are among the influential mechanisms investigated. Even when models are set up that include the above parameters, their reliability will depend on unpredictable variables totally alien to the model (like volcanic eruptions). Based on climatic records, however, maximum precipitation amounts have been calculated for different probability levels. These seem to correspond well to past precipitation occurrences, derived from tree ring indices. The link between tree ring indices and local climate has been established through regression analysis.

Abeele, W.V.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Mechanisms of gas precipitation in plasma-exposed tungsten  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Precipitation in subsurface bubbles is a key process that governs how hydrogen isotopes migrate through and become trapped within plasma-exposed tungsten. We describe a continuum-scale model of hydrogen diffusion in plasma-exposed materials that includes the effects of precipitation. The model can account for bubble expansion via dislocation loop punching, using an accurate equation of state to determine the internal pressure. This information is used to predict amount of hydrogen trapped by bubbles, as well as the conditions where the bubbles become saturated. In an effort to validate the underlying assumptions, we compare our results with published positron annihilation and thermal desorption spectroscopy data, as well as our own measurements using the tritium plasma experiment (TPE).

R. D. Kolasinski; D. F. Cowgill; D. C. Donovan; M. Shimada

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Permeability Reduction Due to Precipitation of Quartz under Nonisothermal Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many problems concerning the origin and exploitation of geothermal reservoirs demonstrate the need for models of reactive-solute transport. Of particular interest to us is the coupling between dissolution/precipitation reactions and transient-flow behavior. In an effort to account for observed flow-rate reductions during experiments on samples of granite held in a temperature gradient (summarized at this meeting in 1981 by Moore and others), we examine the effect of quartz precipitation on fluid flow. Our results confirm earlier inerences that reactions responsible for porosity reduction were affected by kinetic factors. Although our results show substantial flow-rate reductions, we are unable to reproduce measured silica concentrations of the outlet fluid by considering the behavior of silica phases without regard for that of the feldspars and micas.

Keith, Laura A.; Delaney, Paul T.; Moore, Diane E.

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11784 Divergent global precipitation changes induced by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the spatial distribution of precipitation is complex, our approach relies on millennial simulations with ECHO-G

296

Effect of atmospheric water vapor on modification of stable isotopes in near-surface snow on ice sheets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature and the abundance of heavy isotopes of water found in water vapor and precipitation as functionsEffect of atmospheric water vapor on modification of stable isotopes in near-surface snow on ice fractionation model is developed to investigate postdepositional modification of stable isotopes of water

Walden, Von P.

297

Frequency Modes of Monsoon Precipitation in Arizona and New Mexico ANNE W. NOLIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Frequency Modes of Monsoon Precipitation in Arizona and New Mexico ANNE W. NOLIN Department proportion of the annual precipitation for Arizona and New Mexico arrives during the summer monsoon. Forty-one years of daily monsoon season precipitation data for Arizona and New Mexico were studied using wavelet

Kurapov, Alexander

298

Modulation of Caribbean Precipitation by the MaddenJulian Oscillation ELINOR R. MARTIN AND COURTNEY SCHUMACHER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modulation of Caribbean Precipitation by the Madden­Julian Oscillation ELINOR R. MARTIN satellite precipitation data and reanalysis winds, intraseasonal (30­90 days) variability in Caribbean and 6) of the MJO. The changes in Caribbean precipitation associated with the MJO are shown

Martin, Elinor R.

299

Metal precipitation at grain boundaries in silicon: Dependence on grain boundary character and dislocation decoration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are combined to determine the dependence of metal silicide precipitate formation on grain boundary character and microstructure in multicrystalline silicon mc-Si . Metal silicide precipitate decoration is observed to increase the local metal silicide precipitate concentrations at various types of grain boundaries, identifying clear

300

A TEST OF THE PRECIPITATION AMOUNT AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS WITH THE OTT PLUVIO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A TEST OF THE PRECIPITATION AMOUNT AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS WITH THE OTT PLUVIO Wiel M.F. Wauben precipitation sensor of Ott has been tested at KNMI in order to find out whether it is a suitable candidate for replacing the current operational KNMI precipitation gauge. Tests performed at the calibration facilities

Wauben, Wiel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

7 Physical Model of Carbide Precipitation 2 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contents 7 Physical Model of Carbide Precipitation 2 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1 #12;Chapter 7 Physical Model of Carbide Precipitation 7.1 Introduction If the austempering process is held for prolonged periods of time precipitation of carbides from retained austenite occurs

Cambridge, University of

302

Effect of CNTs on precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/AlCu composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of CNTs on precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites Dong H. Nam a , Yun K June 2012 A B S T R A C T The precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites was investigated accelerated the precipitation hardening behavior of CNT/Al­Cu composites due to the generation of excess

Hong, Soon Hyung

303

Effect of Resins and DBSA on Asphaltene Precipitation from Petroleum Fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Resins and DBSA on Asphaltene Precipitation from Petroleum Fluids Lamia Goual and Abbas different petroleum fluids. Various resins are added to three different petroleum fluids to measure of precipitation. However, addition of resins to a petroleum fluid increases the amount of precipitated asphaltenes

Firoozabadi, Abbas

304

Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and the global monsoon total precipitation (GMP) have increased during 1979­2008 [Hsu et al., 2011; Wang et alIncrease of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal? Pang of people around the world. The global monsoon precipitation had an increasing trend over the past three

Li, Tim

305

A perturbation approach for assessing trends in precipitation extremes across Iran  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A perturbation approach for assessing trends in precipitation extremes across Iran Hossein Tabari a of Iran using a novel quantile perturbation method during 1980­2010. Precipitation data from NASA's Modern indicate significant anomalies in precipitation extremes in the northwest and southeast regions of Iran

AghaKouchak, Amir

306

The robust dynamical contribution to precipitation extremes in idealized warming simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The robust dynamical contribution to precipitation extremes in idealized warming simulations across shift under climate warming on the distribution of precipitation extremes and the associated sensitivity in the frequency of the most extreme categories of the precipitation events at the poleward side of the midlatitude

Chen, Gang

307

Reducing Phosphorus in Dairy Effluent Wastewater through Flocculation and Precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Dissolved reactive and total phosphorus loads from agricultural and forested basins to surface waters in Finland. Aqua Fennica 21:127-136. 21. Rout, D., R. Verma, and S. Agarwal. 1999. Polyelectrolyte treatment ? An approach for water quality...

Bragg, A.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) Modeling System Users Manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

may vary with reservoir storage content and/or stream flow. Chapters 3 and 4 of the Reference Manual describe the component features of the SIM simulation model, which are organized in two categories. • River basin hydrology includes... naturalized stream flows, reservoir net evaporation- precipitation, and channel losses (Chapter 3 of the Reference Manual). • Water rights include all aspects of water management including water supply diversions, return flows, environmental instream flow...

Wurbs, Ralph A.

309

EUROBRISA products documentation This page (http://eurobrisa.cptec.inpe.br/) presents 1-month lead South America precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

South America precipitation forecasts and verification products for three month seasons. For example surface temperatures as predictor variables for precipitation over South America. For example

310

EUROBRISA products documentation This page (http://eurobrisa.cptec.inpe.br/) presents 1-month lead South America precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

South America precipitation forecasts and verification products for three month seasons. For example Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures as predictor variables for precipitation over South America

311

Modelled effects of precipitation on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Sustainable Energy, Biosystems Department, Building BIO-309, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark, k Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 49, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden, §§Woods

Dukes, Jeffrey

312

Modeled interactive effects of precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. DUKES**, BRIDGET EMMETTww, PAUL J. HANSONzz, ALAN KNAPP§§ , SUNE LINDER}}, DAN NEPSTADkk and L I N D S E

Dukes, Jeffrey

313

A climatology of tropical synoptic scale behavior from TOVS-estimated precipitable water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(1972) studied ITCZ behavior and fluctuations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and concluded that the ITCZ remains north of the equator in both oceans, regardless of season. For his day, he determined that the best tools to study this phenomenon... meridional circulation when the zonal Hadley circulation is weak. Madden and Julian (1972) documented a 40-50 day oscillation in station pressure and upper air data throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They determined that this eastward...

Mackey, Morgan Douglas

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Synoptic disturbances found in precipitable water fields north of equatorial Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Six case wind field composite analysis is accomplished with both actual winds and reduced shear winds (zonal mean removed at each latitude band). Case study analysis revealed a doppler shifted propagating Rossby Wave (k = 6, c =-5 m/sec) at 500h...

Patla, Jason Eddy

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Water Vapor Transport and the Production of Precipitation in the Eastern Fertile Crescent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sensitivity to changes in the condition of the Persian Gulf relative to the Mediterranean Sea. This may have the longest ar- cheological record of human civilization. As such, Ho- locene climate changes and what a Regional Climate Model [fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University­NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5)­Noah land

Evans, Jason

316

Precipitation of sigma and chi phases in ?-ferrite of Type 316FR weld metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decomposition behavior and kinetics of ?-ferrite are examined using aging treatments between 873 and 1073 K for Type 316FR stainless steel weld metals with different solidification modes (316FR AF, 316FR FA). The dominant precipitates are sigma, chi, and secondary austenite nucleated at ?-ferrite/austenite interfaces or in the interior of the ferrite grains. These precipitates consume all the ferrite during isothermal aging in both 316FR AF and FA weld metals. Differences in the precipitation behavior (precipitation initiation time and precipitation speed) between weld metals can be explained by i) the degree of Cr and Mo microsegregation within ?-ferrite or austenite near ferrite and ii) the nucleation sites induced due to the solidification mode (AF or FA), such as the ferrite amount. For both weld materials, a Johnson–Mehl-type equation can express the precipitation behavior of the sigma + chi phases and quantitatively predict the behavior at the service-exposure temperatures of a fast breed reactor. - Highlights: • Precipitation of ? and ? phase in Type 316FR welds (two solidification modes) • Different precipitation behaviors: precipitation initiation time and growth speed • Johnson-Mehl–type equation is the most applicable to the precipitation behaviors • Precipitation behaviors are predicted under service conditions of FBRs.

Chun, Eun Joon, E-mail: ejchun@mapse.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Baba, Hayato [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimoto, Kazutoshi [Department of the Application of Nuclear Technology, Fukui University of Technology, Gakuen 3-6-1, Fukui-shi, Fukui 910-8505 (Japan); Saida, Kazuyoshi [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined. 5 figures.

Murray, H. Jr.; Harris, I.D.; Ratka, J.O.; Spiegelberg, W.D.

1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

318

Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined.

Murray, Jr., Holt (Hopewell, NJ); Harris, Ian D. (Dublin, OH); Ratka, John O. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Spiegelberg, William D. (Parma, OH)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A radar study of the interaction between lightning and precipitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A radar study was made of the interaction between lightning and precipitation with the 430 MHz Doppler radar at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. On one occasion, the spectral power at Doppler velocities near that corresponding to the updraft increased substantially within a fraction of a second after a discharge was detected in the beam. Calculations were made to simulate the effect of an electric field change on mean Doppler velocity for a distribution of droplets in a thunderstorm. 13 refs., 4 figs.

Holden, D.N.; Ulbrich, C.W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

322

The development of precipitated iron catalysts with improved stability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to identify the chemical principles governing the deactivation of precipitated iron catalysts during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and to use these chemical principles in the design of catalysts suitable for slurry reactors. This report covers testing an iron catalyst. During the last quarter, a new precipitated iron catalyst was prepared and tested in the slurry autoclave reactor at various conditions. This catalyst did not noticeably deactivate during 1250 hours of testing. This quarter, the test was extended to include performance evaluations at different conversion levels ranging from 35 to 88% at 265 and 275{degree}C. The conversion levels were varied by changing the feed rate. The catalytic performance at different conversion intervals was then integrated to approximately predict performance in a bubble column reactor. The run was shut down at the end of 1996 hours because of a 24-hour-power outage. When the power was back on, the run was restarted from room temperature. Catalytic performance during the first 300 hours after the restart-up was monitored. Overall product distributions are being tabulated as analytical laboratory data are obtained. 34 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Final report for DOE Grant No. DE-SC0006609 - Persistence of Microbially Facilitated Calcite Precipitation as an in situ Treatment for Strontium-90  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Subsurface radionuclide and metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE?s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide Sr-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. We have previously found that nutrient addition can stimulate microbial ureolytic activity, that this activity accelerates calcite precipitation and co-precipitation of Sr, and that higher calcite precipitation rates can result in increased Sr partitioning. We have conducted integrated field, laboratory, and computational research to evaluate the relationships between ureolysis and calcite precipitation rates and trace metal partitioning under environmentally relevant conditions, and investigated the coupling between flow/flux manipulations and precipitate distribution. A field experimental campaign conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site located at Rifle, CO was based on a continuous recirculation design; water extracted from a down-gradient well was amended with urea and molasses (a carbon and electron donor) and re-injected into an up-gradient well. The goal of the recirculation design and simultaneous injection of urea and molasses was to uniformly accelerate the hydrolysis of urea and calcite precipitation over the entire inter-wellbore zone. The urea-molasses recirculation phase lasted, with brief interruptions for geophysical surveys, for 12 days and was followed by long-term monitoring which continued for 13 months. A post experiment core located within the inter-wellbore zone was collected on day 321 and characterized with respect to cation exchange capacity, mineral carbonate content, urease activity, ureC gene abundance, extractable ammonium (a urea hydrolysis product) content, and the C-13 isotopic composition of solid carbonates. It was also subjected to selective extractions for strontium and uranium. Result of the core characterization suggest that urea hydrolysis occurred primarily within the upper portion of the inter-wellbore zone and that strontium was mobilized from cation exchange sites and subsequently co-precipitated with new calcium carbonate.

Smith, Robert W [University of Idaho] [University of Idaho; Fujita, Yoshiko [Idaho National Laboratory] [Idaho National Laboratory

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Global Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrological System. Part I: Comparison to GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In earth system models, the partitioning of precipitation among the variations of continental water storage climate system sim- ulated by earth system models (ESMs). The continental freshwater reservoirs represent

Ribes, Aurélien

325

Layer inflow into precipitating convection over the western tropical Pacific  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the relativecoarseness of the TOGA COARE soundings.The available input data from the mesoscale model consist of three wind components(u, v and w), temperature, pressure, water vapour, rain water, cloud water and cloudice. The last two quantities, by de? nition, have zero... by linear interpolation of the hourly supplied MM5 data, to the right-hand side of the u, v, w, temperature, pressure and water vapour equations in a narrowzone near the lateral boundaries. The forcing is strongest at the boundary and decreasesto a ? fth...

Mechem, David B.; Houze, Robert A. Jr.; Chen, Shuyi S.

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

EGS rock reactions with Supercritical CO2 saturated with water and water saturated with Supercritical CO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EGS using CO2 as a working fluid will likely involve hydro-shearing low-permeability hot rock reservoirs with a water solution. After that process, the fractures will be flushed with CO2 that is maintained under supercritical conditions (> 70 bars). Much of the injected water in the main fracture will be flushed out with the initial CO2 injection; however side fractures, micro fractures, and the lower portion of the fracture will contain connate water that will interact with the rock and the injected CO2. Dissolution/precipitation reactions in the resulting scCO2/brine/rock systems have the potential to significantly alter reservoir permeability, so it is important to understand where these precipitates form and how are they related to the evolving ‘free’ connate water in the system. To examine dissolution / precipitation behavior in such systems over time, we have conducted non-stirred batch experiments in the laboratory with pure minerals, sandstone, and basalt coupons with brine solution spiked with MnCl2 and scCO2. The coupons are exposed to liquid water saturated with scCO2 and extend above the water surface allowing the upper portion of the coupons to be exposed to scCO2 saturated with water. The coupons were subsequently analyzed using SEM to determine the location of reactions in both in and out of the liquid water. Results of these will be summarized with regard to significance for EGS with CO2 as a working fluid.

Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; William Smith; Carl Palmer

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

ATMOSPHERIC TURBIDITY DETERMINATION FROM IRRADIANCE RATIOS Chris Gueymard Frank Vignola  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Energy Center Physics Department 1679 Clearlake Rd. University of Oregon Cocoa, FL 32922 and humidity. If precipitable water is too high or too low, a too low or too high turbidity is inevitably pre, are that it is more sensitive to in- strumental error because two radiometers are involved (instead of one

Oregon, University of

328

Evaluation of MERRA Land Surface Estimates in Preparation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (EOS) (AMSR-E)] remote sensing and earlier generation.001) in the midlatitudes, where its accuracy is directly proportional to the quality of MERRA precipitation. In the high products) to define biophysical attri- butes and water, mass, and energy exchanges (e.g., Running et al

Montana, University of

329

Marketing water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management, water conservation programs Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 17 public information programs and materials that increase awareness about regional water issues. The company recently opened the TecH2O, a water resource learning center...tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Characterization of irradiation-induced precipitates by small angle x-ray and neutron scattering experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nature of the irradiation-induced precipitates in the VVER-440-type steel 15Kh2MFA has been investigated by the combination of small angle neutron scattering and anomalous small angle X-ray scattering. Information about the chemical composition of the irradiation-induced precipitates was obtained by the method of contrast variation. ASAXS experiments with variation of the X-ray energy near the energy of the vanadium K-absorption edge prove the content of vanadium within the irradiation-induced precipitates. The scattering density of the precipitates is lower than the scattering density of the iron matrix. The chemical shift of the vanadium-K{sub {alpha}}-absorption-edge and the results of the variation of the contribution of the magnetic scattering in the SANS experiment show, that vanadium does not precipitate in an elementary state. These results can be explained by assuming the precipitates are vanadium carbide.

Grosse, M.; Eichhorn, F.; Boehmert, J.; Brauer, G. [Research Center Rossendorf Inc., Dresden (Germany)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

332

pH control of a fed batch reactor with precipitation J. Barraud a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pH control of a fed batch reactor with precipitation J. Barraud a , Y. Creff a , N. Petit b,* a IFP of controlling the pH, in a fed batch reactor where precipitation occurs, is con- sidered. Due to the batch Keywords: pH control Fed batch process Precipitation a b s t r a c t In this paper, the problem

333

Spectroscopic Analysis of Impurity Precipitates in CdS Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 10{sup 2} micron-scale precipitates.

Webb, J. D.; Keane, J.; Ribelin, R.; Gedvilas, L.; Swartzlander, A.; Ramanathan, K.; Albin, D. S.; Noufi, R.

1999-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

Synthesis and characterization of Fe(III)-silicate precipitation tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fe(III)-silicate precipitation tubes synthesized through 'silica garden' route have been characterized using a number of analytical techniques including X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These tubes are brittle and amorphous and are hierarchically built from smaller tubes of 5-10 nm diameters. They remain amorphous at least up to 650 {sup o}C. Crystobalite and hematite are the major phases present in Fe(III)-silicate tubes heated at 850 {sup o}C. Morphology and chemical compositions at the external and internal walls of these tubes are remarkably different. These tubes are porous with high BET surface area of 291.2 m{sup 2}/g. Fe(III)-silicate tubes contain significant amount of physically and chemically bound moisture. They show promise as an adsorbent for Pb(II), Zn(II), and Cr(III) in aqueous medium.

Parmar, K.; Pramanik, A.K. [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Burmamines, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)] [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Burmamines, Jamshedpur 831007 (India); Bandyopadhya, N.R. [Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)] [Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Bhattacharjee, S., E-mail: santanu@nmlindia.org [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Burmamines, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

The Dynamics of Platinum Precipitation in an Ion Exchange Membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microscopy of polymer electrolyte membranes that have undergone operation under fuel cell conditions, have revealed a well defined band of platinum in the membrane. Here, we propose a physics based model that captures the mechanism of platinum precipitation in the polymer electrolyte membrane. While platinum is observed throughout the membrane, the preferential growth of platinum at the band of platinum is dependent on the electrochemical potential distribution in the membrane. In this paper, the location of the platinum band is calculated as a function of the gas concentration at the cathode and anode, gas diffusion coefficients and solubility constants of the gases in the membrane, which are functions of relative humidity. Under H2/N2 conditions the platinum band is located near the cathode-membrane interface, as the oxygen concentration in the cathode gas stream increases and/or the hydrogen concentration in the anode gas stream decreases, the band moves towards the anode. The model developed in this paper...

Burlatsky, S F; Atrazhev, V V; Dmitriev, D V; Kuzminyh, N Y; Erikhman, N S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted precipitation method Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

, Yang Zhanga,, Robert Gilliamb , Jonathan Pleimb a MEAS, North... and horizontal grid resolutions in 3-D models can directly affect simulated clouds, precipitation, and...

337

Method and means for continuous precipitation of easy-dry, granular uranium peroxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and means for continuous precipitation of granular uranium peroxide. The reaction vessel and agitation method practiced in it avoid filter plugging and caking problems.

Cahill, Allen E. (Roland, IA); Burkhart, deceased, Lawrence E. (late of Ames, IA)

1992-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

338

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid precipitation assessment Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

are located, the pH value is much lower... of the environmental importance of rainwater acidity. 3 Field observations indicate that acid precipitation often... Wang...

339

Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in the Trade Wind Boundary Layer.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation includes an overview of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation properties associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed during the Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment (BACEX,… (more)

Jung, Eunsil

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Observed Scaling in Clouds and Precipitation and Scale Incognizance in Regional to Global Atmospheric Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use observations of robust scaling behavior in clouds and precipitation to derive constraints on how partitioning of precipitation should change with model resolution. Our analysis indicates that 90-99% of stratiform precipitation should occur in clouds that are resolvable by contemporary climate models (e.g., with 200 km or finer grid spacing). Furthermore, this resolved fraction of stratiform precipitation should increase sharply with resolution, such that effectively all stratiform precipitation should be resolvable above scales of ~50 km. We show that the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model also exhibit the robust cloud and precipitation scaling behavior that is present in observations, yet the resolved fraction of stratiform precipitation actually decreases with increasing model resolution. A suite of experiments with multiple dynamical cores provides strong evidence that this `scale-incognizant' behavior originates in one of the CAM4 parameterizations. An additional set of sensitivity experiments rules out both convection parameterizations, and by a process of elimination these results implicate the stratiform cloud and precipitation parameterization. Tests with the CAM5 physics package show improvements in the resolution-dependence of resolved cloud fraction and resolved stratiform precipitation fraction.

O'Brien, Travis A.; Li, Fuyu; Collins, William D.; Rauscher, Sara; Ringler, Todd; Taylor, Mark; Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

E-Print Network 3.0 - altered precipitation preliminary Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Meteorologisch Instituut Collection: Geosciences 5 Non-thermal Process for Recovering Reverse Osmosis Concentrate: Process Chemistry and Kinetics Summary: precipitation. 4....

342

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid precipitation provisions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of acidity in precipitation and in watersheds, showed... and nitrogen emissions from industrial sources as a means of reducing the ... Source: Crone, Elizabeth - Department of...

343

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution precipitation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution precipitation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Air Pollution Physics and...

344

Precipitation in a Cu–Cr–Zr–Mg alloy during aging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The precipitation processes in a Cu-0.69Cr-0.10Zr-0.02Mg alloy aged at 450 °C and 550 °C have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The precipitation sequence in this alloy aged at 450 °C is: supersaturated solid solution ? Guinier–Preston zone (fcc Cr-rich phase) ? ordered fcc Cr-rich phase ? ordered bcc Cr-rich phase. The precipitation sequence in this alloy aged at 550 °C is: supersaturated solid solution ? ordered fcc Cr-rich phase ? ordered bcc Cr-rich phase. In the evolution of decomposition, the orientation relationship between the precipitates and the Cu matrix changes from cube-on-cube to Nishiyama–Wassermann orientation. The ordering of Cr-rich precipitates facilitates the formation of the bcc precipitates and promotes the development of Nishiyama–Wassermann orientation. - Highlights: • Two different precipitation sequences in the Cu–Cr–Zr–Mg alloy are proposed. • The changes in orientation relationship of the precipitates are presented. • The roles of ordering and coherent interface of the precipitates are discussed.

Cheng, J.Y., E-mail: bigchengjianyi@163.com; Shen, B.; Yu, F.X.

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Influences of climate variability and change on precipitation characteristics and extremes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study focuses on two main broad areas of active research on climate: climate variability and climate change and their implications on regional precipitation characteristics.… (more)

Goly, Aneesh.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Future projections of daily precipitation and its extremes in simulations of 21st century climate change.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The current generation of climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is used to assess the future changes in daily precipitation… (more)

Yin, Lei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Arctic daily temperature and precipitation extremes: Observed and simulated physical behavior.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??ARCTIC DAILY TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: OBSERVED AND SIMULATED PHYSICAL BEHAVIOR Justin M. Glisan Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa… (more)

Glisan, Justin Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Gravel admix, vegetation, and soil water interactions in protective barriers: Experimental design, construction, and initial conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to measure the interactive effects of gravel admix and greater precipitation on soil water storage and plant abundance. The study is one of many tasks in the Protective Barrier Development Program for the disposal of Hanford defense waste. A factorial field-plot experiment was set up at the site selected as the borrow area for barrier topsoil. Gravel admix, vegetation, and enhanced precipitation treatments were randomly assigned to the plots using a split-split plot design structure. Changes in soil water storage and plant cover were monitored using neutron probe and point intercept methods, respectively. The first-year results suggest that water extraction by plants will offset gravel-caused increases in soil water storage. Near-surface soil water contents were much lower in graveled plots with plants than in nongraveled plots without plants. Large inherent variability in deep soil water storage masked any effects gravel may have had on water content below the root zone. In the future, this source of variation will be removed by differencing monthly data series and testing for changes in soil water storage. Tests of the effects of greater precipitation on soil water storage were inconclusive. A telling test will be possible in the spring of 1988, following the first wet season during which normal precipitation is doubled. 26 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

Waugh, W.J.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Using Radar, Lidar and Radiometer Data from NSA and SHEBA to Quantify Cloud Property Effects on the Surface Heat Budget in the Arctic  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cloud and radiation data from two distinctly different Arctic areas are analyzed to study the differences between coastal Alaskan and open Arctic Ocean region clouds and their respective influence on the surface radiation budget. The cloud and radiation datasets were obtained from (1) the DOE North Slope of Alaska (NSA) facility in the coastal town of Barrow, Alaska, and (2) the SHEBA field program, which was conducted from an icebreaker frozen in, and drifting with, the sea-ice for one year in the Western Arctic Ocean. Radar, lidar, radiometer, and sounding measurements from both locations were used to produce annual cycles of cloud occurrence and height, atmospheric temperature and humidity, surface longwave and shortwave broadband fluxes, surface albedo, and cloud radiative forcing. In general, both regions revealed a similar annual trend of cloud occurrence fraction with minimum values in winter (60-75%) and maximum values during spring, summer and fall (80-90%). However, the annual average cloud occurrence fraction for SHEBA (76%) was lower than the 6-year average cloud occurrence at NSA (92%). Both Arctic areas also showed similar annual cycle trends of cloud forcing with clouds warming the surface through most of the year and a period of surface cooling during the summer, when cloud shading effects overwhelm cloud greenhouse effects. The greatest difference between the two regions was observed in the magnitude of the cloud cooling effect (i.e., shortwave cloud forcing), which was significantly stronger at NSA and lasted for a longer period of time than at SHEBA. This is predominantly due to the longer and stronger melt season at NSA (i.e., albedo values that are much lower coupled with Sun angles that are somewhat higher) than the melt season observed over the ice pack at SHEBA. Longwave cloud forcing values were comparable between the two sites indicating a general similarity in cloudiness and atmospheric temperature and humidity structure between the two regions.

Janet Intrieri; Mathhew Shupe

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source pollution is of major interest. Because reclamation of strip mine areas, hazardous waste disposal, acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects, or spring floods. Because of the 1987-89 drought years and the floods of 1993 and 1995, water quantity has

351

Phosphorus reduction in dairy effluent through flocculation and precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phosphorus (P) is a pollutant in freshwater systems because it promotes eutrophication. The dairies in the North Bosque and its water body segments import more P than they export. Dairies accumulate P-rich effluent in lagoons and use...

Bragg, Amanda Leann

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

352

Terrestrial Water Relations & Climate ChangeTerrestrial Water Relations & Climate Change Jeffrey M Warren, Ph.D.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

warmermore frequent and longer lasting in a future warmer climate" "...precipitation intensity is projected Report "...very likely that heat waves will be more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in a future carbon gain. Leaf water loss Hubbard et al. 2001 #12;9 belowground processesbelowground processes

Gray, Matthew

353

Transmission electron microscopy of oxide development on 9Cr ODS steel in supercritical water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transmission electron microscopy of oxide development on 9Cr ODS steel in supercritical water A strengthened ferritic steel alloys during exposure to 600 °C supercritical water for 2- and 4-weeks were cladding include austenitic stainless steels, solid solution and precipitation-hardened alloys, ferritic

Motta, Arthur T.

354

Regional sensitivity of Greenland precipitation to NAO variability E. Mosley-Thompson,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional sensitivity of Greenland precipitation to NAO variability E. Mosley-Thompson,1,2 C. R, particularly under a warming Earth scenario. As Greenland precipitation is modulated by the NAO, ice core-derived accumulation histories are incorporated into multi-proxy reconstructions. New ice core records from Greenland

Howat, Ian M.

355

Transition metal co-precipitation mechanisms in silicon T. Buonassisi a,*, M. Heuer a,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-temperature annealing, co-localized single-metal silicide phases are observed, consistent with classical models, upon supersaturation, precipitate into their solid equilibrium metal silicide phase (e.g., FeSi2 [6Transition metal co-precipitation mechanisms in silicon T. Buonassisi a,*, M. Heuer a,1 , A

356

A comparison between raw EPS output, (modied) BMA and extended LR using ECMWF EPS precipitation reforecasts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comparison between raw EPS output, (modied) BMA and extended LR using ECMWF EPS precipitation (EPS). 2. Data sets, statistical methods and predictand denitions The data sets used in this study [1 and precipitation data from a reforecasting exper- iment with the ECMWF EPS system. Figure 1: BMA-tted pdf of 24-h

Schmeits, Maurice

357

Statistical Characteristics of Daily Precipitation: Comparisons of Gridded and Point Datasets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical Characteristics of Daily Precipitation: Comparisons of Gridded and Point Datasets Gauge Dataset (URD) and those of its nearest (rain gauge) station. To further examine differences between the two datasets, return periods of daily precipitation were calculated over a region encompassing

Roy Chowdhury, Rinku

358

Formation Damage due to Iron Precipitation in Acidizing Operations and Evaluating GLDA as a Chelating Agent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Iron control during acidizing plays a key role in the success of matrix treatment. Ferric ion precipitates in the formation once the acid is spent and the pH exceeds 1-2. Precipitation of iron (III) within the formation can cause formation damage...

Mittal, Rohit

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

359

The relative importance of deforestation, precipitation change, and temperature sensitivity in determining the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The relative importance of deforestation, precipitation change, and temperature sensitivity human disturbances ­ two of the most important of which are deforestation and climate change of deforestation as well as the response of species to changes in temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric

Malhi, Yadvinder

360

Decadal cyclicity of regional mid-Holocene precipitation: Evidence from Dominican coral proxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decadal cyclicity of regional mid-Holocene precipitation: Evidence from Dominican coral proxies of four Holocene specimens of Montastraea sp. and Siderastrea sp. coral skeletons from the Dominican Republic were analyzed to examine decadal-scale fluctuations in regional precipitation. The specimens range

Greer, Lisa

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum K. G precipitation; sorption; isotherms; X-ray diffraction; hydrous iron oxide; hydrous aluminum oxide; copper. INTRODUCTION Hydrous oxides of iron (HFO) and aluminum (HAO) are important mineral components of natural

Chorover, Jon

362

Modeling precipitation from concentrated solutions with the EQ3/6 chemical speciation codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the more important uncertainties of using chemical speciation codes to study dissolution and precipitation of compounds is the results of modeling which depends on the particular thermodynamic database being used. The authors goal is to investigate the effects of different thermodynamic databases on modeling precipitation from concentrated solutions. They used the EQ3/6 codes and the supplied databases to model precipitation in this paper. One aspect of this goal is to compare predictions of precipitation from ideal solutions to similar predictions from nonideal solutions. The largest thermodynamic databases available for use by EQ3/6 assume that solutions behave ideally. However, two databases exist that allow modeling nonideal solutions. The two databases are much less extensive than the ideal solution data, and they investigated the comparability of modeling ideal solutions and nonideal solutions. They defined four fundamental problems to test the EQ3/6 codes in concentrated solutions. Two problems precipitate Ca(OH){sub 2} from solutions concentrated in Ca{sup ++}. One problem tests the precipitation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from high ionic strength (high concentration) solutions that are low in the concentrations of precipitating species (Ca{sup ++} in this case). The fourth problem evaporates the supernatant of the problem with low concentrations of precipitating species. The specific problems are discussed.

Brown, L.F.; Ebinger, M.H.

1995-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

363

Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as Seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as Seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar DEANNA A Measurement Mission satellite's Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) show the vertical structure of tropical cyclone separated by the melting layer. The ice layer is a combination of particles imported from the eyewall

Houze Jr., Robert A.

364

Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar Deanna A's Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) show the vertical structure of tropical cyclone rainbands. Radar-echo statistics show that rainbands have a two-layered structure, with distinct modes separated by the melting layer

Houze Jr., Robert A.

365

Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration Jung-Eun Lee1*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA 2. Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State exhibit low intraseasonal precipitation variability despite high annual-mean precipitation. Analyzing simulations of the NCAR atmospheric model coupled to the Community Land Model with and without transpiration

Neelin, J. David

366

Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation variability?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation record over recent decades. Citation: Douville, H. (2006), Detection-attribution of global warming at recent climate scenarios, Douville et al. [2005] showed that the precipitation response to global warming

Ribes, Aurélien

367

3 Carbide Precipitation Carbides are largely responsible for the commercial failure of many of the early  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1. Transition carbides, such as and the various orthorhombic forms listed in Table 3.1, only form because Precipitation 64 Table 3.1 Carbides in bainite or in tempered bainite. Fe, M/C is the ratio of metal to car- bon3 Carbide Precipitation Carbides are largely responsible for the commercial failure of many

Cambridge, University of

368

Homogeneity of precipitation series in the Netherlands and their trends in the past century  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Homogeneity of precipitation series in the Netherlands and their trends in the past century T. A. Buishand, G. De Martino, J.N. Spreeuw and T. Brandsma Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt, The Netherlands ABSTRACT: The historical daily precipitation observations for the Netherlands

Brandsma, Theo

369

Precipitation process for the removal of technetium values from nuclear waste solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High efficiency removal of techetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

Walker, D.D.; Ebra, M.A.

1985-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

370

Assessing the individual contributions of variations in temperature, solar radiation and precipitation to crop yield  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short Title:15 Contributions, Temperature, Solar radiation, Precipitation, Crop yield16 Page 1 of 41 The results showed that year-to-year variations in temperature, solar radiation and precipitation28 in solar radiation showed the strongest isolated impact on simulated yields.34 Its decrease caused

Robertson, Andrew W.

371

Changes in winter precipitation extremes for the western United States under a warmer climate as simulated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Changes in winter precipitation extremes for the western United States under a warmer climate find a consistent and statistically significant increase in the intensity of future extreme winter consistently show an increase in the intensity of extreme winter precipitation with the multi-model mean

Castro, Christopher L.

372

Changes in daily temperature and precipitation extremes in central and south Asia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Changes in daily temperature and precipitation extremes in central and south Asia A. M. G. Klein in indices of climate extremes are studied on the basis of daily series of temperature and precipitation, the indices of temperature extremes indicate warming of both the cold tail and the warm tail

Klein Tank, Albert

373

Spatially Penalized Regression for Extremes Dependence Analysis and Prediction: Case of Precipitation Extremes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatially Penalized Regression for Extremes Dependence Analysis and Prediction: Case of Precipitation Extremes Debasish Das1,2 , Auroop R. Ganguly1 , Snigdhansu Chatterjee3 , Vipin Kumar4 , Zoran@cs.umn.edu, zoran.obradovic@temple.edu. ABSTRACT The inability to predict precipitation extremes under non

Obradovic, Zoran

374

Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in the IPCC Ensemble of Global Coupled Model Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in the IPCC Ensemble of Global Coupled Model September 2006) ABSTRACT Temperature and precipitation extremes and their potential future changes on Climate Change (IPCC) diagnostic exercise for the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Climate extremes

375

ESA DUE GlobVapour water vapor products: Validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobVapour project was the development of multi-annual global water vapor data sets. Since water vapour is a key climate variable it is important to have a good understanding of its behavior in the climate system. The ESA DUE GlobVapour project provides water vapor data, including error estimates, based on carefully calibrated and inter-calibrated satellite radiances in response to user requirements for long time series satellite observations. ESA DUE GlobVapour total columnar water vapor (TCWV) products derived from GOME/SCIA/GOME-2 (1996-2008) and SSM/I+MERIS (2003-2008) have been validated for the mentioned period, using satellite-based (AIRS, ATOVS) and ground-based measurements (radiosondes and microwave radiometer). The validation results are discussed in the following. The technical specifications on bias (1 kg/m{sup 2} for SSMI+MERIS and 2 kg/m{sup 2} for GOME/SCIA/GOME-2) are generally met. For more information, documents and data download follow the link: www.globvapour.info.

Schneider, Nadine; Schroeder, Marc; Stengel, Martin [Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), KU22, Frankfurter Str. 135, 63067 Offenbach a. M (Germany); Lindstrot, Ramus; Preusker, Rene [Freie Universitaet Berlin (FUB), Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6-10, 12165 Berlin (Germany); Collaboration: ESA DUE GlobVapour Consortium

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

376

Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

Morris, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Averill, Frank [ORNL] [ORNL; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's East Campus. "Consolidating administration,faculty and staff and facilities is costeffectiveandper or commercial products constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government. WATER CURRENT Water Center University

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

378

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAíS WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH with a vision, thereís an untapped market using resources right under our feet,î the University of Nebraska outdoors in India, Bangladesh, China and Viet- nam. Thousands of them have been grown to harvest

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

379

Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: Part I. Water and solute movement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300–480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Late Quaternary glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation distribution in the Southern Alps of New Zealand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Glaciers respond to climate variations and leave geomorphic evidence that represents an important terrestrial paleoclimate record. However, the accuracy of paleoclimate reconstructions from glacial geology is limited by the challenge of representing mountain meteorology in numerical models. Precipitation is usually treated in a simple manner and yet represents difficult-to-characterize variables such as amount, distribution, and phase. Furthermore, precipitation distributions during a glacial probably differed from present-day interglacial patterns. We applied two models to investigate glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation in the eastern Southern Alps of New Zealand. A 2-D model was used to quantify variations in the length of the reconstructed glaciers resulting from plausible precipitation distributions compared to variations in length resulting from change in mean annual air temperature and precipitation amount. A 1-D model was used to quantify variations in length resulting from interannual climate variability. Assuming that present-day interglacial values represent precipitation distributions during the last glacial, a range of plausible present-day precipitation distributions resulted in uncertainty in the Last Glacial Maximum length of the Pukaki Glacier of 17.1?km (24%) and the Rakaia Glacier of 9.3?km (25%), corresponding to a 0.5°C difference in temperature. Smaller changes in glacier length resulted from a 50% decrease in precipitation amount from present-day values (-14% and -18%) and from a 50% increase in precipitation amount (5% and 9%). Our results demonstrate that precipitation distribution can produce considerable variation in simulated glacier extents and that reconstructions of paleoglaciers should include this uncertainty.

Ann V. Rowan; Simon H. Brocklehurst; David M. Schultz; Mitchell A. Plummer; Leif S. Anderson; Neil F. Glasser

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the Southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cloud-system resolving simulations with the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model are used to quantify the impacts of regional anthropogenic and oceanic emissions on changes in aerosol properties, cloud macro- and microphysics, and cloud radiative forcing over the Southeast Pacific (SEP) during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) (15 Oct–Nov 16, 2008). The effects of oceanic aerosols on cloud properties, precipitation, and the shortwave forcing counteract those of anthropogenic aerosols. Despite the relatively small changes in Na concentrations (2-12%) from regional oceanic emissions, their net effect (direct and indirect) on the surface shortwave forcing is opposite and comparable or even larger in magnitude compared to those of regional anthropogenic emissions over the SEP. Two distinct regions are identified in the VOCALS-REx domain. The near-coast polluted region is characterized with strong droplet activation suppression of small particles by sea-salt particles, the more important role of the first than the second indirect effect, low surface precipitation rate, and low aerosol-cloud interaction strength associated with anthropogenic emissions. The relatively clean remote region is characterized with large contributions of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN, number concentration denoted by NCCN) and droplet number concentrations (Nd) from non-local sources (lateral boundaries), a significant amount of surface precipitation, and high aerosol-cloud interactions under a scenario of five-fold increase in anthropogenic emissions. In the clean region, cloud properties have high sensitivity (e.g., 13% increase in cloud-top height and a 9% surface albedo increase) to the moderate increase in CCN concentration (?Nccn = 13 cm-3; 25%) produced by a five-fold increase in regional anthropogenic emissions. The increased anthropogenic aerosols reduce the precipitation amount over the relatively clean remote ocean. The reduction of precipitation (as a cloud water sink) more than doubles the wet scavenging timescale, resulting in an increased aerosol lifetime in the marine boundary layer. Therefore, the aerosol impacts on precipitation are amplified by the positive feedback of precipitation on aerosol. The positive feedback ultimately alters the cloud micro- and macro-properties, leading to strong aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The higher sensitivity of clouds to anthropogenic aerosols over this region is also related to a 16% entrainment rate increase due to anthropogenic aerosols. The simulated aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions are stronger at night over the clean marine region, while during the day, solar heating results in more frequent decoupling, thinner clouds, reduced precipitation, and reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The simulated high sensitivity to the increased anthropogenic emissions over the clean region suggests that the perturbation of the clean marine environment with anthropogenic aerosols may have a larger effect on climate than that of already polluted marine environments.

Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Berg, Larry K.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Morrison, H.

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

382

Water Conservation and Water Use Efficiency (Wisconsin)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Wisconsin has several statutes that promote water conservation and controlled water use, and this legislation establishes mandatory and voluntary programs in water conservation and water use...

383

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

384

An Assessment of Microwave Absorption Models and Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water Using Clear-Sky Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Passive microwave radiometers have a long history in the remote sensing of atmospheric liquid and water vapor. Retrievals of these quantities are sensitive to variations in pressure and temperature of the liquid and water vapor. Rather than use a statistical or climatological approach to account for the natural variability in atmospheric pressure and temperature, additional information on the atmospheric profile at the time of the radiometer measurements can be directly incorporated into the retrieval process. Such an approach has been referred to in the literature as a “physical-iterative” solution. This paper presents an assessment of the accuracy of the column liquid water path that can be expected using such an iterative technique as a result of uncertainties in the microwave emissions from oxygen and water vapor. It is shown that the retrieval accuracy is influenced by the accuracy of the instrument measurements and the quality of the atmospheric profiles of temperature and pressure, as one would expect. But also critical is the uncertainty in the absorption coefficients used in the underlying microwave radiative transfer model. The uncertainty in the absorption coefficients is particularly problematic in that it may well bias the liquid water retrieval. The differences between 3 absorption models examined in this paper are equivalent to a bias of 15 to 30 g/m2, depending on the total column water vapor. An examination of typical liquid water paths from the Southern Great Plains region of the United States shows that errors of this magnitude have significant implications for shortwave radiation and retrievals of cloud effective particle size.

Marchand, Roger T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Westwater, Ed R.; Clough, Shepard A.; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Liljegren, James C.

2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

385

Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

Chen, Tsuhan

386

Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing : Part II. precipitates by in-situ aluminum alloy corrosion.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vertical loop head loss tests were performed with 6061 and 1100 aluminum (Al) alloy plates immersed in borated solution at pH = 9.3 at room temperature and 60 C. The results suggest that the potential for corrosion of an Al alloy to result in increased head loss across a glass fiber bed may depend on its microstructure, i.e., the size distribution and number density of intermetallic particles that are present in Al matrix and FeSiAl ternary compounds, as well as its Al release rate. Per unit mass of Al removed from solution, the WCAP-16530 aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH){sub 3}) surrogate was more effective in increasing head loss than the Al(OH)3 precipitates formed in situ by corrosion of Al alloy. However, in choosing a representative amount of surrogate for plant specific testing, consideration should be given to the potential for additional head losses due to intermetallic particles and the apparent reduction in the effective solubility of Al(OH){sub 3} when intermetallic particles are present.

Bahn, C.; Kasza, K. E.; Shack, W. J.; Natesan, K. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Computerized Waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ing 2002?2005 and documented in TWRI?s Technical Report 284 released in January 2006, include: ? Capabilities for short-term reliability analyses based on current storage conditions (Or what is the likelihood of meeting water needs in the near... System Reference Manual. TWRI Technical Report 255, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Water Rights Analysis Package Modeling System Users Manual. TWRI Technical Report 256, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Coupling Quantitative Precipitation Estimate and Great Lakes Hydrologic Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rationale The ability to provide accurate runoff estimates not only impacts forecasting of the water levels of the Seaway, but can help business such as commercial shippers, marinas, and hydropower and nuclear plants environment, the Great Lakes basin, and GLERL will improve its LBRM to hourly computations and its AHPS

389

The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Department of Energy (DOE) multi-laboratory Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) investigated components of the local water budget at the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas to study the relative importance of various processes and to determine the feasibility of observational water budget closure. An extensive database of local meteorological time series and land surface characteristics was compiled. Numerical simulations of water budget components were generated and, to the extent possible, validated for three nested domains within the Southern Great Plains; the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (ARM/CART), the Walnut River Watershed (WRW), and the Whitewater Watershed (WW), Kansas A 2-month Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was conducted to gather detailed observations relevant to specific details of the water budget, including fine-scale precipitation, streamflow, and soil moisture measurements not made routinely by other programs. Event and season al water isotope (delta 18O, delta D) sampling in rainwater, streams, soils, lakes, and wells provided a means of tracing sources and sinks within and external to the WW, WRW, and the ARM/CART domains. The WCPS measured changes in leaf area index for several vegetation types, deep groundwater variations at two wells, and meteorological variables at a number of sites in the WRW. Additional activities of the WCPS include code development toward a regional climate model with water isotope processes, soil moisture transect measurements, and water level measurements in ground water wells.

Miller, N.L.; King, A.W.; Miller, M.A.; Springer, E.P.; Wesely, M.L.; Bashford, K.E.; Conrad, M.E.; Costigan, K.; Foster, P.N.; Gibbs, H.K.; Jin, J.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B.M.; Machavaram, M.V.; Pan, F.; Song, J.; Troyan, D.; Washington-Allen, R.A.

2003-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

390

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

391

Water Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Management This department applies multi-disciplinary science and technology-based modeling to assess complex environmental systems. It integrates ecology, anthropology, and...

392

DRAFT Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganizationElectronic2005-2007 Budget Dear2, 2011 DRAFT MEETING

393

Examining the Relationship between Antecedent Soil Moisture and Summer Precipitation in the U.S. Great Plains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation focuses on examining the relationship between antecedent soil moisture and summer precipitation in the U.S. Great Plains (GP). The influence of Nino sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on summer precipitation has also been investigated...

Meng, Lei

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

394

Facilitated Strontium Transport by Remobilization of Strontium-Containing Secondary Precipitates in Hanford Site Subsurface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significantly enhanced immobilization of radionuclides (such as 90Sr and 137Cs) due to adsorption and coprecipitation with neo-formed colloid-sized secondary precipitates has been reported at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site. However, the stability of these secondary precipitates containing radionuclides in the subsurface under changeable field conditions is not clear. Here, the authors tested the remobilization possibility of Sr containing secondary precipitates (nitrate-cancrinite) in the subsurface using saturated column experiments under different geochemical and flow conditions. The columns were packed with quartz sand that contained secondary precipitates (nitrate-cancrinite containing Sr), and leached using colloid-free solutions under different flow rates, varying pH, and ionic strength conditions. The results indicate remobilization of the neo-formed secondary precipitates could be possible given a change of background conditions. The remobility of the neo formed precipitates increased with the rise in the leaching solution flow rate and pH (in a range of pH 4 to 11), as well as with decreasing solution ionic strength. The increased mobility of Sr-containing secondary precipitates with changing background conditions can be a potential source for additional radionuclide transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Evaluations of Radionuclides of Uranium, Thorium, and Radium Associated with Produced Fluids, Precipitates, and Sludges from Oil, Gas, and Oilfield Brine Injection Wells in Mississippi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is an unsurpassed lack of scientific data with respect to the concentrations and isotopic compositions of uranium, thorium, and radium in the produced formation fluids (brine), precipitates, and sludges generated with the operation of oil and gas wells in Mississippi. These radioactive elements when contained in the formation fluids have been given the term NORM, which is an acronym for naturally occurring radioactive materials. When they are technologically enhanced during oil and gas production activities resulting in the formation of scale (precipitates) and sludges they are termed TENORM (technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials). As used in this document, NORM and TENORM will be considered equivalent terms and the occurrence of NORM in the oilfield will be considered the result of production operations. As a result of the lack of data no scientifically sound theses may be developed concerning the presence of these radionuclides in the fluid brine, precipitate (scale), or sludge phases. Over the period of just one year, 1997 for example, Mississippi produced over 39,372,963,584 liters (10,402,368,186 gallons or 247,675,433 barrels) of formation water associated with hydrocarbon production from 41 counties across the state.

Ericksen, R.L.

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

396

Metal precipitation at grain boundaries in silicon: Dependence on grain boundary character and dislocation decoration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synchrotron-based analytical microprobe techniques, electron backscatter diffraction, and defect etching are combined to determine the dependence of metal silicide precipitate formation on grain boundary character and microstructure in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si). Metal silicide precipitate decoration is observed to increase with decreasing atomic coincidence within the grain boundary plane (increasing {sigma} values). A few low-{sigma} boundaries contain anomalously high metal precipitate concentrations, concomitant with heavy dislocation decoration. These results provide direct experimental evidence that the degree of interaction between metals and structural defects in mc-Si can vary as a function of microstructure, with implications for mc-Si device performance and processing.

Buonassisi, T.; Istratov, A. A.; Pickett, M. D.; Marcus, M. A.; Ciszek, T. F.; Weber, E. R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 and Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 and Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

397

Effect of solution annealing temperature on precipitation in 2205 duplex stainless steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study, effect of solution annealing temperature (1050 Degree-Sign C and 1100 Degree-Sign C) and isothermal ageing (700 Degree-Sign C: 15 min to 6 h) on the microstructural changes in 2205 duplex stainless steel has been investigated systematically. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were adopted to follow the microstructural evolution, while an energy dispersive spectrometer attached to scanning electron microscope was used to obtain localised chemical information of various phases. The ferritic matrix of the two phase 2205 duplex stainless steel ({approx} 45% ferrite and {approx} 55% austenite) undergoes a series of metallurgical transformations during ageing-formation of secondary austenite ({gamma}{sub 2}) and precipitation of Cr and Mo rich intermetallic (chi-{chi} and sigma-{sigma}) phases. For solution annealing at 1050 Degree-Sign C, significant amount of carbides were observed in the ferrite grains after 1 h of ageing at 700 Degree-Sign C. {chi} Phase precipitated after the precipitation of carbides-preferentially at the ferrite-ferrite and also at the ferrite-austenite boundaries. {sigma} Phase was not observed in significant quantity even after 6 h of ageing. The sequence of precipitation in samples solution annealed at 1050 Degree-Sign C was found to be carbides {yields} {chi} {yields} {sigma}. On the contrary, for samples solution annealed at 1100 Degree-Sign C, the precipitation of {chi} phase was negligible. {chi} Phase precipitated before {sigma} phase, preferentially along the ferrite-ferrite grain boundaries and was later consumed in the {sigma} phase precipitation. The {sigma} phase precipitated via the eutectoid transformation of ferrite to yield secondary austenite {gamma}{sub 2} and {sigma} phase in the ferrite and along the ferrite-austenite grain boundaries. An increase in the volume fraction of {gamma}{sub 2} and {sigma} phase with simultaneous decrease in the ferrite was evidenced with ageing. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of solution annealing temperature on microstructural evolution is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {chi} Phase precipitated preferentially in the samples solution annealed at 1050 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sigma} Phase precipitated preferentially in the samples solution annealed at 1100 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For SA at 1050 Degree-Sign C, the sequence of precipitation was carbides {yields} {chi} phase {yields} {sigma} phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For SA at 1100 Degree-Sign C, {sigma} phase precipitated via the eutectoid reaction: ferrite (F) {yields} {sigma} + {gamma}{sub 2}.

Kashiwar, A., E-mail: akashiwar@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur-440010, Maharashtra (India); Vennela, N. Phani, E-mail: phanivennela@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur-440010, Maharashtra (India); Kamath, S.L., E-mail: kamath@iitb.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB), Powai, Mumbai-400076, Maharashtra (India); Khatirkar, R.K., E-mail: rajesh.khatirkar@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), South Ambazari Road, Nagpur-440010, Maharashtra (India)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in Porous Media – Subsurface Biogeochemical Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal for this research was to understand how best to add compounds to receptive microbial communities in porous media in order to achieve optimal calcite precipitation in a volumetrically significant space and to understand the physiological health of the cells that are responsible for the calcite precipitation. The specific objectives were to: (1) develop better tools for visually examining biofilms in porous media and calcium carbonate precipitation being mediated by microbes in porous media, and (2) demonstrate the effectiveness of using that tool within a flow cell model system.

Colwell, Frederick [Oregon State University; Wildenschild, Dorthe [Oregon State University; Wood, Brian [Oregon State University; Gerlach, Robin [Montana State University; Redden, George

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

399

Interstitial-phase precipitation in iron-base alloys: a comparative study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent developments have elucidated the atomistic mechanisms of precipitation of interstitial elements in simple alloy systems. However, in the more technologically important iron base alloys, interstitial phase precipitation is generally not well understood. The present experimental study was therefore designed to test the applicability of these concepts to more complex ferrous alloys. Hence, a comparative study was made of interstitial phase precipitation in ferritic Fe-Si-C and in austenitic phosphorus-containing Fe-Cr-Ni steels. These systems were subjected to a variety of quench-age thermal treatments, and the microstructural development was subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy.

Pelton, A.R.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Influence of Mg2+ on CaCO3 precipitation during subsurface reactive transport in a homogeneous silicon-etched pore network  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) geochemical reactions exert a fundamental control on the evolution of porosity and permeability in shallow-to-deep subsurface siliciclastic and limestone rock reservoirs. As a result, these carbonate water-rock interactions play a critically important role in research on groundwater remediation, geological carbon sequestration, and hydrocarbon exploration. A study was undertaken to determine the effects of Mg2+ concentration on CaCO3 crystal morphology, precipitation rate, and porosity occlusion under flow and mixing conditions similar to those in subsurface aquifers.

Boyd, Victoria; Yoon, Hongkyu; Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus; Hess, Nancy J.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

J.F. Meirink et al., Precipitation retrievals from SEVIRI ---IPC, 1 July 2013 Retrieval of precipitation from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of median and 95th percentile of CPP/radar rain rate as a function of solar zenith angle. Based on data over Cloud Top Temperature [K] Height liquid column [m] Cloud Phase LWP > 160 g m-2 re (water) > 15 m Output --- IPC, 1 July 2013 Solar zenith angle dependence Positive bias in CPP rain rates at high solar zenith

Haak, Hein

402

10/7/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php 1/14  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10/7/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php 2/14 precipitation. #12;10/7/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php

403

Cloud top microphysics as a tool for precipitation measurements Daniel Rosenfeld, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud top microphysics as a tool for precipitation measurements Daniel Rosenfeld, Hebrew University of the electromagnetic radiation that is scattered and emitted from the clouds, precipitation and the underlying surface with the cloud and precipitation particles strongly depends on their composition and size distribution

Daniel, Rosenfeld

404

Caribbean Precipitation in Observations and IPCC AR4 Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

those models using heat (H), water (W) or no (N) flux cor- rection. AMIP indicates whether monthly AMIP data was avail- able. Further model details, including references, can be found at the PCMDI website http://www-pcmdi.llnl.gov... site at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/. Wavelet software is available at URL: http://atoc.colorado.edu/research/wavelets/ and was developed by C. Torrence and G. Compo. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION...

Martin, Elinor Ruth

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

405

Machine Learning Enhancement of Storm-Scale Ensemble Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Machine Learning Enhancement of Storm-Scale Ensemble Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation uncertainty. Machine learning methods can produce calibrated probabilistic forecasts from the raw ensemble and machine learning are working to address these challenges. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models

Xue, Ming

406

Effects of Sea-Salt Aerosols on Precipitation in Simulations of Shallow Cumulus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A suite of large-eddy simulations with size-resolving microphysical processes was performed in order to assess effects of sea-salt aerosols on precipitation process in trade cumulus. Simulations based on observations from ...

Kogan, Yefim L.; Mechem, David B.; Choi, Kityan

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Effects of Cu Content and Preaging on Precipitation Characteristics in Aluminum Alloy 6022  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Cu Content and Preaging on Precipitation Characteristics in Aluminum Alloy 6022 W and artificial aging response in aluminum alloy 6022 were investigated using transmission electron microscopy automotive paint bake condition, suitable preaging treatments were found to significantly reduce

Laughlin, David E.

408

Influence Analysis of Discharge Electrode on Performance of an Electric Precipitator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The influence factors of discharge electrodes on the performance of an electric precipitator are comprehensively analyzed in this paper. The factors are mainly the following: 1) electrode forms and matches with collecting electrode, 2) electrode...

Luo, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xiong, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell Roland D. Cusick*, Mark L. Ullery, Brian A. Dempsey, Bruce E. Logan Department of Civil January 2014 Available online 6 February 2014 Keywords: Microbial electrolysis cell Electrochemical

410

Supplementary Information for: Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplementary Information for: Electrochemical struvite precipitation from digestate with a fluidized bed cathode microbial electrolysis cell Roland D. Cusick1,2 , Mark Ullery1 , Brian A. Dempsey1

411

A census of precipitation features in the tropics using TRMM: radar, ice scattering, and lightning observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and two ocean regions during August, September and October 1998, this study used radar retrievals and 85 GHz Polarization Corrected Temperatures (PCTs, which passively measure relative concentrations of precipitation-sized ice particles within a cloud...

Nesbitt, Stephen William

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Method for inhibiting silica precipitation and scaling in geothermal flow systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for inhibiting silica scaling and precipitation in geothermal flow systems by on-line injection of low concentrations of cationic nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly polymeric imines, polymeric amines, and quaternary ammonium compounds is described.

Harrar, J.E.; Lorensen, L.E.; Locke, F.E.

1980-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

413

Global precipitation retrieval algorithm trained for SSMIS using a numerical weather prediction model: Design and evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents and evaluates a global precipitation retrieval algorithm for the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS). It is based on those developed earlier for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) ...

Surussavadee, Chinnawat

414

Distributed quantitative precipitation forecasts combining information from radar and numerical weather prediction model outputs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applications of distributed Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts (QPF) range from flood forecasting to transportation. Obtaining QPF is acknowledged to be one of the most challenging areas in hydrology and meteorology. ...

Ganguly, Auroop Ratan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Demonstration of Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation Process Using Savannah River Site High Level Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the experimental effort to demonstrate the continuous precipitation of cesium from Savannah River Site High Level Waste using sodium tetraphenylborate. In addition, the experiments examined the removal of strontium and various actinides through addition of monosodium titanate.

Peters, T.B.

2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

416

Prediction of spring subterranean termite swarms in Texas with relation to temperature and precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research was conducted in order to determine predictive correlations among temperature (heat units), precipitation, and springtime subterranean termite swarming in Texas. Heat units were accumulated from December 21 through the date of the initial...

Furman, Barry Daine

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Toward a better integration of biological data from precipitation manipulation experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into Earth system models Nicholas G. Smith1 , Vikki L. Rodgers2 , Edward R. Brzostek3 , Andrew Kulmatiski4 The biological responses to precipitation within the terrestrial components of Earth system models, or land

418

Method for inhibiting silica precipitation and scaling in geothermal flow systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for inhibiting silica scaling and precipitation in geothermal flow systems by on-line injection of low concentrations of cationic nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly polymeric imines, polymeric amines, and quaternary ammonium compounds.

Harrar, Jackson E. (Castro Valley, CA); Lorensen, Lyman E. (Orinda, CA); Locke, Frank E. (Lafayette, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Southern hemisphere regional precipitation and climate variability : extremes trends and predictability.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This PhD thesis investigates the relative importance of oceanic and atmospheric influences on extremes, long-term trends, and seasonal to interannual variability of precipitation for different… (more)

Ummenhofer, Caroline C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

XAFS of Synthetic Iron(III)-Arsenate Co-Precipitates and Uranium Mill Neutralized Raffinate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

XAFS studies were carried out for chemical speciation of arsenic species in uranium mill neutralized raffinate solids. To aid the structural characterization, synthetic iron(III)-arsenate co-precipitates were prepared to mimic the actual uranium mill tailings neutralization products. The principle components analysis method was used to validate the synthetic amorphous scorodite as a primary model compound for arsenate species in the raffinate samples under the specific precipitation conditions.

Chen, N. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada); Department of Geological Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Jiang, D. T. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada); COGEMA Resources Inc., Saskatoon, SK S7K 3X5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Cutler, J. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada); Demopoulos, G. P. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Rowson, J. W. [Department of Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada)

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

2012-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

422

Investigating Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................... 193 Lesson 11 Water and Pollution........................................................................................................................ 195 Activity 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere...! ............................................................................. 205 Record Sheet 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere! ..................................................................... 207 Activity 11.2, Pollution at Its Source...

Howard Jr., Ronald A.

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

423

Water Privatisation   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

Zölls, Elisa

2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

424

Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Variability in the magnitude and timing of precipitation is predicted to change under future climate scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to understand how variation in precipitation patterns consisting of soil moisture pulses mixed with intermittent dry down events influence ecosystem gas fluxes. We characterized the effects of precipitation amount and timing, N availability, and plant community composition on whole ecosystem and leaf gas exchange in a California annual grassland mesocosm study system that allowed precise control of soil moisture conditions. Ecosystem CO2 and fluxes increased significantly with greater precipitation and were positively correlated with soil moisture. A repeated 10 day dry down period following 11 days of variable precipitation inputs strongly depressed net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) across a range of season precipitation totals, and plant community types. Ecosystem respiration (Re), evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf level photosynthesis (Amax) showed greatest sensitivity to dry down periods in low precipitation plots. Nitrogen additions significantly increased NEE, Re and Amax, particularly as water availability was increased. These results demonstrate that N availability and intermittent periods of soil moisture deficit (across a wide range of cumulative season precipitation totals) strongly modulate ecosystem gas exchange.

St. Clair, S.B.; Sudderth, E.; Fischer, M.L.; Torn, M.S.; Stuart, S.; Salve, R.; Eggett, D.; Ackerly, D.

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples calcined at 650 C generally had lower specific surface areas and lower moisture contents than the samples calcined at 635 C, which matches expectations from the literature. Taken together, the TGA-MS results for samples handled at nominally 20-50% RH, without extended exposure, indicate that the Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation process followed by calcination at 635-650 C appears capable of producing PuO{sub 2} with moisture content < 0.5 wt% as required by the 3013 Standard. Exposures of PuO{sub 2} samples to ambient air for 3 or more hours generally showed modest mass gains that were primarily gains in moisture content. These results point to the need for a better understanding of the moisture absorption of PuO{sub 2} and serve as a warning that extended exposure times, particularly above the 50% RH level observed in this study will make the production of PuO{sub 2} with less than 0.5 wt % moisture more challenging. Samples analyzed in this study generally contained approximately 2 monolayer equivalents of moisture. In this study, the bulk of the moisture released from samples below 300 C, as did a significant portion of the CO{sub 2}. Samples in this study consistently released a minor amount of NO in the 40-300 C range, but no samples released CO or SO{sub 2}. TGA-MS results also showed that MS moisture content accounted for 80 {+-} 8% of the total mass loss at 1000 C measured by the TGA. The PuO{sub 2} samples produced had particles sizes that typically ranged from 0.2-88 {micro}m, with the mean particle size ranging from 6.4-9.3 {micro}m. The carbon content of ten different calcination batches ranged from 190-480 {micro}g C/g Pu, with an average value of 290 {micro}g C/g Pu. A statistical review of the calcination conditions and resulting SSA values showed that in both cases tested, calcination temperature had a significant effect on SSA, as expected from literature data. The statistical review also showed that batch size had a significant effect on SSA, but the narrow range of batch sizes tested is a compelling reason to set aside that result until tests

Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

426

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-fired Storage Water Heater .. 418 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heaters Small Gas Storage Water Heater Market The objective of

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

429

ESP (electrostatic precipitator) tests at Toronto: Test results: Part 3. [Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' or HALT is a dry calcium-based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulate. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection location by spraying the gas with a stream of finely atomized water droplets. The flue gas is cooled to as low a temperature as possible by spraying water on it, maintaining an approach to saturation temperature of 20/degree/F or higher. Temperatures lower than this could cause potential problems with moisture condensation on cold duct walls, the particulate removal devices as ESP/baghouse. The waste product from this process is the dry disposable solids which differed considerably from the wet cake solids obtained from a wet FGD process. Tests performed on the electrostatic precipitator are described. The primary tasks performed were: (1) measurement of the particle size distribution, resistivity, and mass concentration of the fly ash or ash-sorbent mixture entering the ESP, (2) measurement of the collection efficiency of the ESP, (3) recording the electrical operating conditions and the voltage-current characteristics of the ESP, and (4) determination of the utilization of sorbent entering the ESP, and the additional utilization/SO/sub 2/ removal occurring within the precipitator. Chemical analyses were performed on fly ash and ash-sorbent mixtures. 30 figs., 22 tabs.

Gooch, J.; Beittel, R.; DuBard, J.; Marchant, G. Jr.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

programs) · Audience: homeowners Outcome 4: Increase water reuse and recycling programs · Example program: Water harvesting ­ rain barrels and cisterns · Audience: home owners #12;: Water conservation. Conserve Florida's finite water resources by teaching rural, suburban and urban

Kane, Andrew S.

431

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

432

India Water Week 2012 Water, Energy and Food Security : Call for Solutions, 10-14 April 2012, New Delhi ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precipitation amounts, timings and intensity rates, and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water and projecting climate change. There is a need to downscale GCM on a basin scale and couple them with relevant by increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have continually

Kumar, C.P.

433

Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface Radar and Satellite Data in Support of ARM SCM Activities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-column modeling (SCM) is one of the key elements of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research initiatives for the development and testing of various physical parameterizations to be used in general circulation models (GCMs). The data required for use with an SCM include observed vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water, as well as the large-scale vertical motion and tendencies of temperature, water vapor, and condensed water due to horizontal advection. Surface-based measurements operated at ARM sites and upper-air sounding networks supply most of the required variables for model inputs, but do not provide the horizontal advection term of condensed water. Since surface cloud radar and microwave radiometer observations at ARM sites are single-point measurements, they can provide the amount of condensed water at the location of observation sites, but not a horizontal distribution of condensed water contents. Consequently, observational data for the large-scale advection tendencies of condensed water have not been available to the ARM cloud modeling community based on surface observations alone. This lack of advection data of water condensate could cause large uncertainties in SCM simulations. Additionally, to evaluate GCMsâ�� cloud physical parameterization, we need to compare GCM results with observed cloud water amounts over a scale that is large enough to be comparable to what a GCM grid represents. To this end, the point-measurements at ARM surface sites are again not adequate. Therefore, cloud water observations over a large area are needed. The main goal of this project is to retrieve ice water contents over an area of 10 x 10 deg. surrounding the ARM sites by combining surface and satellite observations. Built on the progress made during previous ARM research, we have conducted the retrievals of 3-dimensional ice water content by combining surface radar/radiometer and satellite measurements, and have produced 3-D cloud ice water contents in support of cloud modeling activities. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) area measurement. That is, the study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements (particularly cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements) at the point of the ARM sites. We use the cloud ice water characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain a satellite retrieval algorithm, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the 3-D cloud ice water distributions within an 10�° (latitude) x 10�° (longitude) area. During the research period, we have developed, validated and improved our cloud ice water retrievals, and have produced and archived at ARM website as a PI-product of the 3-D cloud ice water contents using combined satellite high-frequency microwave and surface radar observations for SGP March 2000 IOP and TWP-ICE 2006 IOP over 10 deg. x 10 deg. area centered at ARM SGP central facility and Darwin sites. We have also worked on validation of the 3-D ice water product by CloudSat data, synergy with visible/infrared cloud ice water retrievals for better results at low ice water conditions, and created a long-term (several years) of ice water climatology in 10 x 10 deg. area of ARM SGP and TWP sites and then compared it with GCMs.

Liu, Guosheng

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

Robert A. Liske

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in water heater. Scale buildup in pipes and re duced water flow. Hard water due to calcium and magnesiumHousehold Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension Many areas have water containing impurities from natural or artificial sources. These impurities may

Liskiewicz, Maciej

436

Intensification of Precipitation Extremes with Warming in a Cloud-Resolving Model CAROLINE J. MULLER AND PAUL A. O'GORMAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on high percentiles of precipitation (precipitation extremes) in the idealized setting of radiative, and precipitation efficiency. To first order, the changes in pre- cipitation extremes are captured by changes in the upper troposphere. The influence of changes in condensate trans- ports on precipitation extremes

O'Gorman, Paul

437

Grabbing water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

438

VO.sub.2 precipitates for self-protected optical surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming crystallographically coherent precipitates of vanadium dioxide in the near-surface region of sapphire and the resulting product is disclosed. Ions of vanadium and oxygen are stoichiometrically implanted into a sapphire substrate (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), and subsequently annealed to form vanadium dioxide precipitates in the substrate. The embedded VO.sub.2 precipitates, which are three-dimensionally oriented with respect to the crystal axes of the Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 host lattice, undergo a first-order monoclinic-to-tetragonal (and also semiconducting-to-metallic) phase transition at .about.77.degree. C. This transformation is accompanied by a significant variation in the optical transmission of the implanted region and results in the formation of an optically active, thermally "switchable" surface region on Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

Gea, Laurence A. (Knoxville, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

VO{sub 2} precipitates for self-protected optical surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming crystallographically coherent precipitates of vanadium dioxide in the near-surface region of sapphire and the resulting product is disclosed. Ions of vanadium and oxygen are stoichiometrically implanted into a sapphire substrate (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and subsequently annealed to form vanadium dioxide precipitates in the substrate. The embedded VO{sub 2} precipitates, which are three-dimensionally oriented with respect to the crystal axes of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} host lattice, undergo a first-order monoclinic-to-tetragonal (and also semiconducting-to-metallic) phase transition at ca. 77 C. This transformation is accompanied by a significant variation in the optical transmission of the implanted region and results in the formation of an optically active, thermally ``switchable`` surface region on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 5 figs.

Gea, L.A.; Boatner, L.A.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

440

Evaluation of tropical cloud and precipitation statistics of CAM3 using CloudSat and CALIPSO data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combined CloudSat and CALIPSO satellite observations provide the first simultaneous measurements of cloud and precipitation vertical structure, and are used to examine the representation of tropical clouds and precipitation in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 3 (CAM3). A simulator package utilizing a model-to-satellite approach facilitates comparison of model simulations to observations, and a revised clustering method is used to sort the subgrid-scale patterns of clouds and precipitation into principal cloud regimes. Results from weather forecasts performed with CAM3 suggest that the model underestimates the horizontal extent of low and mid-level clouds in subsidence regions, but overestimates that of high clouds in ascending regions. CAM3 strongly overestimates the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime, but underestimates the horizontal extent of clouds and precipitation at low and middle levels when this regime occurs. This suggests that the model overestimates convective precipitation and underestimates stratiform precipitation consistent with a previous study that used only precipitation observations. Tropical cloud regimes are also evaluated in a different version of the model, CAM3.5, which uses a highly entraining plume in the parameterization of deep convection. While the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime from CAM3.5 forecasts decreases, the incidence of the low clouds with precipitation and congestus regimes increases. As a result, the parameterization change does not reduce the frequency of precipitating convection that is far too high relative to observations. For both versions of CAM, clouds and precipitation are overly reflective at the frequency of the CloudSat radar and thin clouds that could be detected by the lidar only are underestimated.

Zhang, Y; Klein, S; Boyle, J; Mace, G G

2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Analysis of nanometer-scale precipitation in a rapidly solidified stainless steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have rapid-solidification-processed many stainless steels by gas atomization and achieved strength improvements of over 50% relative to conventionally-processed stainless steels with concomitant improvement in corrosion and oxidation behavior. These strength improvements are most pronounced after aging treatments when elevated concentrations of oxygen and vanadium are present in the stainless steel. An austenitic (FCC) stainless steel was prepared by gas atomization and consolidated by hot extrusion at 900 C. These specimens were heat treated for 1 hour at 1,000 C and aged at 600 C for 500 hours. The microstructure of each alloy composition was observed in TEM with bright field imaging. After aging, most alloys showed the same precipitate morphology as before aging. An obvious change, however, was found only in the alloy with highest oxygen content. A high number density of 15 to 20 nm diameter precipitates was measured in this alloy. Moreover, with weak-beam dark field imaging, a very high number density of coherent, 6 to 10 nm diameter precipitates is observed throughout the matrix by Moire fringe contrast. An atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) investigation showed that FIM provides high contrast imaging the precipitates. In order to get a more global view of the structure, energy-filtered composition imaging on a LEO EM 912 was used to map the oxygen and nitrogen in carbon extraction replicas of the aged specimens. These images confirm that the 18 nm precipitates are oxides, however, it appears that the 8 nm precipitates are not extracted.

Wisutmethangoon, S.; Kelly, T.F.; Camus, P.P.; Flinn, J.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Larson, D.J.; Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1997-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

442

Impacts of Microphysical Scheme on Convective and Stratiform Characteristics in Two High Precipitation Squall Line Events  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates the impact of snow, graupel, and hail processes on the simulated squall lines over the Southern Great Plains in the United States. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to simulate two squall line events in May 2007, and the results are validated against radar and surface observations in Oklahoma. Several microphysics schemes are tested in this study, including WRF 5-Class Microphysics Scheme (WSM5), WRF 6-Class Microphysics Scheme (WSM6), Goddard Three Ice scheme (Goddard 3-ice) with graupel, Goddard Two Ice scheme (Goddard 2-ice), and Goddard 3-ice hail scheme. The simulated surface precipitation is sensitive to the microphysics scheme, and especially to whether graupel or hail category is included. All of the three ice (3-ice) schemes overestimated the total precipitation, within which WSM6 has the highest overestimation. Two ice (2-ice) schemes, missing a graupel/hail category, produced less total precipitation than 3-ice schemes. By applying a radar-based convective/stratiform partitioning algorithm, we find that by including the graupel/hail processes, there is an increase in areal coverage, precipitation intensity, updraft and downdraft intensity in convective region and a reduction of areal coverage and its precipitation intensity in stratiform region. For vertical structures, all the bulk schemes, especially 2-ice schemes, have the highest reflectivity located at upper levels (~8 km), which is unrealistic compared to observations. In addition, this study shows the radar-based convective/stratiform partitioning algorithm can reasonably identify WRF simulated precipitation, wind and microphysics fields in both convective and stratiform regions.

Wu, Di; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Feng, Zhe; Kennedy, Aaron; Mullendore, Gretchen; Gilmore, Matthew; Tao, Wei-Kuo

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

443

Influence of phosphate and silica on U(VI) precipitation from acidic and neutralized wastewaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium speciation and physical-chemical characteristics were studied in solids precipitated from synthetic acidic to circumneutral wastewaters in the presence and absence of dissolved silica and phosphate to examine thermodynamic and kinetic controls on phase formation. Composition of synthetic wastewater was based on disposal sites 216-U-8 and 216-U-12 Cribs at the Hanford site (WA, USA). In the absence of dissolved silica or phosphate, crystalline or amorphous uranyl oxide hydrates, either compreignacite or meta-schoepite, precipitated at pH 5 or 7 after 30 d of reaction, in agreement with thermodynamic calculations. In the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica representative of groundwater concentrations, amorphous phases dominated by compreignacite precipitated rapidly at pH 5 or 7 as a metastable phase and formation of poorly-crystalline boltwoodite, the thermodynamically stable uranyl silicate phase, was slow. In the presence of phosphate (3 mM), meta-ankoleite initially precipitated as the primary phase at pH 3, 5, or 7 regardless of the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica. Analysis of precipitates by U LIII-edge EXAFS indicated that “autunite-type” sheets of meta-ankoleite transformed to “phosphuranylite-type” sheets after 30 d of reaction, probably due to Ca substitution in the structure. Low solubility of uranyl phosphate phases limits dissolved U(VI) concentrations but differences in particle size, crystallinity, and precipitate composition vary with pH and base cation concentration, which will influence the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of these phases.

Kanematsu, Masakazu; Perdrial, Nicolas; Um, Wooyong; Chorover, Jon; O'Day, Peggy A.

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

444

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Snow-Condensation and Precipitation Drainage of rainwater into streams and rivers-Runoff Seepage of rainwater into the ground to be collected. Typically observed by rain-guages at suitable points in the watershed. Daily Rainfall mm

Sohoni, Milind

445

Modeling of Late Blooming Phases and Precipitation Kinetics in Aging Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principle work at the atomic scale is to develop a predictive quantitative model for the microstructure evolution of RPV steels under thermal aging and neutron radiation. We have developed an AKMC method for the precipitation kinetics in bcc-Fe, with Cu, Ni, Mn and Si being the alloying elements. In addition, we used MD simulations to provide input parameters (if not available in literature). MMC simulations were also carried out to explore the possible segregation/precipitation morphologies at the lattice defects. First we briefly describe each of the simulation algorithms, then will present our results.

Yongfeng Zhang; Pritam Chakraborty; S. Bulent Biner

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Wet electrostatic precipitator having removable nested hexagonal collector plates and magnetic aligning and rapping means  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wet electrostatic precipitator including a plurality of removable nested collecting electrodes or plates forming a repeating pattern of hexagonal collecting zones throughout the precipitator. Each collecting plate is formed with a sixty degree bend along two opposing longitudinal edges so as to allow three plates to form a self-nesting Y-shaped intersection point. Six points form a hexagonal collecting zone. The plates are removable thereby expediting replacement. A plurality of strategically placed spray nozzles provide wash fluid to the plates. Magnet sets provide for discharge electrode alignment and rapping.

Young, C.E.; Drzewiecki, G.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

447

Sixth International Conference on Precipitation: Predictability of Rainfall at the Various Scales. Abstracts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains abstracts of the papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on Precipitation: Predictability of Rainfall at the various scales, held at the Mauna Lani Bay and Bungalows, Hawaii, June 29 - July 1, 1998. The main goal of the conference was to bring together meteorologists, hydrologists, mathematicians, physicists, statisticians, and all others who are interested in fundamental principles governing the physical processes of precipitation. The results of the previous conferences have been published in issues of the Journal of Geophysical Research and Journal of Applied Meteorology. A similar format is planned for papers of this conference.

None

1998-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

448

Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

1987-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

449

Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

Doherty, Joseph P. (Elkton, MD); Marek, James C. (Augusta, GA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube, CRT: Zn removal by sulphide precipitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • Treatment of fluorescent powder of CRT waste. • Factorial experimental designs to study acid leaching of fluorescent powder and the purification of leach liquors. • Recover of yttrium by precipitation using oxalic acid. • Suitable flowsheet to recover yttrium from fluorescent powder. - Abstract: This work is focused on the recovery of yttrium and zinc from fluorescent powder of cathode ray tube (CRT). Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 2{sup 2} full factorial plan and the highest extraction yields for yttrium and zinc equal to 100% are observed under the following conditions: 3 M of sulphuric acid, 10% v/v of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrated solution at 30% v/v, 10% w/w pulp density, 70 °C and 3 h of reaction. Two series of precipitation tests for zinc are carried out: a 2{sup 2} full factorial design and a completely randomized factorial design. In these series the factors investigated are pH of solution during the precipitation and the amount of sodium sulphide added to precipitate zinc sulphide. The data of these tests are used to describe two empirical mathematical models for zinc and yttrium precipitation yields by regression analysis. The highest precipitation yields for zinc are obtained under the following conditions: pH equal to 2–2.5% and 10–12% v/v of Na{sub 2}S concentrated solution at 10% w/v. In these conditions the coprecipitation of yttrium is of 15–20%. Finally further yttrium precipitation experiments by oxalic acid on the residual solutions, after removing of zinc, show that yttrium could be recovered and calcined to obtain the final product as yttrium oxide. The achieved results allow to propose a CRT recycling process based on leaching of fluorescent powder from cathode ray tube and recovery of yttrium oxide after removing of zinc by precipitation. The final recovery of yttrium is 75–80%.

Innocenzi, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Department of Marine Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering and Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi n.18, Nucleo Ind.le di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

PROCESS WATER RECOVERY: DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION COMPARED TO HIGH SHEAR RATE SEPARATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROCESS WATER RECOVERY: DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION COMPARED TO HIGH SHEAR RATE SEPARATION John H to the feed without dissolved air or with the addition of dual polymer flocculating polymers. Although fiber intend to investigate the effect of pacifying stickies by precipitating calcium carbonate with carbon

Abubakr, Said

452

Modeling Potential Equilibrium States of Vegetation and Terrestrial Water Cycle of Mesoamerica under Climate Change Scenarios*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precipitation, the impacts of climate change on vegetation and water cycle are predicted with relatively low under Climate Change Scenarios* PABLO IMBACH,1 LUIS MOLINA,1 BRUNO LOCATELLI,# OLIVIER ROUPSARD,1,@ GIL MAHE´ ,& RONALD NEILSON,**,&& LENIN CORRALES,11 MARKO SCHOLZE,## AND PHILIPPE CIAIS @@ 1 Climate Change

Boyer, Edmond

453

Hydrological consistency using multi-sensor remote sensing data for water and energy cycle studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrological consistency using multi-sensor remote sensing data for water and energy cycle studies and feedback of land surface and atmospheric processes over large space and time scales. Remote sensing-based variables including soil moisture (from AMSR-E), surface heat fluxes (from MODIS) and precipitation rates

Pan, Ming

454

MONITORING PRESENT DAY CHANGES IN WATER VAPOUR AND THE RADIATIVE ENERGY BALANCE USING SATELLITE DATA,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precipitation events are expected to exert an adverse effect on agriculture, water resources, human health in the total area affected by drought and the flood risk associated with increased frequency of heavy of droughts. While there is evidence for this response (e.g. Neelin et al., 2006; Seager et al. 2007

Allan, Richard P.

455

Climate Change Impact on Agricultural Water Resources Variability in the Northern Highlands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

' sensitivity to climate change in the Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia. Projected changes in precipitation climate change caused by increas- ing concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace gases to affect runoff, the frequency and intensity of floods and droughts, soil moisture, and available water

456

MERCURY FLUX MEASUREMENTS OVER AIR AND WATER IN KEJIMKUJIK NATIONAL PARK, NOVA SCOTIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature, and this dependence was well described by an Arrhenius-type expression with an activation energy from the atmosphere are wet and dry deposition. Once entering a watershed via precipitation and dry deposition mercury can be transformed to more Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 122: 183­202, 2000. © 2000

Folkins, Ian

457

Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health). Water Safety Plans A Water Safety Plan (WSP) is a preventive management approach used to manage threats to a drinking water system--from catchment to consumer. It helps in the · Management of activities

458

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

459

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional-wide, systematic approach · Flexible--Adaptive Management Adaptive Manageme nt #12;Integrated Water Management

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

460

THE DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF NETWORK OF GROUND-BASED GPS WATER VAPOR MONITORING STATIONS TO IMPROVE PRECIPITATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it is the means by which moisture and latent heat are transported to produce mesoscale weather events. And remote a a Institute of Urban Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, No.55 Bei Wa Xi Li, Haidian District. Dr. Chao-Lin Zhang, IUM, CMA, Beijing, clzhang@ium.cn, c_lzhang@yahoo.com. 1. INTRODUCTION Remote

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461
462

Simulation of the Stable Water Isotopes in Precipitation over South America: Comparing Regional to Global Circulation Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an isotopic signature similar to Rayleigh distillation, in accordance with experimental studies. Finally, in order to relate the simulation analysis to the fractionation mechanisms. This confirms that the amount effect, via Rayleigh distillation processes, is dominant during the wet season. During the dry season

Sturm, Christophe "Kristof"

463

New formulae to evaluate the atmospheric layers of precipitable water and gases, applicable in solar radiation computing models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in solar radiation computing models V. B0103descu Energetica, Centrale Electrice, Polytechn. Inst irradiance. In this context, the relatively low density of solar radiation recording stations favoured measurements. Reviews and classifications of the main calculations procedures of solar radiation have been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

464

Dealing with parameter uncertainty in the calculation of water surface profiles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT Dealing with Parameter Uncertainty in the Calculation of Water Surface Profiles. (August 1998) Ruben R Vargas-Cruz, B. S. , Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ralph A. Wurbs Hydrologic and hydraulic... component of the hydrologic cycle in the analysis is important. In that case the water budget must be calculated using the following expression. P ? R ? I ? G ? E ? T=tkS where, P = Precipitation, R = Surface runoff, I = Infiltration, G = Groundwater...

Vargas-Cruz, Ruben F.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

6/11/13 12:15 PMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 1 of 12http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/11/13 12:15 PMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 1 of 12http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php:15 PMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 2 of 12http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php Page 3 of 12http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php to-date precipitation

466

7/23/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php 1/15  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7/23/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php and in many of the low-lying areas west #12;7/23/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php 3/15 STANDARDIZED PRECIPITATION INDEX

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

467

JUNE 2002 311S H M A K I N E T A L . Global Modeling of Land Water and Energy Balances. Part III  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JUNE 2002 311S H M A K I N E T A L . Global Modeling of Land Water and Energy Balances. Part III of basin discharge. 1. Introduction Global models of land water and energy balance can provide information 44 large river basins for which relatively accurate time series of monthly precipitation (a primary

468

Soil Moisture Feedbacks to Precipitation in Southern Africa BENJAMIN I. COOK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with below-normal rainfall during the summer wet season (Reason and Rouault 2002). Be- cause changes in these SSTs may be a signature of an- thropogenic climate change, there is some speculation that the near­March) precipitation in southern Africa are investigated using the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3

469

The Caribbean Low-Level Jet and Its Relationship with Precipitation in IPCC AR4 Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Caribbean Low-Level Jet and Its Relationship with Precipitation in IPCC AR4 Models ELINOR R Report (AR4) shows that all models have the ability to simulate the location and height of the Caribbean Caribbean and, hence, an overly strong CLLJ. The ability of the models to simulate the correlation between

Martin, Elinor R.

470

Altitudinal Gradients of Stable Isotopes in Lee-Slope Precipitation in the Canadian Rocky Mountains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, this isotopic fractionation and distillation can be driven by vapor transport to higher altitudes, higher of the Canadian Rockies at the Continental Divide and receives precipitation from both westerly (Pacific) air altitudes. Surface and upper-air meteorological data were analyzed to classify the type of weather systems

471

Probabilistic Forecast Calibration Using ECMWF and GFS Ensemble Reforecasts. Part II: Precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Probabilistic Forecast Calibration Using ECMWF and GFS Ensemble Reforecasts. Part II: Precipitation for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom JEFFREY S. WHITAKER NOAA/Earth System Research As a companion to Part I, which discussed the calibration of probabilistic 2-m temperature forecasts using large

Hamill, Tom

472

Comparison of Precipitation and Extrography in the Fractionation of Crude Oil Residua  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

crude oilssArab Heavy (AH), Arab Berri (AB), Alaskan North Slope (ANS), and San Joaquin Valley (SJVComparison of Precipitation and Extrography in the Fractionation of Crude Oil Residua Joseph D. McLean and Peter K. Kilpatrick* Department of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North

Kilpatrick, Peter K.

473

Precipitation-adsorption process for the decontamination of nuclear waste supernates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High-level nuclear waste supernate is decontaminated of cesium by precipitation of the cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenyl boron. Simultaneously, strontium-90 is removed from the waste supernate sorption of insoluble sodium titanate. The waste solution is then filtered to separate the solution decontaminated of cesium and strontium.

Lee, Lien-Mow (North Augusta, SC); Kilpatrick, Lester L. (Aiken, SC)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Precipitation-adsorption process for the decontamination of nuclear waste supernates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High-level nuclear waste supernate is decontaminated of cesium by precipitation of the cesium and potassium with sodium tetraphenyl boron. Simultaneously, strontium-90 is removed from the waste supernate sorption of insoluble sodium titanate. The waste solution is then filtered to separate the solution decontaminated of cesium and strontium.

Lee, L.M.; Kilpatrick, L.L.

1982-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

475

PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN ALUMINUM ALLOY 6022 W.F. Miao and D.E. Laughlin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) (Accepted in revised form January 21, 1999) Introduction The use of aluminum alloys for automotive bodyPRECIPITATION HARDENING IN ALUMINUM ALLOY 6022 W.F. Miao and D.E. Laughlin Department of Materials behavior in aluminum alloy 6022. Experimental Procedure The composition of the 6022 alloy used

Laughlin, David E.

476

13.5 THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PRECIPITATION MASS SINK IN TROPICAL CYCLONES Richard M. Yablonsky*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Atmospheric Sciences, Raleigh, NC 27695; email: yablonsky@ncsu.edu. generation and a tangential wind speed Feedbacks: 1) Air & Moisture Convergence 2) Vorticity Generation & Tangential Wind Speed Increase Figure 1 precipitation flux will lower the pressure. Note that evaporation from the surface will add mass and thereby

Rhode Island, University of

477

Friday, 06 August, 2010 Radiation belt electron precipitation due to geomagnetic storms: significance to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this particular period of electron precipitation to neutral atmospheric chemistry. Building on an earlier study. Through application of the Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry model, we examine the significance-varying energy spectrum determined from the DEMETER satellite. We show that the large increases in odd nitrogen

Otago, University of

478

Intraseasonal Eastern Pacific Precipitation and SST Variations in a GCM Coupled to a Slab Ocean Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intraseasonal Eastern Pacific Precipitation and SST Variations in a GCM Coupled to a Slab Ocean-Schubert convection to a slab ocean model (SOM) improves the simulation of eastern Pacific convection during and ocean make eastern Pacific low-level circulation anomalies more complex in the SOM simulation than

Maloney, Eric

479

MAP3S precipitation chemistry network: sixth periodic summary report (1982)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report contains complete field and chemical data from the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network for the year 1982. Included is an update on network status and a summary of the USGS blind sample analysis program and laboratory sample exchanges during 1982. The statistical summary is deferred to a forthcoming publication.

Rothert, J.E.; Dana, M.T.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network: fifth periodic summary report (1981)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This, the fifth in a series of summary reports, contains complete field and chemical data from the MAP3 Precipitation Chemistry Network for the year 1981. The 1981 data were added to the previous data base, and an update of the previous five year statistical summary completed. Included are basic statistics, time trend analyses, and monthly averages.

Dana, M.T.; Rothert, J.E.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "radiometer precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

MAP3S precipitation chemistry network: fourth periodic summary report (1980)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This, the fourth in a series of summary reports, contains complete field and chemical data from the MAP3S/RAINE (Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Studies) Precipitation Chemistry Network for the year 1980. The 1980 data were added to the previous data base, and an update of the previous statistical summary completed. Included are basic statistics, time trend analyses, and monthly averages.

Not Available

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

M4C3 precipitation in FeCMoV steels and relationship to hydrogen trapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK Strong steels suffer from embrittlement due to dissolved hydrogenM4C3 precipitation in Fe­C­Mo­V steels and relationship to hydrogen trapping BY S. YAMASAKI AND H, a phenomenon which can be mitigated by trapping the hydrogen at carbide particles, where it is rendered benign

Cambridge, University of

483

Interdecadal variation in US Pacific coast precipitation over the past four decades  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interdecadal variation of precipitation along the US Pacific coast over the past 45 winters (1950-94) was examined with station observations. An interdecadal decreasing (minor increasing) trend appeared north (south) of 36{degrees}N. This interdecadal trend in precipitation is related to the development of an anomalous dipole structure (a major anamalous high centered over the Pacific coast at British Columbia and a minor anamalous low centered over northern Baja California) throughout the past several decades. The correlation coefficient patterns between the Pacific coast precipitation and upper-air geopotential heights, and the difference charts of upper-air geopotential heights between the first (1950-59) and last (1985-94) 10 winters revealed that the interdecadal variation of the western U.S. circulation is a part of that in the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation. In turn, the interdecadal variation of the Pacific coast precipitation is a consequence of the interdecadal variation of the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation. 18 refs., 6 figs.

Chen, Tsing-Chang; Chen, Jau-Ming; Wikle, C.K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Short Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with uranium from mining and milling operations, radioactive wastes, and from nuclear accidents is a majorShort Communication Bioreduction and precipitation of uranium in ionic liquid aqueous solution t s Uranium forms various complexes with ionic liquids. Uranium bioreduction was affected by the type

Ohta, Shigemi

485

Energetic outer radiation-belt electron precipitation during recurrent solar activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the atmosphere [Seppälä et al., 2004]. During some intense solar storms solar protons in the energy range 1Energetic outer radiation-belt electron precipitation during recurrent solar activity Mark A and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia. Russell S. Grew School of Mathematical

Otago, University of

486

Depth and controls of Ca-rhodochrosite precipitation in bioturbated sediments of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Depth and controls of Ca-rhodochrosite precipitation in bioturbated sediments of the Eastern Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039-9647, USA ABSTRACT The occurrence of early diagenetic Ca-rhodochrosite [(Mn,Ca)CO3] is reported in association with `griotte'-type nodular limestones from basinal settings

Gilli, Adrian

487

A Study of Austenite Precipitate Growth in Duplex Stainless Steel A Research Performance Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Study of Austenite Precipitate Growth in Duplex Stainless Steel A Research Performance Evaluation-based metals handbooks. Due the multi-component nature of the duplex stainless steels which are the basis stainless steel. Current State of Knowledge The velocity of an interface during a phase transformation can

McGaughey, Alan

488

Author's personal copy Hematite and iron carbonate precipitation-coexistence at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide The hydrothermal reactivity of swelling clays has relevant implications on the geological that the carbon dioxide increased the hydrothermal reactivity of montmorillonite because the hematite and ironAuthor's personal copy Hematite and iron carbonate precipitation-coexistence at the iron

Montes-Hernandez, German

489

Simultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from hydrothermal alteration of olivine under high-carbonate alkalinity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alteration High-carbonate alkalinity Magnesite Lizardite Crystal growth Hydrothermal systems The present and carbonation of olivine with relevance in Earth systems (e.g. functioning of hydrothermal fieldsSimultaneous precipitation of magnesite and lizardite from hydrothermal alteration of olivine under

Montes-Hernandez, German

490

Research paper Nanostructured calcite precipitated under hydrothermal conditions in the presence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This has relevance for geological processes in diverse environments, such as hydrothermal systems along midResearch paper Nanostructured calcite precipitated under hydrothermal conditions in the presence, Département MCMF, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble, France e Physics of Geological Processes

491

High post-irradiation ductility thermomechanical treatment for precipitation strengthened austenitic alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for improving the post-irradiation ductility is described which prises a solution heat treatment following which the materials are cold worked. They are included to demonstrate the beneficial effect of this treatment on the swelling resistance and the ductility of these austenitic precipitation hardenable alloys.

Laidler, James J. (Richland, WA); Borisch, Ronald R. (Kennewick, WA); Korenko, Michael K. (Rockville, MD)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO{sub 3} and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO{sub 3} as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO{sub 3} dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO{sub 3} forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, R.; Slater, L.; LaBrecque, D.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION FOR THE UPPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS HYDRO 39 PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION FOR THE UPPER DEERFIELD RIVER The Office of Hydrology (HYDRO) of the National Weather Service (NWS) develops procedures for making river agencies, and conducts pertinent research and development. NOAA Technical Memorandums in the NWS HYDRO

494

Factors Affecting Ni and Zn Hydroxide Precipitate Formation in Soils. (S02-peltier222185-oral)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Factors Affecting Ni and Zn Hydroxide Precipitate Formation in Soils. (S02-peltier222185-oral) Authors: E.F. Peltier* - Univ. of Delaware D.L. Sparks - Univ. of Delaware Abstract: The formation matter in the soil. Speaker Information: Edward Peltier, Univ. of Delaware, Dept. of Plant and Soil

Sparks, Donald L.

495

Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar Deanna A (TRMM PR) show the vertical structure of tropical cyclone rainbands. Radar-echo2 statistics show that rainbands have a two-layered structure, with distinct modes separated by the3 melting layer. The ice layer

Houze Jr., Robert A.

496

Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sorption in soils may be controlled by different reaction mechanisms at various time scales be an important path for Ni sequestration in soils.9 The mechanisms of Ni-LDH formation have been investigatedKinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation Zhenqing Shi

Sparks, Donald L.

497

TRMM precipitation bias in extreme storms in South America Kristen L. Rasmussen,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TRMM precipitation bias in extreme storms in South America Kristen L. Rasmussen,1 Stella L. Choi,1 June 2013; published 9 July 2013. [1] Deep convective storms in subtropical South America are some and subtropical South America. Recent studies have suggested that the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM

Houze Jr., Robert A.

498

Characteristics of Precipitating Convective Systems Accounting for the Summer Rainfall of Tropical and Subtropical South America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Subtropical South America ULRIKE ROMATSCHKE AND ROBERT A. HOUZE JR. University of Washington, Seattle of the precipitating cloud systems that account for the summer rainfall of tropical and subtropical South America role in the meteorology, climatology, and hydrology of South America. They not only produce

Houze Jr., Robert A.

499

Stratospheric ozone depletion: a key driver of recent precipitation trends in South Eastern South America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In this paper we focus on South Eastern South America (SESA), a region that has exhibited one of the largest South America 1 Introduction The depletion of ozone in the polar Antarctic strato- sphere (i.e. `theStratospheric ozone depletion: a key driver of recent precipitation trends in South Eastern South

500

Mercuric iodate precipitation from radioiodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA); Bosuego, Gail P. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z