Sample records for radioisotopically powered thermoelectric

  1. Thermoelectric Alloys and Devices for Radioisotope Space Power Systems: State of the Art and Current Developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, W.; Dick, P.; Beaudry, B.; Gorsuch, P.; Skrabek, E.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead telluride and silicon germanium type alloys have served over the past several decades as the preferred thermoelectric conversion materials for U. S. radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power systems for planetary deep space exploration missions. The Pioneer missions to Jupiter and Jupiter/Saturn and the Viking Mars Lander missions employed TAGS-2N (lead and germanium telluride derivatives) power conversion devices. Since 1976, silicon germanium (SiGe) alloys, incorporated into the unicouple device, have evolved as the thermoelectric materials of choice for U. S. RTG powered space missions. These include the U. S. Air Force Lincoln Experimental Satellites 8 & 9 for communications, in 1976, followed in 1977 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Voyager 1 and 2 planetary missions. In 1989, advanced SiGe RTGs were used to power the Galileo exploration of Jupiter and, in 1990, will be used to power the Ulysses investigation of the Sun. In addition, SiGe technology has been chosen to provide RTG power for the 1995 Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby mission and the 1996 Cassini Saturn orbiter mission. Summaries of the flight performance data for these systems are presented.; Current U. S. Department of Energy thermoelectric development activities include (1) the development of conversion devices based on hi-density, close packed couple arrays and (2) the development of improved performance silicon germanium type thermoelectric materials. The silicon germanium type "multicouple", being developed in conjunction with the Modular RTG program, is discussed in a companion paper. A lead telluride type close-packed module, discussed herein, offers the promise of withstanding high velocity impacts and, thus, is a candidate for a Mars Penetrator application.; Recent projects sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, including the Improved Thermoelectric Materials and Modular Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator programs, have shown that improvements in silicon germanium thermoelectric energy conversion capabilities of at least 50 percent can be achieved by tailoring the characteristics of the silicon germanium alloy materials and devices. This paper compares the properties and characteristics of the SiGe alloys now being developed with those used in the operational space power system.

  2. Alternative Fuel Sources for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Trevor Drake

    2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    configurations and materials would ideally be examined as well. Possible fuel assembly designs have been hypothesized by Ambrosi at the Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space Conference (2012) [4]. Preliminary research has shown that Am-241, Cm-242, Po.... AMBROSI, et al., “Development and Testing of Americium-241 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: Concept Designs and Breadboard System,” Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space, (2012). 5. M. RAGHEB, “Radioisotopes Power Production,” mragheb...

  3. Alternaive Fuel Sources For Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Evan Sebastain

    2015-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    configurations and materials would ideally be examined as well. Possible fuel assembly designs have been hypothesized by Ambrosi at the Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space Conference (2012) [4]. Preliminary research has shown that Am-241, Cm-242, Po.... AMBROSI, et al., “Development and Testing of Americium-241 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: Concept Designs and Breadboard System,” Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space, (2012). 5. M. RAGHEB, “Radioisotopes Power Production,” mragheb...

  4. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  5. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator reliability and safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, R.; Klein, J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are numerous occasions when a planetary mission requires energy in remote areas of the solar system. Anytime power is required much beyond Mars or the Asteroid Belts, solar power is not an option. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) was developed for such a mission requirement. It is a relatively small and lightweight power source that can produce power under adverse conditions. Just this type of source has become the backbone of the power system for far outer plant exploration. Voyagers I and II are utilizing RTGs, which will soon power the Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter and the Ulysses spacecraft to study the solar poles. The paper discusses RTG operation including thermoelectric design, converter design, general-purpose heat source; RTG reliability including design, testing, experience, and launch approval; and RTG safety issues and methods of ensuring safety.

  6. System and method to improve the power output and longevity of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mowery, A.L. Jr.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    By using the helium generated by the alpha emissions of a thermoelectric generator during space travel for cooling, the thermal degradation of the thermoelectric generator can be slowed. Slowing degradation allows missions to be longer with little additional expense or payload. 1 figures.

  7. System and method to improve the power output and longetivity of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mowery, A.L. Jr.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    By using the helium generated by the alpha emissions of a thermoelectric generator during space travel for cooling the thermal degradation of the thermoelectric generator can be slowed. Slowing degradation allows missions to be longer with little additional expense or payload.

  8. System and method to improve the power output and longetivity of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Jr., Alfred L. (Potomac, MD)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By using the helium generated by the alpha emissions of a thermoelectric generator during space travel for cooling, the thermal degradation of the thermoelectric generator can be slowed. Slowing degradation allows missions to be longer with little additional expense or payload.

  9. A facility to remotely assemble radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engstrom, J.W.; Goldmann, L.H.; Truitt, R.W.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are electrical power sources that use heat from decaying radioisotopes to directly generate electrical power. The RTG assembly process is performed in an inert atmosphere inside a large glovebox, which is surrounded by radiation shielding to reduce exposure to neutron and gamma radiation from the radioisotope heat source. In the past, allowable dose rate limits have allowed direct, manual assembly methods; however, current dose rate limits require a thicker radiation shielding that makes direct, manual assembly infeasible. To minimize RTG assembly process modifications, telerobotic systems are being investigated to perform remote assembly tasks. Telerobotic systems duplicate human arm motion and incorporate force feedback sensitivity to handle objects and tools in a human-like manner. A telerobotic system with two arms and a three-dimensional (3-D) vision system can be used to perform remote RTG assembly tasks inside gloveboxes and cells using unmodified, normal hand tools.

  10. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transport trailer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ard, K.E.; King, D.A.; Leigh, H.; Satoh, J.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, MSIN N1-25, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System (System 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the U.S. Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  11. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  12. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.; Hinckley, J.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.; Hinckley, J.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502 Los Alamos, New Mexico87545 (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, MS-E502, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  15. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  16. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PROGRAM REVIEW 2013 Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power Principal Investigator: Prof. Gang Chen Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA...

  17. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E. (Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, N1-42, Richland, Washington 99352 (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The U.S. Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992.

  18. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable US Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The US Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, D.A.

    1994-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan.

  20. New Horizons Mission Powered by Space Radioisotope Power Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Horizons Mission Powered by Space Radioisotope Power Systems New Horizons Mission Powered by Space Radioisotope Power Systems January 30, 2008 - 6:47pm Addthis Artist's concept...

  1. Real-time monitoring during transportation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) using the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, Barry K. [EG and G Mound Applied Technologies P.O. Box 3000 Miamisburg, Ohio 45343-3000 (United States)

    1997-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that will be used to support the Cassini mission will be transported in the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS). To ensure that the RTGs will not be affected during transportation, all parameters that could adversely affect RTG's performance must be monitored. The Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS) for the RTGTS displays, monitors, and records all critical packaging and trailer system parameters. The IDAS also monitors the package temperature control system, RTG package shock and vibration data, and diesel fuel levels for the diesel fuel tanks. The IDAS alarms if any of these parameters reach an out-of-limit condition. This paper discusses the real-time monitoring during transportation of the Cassini RTGs using the RTGTS IDAS.

  2. Real-time monitoring during transportation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) using the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, B.K. [EGG Mound Applied Technologies P.O. Box 3000 Miamisburg, Ohio45343-3000 (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that will be used to support the Cassini mission will be transported in the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS). To ensure that the RTGs will not be affected during transportation, all parameters that could adversely affect RTG{close_quote}s performance must be monitored. The Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS) for the RTGTS displays, monitors, and records all critical packaging and trailer system parameters. The IDAS also monitors the package temperature control system, RTG package shock and vibration data, and diesel fuel levels for the diesel fuel tanks. The IDAS alarms if any of these parameters reach an out-of-limit condition. This paper discusses the real-time monitoring during transportation of the Cassini RTGs using the RTGTS IDAS. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. The Industrialization of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Industrialization of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology The Industrialization of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology Presents module and system requirements for...

  4. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator licensed hardware package and certification tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Averette, H.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, M/S R3-86 or N1-32, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the Licensed Hardware package and the Certification Test portions of the Radioisitope Themoelectric Generator Transportation System. This package has been designed to meet those portions of the {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations} (10 CFR 71) relating to ``Type B`` shipments of radioactive materials. The licensed hardware is now in the U. S. Department of Energy licensing process that certifies the packaging`s integrity under accident conditions. The detailed information for the anticipated license is presented in the safety analysis report for packaging, which is now in process and undergoing necessary reviews. As part of the licensing process, a full-size Certification Test Article unit, which has modifications slightly different than the Licensed Hardware or production shipping units, is used for testing. Dimensional checks of the Certification Test Article were made at the manufacturing facility. Leak testing and drop testing were done at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The hardware includes independent double containments to prevent the environmental spread of {sup 238}Pu, impact limiting devices to protect portions of the package from impacts, and thermal insulation to protect the seal areas from excess heat during accident conditions. The package also features electronic feed-throughs to monitor the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator`s temperature inside the containment during the shipment cycle. This package is designed to safely dissipate the typical 4,500 thermal watts produced in the largest Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The package also contains provisions to ensure leak tightness when radioactive materials, such as a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the Cassini Mission, planned for 1997 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, are being prepared for shipment. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The US Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent ma or changes in the US Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined.

  6. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, J.C.; Becker, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The U.S. Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration{close_quote}s Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent major changes in the U.S. Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Assembly of radioisotope power systems at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-term space flight requires reliable long-term power sources. For the purpose of supplying a constant supply of power in deep space, the radioisotope thermoelectric generator has proven to be a successful power source. Westinghouse Hanford Company is installing the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility which is located in the Fuels and Material Examination Facility on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, for assembling the generators. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator assembly process is base upon one developed at Mound Laboratory in Miamisburg, Ohio (presently operated by EG G Mound Applied Technologies). Westinghouse Hanford Company is modernizing the process to ensure the heat source assemblies are produced in a manner that maximizes operator safety and is consistent with today's environmental and operational safety standards. The facility is being prepared to assemble the generators required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions for CRAF (Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby) in 1995 and Cassini, an investigation of Saturn and its moons, in 1996. The facility will also have the capability to assemble larger radioisotope power generators designed for dynamic power generation. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  8. A prototype on-line work procedure system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-line system to manage work procedures is being developed to support radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) assembly and testing in a new production facility. This system implements production work procedures as interactive electronic documents executed at the work site with no intermediate printed form. It provides good control of the creation and application of work procedures and provides active assistance to the worker in performing them and in documenting the results. An extensive prototype of this system is being evaluated to ensure that it will have all the necessary features and that it will fit the user's needs and expectations. This effort has involved the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) operations organization and technology transfer between Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and EG G Mound Applied Technologies Inc. (Mound) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mound Site. 1 ref.

  9. Concentrated Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrated solar hydroelectric power project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by MIT, is working to demonstrate concentrating solar thermoelectric generators with >10% solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency while limiting optical concentration to less than a factor of 10 and potentially less than 4. When combined with thermal storage, CSTEGs have the potential to provide electricity day and night using no moving parts at both the utility and distributed scale.

  10. Thermal Energy Harvesting with Thermoelectrics for Self-powered Sensors: With Applications to Implantable Medical Devices, Body Sensor Networks and Aging in Place

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Alic

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pu-238) radioisotope and a thermoelectric generator. The Pu-to radioisotopes. In designing thermoelectric generators for

  11. Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water thermoelectric-power withdrawals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Total thermoelectric-power withdrawals Freshwater thermoelectric-power withdrawals Saline-water thermoelectric-power withdrawals Louisiana New Hampshire Florida Idaho Washington Oregon Nevada California New,000 9,000 to 13,000 Thermoelectric-power withdrawals by water quality and State, 2005. Estimated Use

  12. Analytical thermal model validation for Cassini radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, E.I. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft is designed to rely, without precedent, on the waste heat from its three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to warm the propulsion module subsystem, and the RTG end dome temperature is a key determining factor of the amount of waste heat delivered. A previously validated SINDA thermal model of the RTG was the sole guide to understanding its complex thermal behavior, but displayed large discrepancies against some initial thermal development test data. A careful revalidation effort led to significant modifications and adjustments of the model, which result in a doubling of the radiative heat transfer from the heat source support assemblies to the end domes and bring up the end dome and flange temperature predictions to within 2 C of the pertinent test data. The increased inboard end dome temperature has a considerable impact on thermal control of the spacecraft central body. The validation process offers an example of physically-driven analytical model calibration with test data from not only an electrical simulator but also a nuclear-fueled flight unit, and has established the end dome temperatures of a flight RTG where no in-flight or ground-test data existed before.

  13. Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D.; Bohne, W. A.

    1995-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.

  14. Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Developing integrated TE system configurations...

  15. [Radioisotope thermoelectric generators and ancillary activities]. Monthly technical progress report, 1 April--28 April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tehnical progress achieved during this period on radioisotope thermoelectric generators is described under the following tasks: engineering support, safety analysis, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication/assembly/test, RTG shipping/launch support, design/review/mission applications, and project management/quality assurance/reliability.

  16. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  17. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE`s Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford`s MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford`s calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  18. A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrell, D.L. (Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, Mail Stop N1-42, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States))

    1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A shielded storage rack has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which processes and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGs. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

  19. The Electrodeposition of PbTe Nanowires for Thermoelectric Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillman, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thermoelectrics. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generatorthermoelectric generators use radiation from the sun instead of a radioisotope

  20. EIS-0302: Transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Assembly and Test Operations From the Mound Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposed transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) operations at the Mound Site near Miamisburg, Ohio, to an alternative DOE site.

  1. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests: RTG-1 and RTG-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.; George, T.G.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  2. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  3. Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency...

  4. Space Technology and Applications International Forum Proceedings, Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 2000 Miniaturized Radioisotope Solid State Power Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermoelectric generators (RTGs) have been successfully used for a number of deep space missions RTGs. However 2000 Miniaturized Radioisotope Solid State Power Sources J.-P. Fleurial, G.J. Snyder, J. Patel, J-pierre.fleurial@jpl.nasa.gov Abstract. Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of 14-1-11 Ytterbium Manganese Antimonide Derivatives for Thermoelectric Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Star, Kurt

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have made radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs),Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) used

  6. Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG`S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG`S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria.

  7. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power Generation Modules Home Author: T. Hogan, A. Downey, J. Short, S. D. Mahanti, H. Schock, E. Case Year: 2007...

  8. Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation Distributed Bio-Oil...

  9. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study of the Use of Saline Formations for Combined Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon Sequestration at a Regional Scale: Phase III Report August 2010 DOE...

  10. Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Discusses a novel TEG which utilizes a proprietary stack...

  11. Overview of Progress in Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Progress in Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Progress in Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Presents progress in government- and...

  12. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications...

  13. High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste...

  14. Body powered thermoelectric systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settaluri, Krishna Tej

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Great interest exists for and progress has be made in the effective utilization of the human body as a possible power supply in hopes of powering such applications as sensors and continuously monitoring medical devices ...

  15. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  16. Concentrated Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    electricity. Representing about 15% of the total system cost, power blocks include the steam turbine, generator, and associated equipment such as condensers and water treatment...

  17. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator load and unload sequence from the licensed hardware package system and the trailer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reilly, M.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, MSIN N1-25, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System (System 160), including the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System packaging is licensed (regularoty) hardware, certified by the U.S. Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware. This paper focuses on the required interfaces and sequencing of events required by these systems and the shipping and receiving facilities in preparation of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for space flight. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  18. High Temperature Experimental Characterization of Microscale Thermoelectric Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Favaloro, Tela

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) FactFigure 1.1: Radioisotope thermoelectric generator used byhand side radioisotope thermoelectric generator reflectivity

  19. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C.

    1994-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (1) 233 K ({minus}40 {degrees}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degrees}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties.

  20. Work plan for the fabrication of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system package mounting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoh, J.A.

    1994-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) has available a dedicated system for the transportation of RTG payloads. The RTG Transportation System (System 100) is comprised of four systems; the Package (System 120), the Semi-trailer (System 140), the Gas Management (System 160), and the Facility Transport (System 180). This document provides guidelines on the fabrication, technical requirements, and quality assurance of the Package Mounting (Subsystem 145), part of System 140. The description follows the Development Control Requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, EP 2.4, Rev. 3.

  1. Radiation Environments and Exposure Considerations for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, William M.; Low, Nora M.; Zillmer, Andrew; Johnson, Gregory A. [Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, 6633 Canoga Avenue, Canoga Park, CA 91309 (United States); Normand, Eugene [Boeing Radiation Effects Laboratory, P.O. Box 3707, M/S 2T-50, Seattle, WA 98124-22079 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) is the next generation (RTG) being developed by DOE to provide reliable, long-life electric power for NASA's planetary exploration programs. The MMRTG is being developed by Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and Teledyne Energy Systems Incorporated (TESI) for use on currently planned and projected flyby, orbital and planet landing missions. This is a significant departure from the design philosophy of the past which was to match specific mission requirements to RTG design capabilities. Undefined mission requirements provide a challenge to system designers by forcing them to put a design envelope around 'all possible missions'. These multi-mission requirements include internal and external radiation sources. Internal sources include the particles ejected by decaying Pu-238 and its daughters plus particles resulting from the interaction of these particles with other MMRTG materials. External sources include the full spectrum of charged particle radiation surrounding planets with magnetic fields and the surfaces of extraterrestrial objects not shielded by magnetic fields. The paper presents the results of investigations into the environments outlined above and the impact of radiation exposure on potential materials to be used on MMRTG and ground support personnel. Mission requirements were also reviewed to evaluate total integrated dose and to project potential shielding requirements for materials. Much of the information on mission shielding requirements was provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The primary result is an ionizing radiation design curve which indicates the limits to which a particular mission can take the MMRTG in terms of ionizing radiation exposure. Estimates of personnel radiation exposure during ground handling are also provided.

  2. Modeling water use at thermoelectric power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutberg, Michael J. (Michael Jacob)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The withdrawal and consumption of water at thermoelectric power plants affects regional ecology and supply security of both water and electricity. The existing field data on US power plant water use, however, is of limited ...

  3. Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power usingThermoelectric Engines...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solutions Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power using Thermoelectric Engines John LaGrandeur October 5, 2011 Advanced Thermoelectric Solutions - 1 - Market motivation based on CO 2...

  4. Radioisotope Power Sources for MEMS Devices,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, J.P.

    2001-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a rapidly expanding research field with potential applications varying from sensors in airbags to more recent optical applications. Depending on the application, these devices often require an on-board power source for remote operation, especially in cases requiring operation for an extended period of time. Previously suggested power sources include fossil fuels and solar energy, but nuclear power sources may provide significant advantages for certain applications. Hence, the objective of this study is to establish the viability of using radioisotopes to power realistic MEMS devices. A junction-type battery was constructed using silicon and a {sup 63}Ni liquid source. A source volume containing 64 {micro}Ci provided a power of {approx}0.07 nW. A more novel application of nuclear sources for MEMS applications involves the creation of a resonator that is driven by charge collection in a cantilever beam. Preliminary results have established the feasibility of this concept, and future work will optimize the design for various applications.

  5. Solar thermoelectrics for small scale power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amatya, Reja

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past two decades, there has been a surge in the research of new thermoelectric (TE) materials, driven party by the need for clean and sustainable power generation technology. Utilizing the Seebeck effect, the ...

  6. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator package o-ring seal material validation testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, P. O. Box 1970, MSIN N1-25, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (I) 233 K ({minus}40 {degree}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degree}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  7. A compendium of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system and recent programmatic changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.; McCoy, J.C.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, usually plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with 10 CFR 71 (1994). To meet these regulatory requirements, US DOE commissioned Westinghouse Hanford Co. in 1988 to develop a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) that would fully comply while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal transport conditions (eg, mainly shock and heat). RTGTS is scheduled for completion Dec. 1996 and will be available to support NASA`s Cassini mission to Saturn in Oct. 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS project, discusses the hardware being produced, and summarizes various programmatic and management innovations required by recent changes at DOE.

  8. Structural testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container is a Type B packaging design currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to the normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this package design. This report documents the test program portion of the design verification, using several prototype packages. Four types of testing were performed: 30-foot hypothetical accident condition drop tests in three orientations, 40-inch hypothetical accident condition puncture tests in five orientations, a 21 psi external overpressure test, and a normal conditions of transport test consisting of a water spray and a 4 foot drop test. 18 refs., 104 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Certification testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping counter is a Type B packaging currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this packaging design. This report documents the testing portion of the design verification. Six tests were conducted on a prototype package: a water spray test, a 4-foot normal conditions drop test, a 30-foot drop test, a 40-inch puncture test, a 30-minute thermal test, and an 8-hour immersion test.

  10. Disposition of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators Currently Located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory - 12232

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office, 200 Administrative Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Patterson, J.; DeRoos, K. [SEC Federal Services Corporation (SEC), 2800 Solway Road, Knoxville, TN 37931 (United States); Patterson, J.E.; Mitchell, K.G. [Strata-G, LLC, 2027 Castaic Lane, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded SEC Federal Services Corporation (SEC) a 34-building demolition and disposal (D and D) project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that included the disposition of six Strontium (Sr-90) powered Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) stored outside of ORNL Building 3517. Disposition of the RTGs is very complex both in terms of complying with disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements for packaging and transportation in commerce. Two of the RTGs contain elemental mercury which requires them to be Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) compliant prior to disposal. In addition, all of the RTGs exceed the Class C waste concentration limits under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Waste Classification Guidelines. In order to meet the LDR requirements and Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) WAC, a site specific treatability variance for mercury was submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to allow macro-encapsulation to be an acceptable treatment standard for elemental mercury. By identifying and confirming the design configuration of the mercury containing RTGs, the SEC team proved that the current configuration met the macro-encapsulation standard of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 268.45. The SEC Team also worked with NNSS to demonstrate that all radioisotope considerations are compliant with the NNSS low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility performance assessment and WAC. Lastly, the SEC team determined that the GE2000 Type B cask met the necessary size, weight, and thermal loading requirements for five of the six RTGs. The sixth RTG (BUP-500) required a one-time DOT shipment exemption request due to the RTG's large size. The DOT exemption justification for the BUP-500 relies on the inherent robust construction and material make-up of the BUP- 500 RTG. DOE-ORO, SEC, and the entire SEC RTG team are nearing the conclusion of the Sr-90 RTG disposition challenge - a legacy now 50 years in the making. Over 600,000 Ci of Sr-90 waste await disposal and its removal from ORNL will mark an historical moment in the clean-up of the cold-war legacy in the ORNL central industrial area. Elimination (i.e., removal) of the RTGs will reduce security risks at ORNL and disposal will permanently eliminate security risks. The RTGs will eventually decay to benign levels within a reasonable timeframe relative to radiological risks posed by long-lived isotopes. The safety authorization basis at ORNL Building 3517 will be reduced enabling greater operational flexibility in future clean-out and D and D campaigns. Upon disposition the Department of Energy will realize reduced direct and indirect surveillance and maintenance costs that can be reapplied to accelerated and enhanced clean-up of the Oak Ridge Reservation. At present, waste profiles for the RTGs are developed and under review by NNSS RWAP staff and approval authorities. Disposition schedule is driven by the availability of compliant shipping casks necessary to safely transport the RTGs from ORNL to NNSS. The first disposal of the RCA RTG is expected in April 2012 and the remaining RTGs disposed in 2012 and 2013. (authors)

  11. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  12. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bel,; Lon E. (Altadena, CA); Crane, Douglas Todd (Pasadena, CA)

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  13. Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses thermoelectric power generation technologies as applied to waste heat recovery, renewable thermal energy sources, and energy harvesting

  14. Mass Properties Testing and Evaluation for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felicione, Frank S.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mass properties (MP) measurements were performed for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), serial number (S/N) 0X730401, the power system designated for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Measurements were made using new mounting fixtures at the mass properties testing station in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Space and Security Power Systems Facility (SSPSF). The objective of making mass properties measurements was to determine the generator’s flight configured mass and center of mass or center of gravity (CG). Using an extremely accurate platform scale, the mass of the as-tested generator was determined to be 100.117 ± 0.007 lb. Weight accuracy was determined by checking the platform scale with calibrated weights immediately prior to weighing the MMRTG.a CG measurement accuracy was assessed by surrogate testing using an inert mass standard for which the CG could be readily determined analytically. Repeated testing using the mass standard enabled the basic measurement precision of the system to be quantified in terms of a physical confidence interval about the measured CG position. However, repetitious testing with the MMRTG itself was not performed in deference to the gamma and neutron radiation dose to operators and the damage potential to the flight unit from extra handling operations. Since the mass standard had been specially designed to have a total weight and CG location that closely matched the MMRTG, the uncertainties determined from its testing were assigned to the MMRTG as well. On this basis, and at the 99% confidence level, a statistical analysis found the direct, as-measured MMRTG-MSL CG to be located at 10.816 ± 0.0011 in. measured perpendicular from the plane of the lower surface of the generator’s mounting lugs (Z direction), and offset from the generator’s long axis centerline in the X and Y directions by 0.0968 ± 0.0040 in. and 0.0276 ± 0.0026 in., respectively. These uncertainties are based simply on the statistical treatment of results from repetitive testing performed with the mass standard and included position variations that may have occurred during several mounting/dismounting operations of both the mass standard and mounting fixtures. Because of the limited data available, the computed uncertainty intervals reported are likely, although not assuredly, wider than the intervals that would have been found had more extensive data been available. However, these uncertainties do not account for other contributors to measurement uncertainty that might be applicable. These include potential weighing errors, possible tilt of the as-mounted test article, or translation of the measurement results from the MP instrument coordinates to those of the test article. Furthermore, when testing heat producing test articles such as the MMRTG, measurement degradation can occur from thermal expansion/contraction of the mounting fixtures as they heat up or cool and cause a subtle repositioning of the test article. Analyses for such impacts were made and additional uncertainty allowances were conservatively assigned to account for these. A full, detailed description is provided in this report.

  15. Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Optimizing Thermoelectric Power Factor by Means of a Potential Barrier Neophytos Neophytou}@iue.tuwien.ac.at Abstract Large efforts in improving thermoelectric energy conversion are devoted to energy filtering design, ~40% improvement in the thermoelectric power factor can be achieved if the following conditions

  16. Profiling the Thermoelectric Power of Semiconductor Junctions with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Profiling the Thermoelectric Power of Semiconductor Junctions with Nanometer Resolution Ho-Ki Lyeo,3 * We have probed the local thermoelectric power of semiconductor nanostruc- tures with the use of ultrahigh-vacuum scanning thermoelectric microscopy. When applied to a p-n junction, this method reveals

  17. Subsurface Ambient Thermoelectric Power for Moles and Penetrators1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    1 Subsurface Ambient Thermoelectric Power for Moles and Penetrators1 Ralph D. Lorenz, Lunar for electrical power generation for planetary exploration applications using thermoelectric conversion of the vehicle. Proof-of-concept experiments are described using off-the-shelf thermoelectric CPU cooling plates

  18. Electron-beam processing of kilogram quantities of iridium for radioisotope thermoelectric generator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huxford, T.J.; Ohriner, E.K.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iridium alloys are used as fuel-cladding materials in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Hardware produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been used in Voyagers I and 2, Galilee, and Ulysses spacecraft. An integral part of the production of iridium-sheet metal involves electron-beam (EB) processing. These processes include the degassing of powder-pressed compacts followed by multiple meltings in order to purify 500-g buttons of Ir-0.3% W alloy. Starting in 1972 and continuing into 1992, our laboratory EB processing was Performed (ca. 1970) in a 60-kW (20 kV at 3 A), two-gun system. In 1991, a new 150-kW EB gun facility was installed to complement the older unit. This paper describes how the newly installed system was qualified for production of RTG developmental work is discussed that will potentially improve the existing process by utilizing the capabilities of the new EB system.

  19. Electron-beam processing of kilogram quantities of iridium for radioisotope thermoelectric generator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huxford, T.J.; Ohriner, E.K.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Iridium alloys are used as fuel-cladding materials in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Hardware produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been used in Voyagers I and 2, Galilee, and Ulysses spacecraft. An integral part of the production of iridium-sheet metal involves electron-beam (EB) processing. These processes include the degassing of powder-pressed compacts followed by multiple meltings in order to purify 500-g buttons of Ir-0.3% W alloy. Starting in 1972 and continuing into 1992, our laboratory EB processing was Performed (ca. 1970) in a 60-kW (20 kV at 3 A), two-gun system. In 1991, a new 150-kW EB gun facility was installed to complement the older unit. This paper describes how the newly installed system was qualified for production of RTG developmental work is discussed that will potentially improve the existing process by utilizing the capabilities of the new EB system.

  20. BuildingaThermoelectricMug This rllorrfh,s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators), which are basically armored canisters holding plutonium dioxide fuel. Here, I will show how you can use these in reverseto generate electrical power. Thermoelectric Devicesfava Power BuildingaThermoelectricMug F This rllorrfh,s ?rcjae J a v a P o w e r. . . . . . . . 4 6

  1. Thermoelectric power factor in semiconductors with buried epitaxial semimetallic nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    Thermoelectric power factor in semiconductors with buried epitaxial semimetallic nanoparticles J. M, mobility, and Seebeck coefficient of these materials and discuss their potential for use in thermoelectric on thermoelectric materials has focused on the ability of heterostructures and quantum con- finement to increase

  2. Thermoelectric Power Generation Allison Duh and Joel Dungan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    Thermoelectric Power Generation Allison Duh and Joel Dungan May 15, 2013 #12;Introduction A thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a device that converts heat energy directly into electrical energy. Thermoelectric systems capitalize on semiconductor charge carriers excited by a temperature difference to convert

  3. Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Japan Discusses thermoelectric power generation technologies as applied to waste heat recovery, renewable thermal energy sources, and energy harvesting kajikawa.pdf...

  4. High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation 2005 Diesel Engine...

  5. Effect of Inert Cover Gas on Performance of Radioisotope Stirling Space Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Robert; Kumar, V; Ore, C; Schock, Alfred

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an updated Orbital design of a radioisotope Stirling power system and its predicted performance at the beginning and end of a six-year mission to the Jovian moon Europa. The design is based on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules identical to those previously developed and safety-qualified by the Department of Energy (DOE) which were successfully launched to Jupiter and Saturn by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In each generator, the heat produced by the decay of the Pu-238 isotope is converted to electric power by two free-piston Stirling engines and linear alternators developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC), and their rejected waste heat is transported to radiators by heat pipes. The principal difference between the proposed system design and previous Orbital designs (Or et al. 2000) is the thermal insulation between the heat source and the generator's housing. Previous designs had employed multifoil insulation, whereas the design described here employs Min-K-1800 thermal insulation. Such insulation had been successfully used by Teledyne and GE in earlier RTGs (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators). Although Min-K is a much poorer insulator than multifoil in vacuum and requires a substantially greater thickness for equivalent performance, it offers compensating advantages. Specifically it makes it possible to adjust the generator's BOM temperatures by filling its interior volume with inert cover gas. This makes it possible to meet the generator's BOM and EOM performance goals without exceeding its allowable temperature at the beginning of the mission.

  6. A Saturn Ring Observer Mission Using Multi-Mission Radioisotope Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Shirley, James H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 301-445W, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturn remains one of the most fascinating planets within the solar system. To better understand the complex ring structure of this planet, a conceptual Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) mission is presented that would spend one year in close proximity to Saturn's A and B rings, and perform detailed observations and measurements of the ring particles and electric and magnetic fields. The primary objective of the mission would be to understand ring dynamics, including the microphysics of individual particles and small scale (meters to a few kilometers) phenomena such as particle agglomeration behavior. This would be accomplished by multispectral imaging of the rings at multiple key locations within the A and B rings, and by ring-particle imaging at an unprecedented resolution of 0.5 cm/pixel. The SRO spacecraft would use a Venus-Earth-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VEEJGA) and be aerocaptured into Saturn orbit using an advanced aeroshell design to minimize propellant mass. Once in orbit, the SRO would stand off from the ring plane 1 to 1.4 km using chemical thrusters to provide short propulsive maneuvers four times per revolution, effectively causing the SRO vehicle to 'hop' above the ring plane. The conceptual SRO spacecraft would be enabled by the use of a new generation of multi-mission Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) currently being developed by NASA and DOE. These RPSs include the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). The RPSs would generate all necessary electrical power ({>=}330 We at beginning of life) during the 10-year cruise and 1-year science mission ({approx}11 years total). The RPS heat would be used to maintain the vehicle's operating and survival temperatures, minimizing the need for electrical heaters. Such a mission could potentially launch in the 2015-2020 timeframe, with operations at Saturn commencing in approximately 2030.

  7. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lal, Amit (Madison, WI); Li, Hui (Madison, WI); Blanchard, James P. (Madison, WI); Henderson, Douglass L. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  8. High-density thermoelectric power generation and nanoscale thermal metrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Peter (Peter Matthew), 1978-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric power generation has been around for over 50 years but has seen very little large scale implementation due to the inherently low efficiencies and powers available from known materials. Recent material advances ...

  9. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2006 Through September 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Radioisotope Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2007. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  10. Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T enAmountCammie Croft Senior Advisor, DirectorDepartment

  11. Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartmentGas and|Hours(5-Unit) AreaEnergyofN E R G Y

  12. Radioisotope-based Nuclear Power Strategy for Exploration Systems Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, George R.; Houts, Michael G. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear power will play an important role in future exploration efforts. Its benefits pertain to practically all the different timeframes associated with the Exploration Vision, from robotic investigation of potential lunar landing sites to long-duration crewed missions on the lunar surface. However, the implementation of nuclear technology must follow a logical progression in capability that meets but does not overwhelm the power requirements for the missions in each exploration timeframe. It is likely that the surface power infrastructure, particularly for early missions, will be distributed in nature. Thus, nuclear sources will have to operate in concert with other types of power and energy storage systems, and must mesh well with the power architectures envisioned for each mission phase. Most importantly, they must demonstrate a clear advantage over other non-nuclear options (e.g., solar power, fuel cells) for their particular function. This paper describes a strategy that does this in the form of three sequential system developments. It begins with use of radioisotope generators currently under development, and applies the power conversion technology developed for these units to the design of a simple, robust reactor power system. The products from these development efforts would eventually serve as the foundation for application of nuclear power systems for exploration of Mars and beyond.

  13. Design and performance of radioisotope space power systems based on OSC multitube AMTEC converter designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C. [Orbital Sciences Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper extends the analytical procedure described in another paper in these proceedings to analyze a variety of compact and light-weight OSC-designed radioisotope-heated generators. Those generators employed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules and a converter containing sixteen AMTEC cells of OSC`s revised five-tube design with enhanced cell wall reflectivity described in a companion paper in these proceedings. OSC found that the performance of the generator is primarily a function of the thermal insulation between the outside of the generator`s 16 cells and the inside of its wall. After examining a variety of insulation options, it was found that the generator`s performance is optimized by employing a hybrid insulation system, in which the space between the cells is filled with fibrous Min-K insulation, and the generator walls are lined with tapered (i.e., graded-length) multifoil insulation. The OSC design results in a very compact generator, with eight AMTEC cells on each end of the heat source stack. The choice of the five-tube cells makes it possible to expand the BASE tube diameter without increasing the cell diameter. This is important because the eight cells mate well with the stacked GPHS modules. The OSC generator design includes a compliant heat source support and preload arrangement, to hold the heat source modules together during launch, and to maintain thermal contact conductance at the generator`s interfaces despite creep relaxation of its housing. The BOM and EOM (up to 15 years) performances of the revised generators were analyzed for two and three GPHS modules, both for fresh fuel and for aged fuel left over from a spare RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) fueled in 1982. The resulting power outputs were compared with JPL`s latest EOM power demand goals for the Pluto Express and Europa Orbiter missions, and with the generic goals of DOE`s Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) study. The OSC AMTEC designs yielded system efficiencies three to four times as high as present-generation RTGs.

  14. Vibration Testing of the Pluto/New Horizons Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles D. Griffin

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Radioisotopic Thermal Generator (RTG) for the Pluto/New Horizons spacecraft was subjected to a flight dynamic acceptance test to demonstrate that it would perform successfully following launch. Seven RTGs of this type had been assembled and tested at Mound, Ohio from 1984 to 1997. This paper chronicles major events in establishing a new vibration test laboratory at the Idaho National Laboratory and the nineteen days of dynamic testing.

  15. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, M.M.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communication, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of material resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  16. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Mark M. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  17. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, M.M.

    1995-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications. 2 figs.

  18. Thermoelectric powered wireless sensors for spent fuel monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carstens, T.; Corradini, M.; Blanchard, J. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ma, Z. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes using thermoelectric generators to power wireless sensors to monitor spent nuclear fuel during dry-cask storage. OrigenArp was used to determine the decay heat of the spent fuel at different times during the service life of the dry-cask. The Engineering Equation Solver computer program modeled the temperatures inside the spent fuel storage facility during its service life. The temperature distribution in a thermoelectric generator and heat sink was calculated using the computer program Finite Element Heat Transfer. From these temperature distributions the power produced by the thermoelectric generator was determined as a function of the service life of the dry-cask. In addition, an estimation of the path loss experienced by the wireless signal can be made based on materials and thickness of the structure. Once the path loss is known, the transmission power and thermoelectric generator power requirements can be determined. This analysis estimates that a thermoelectric generator can produce enough power for a sensor to function and transmit data from inside the dry-cask throughout its service life. (authors)

  19. RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM CAPABILITIES AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly Lively; Stephen Johnson; Eric Clarke

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    --Idaho National Laboratory’s, Space Nuclear Systems and Technology Division established the resources, equipment and facilities required to provide nuclear-fueled, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) to Department of Energy (DOE) Customers. RPSs are designed to convert the heat generated by decay of iridium clad, 238PuO2 fuel pellets into electricity that is used to power missions in remote, harsh environments. Utilization of nuclear fuel requires adherence to governing regulations and the INL provides unique capabilities to safely fuel, test, store, transport and integrate RPSs to supply power—supporting mission needs. Nuclear capabilities encompass RPS fueling, testing, handling, storing, transporting RPS nationally, and space vehicle integration. Activities are performed at the INL and in remote locations such as John F. Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station to support space missions. This paper will focus on the facility and equipment capabilities primarily offered at the INL, Material and Fuel Complex located in a security-protected, federally owned, industrial area on the remote desert site west of Idaho Falls, ID. Nuclear and non-nuclear facilities house equipment needed to perform required activities such as general purpose heat source (GPHS) module pre-assembly and module assembly using nuclear fuel; RPS receipt and baseline electrical testing, fueling, vibration testing to simulate the launch environment, mass properties testing to measure the mass and compute the moment of inertia, electro-magnetic characterizing to determine potential consequences to the operation of vehicle or scientific instrumentation, and thermal vacuum testing to verify RPS power performance in the vacuum and cold temperatures of space.

  20. Apparatus for thermoelectric power measurements on metals and alloys in the liquid state.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    595 Apparatus for thermoelectric power measurements on metals and alloys in the liquid state, for the determination of absolute thermoelectric power of liquid metals is described. The apparatus has been tested results for cadmium antimony alloys are reported. A change of sign of the thermoelectric power, versus

  1. Thermoelectric power measurements of wide band gap semiconducting Chul-Ho Lee,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Philip

    Thermoelectric power measurements of wide band gap semiconducting nanowires Chul-Ho Lee,1 Gyu online 13 January 2009 We investigated the temperature-dependent thermoelectric power TEP of individual concentration in wide band gap semiconducting nano- wires employing temperature-dependent thermoelectric power

  2. Thermoelectric power factor enhancement by ionized nanoparticle scattering Je-Hyeong Bahk,1,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric power factor enhancement by ionized nanoparticle scattering Je-Hyeong Bahk,1,a theoretically that the thermoelectric power factor can be enhanced in degenerate semiconductors when embedded intact. We find that the thermoelectric power factor of In0.53Ga0.47As from 300 K to 800 K is enhanced

  3. THERMOELECTRIC POWER IN SEMICONDUCTING ALLOYS OF THE InPxAs1-x SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    883 THERMOELECTRIC POWER IN SEMICONDUCTING ALLOYS OF THE InPxAs1-x SYSTEM N. P. KEKELIDZE, Z. V'approche de InP. Abstract. 2014 A detailed analysis of the thermoelectric power and the Hall effect near room of measurements of the thermoelectric power and the Hall effect. The values of the electron effective masses were

  4. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

  5. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test activities that were performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of {ital Title} 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, {open_quote}{open_quote}Part 71{close_quote}{close_quote} (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy{close_quote}s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, {ital Transit} {ital Drop} {ital Procedure} (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G{close_quote}s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G{close_quote}s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  7. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2005 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  8. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technical Program Tasks for October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2007-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  9. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2004 Through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  10. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None listed

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2004. Production and production maintenance activities for flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  11. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None listed

    2006-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  12. Effects of Confinement and Orientation on the Thermoelectric Power Factor of Silicon Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Effects of Confinement and Orientation on the Thermoelectric Power Factor of Silicon Nanowires dimensionality can improve the thermoelectric (TE) power factor of a device, offering an enhancement of the ZT analysis of the thermoelectric coefficients of n-type and p-type NWs of diameters from 12nm down to 3nm

  13. Gated Si nanowires for large thermoelectric power factors Neophytos Neophytou1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Gated Si nanowires for large thermoelectric power factors Neophytos Neophytou1 and Hans Kosina2 1.Neophytou@warwick.ac.uk Abstract We investigate the effect of electrostatic gating on the thermoelectric power factor of p-type Si, coupled to linearized Boltzmann transport equation for the calculation of the thermoelectric coefficients

  14. On thermoelectric power conversion from heat re-circulating combustion systems F. J. Weinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On thermoelectric power conversion from heat re-circulating combustion systems F. J. Weinberg Fax: 4420 7594 5604 Word count: 3750 Diags. equivalent: 1600 5350 #12;On thermoelectric power the absolute maximum efficiency of energy conversion by thermoelectric devices that operate as part of the heat

  15. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2010 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. These components were also produced for the Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Lab missions launched in January 2006 and November 2011respectively. The ORNL has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for nearly four decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2011. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS. Work has also been initiated to establish fabrication capabilities for the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units.

  16. Numerical study of the thermoelectric power factor in ultra-thin Si nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Numerical study of the thermoelectric power factor in ultra-thin Si nanowires Neophytos Neophytou thermoelectric (TE) performance because of a drastic reduction in their thermal conductivity, l. This has been observed for a variety of materials, even for traditionally poor thermoelectrics such as silicon. Other

  17. Improved Thermoelectric Power Factor in Metal-Based Superlattices Daryoosh Vashaee and Ali Shakouri*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Improved Thermoelectric Power Factor in Metal-Based Superlattices Daryoosh Vashaee and Ali Shakouri and thermoelectric transport perpendicular to heterostructure superlattices. This nonlinear transport regime above with tall barriers can achieve a large effective thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT > 5 at room temperature

  18. EIS-0373: Proposed Consolidation of Nuclear Operations Related to the Production of Radioisotope Power Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: EIS-0373 has been cancelled. This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of consolidating nuclear activities related to production of radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space and national security missions at a single DOE site: the preferred alternative is the Materials and Fuels Complex at Idaho National Laboratory.

  19. Most efficient quantum thermoelectric at finite power output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Whitney

    2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Machines are only Carnot efficient if they are reversible, but then their power output is vanishingly small. Here we ask, what is the maximum efficiency of an irreversible device with finite power output? We use a nonlinear scattering theory to answer this question for thermoelectric quantum systems; heat engines or refrigerators consisting of nanostructures or molecules that exhibit a Peltier effect. We find that quantum mechanics places an upper bound on both power output, and on the efficiency at any finite power. The upper bound on efficiency equals Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decays with increasing power output. It is intrinsically quantum (wavelength dependent), unlike Carnot efficiency. This maximum efficiency occurs when the system lets through all particles in a certain energy window, but none at other energies. A physical implementation of this is discussed, as is the suppression of efficiency by a phonon heat flow.

  20. Large-scale Ocean-based or Geothermal Power Plants by Thermoelectric Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Liping

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat resources of small temperature difference are easily accessible, free and unlimited on earth. Thermoelectric effects provide the technology for converting these heat resources directly into electricity. We present designs of electricity generators based on thermoelectric effects and using heat resources of small temperature difference, e.g., ocean water at different depths and geothermal sources, and conclude that large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects are feasible and economically competitive. The key observation is that the power factor of thermoelectric materials, unlike the figure of merit, can be improved by orders of magnitude upon laminating good conductors and good thermoelectric materials. The predicted large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects, if validated, will have a global economic and social impact for its scalability, and the renewability, free and unlimited supply of heat resources of small temperature difference on earth.

  1. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced power cycles. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  2. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2007 Through September 30,2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides RPS for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2008. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS.

  3. advanced radioisotope power: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . . . . 18 3.4.1 Heat Exchanger - Code description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.4.2 Simulation ResultsADVANCED POWER PLANT MODELING WITH APPLICATIONS TO THE ADVANCED BOILING...

  4. Modulation of Thermoelectric Power of Individual Carbon Nanotubes Joshua P. Small, Kerstin M. Perez, and Philip Kim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Philip

    Modulation of Thermoelectric Power of Individual Carbon Nanotubes Joshua P. Small, Kerstin M. Perez 2003; published 18 December 2003) Thermoelectric power (TEP) of individual single walled carbon.256801 PACS numbers: 73.63.­b, 65.80.+n, 73.22.­f Enhanced thermoelectric phenomena in nanoscaled materials

  5. Thermoelectric power factor enhancement with gate-all-around silicon nanowires Benjamin M. Curtin and John E. Bowers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    Thermoelectric power factor enhancement with gate-all-around silicon nanowires Benjamin M. Curtin and thermoelectric properties of very high power factor Fe3O4/SiO2/p-type Si(001) devices J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033709 (2014); 10.1063/1.4861729 A comprehensive study of thermoelectric and transport properties of -silicon

  6. Enhancing the Thermoelectric Power Factor with Highly Mismatched Isoelectronic Doping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    We investigate the effect of O impurities on the thermoelectric properties of ZnSe from a combination

  7. Powering a Cat Warmer Using Thin-Film Thermoelectric Conversion of Microprocessor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Junfeng

    Powering a Cat Warmer Using ¾Ì ¿ Thin-Film Thermoelectric Conversion of Microprocessor Waste Heat- tracting waste heat from a high-end microprocessor, converting the heat to electricity using thin OF THERMOELECTRIC GENERATION First Waste Heat Recovery from Kerosene Lamp SiGe Nanowires 1822 Cardiac 1970s 2000

  8. Development of a propulsion system and component test facility for advanced radioisotope powered Mars Hopper platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. O'Brien; Nathan D. Jerred; Steven D. Howe

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Verification and validation of design and modeling activities for radioisotope powered Mars Hopper platforms undertaken at the Center for Space Nuclear Research is essential for proof of concept. Previous research at the center has driven the selection of advanced material combinations; some of which require specialized handling capabilities. The development of a closed and contained test facility to forward this research is discussed within this paper.

  9. Enhancing the Thermoelectric Power Factor with Highly Mismatched Isoelectronic Doping Joo-Hyoung Lee,1,4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Enhancing the Thermoelectric Power Factor with Highly Mismatched Isoelectronic Doping Joo; published 8 January 2010) We investigate the effect of O impurities on the thermoelectric properties of Zn performance thermoelectric applications. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.016602 PACS numbers: 72.20.Pa, 71.15.Àm

  10. Geek-Up[6.10.2011]: Thermoelectrics' Great Power, Key Ingredient in Bone's Nanostructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced thermoelectric materials could be used to develop vehicle exhaust systems that convert exhaust heat into electricity, concentrate solar energy for power generation and recover waste heat from industrial processes.

  11. Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Critical aspects of technology commercialization of preproduction high performance thermoelectric materials available for device developers, data analysis, and future plans are discussed

  12. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoelectric generator shorting system provides the capability to monitor and short-out individual thermoelectric couples in the event of failure. This makes the series configured thermoelectric generator robust to individual thermoelectric couple failure. Open circuit detection of the thermoelectric couples and the associated short control is a key technique to ensure normal functionality of the TE generator under failure of individual TE couples. This report describes a five-year effort whose goal was the understanding the issues related to the development of a thermoelectric energy recovery device for a Class-8 truck. Likely materials and important issues related to the utility of this generator were identified. Several prototype generators were constructed and demonstrated. The generators developed demonstrated several new concepts including advanced insulation, couple bypass technology and the first implementation of skutterudite thermoelectric material in a generator design. Additional work will be required to bring this system to fruition. However, such generators offer the possibility of converting energy that is otherwise wasted to useful electric power. Uur studies indicate that this can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner for this application.

  13. Oxide based thermoelectric materials for large scale power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoelectric (TE) devices are based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects, which describe the conversion between temperature gradient and electricity. The effectiveness of the material performance can be described by ...

  14. Spin-on-doping for output power improvement of silicon nanowire array based thermoelectric power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, B., E-mail: bin.xu09@imperial.ac.uk; Fobelets, K. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, SW7 2BT London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The output power of a silicon nanowire array (NWA)-bulk thermoelectric power generator (TEG) with Cu contacts is improved by spin-on-doping (SOD). The Si NWAs used in this work are fabricated via metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) of 0.01–0.02 ? cm resistivity n- and p-type bulk, converting ?4% of the bulk thickness into NWs. The MACE process is adapted to ensure crystalline NWs. Current-voltage and Seebeck voltage-temperature measurements show that while SOD mainly influences the contact resistance in bulk, it influences both contact resistance and power factor in NWA-bulk based TEGs. According to our experiments, using Si NWAs in combination with SOD increases the output power by an order of 3 under the same heating power due to an increased power factor, decreased thermal conductivity of the NWA and reduced Si-Cu contact resistance.

  15. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Thermoelectric Couple Demonstration of (In,...

  16. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric...

  17. Status of an advanced radioisotope space power system using free-piston Stirling technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M.A,; Qiu, S.; Erbeznik, R.M.; Olan, R.W.; Welty, S.C.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a free-piston Stirling engine technology project to demonstrate a high efficiency power system capable of being further developed for deep space missions using a radioisotope (RI) heat source. The key objective is to develop a power system with an efficiency exceeding 20% that can function with a high degree of reliability for 10 years or longer on deep space missions. Primary issues being addressed for Stirling space power systems are weight and the vibration associated with reciprocating pistons. Similar weight and vibration issues have been successfully addressed with Stirling cryocoolers, which are the accepted standard for cryogenic cooling in space. Integrated long-life Stirling engine-generator (or convertor) operation has been demonstrated by the terrestrial Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) and other Stirling Technology Company (STC) programs. Extensive RSG endurance testing includes more than 40,000 maintenance-free, degradation-free hours for the complete convertor, in addition to several critical component and subsystem endurance tests. The Stirling space power convertor project is being conducted by STC under DOE Contract, and NASA SBIR Phase II contracts. The DOE contract objective is to demonstrate a two-convertor module that represents half of a nominal 150-W(e) power system. Each convertor is referred to as a Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC). The ultimate Stirling power system would be fueled by three general purpose heat source (GPHS) modules, and is projected to produce substantially more electric power than the 150-watt target. The system is capable of full power output with one failed convertor. One NASA contract, nearing completion, uses existing 350-W(e) RG-350 convertors to evaluate interactivity of two back-to-back balanced convertors with various degrees of electrical and mechanical interaction. This effort has recently provided the first successful synchronization of two convertors by means of parallel alternator electrical connections, thereby reducing vibration levels by more than an order of magnitude. It will also demonstrate use of an artificial neural network to monitor system health without invasive instrumentation. The second NASA contract, begun in January 1998, will develop an active adaptive vibration reduction system to be integrated with the DOE-funded TDC convertors. Preliminary descriptions and specifications of the Stirling convertor design, as well as program status and plans, are included.

  18. Radioisotope-powered cardiac pacemaker program. Clinical studies of the nuclear pacemaker model NU-5. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in February, 1970, the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) undertook a program to design, develop and manufacture a radioisotope powered cardiac pacemaker system. The scope of technical work was specified to be: establish system, component, and process cost reduction goals using the prototype Radioisotope Powered Cardiac Pacemaker (RCP) design and develop production techniques to achieve these cost reduction objectives; fabricate radioisotope powered fueled prototype cardiac pacemakers (RCP's) on a pilot production basis; conduct liaison with a Government-designated fueling facility for purposes of defining fueling requirements, fabrication and encapsulation procedures, safety design criteria and quality control and inspection requirements; develop and implement Quality Assurance and Reliability Programs; conduct performance, acceptance, lifetime and reliability tests of fueled RCP's in the laboratory; conduct liaison with the National Institutes of Health and with Government specified medical research institutions selected for the purpose of undertaking clinical evaluation of the RCP in humans; monitor and evaluate, on a continuing basis, all test data; and perform necessary safety analyses and tests. Pacemaker designs were developed and quality assurance and manufacturing procedures established. Prototype pacemakers were fabricated. A total of 126 radioisotope powered units were implanted and have been followed clinically for approximately seven years. Four (4) of these units have failed. Eighty-three (83) units remain implanted and satisfactorily operational. An overall failure rate of less than the target 0.15% per month has been achieved.

  19. Thermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvadori, M.C.; Vaz, A.R.; Teixeira, F.S.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TABLE I. Measured thermoelectric power S for samples ofThermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouplesthickness dependence of the thermoelectric power of Pt films

  20. Band structure engineering through orbital interaction for enhanced thermoelectric power factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Hong; Sun, Wenhao; Ceder, Gerbrand [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Armiento, Rickard [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Lazic, Predrag [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka Cesta 54, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Band structure engineering for specific electronic or optical properties is essential for the further development of many important technologies including thermoelectrics, optoelectronics, and microelectronics. In this work, we report orbital interaction as a powerful tool to finetune the band structure and the transport properties of charge carriers in bulk crystalline semiconductors. The proposed mechanism of orbital interaction on band structure is demonstrated for IV-VI thermoelectric semiconductors. For IV-VI materials, we find that the convergence of multiple carrier pockets not only displays a strong correlation with the s-p and spin-orbit coupling but also coincides with the enhancement of power factor. Our results suggest a useful path to engineer the band structure and an enticing solid-solution design principle to enhance thermoelectric performance.

  1. Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Moraga, CA); Yu, Choongho (College Station, TX); Scullin, Matthew L. (Berkeley, CA); Huijben, Mark (Enschede, NL)

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  2. Large Thermoelectric Power Factor in P-type Si (110)/[110] Ultra-Thin-Layers Compared to Differently Oriented Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Large Thermoelectric Power Factor in P-type Si (110)/[110] Ultra-Thin-Layers Compared the thermoelectric power factor of ultra-thin-body p-type Si layers of thicknesses from W=3nm up to 10nm. We show improvement in 2D thin- layers of zincblende semiconductors. Keywords: low-dimensional thermoelectrics

  3. Choosing the Right Electrical Power Supply Scientists could find clues for answering these and oth-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lifetimes. An eighth RPS configuration, called the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator a Radioisotope Power System (RPS). An RPS converts the heat generated by the natural decay of the radioactive in space and on plan- etary surfaces. Developing and Improving RPS Technology Seven generations of RPS have

  4. Thermoelectric materials 1998 -- The next generation materials for small-scale refrigeration and power generation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tritt, T.M. (ed.) (Clemson Univ., SC (United States)); Kanatzidis, M.G. (ed.) (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)); Mahan, G.D. (ed.) (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)); Lyon, H.B. Jr. (ed.) (Marlow Industries, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric materials are used in a wide variety of applications related to small-scale solid-state refrigeration or power generation. Over the past 30 years, alloys based on the Bi-Te compounds (refrigeration) [(Bi[sub 1[minus]x]Sb[sub x])[sub 2] (Te[sub 1[minus]x]Se[sub x])[sub 3

  5. Assembly and Testing of a Radioisotope Power System for the New Horizons Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth E. Rosenberg; Stephen G. Johnson

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently fueled and assembled a radioisotope power system (RPS) that was used upon the New Horizons spacecraft which was launched in January 2006. New Horizons is the first mission to the last planet - the initial reconnaissance of Pluto-Charon and the Kuiper Belt, exploring the mysterious worlds at the edge of our solar system. The RPS otherwise known as a "space battery" converts thermal heat into electrical energy. The thermal heat source contains plutonium dioxide in the form of ceramic pellets encapsulated in iridium metal. The space battery was assembled in a new facility at the Idaho National Laboratory site near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The new facility has all the fueling and testing capabilities including the following: the ability to handle all the shipping containers currently certified to ship Pu-238, the ability to fuel a variety of RPS designs, the ability to perform vibrational testing to simulate transportation and launch environments, welding systems, a center of mass determination device, and various other support systems.

  6. Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tahmasbi Rad, Armin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (?500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

  7. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability of the new generator. The thermal vacuum test chamber is the first of its kind capable of testing a fueled power system to temperature that accurately simulate space. This paper outlines the new test and set up capabilities at the INL.

  8. Design of bulk thermoelectric modules for integrated circuit thermal management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukutani, K; Shakouri, A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling enhancement with thermoelectric coolers,” Trans.M. S. Dresselhaus, “Thermoelectric ?gure of merit of a one-A. Shakouri, “Improved thermoelectric power factor in metal-

  9. Improved thermoelectric power output from multilayered polyethylenimine doped carbon nanotube based organic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewitt, Corey A.; Montgomery, David S.; Barbalace, Ryan L.; Carlson, Rowland D.; Carroll, David L., E-mail: carroldl@wfu.edu [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Wake Forest University, 501 Deacon Blvd., Winston Salem, North Carolina 27105 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    By appropriately selecting the carbon nanotube type and n-type dopant for the conduction layers in a multilayered carbon nanotube composite, the total device thermoelectric power output can be increased significantly. The particular materials chosen in this study were raw single walled carbon nanotubes for the p-type layers and polyethylenimine doped single walled carbon nanotubes for the n-type layers. The combination of these two conduction layers leads to a single thermocouple Seebeck coefficient of 96 ± 4??VK{sup ?1}, which is 6.3 times higher than that previously reported. This improved Seebeck coefficient leads to a total power output of 14.7 nW per thermocouple at the maximum temperature difference of 50?K, which is 44 times the power output per thermocouple for the previously reported results. Ultimately, these thermoelectric power output improvements help to increase the potential use of these lightweight, flexible, and durable organic multilayered carbon nanotube based thermoelectric modules in low powered electronics applications, where waste heat is available.

  10. Radioisotopes: Energy for Space Exploration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Bob; Green, James; Bechtel, Ryan

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a strong partnership between the Energy Department's office of Nuclear Energy and NASA, Radioisotope Power Systems have been providing the energy for deep space exploration.

  11. Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Feldman; Amanda Slough; Gary Garrett

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a myriad of uses to which our country's freshwater supply is currently committed. Together with increasing quantities of consumption, there are growing constraints on water availability. In our future there will be two elements of consumption at the forefront of concern: availability and efficiency. Availability of freshwater is the most important of these and is the subject of this report. To use water efficiently, we must first have it. Efficiency is key to ensuring availability for future needs. As population grows and economic and technology demands increase - especially for thermoelectric power - needs for freshwater will also increase. Thus, using our limited supplies of freshwater must be done as efficiently as possible. Thermoelectric generating industry is the largest user of our nation's water resources, including fresh, surface, ground, and saline water. Saline water use accounts for approximately 30% of thermoelectric use, while the remaining 70% is from freshwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates that thermoelectric generation accounts for roughly 136,000 million gallons per day (MGD), or 39% of freshwater withdrawals. This ranks slightly behind agricultural irrigation as the top source of freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. in 2000. For Americans to preserve their standard of living and maintain a thriving economy it is essential that greater attention be paid to freshwater availability in efforts to meet energy demands - particularly for electric power. According to projections by the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO 2006) anticipated growth of thermoelectric generating capacity will be 22% between 2005 and 2030. In the 2007 Report, EIA estimates that capacity to grow from approximately 709 GW in 2005 to 862 GW in 20303. These large increases in generating capacity will result in increased water demands by thermoelectric power plants and greater competition over water between the energy sector and domestic, commercial, agricultural, industrial, and instream use sectors. The implications of these increased demands have not been adequately researched. This report is a preliminary effort to explore these implications. In addition, since this report was completed in draft form in 2007, there have been several updates and important issues brought to bear on water for energy that should be mentioned. Uncertainties include drought and climate change impacts. Policies such as commitments to Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) quotas; Ethanol production requirements; Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) mandates; increasing nuclear power plant construction; valuing carbon and carbon dioxide emissions all have significant implications on water use and on the need for water in the power sector by 2025.

  12. Nanocomposites as thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Qing

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric materials have attractive applications in electric power generation and solid-state cooling. The performance of a thermoelectric device depends on the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of the material, ...

  13. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  14. Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

  15. High-power-density spot cooling using bulk thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model, the cooling power densities of the devices can alsothe cooling power densities 2–24 times. Experimentally, the14 4 OCTOBER 2004 High-power-density spot cooling using bulk

  16. Finding the quantum thermoelectric with maximal efficiency and minimal entropy production at given power output

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Whitney

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the nonlinear scattering theory for quantum systems with strong Seebeck and Peltier effects, and consider their use as heat-engines and refrigerators with finite power outputs. This article gives detailed derivations of the results summarized in Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 130601 (2014). It shows how to use the scattering theory to find (i) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum possible power output, and (ii) the quantum thermoelectric with maximum efficiency at given power output. The latter corresponds to a minimal entropy production at that power output. These quantities are of quantum origin since they depend on system size over electronic wavelength, and so have no analogue in classical thermodynamics. The maximal efficiency coincides with Carnot efficiency at zero power output, but decreases with increasing power output. This gives a fundamental lower bound on entropy production, which means that reversibility (in the thermodynamic sense) is impossible for finite power output. The suppression of efficiency by (nonlinear) phonon and photon effects is addressed in detail; when these effects are strong, maximum efficiency coincides with maximum power. Finally, we show in particular limits (typically without magnetic fields) that relaxation within the quantum system does not allow the system to exceed the bounds derived for relaxation-free systems, however, a general proof of this remains elusive.

  17. Microscale Thermoelectric Cooling Elements (TECs) are being proposed to cool down an integrated circuit to maintain its performance. The maximum cooling power of microscale TECs is significantly reduced by the interfacial resistance. For our

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ICT 2008 1 Abstract Microscale Thermoelectric Cooling Elements (TECs) are being proposed to cool act as a good guideline for two-dimensional analysis and assembly of TECs. Key Words - Thermoelectric by the thermal power at the hotspot regions. Microscale Thermoelectric Cooling Elements (TECs) or Thermoelectric

  18. A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives: continuous, autonomous, reliable power for decades.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aselage, Terrence Lee; Siegal, Michael P.; Whalen, Scott; Frederick, Scott K.; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have built and tested a miniaturized, thermoelectric power source that can provide in excess of 450 {micro}W of power in a system size of 4.3cc, for a power density of 107 {micro}W/cc, which is denser than any system of this size previously reported. The system operates on 150mW of thermal input, which for this system was simulated with a resistive heater, but in application would be provided by a 0.4g source of {sup 238}Pu located at the center of the device. Output power from this device, while optimized for efficiency, was not optimized for form of the power output, and so the maximum power was delivered at only 41mV. An upconverter to 2.7V was developed concurrently with the power source to bring the voltage up to a usable level for microelectronics.

  19. Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaltz, Erik

    of Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) systems a power converter is often inserted between the TEG system that the TEG system produces the maximum power. However, if the conditions, e.g. temperature, health, age, etc find the best compromise of all modules. In order to increase the power production of the TEG system

  20. The Mars Hopper: a radioisotope powered, impulse driven, long-range, long-lived mobile platform for exploration of Mars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Howe; Robert C. O'Brien; William Taitano; Doug Crawford; Nathan Jerred; Spencer Cooley; John Crapeau; Steve Hansen; Andrew Klein; James Werner

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planetary exploration mission requirements are becoming more demanding. Due to the increasing cost, the missions that provide mobile platforms that can acquire data at multiple locations are becoming more attractive. Wheeled vehicles such as the MER rovers have proven extremely capable but have very limited range and cannot traverse rugged terrain. Flying vehicles such as balloons and airplanes have been proposed but are problematic due to the very thin atmospheric pressure and the strong, dusty winds present on Mars. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has designed an instrumented platform that can acquire detailed data at hundreds of locations during its lifetime - a Mars Hopper. The Mars Hopper concept utilizes energy from radioisotopic decay in a manner different from any existing radioisotopic power sources—as a thermal capacitor. By accumulating the heat from radioisotopic decay for long periods, the power of the source can be dramatically increased for short periods. The platform will be able to "hop" from one location to the next every 5-7 days with a separation of 5-10 km per hop. Preliminary designs show a platform that weighs around 52 kgs unfueled which is the condition at deployment. Consequently, several platforms may be deployed on a single launch from Earth. With sufficient lifetime, the entire surface of Mars can be mapped in detail by a couple dozen platforms. In addition, Hoppers can collect samples from all over the planet, including gorges, mountains and crevasses, and deliver them to a central location for eventual pick-up by a Mars Sample Return mission. The status of the Mars Hopper development project at the CSNR is discussed.

  1. Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Radioisotope-powered Mars Hopper Propulsion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. O'Brien; Andrew C. Klein; William T. Taitano; Justice Gibson; Brian Myers; Steven D. Howe

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-hydraulics analyses results produced using a combined suite of computational design and analysis codes are presented for the preliminary design of a concept Radioisotope Thermal Rocket (RTR) propulsion system. Modeling of the transient heating and steady state temperatures of the system is presented. Simulation results for propellant blow down during impulsive operation are also presented. The results from this study validate the feasibility of a practical thermally capacitive RTR propulsion system.

  2. Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference Proc., Vancouver, BC, Canada, 992569 (1999) Miniaturized Thermoelectric Power Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is the discovery and infusion of novel thermoelectric materials more efficient above room temperature than

  3. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive...

  4. Lunar Nuclear Power Plant With Solid Core Reactor, Heatpipes and Thermoelectric Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayre, Edwin D. [Engineering Consultant, 218 Brooke Acres Drive, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (United States); Ring, Peter J. [Advanced Methods and Materials, 1190 Mountain View-Alviso Rd. Suite P, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Brown, Neil [Engineering Consultant, 5134 Cordoy Lane, San Jose, CA 95124 (United States); Elsner, Norbert B.; Bass, John C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., 7606 Miramar Rd. Suite 7400, San Diego, CA 92126 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a lunar nuclear power plant with the advantages of minimum mass, with no moving parts, no pumped liquid coolant, a solid metal rugged core, with no single point of failure. The electrical output is 100 kilowatts with a 500 kilowatt thermal reactor. The thermoelectric converters surround the potassium heatpipes from the core and water heatpipes surround the converter and connect to the radiator. The solid core reactor is made from HT9 alloy. The fuel is uranium oxide with 90% enrichment. The thermoelectric converter is bonded to the outside of the 1.10 inch ID heat pipe and is 30 inches long. The thermoelectric couple is Si/SiGe-Si/SiC Quantum Well with over 20% efficiency with an 890 K hot side and a 490 K cold side and produces 625 Watts. 176 converters produce 110 kWe. With less than 10% loss in controls this yields 100 kWe for use. The cylindrical thermoelectric converter is designed and fabricated by HIPing to keep brittle materials in compression and to ensure conductivity. The solid core is fabricated by machining the heatpipe tubes with 6 grooves that are diffusion bonded together by HIPing to form the fuel tubes. The maximum temperature of the heat pipes is 940 K and the return flow temperature is 890 K. The reactor core is hexagonal shaped, 61 cm. wide and 76.2 cm high with 12 rotating control drums surrounding it. There is shielding to protect components and human habitation. The radiator is daisy shaped at 45 degrees with each petal 5.5 meters long. The design life is ten years.

  5. Power and efficiency analysis of a realistic resonant tunneling diode thermoelectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Akshay; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran, E-mail: bm@ee.iitb.ac.in [Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-dimensional systems with sharp features in the density of states have been proposed as a means for improving the efficiency of thermoelectric devices. Quantum dot systems, which offer the sharpest density of states achievable, however, suffer from low power outputs while bulk (3-D) thermoelectrics, while displaying high power outputs, offer very low efficiencies. Here, we analyze the use of a resonant tunneling diode structure that combines the best of both aspects, that is, density of states distortion with a finite bandwidth due to confinement that aids the efficiency and a large number of current carrying transverse modes that enhances the total power output. We show that this device can achieve a high power output (?0.3?MW?m{sup 2}) at efficiencies of ?40% of the Carnot efficiency due to the contribution from these transverse momentum states at a finite bandwidth of kT?2. We then provide a detailed analysis of the physics of charge and heat transport with insights on parasitic currents that reduce the efficiency. Finally, a comparison between the resonant tunneling diode and a quantum dot device with comparable bandwidth reveals that a similar performance requires ultra-dense areal quantum dot densities of ?10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}.

  6. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoZZoque C8, supplgment au n08, Tome 42, aoGt 2980, page C8-519 ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND THERMOELECTRIC POWER OF LIQUID Ge-Sb AND Pb-Sb ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESISTIVITY AND THERMOELECTRIC POWER OF LIQUID Ge-Sb AND Pb-Sb ALLOYS A. Bath, J.G. Gasser, J.L. Bretonnet, R Metz, France. Abstract.- The resistivity p and the thermoelectric power S have been measured experimental data on resistivi- ty and thermoelectric power (T.E.P.) for these two systems, and to discuss them

  7. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 5 copies in the file.

  8. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  9. Increasing the thermoelectric figure of merit of tetrahedrites by Co-doping with nickel and zinc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, X; Morelli, DT; Morelli, DT; Xia, Y; Ozolins, V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing  the  Thermoelectric  Figure  of  Merit  of  increase   in   the   thermoelectric   figure   of   merit  coefficient  and  thermoelectric  power  factor;  and  2)  

  10. Thermoelectric power generator module of 1616 Bi2Te3 and 0.6% ErAs:,,InGaAs...1-x,,InAlAs...x segmented elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    Thermoelectric power generator module of 16Ã16 Bi2Te3 and 0.6% ErAs:,,InGaAs...1-x; published online 26 August 2009 We report the fabrication and characterization of thermoelectric power temperature was at 610 K. The thermoelectric properties of InGaAs 1-x InAlAs x were characterized from 300 up

  11. High efficiency radioisotope thermophotovoltaic prototype generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, J.E.; Samaras, J.E.; Fraas, L.M.; Ewell, R. [JX Crystals, Inc., Issaquah, WA (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator space power system (RTPV) is lightweight, low-cost alternative to the present radioisotope thermoelectric generator system (RTG). The fabrication of such an RTPV generator has recently become feasible as the result of the invention of the GaSb infrared sensitive photovoltaic cell. Herein, the authors present the results of a parametric study of emitters and optical filters in conjuction with existing data on gallium antimonide cells. They compare a polished tungsten emitter with an Erbia selective emitter for use in combination with a simple dielectric filter and a gallium antimonide cell array. They find that the polished tungsten emitter is by itself a very selective emitter with low emissivity beyond 4 microns. Given a gallium antimonide cell and a tungsten emitter, a simple dielectric filter can be designed to transmit radiant energy below 1.7 microns and to reflect radiant energy between 1.7 and 4 microns back to the emitter. Because of the low long wavelength emissivity associated with the polished tungsten emitter, this simple dielectric filter then yields very respectable system performance. Also as a result of the longer wavelength fall-off in the tungsten emissivity curve, the radiation energy peak for a polished tungsten emitter operating at 1300 K shifts to shorter wavelengths relative to the blackbody spectrum so that the radiated energy peak falls right at the gallium antimonide cell bandedge. The result is that the response of the gallium antimonide cell is well matched to a polished tungsten emitter. The authors propose, therefore, to fabricate an operating prototype of a near term radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator design consisting of a polished tungsten emitter, standard gallium antimonide cells, and a near-term dielectric filter.

  12. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Radioisotope Power System -- a Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) Science Instruments

  13. Band structure engineering through orbital interaction for enhanced thermoelectric power factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Hong

    Band structure engineering for specific electronic or optical properties is essential for the further development of many important technologies including thermoelectrics, optoelectronics, and microelectronics. In this ...

  14. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented

  15. Magnesium and Manganese Silicides For Efficient And Low Cost Thermo-Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Kutcher, Susan W. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Rosemeier, Cory A. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Mayers, David [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Singh, Jogender [Pennsylvania State University

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric Power Generation (TEPG) is the most efficient and commercially deployable power generation technology for harvesting wasted heat from such things as automobile exhausts, industrial furnaces, and incinerators, and converting it into usable electrical power. We investigated the materials magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and manganese silicide (MnSi) for TEG. MgSi2 and MnSi are environmentally friendly, have constituent elements that are abundant in the earth's crust, non-toxic, lighter and cheaper. In Phase I, we successfully produced Mg2Si and MnSi material with good TE properties. We developed a novel technique to synthesize Mg2Si with good crystalline quality, which is normally very difficult due to high Mg vapor pressure and its corrosive nature. We produced n-type Mg2Si and p-type MnSi nanocomposite pellets using FAST. Measurements of resistivity and voltage under a temperature gradient indicated a Seebeck coefficient of roughly 120 V/K on average per leg, which is quite respectable. Results indicated however, that issues related to bonding resulted in high resistivity contacts. Determining a bonding process and bonding material that can provide ohmic contact from room temperature to the operating temperature is an essential part of successful device fabrication. Work continues in the development of a process for reproducibly obtaining low resistance electrical contacts.

  16. Thermoelectric Generators 1. Thermoelectric generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ho Sung

    1 Thermoelectric Generators HoSung Lee 1. Thermoelectric generator 1.1 Basic Equations In 1821 effects are called the thermoelectric effects. The mechanisms of thermoelectricity were not understood. Cold Hot I - -- - - - - -- Figure 1 Electron concentration in a thermoelectric material. #12;2 A large

  17. Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator and Its Application to the Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Or, Chuen T; Kumar, Vasanth; Summers, G.

    1994-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator. Instead of conducting a generic study, it was decided to focus the design by directing it at a specific space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by JPL, envisages a direct eight-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a one-year post-encounter cruise. Because of Pluto's long distance from the sun (30-50 A.U.) and the mission's large energy demand, JPL has baselined the use of a radioisotope power system for the PFF spacecraft. The chief advantage of Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power systems over current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) is their much higher conversion efficiency, which greatly reduces the mass and cost of the required radioisotope heat source. Those attributes are particularly important for the PFF mission, which - like all NASA missions under current consideration - is severely mass- and cost-limited. The paper describes the design of the radioisotope heat source, the thermophotovoltaic converter, and the heat rejection system; and presents the results of the thermal, electrical, and structural analysis and the design optimization of the integrated RTPV system. It briefly summarizes the RTPV system's current technology status, and lists a number of factors that my greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. Our analytical results show very substantial performance improvements over an RTG designed for the same mission, and suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the PFF mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low-mass generators. There is a duplicate copy.

  18. Robust Design of Advanced Thermoelectric Conversion Systems: Probabilistic Design Impacts on Specific Power and Power Flux Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced, direct thermal energy conversion technologies are receiving increased research attention in order to recover waste thermal energy in advanced vehicles and industrial processes. Advanced thermoelectric (TE) systems necessarily require integrated system-level analyses to establish accurate optimum system designs. Past system-level design and analysis has relied on well-defined deterministic input parameters even though many critically important environmental and system design parameters in the above mentioned applications are often randomly variable, sometimes according to complex relationships, rather than discrete, well-known deterministic variables. This work describes new research and development creating techniques and capabilities for probabilistic design and analysis of advanced TE power generation systems to quantify the effects of randomly uncertain design inputs in determining more robust optimum TE system designs and expected outputs. Selected case studies involving stochastic TE .material properties demonstrate key stochastic material impacts on power, optimum TE area, specific power, and power flux in the TE design optimization process. Magnitudes and directions of these design modifications are quantified for selected TE system design analysis cases

  19. Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric...

  20. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on a OTR truck schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of...

  1. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ace049schock2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of...

  2. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    truck system. schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste...

  3. Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High-Power High-efficiency Waste Heat Recovery for Electricity Generation Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric...

  4. Recent Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery Scale Up...

  5. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by the Application of Advanced Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  6. Review of Interests and Activities in Thermoelectric Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in thermoelectrics include integrated TE-hand-held burners for battery-replacement, waste-heat recovery on vehicles, heat-powered mobile units, and for thermoelectric cooling...

  7. Thermoelectric power factor enhancement with gate-all-around silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtin, Benjamin M., E-mail: bcurtin@ece.ucsb.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Bowers, John E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoelectric properties of gate-all-around silicon nanowires (Si NWs) are calculated to determine the potential for significant power factor enhancement. The Boltzmann transport equation and relaxation time approximation are employed to develop an electron transport model used to determine the field-effect mobility, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor for Si NWs with cross-sectional areas between 4?nm?×?4?nm and 12?nm?×?12?nm and a range of gate biases. Electrical conductivity for the gated Si NWs was much higher than that of doped Si due to the lack of ionized impurities and correspondingly greater carrier mobility. A significant increase in electrical conductivity with decreasing Si NW cross-sectional area was also observed due to a large increase in the average carrier density. For all Si NWs, the Seebeck coefficient was lower than that of doped bulk Si due to the different energy dependence between ionized impurity and phonon-mediated scattering processes. This decrease was also confirmed with Seebeck coefficient measurements of multigated Si NWs and n-type Si thin-films. Quantum confinement was also found to increase the Seebeck coefficient for <8?nm?×?8?nm Si NWs and also at high charge densities. A maximum power factor of 6.8?×?10{sup ?3}?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?2} was calculated for the 6?nm?×?6?nm Si NWs with typical Si/SiO{sub 2} interface roughness, which is 2–3?×?those obtained experimentally for bulk Si. The power factor was also found to greatly depend on surface roughness, with a root-mean-square roughness of <0.8?nm necessary for power factor enhancement. An increase in ZT may also be possible if a low thermal conductivity can be obtained with minimal surface roughness.

  8. New materials and devices for thermoelectric applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Borshchevsky, A.; Caillat, T.; Ewell, R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of new, more efficient materials and devices is the key to expanding the range of application of thermoelectric generators and coolers. In the last couple of years, efforts to discover breakthrough thermoelectric materials have intensified, in particular in the US. Recent results on novel materials have already demonstrated that dimensionless figure of merit ZT values 40 to 50% larger than 1.0, the current limit, could be obtained in the 475 to 950 K temperature range. New terrestrial power generation applications have been recently described in the literature. There exists a wide range of heat source temperatures for these applications, from low grade waste heat, at 325--350 K, up to 850 to 1,100 K, such as in the heat recovery from a processing plant of combustible solid waste. The automobile industry has also recently developed a strong interest in a waste exhaust heat recovery power source operating in the 375--750 K temperature range to supplement or replace the alternator and thus decrease fuel consumption. Based on results achieved to date at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) on novel materials, the performance of an advanced segmented generator design operating in a large 300--945 K temperature gradient is predicted to achieve about 15% conversion efficiency. This would be a very substantial improvement over state-of-the-art (SOA) thermoelectric power converters. Such a terrestrial power generator could be using waste heat or liquid fuels as a heat source. High performance radioisotope generators (RTG) are still of interest for deep space missions but the shift towards small, light spacecraft has developed a need for advanced power sources in the watt to milliwatt range. The powerstick concept would provide a study, compact, lightweight and low cost answer to this need. The development of thin film thermoelectric devices also offer attractive possibilities. The combination of semiconductor technology, thermoelectric films and high thermal conductivity materials could lead to the fabrication of light weight, high voltage devices with high cooling or high electrical power density characteristics. The use of microcoolers for the thermal management of power electronics is of particular interest.

  9. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    multiple-rattler skutterudite thermoelectric materials design, synthesis, fabrication, and characterization for power generation using vehicle exhaust waste heat. subramanian...

  10. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ace067goodson2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Novel...

  11. STUDY OF AGING EFFECTS IN 2205 DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL USING THERMOELECTRIC POWER MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara, N.; Ruiz, A.; Carreon, H.; Medina, A. [NDE Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, UMSNH (Mexico); Sanchez, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, UMSNH (Mexico)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements have been used as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. In the steel industry, some fabrication processes promote phase transformation and second phase precipitations which affect the material properties. Assessment of mechanical properties is critical in order to ensure quality of components. This work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of 2205 duplex stainless steel on TEP values. Commercial 2205 duplex steel was isothermally aged at 650 deg. C 700 deg. C and 900 deg. C at different aging times. TEP measurement technique was applied as a non destructive assessment technique to characterize the aging kinetics of the aged 2205 duplex stainless steel, hardness Rockwell (RC) and Charpy impact test were preformed to observe the effect of aging time on the specimens. Metallographic analysis was used to monitor phase transformation and sigma phase precipitation caused by the spinodal decomposition process of ferrite into secondary austenite and sigma phase. Results indicate that that the TEP is sensitive to gradual microstructural changes produced by the aging treatments.

  12. Thermoelectric energy conversion using nanostructured materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Gang

    High performance thermoelectric materials in a wide range of temperatures are essential to broaden the application spectrum of thermoelectric devices. This paper presents experiments on the power and efficiency characteristics ...

  13. Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from 300K to 800K", International Conference of Thermoelectrics (ICT2007) Jeju Island, South Korea, June4-7 2007. 23. H. Wang, "Thermoelectrics Power Generation: A Review of DOE...

  14. Benefits of Thermoelectric Technology for the Automobile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses improved fuel efficiency and other benefits of automotive application of thermoelectric (power generation and heating/cooling) and the need for production quantities of high-efficiency thermoelectric modules

  15. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and with the local political organizations that can influence decisions regarding the use of the alternative source. Often a plan to use reclaimed water will work only if local politics and power plant goals converge. Even then, lengthy negotiations are often needed for the plans to come to fruition. (3) Regulatory requirements for planning and developing associated infrastructure such as pipelines, storage facilities, and back-up supplies that can require numerous approvals, permits, and public participation, all of which can create delays and increased costs. (4) Permitting requirements that may be difficult to meet, such as load-based discharge limits for wastewater or air emissions limitations for particulate matter (which will be in the mist of cooling towers that use reclaimed water high in dissolved solids). (5) Finding discharge options for cooling tower blowdown of reclaimed water that are acceptable to permitting authorities. Constituents in this wastewater can limit options for discharge. For example, discharge to rivers requires National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits whose limits may be difficult to meet, and underground injection can be limited because many potential injection sites have already been claimed for disposal of produced waters from oil and gas wells or waters associated with gas shale extraction. (6) Potential liabilities associated with using alternative sources. A power plant can be liable for damages associated with leaks from reclaimed water conveyance systems or storage areas, or with mine water that has been contaminated by unscrupulous drillers that is subsequently discharged by the power plant. (7) Community concerns that include, but are not limited to, increased saltwater drift on farmers fields; the possibility that the reclaimed water will contaminate local drinking water aquifers; determining the 'best' use of WWTP effluent; and potential health concerns associated with emissions from the cooling towers that use recycled water. (8) Interveners that raise public concerns about the potential for emissions of emergi

  16. Thermoelectric power source utilizing ambient energy harvesting for remote sensing and transmitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSteese, John G

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for providing electrical energy to an electrical device wherein the electrical energy is originally generated from temperature differences in an environment having a first and a second temperature region. A thermoelectric device having a first side and a second side wherein the first side is in communication with a means for transmitting ambient thermal energy collected or rejected in the first temperature region and the second side is in communication with the second temperature region thereby producing a temperature gradient across the thermoelectric device and in turn generating an electrical current.

  17. The enhancement of thermoelectric power and scattering of carriers in Bi{sub 2{minus}x}Sn{sub x}Te{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulbachinskii, V.A.; Negishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Giman, Y.; Inoue, M.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric power, electrical resistivity, and Hall effect of p-type Bi{sub 2{minus}x}Sn{sub x}Te{sub 3} (0 < x < 0.03) singlecrystals have been measured in the temperature range 4.2--300K. By doping of Sn atoms into the host Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} lattice, the enhancement in the thermoelectric power is observed in the intermediate temperature range 30--150K for x {le} 0,0075. The activation type behavior of Hall coefficient and resistivity are found which corresponds to the Sn-induced impurity band located above the second lower valence band.

  18. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

  19. Interface Driven Energy Filtering of Thermoelectric Power in Spark Plasma Sintered Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 Nanoplatelet Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Qihua

    Interface Driven Energy Filtering of Thermoelectric Power in Spark Plasma Sintered Bi2Te2.7Se0 of the thermodynamic environment during spark plasma sintering (SPS) on the TE performance of bulk figure of merit, Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 nanoplatelet composites, spark plasma sintering, interfaces, grain

  20. Thermoelectric-power water withdrawals by cooling type, 2005. [Values may not sum to totals because of independent rounding. All values are in million gallons per day

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric-power water withdrawals by cooling type, 2005. [Values may not sum to totals because,190 5,850 .33 .01 0 273 273 New Mexico.............. 0 0 0 0 0 10.4 0 45.5 0 55.9 New York

  1. White Paper for U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force: Waste Heat Recovery with Thermoelectric and Lithium-Ion Hybrid Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    By harvesting waste heat from engine exhaust and storing it in light-weight high-capacity modules, it is believed that the need for energy transport by convoys can be lowered significantly. By storing this power during operation, substantial electrical power can be provided during long periods of silent operation, while the engines are not operating. It is proposed to investigate the potential of installing efficient thermoelectric generators on the exhaust systems of trucks and other vehicles to generate electrical power from the waste heat contained in the exhaust and to store that power in advanced power packs comprised of polymer-gel lithium ion batteries. Efficient inexpensive methods for production of the thermoelectric generator are also proposed. The technology that exists at LLNL, as well as that which exists at industrial partners, all have high technology readiness level (TRL). Work is needed for integration and deployment.

  2. Thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kortier, William E. (Columbus, OH); Mueller, John J. (Columbus, OH); Eggers, Philip E. (Columbus, OH)

    1980-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  3. QUANTUM WELLS THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghamaty, Saeid

    2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric materials are utilized for power generation in remote locations, on spacecraft used for interplanetary exploration, and in places where waste heat can be recovered.

  4. Scalable Routes to Efficient Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feser, Joseph Patrick

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power, and recovering waste heat with thermoelectricexcellent fit for both waste-heat harvesting and high powerpush for thermoelectric waste heat recovery applications.

  5. Modeling the thermoelectric properties of bulk and nanocomposite thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnich, Austin (Austin Jerome)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric materials are materials which are capable of converting heat directly into electricity. They have long been used in specialized fields where high reliability is needed, such as space power generation. Recently, ...

  6. NASA's Planetary Science Program Support of Radioisotope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    500 1000 1500 2000 MMRTG ASRG Total Thermal Power Waste Heat Electric power = 1 GPHS block 7 #12NASA's Planetary Science Program Support of Radioisotope Power Capability James L. Green, Director timeline · ASRG and MMRTG systems and plans · DoE Infrastructure Review · Summary 2 #12;Over 50 years

  7. Enhanced Thermoelectric Power and Electronic Correlations in RuSe2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Kefeng [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Dept.; Wang, Aifeng [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Dept.; Tomic, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Dept.; Wang, Limin [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Dept.; Abeykoon, A.M. Milinda [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Directorate; Dooryhee, E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Directorate; Billinge, S. J.L. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Dept.; Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Petrovic, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Dept.

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the electronic structure, electric and thermal transport properties of Ru1-xIrxSe2 (x ? 0:2). RuSe2 is a semiconductor that crystallizes in a cubic pyrite unit cell. The Seebeck coefficient of RuSe2 exceeds -200 ?#22;V/K around 730 K. Ir substitution results in the suppression of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient, suggesting the removal of the peaks in density of states near the Fermi level. Ru0.8Ir0.2Se2 shows a semiconductor-metal crossover at about 30 K. The magnetic field restores the semiconducting behavior. Our results indicate the importance of the electronic correlations in enhanced thermoelectricity of RuSb2.

  8. Supplemental information for a notice of construction for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This ''Notice of Construction'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 402-80-070, for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State (Figure 1). The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS) the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) will be located in one facility, the Fuels and materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post- irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, to the extent possible, these systems will be dealt with separately. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  9. Application for approval for construction of the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following ''Application for Approval of Construction'' is being submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office, pursuant to 40 CFR 61.07, for three new sources of airborne radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were canceled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies to be used in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building and stack and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex. 2 refs., 16 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Prevention of significant deterioration permit application for the Fueled Clad Fabrication System, the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility, and the Fuel Assembly Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This New Source Review'' has been submitted by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (PO Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352), pursuant to WAC 173-403-050 and in compliance with the Department of Ecology Guide to Processing A Prevention Of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit'' for three new sources of radionuclide emissions at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The three new sources, the Fueled Clad Fabrication System (FCFS), the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF), and the Fuel Assembly Area (FAA), will be located in one facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) of the 400 Area. The FMEF was originally designed to provide for post-irradiation examination and fabrication of breeder reactor fuels. These FMEF missions were cancelled before the introduction of any fuel materials or any irradiated material. The current plans are to use the facility to fabricate power supplies for use in space applications and to produce Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will produce materials and assemblies for application in space. The FAA project will produce FFTF fuel and target assemblies. The FCFS and the RPSF will share the same building, stack, and, in certain cases, the same floor space. Given this relationship, these systems will be dealt with separately to the extent possible. The FAA is a comparatively independent operation though it will share the FMEF complex.

  11. NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery NSFDOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Development for commercialization of...

  12. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  13. Analysis, Optimization, and Assessment of Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic System Design for an Illustrative Space Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Summers, G.

    1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPV's are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that - when fully developed - they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source's mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system's specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV's current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g. RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 degrees C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low mass generators. Another copy is in the Energy Systems files.

  14. Analysis, optimization, and assessment of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic system design for an illustrative space mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A.; Mukunda, M.; Or, C.; Summers, G. [Fairchild Space and Defense Corporation, Germantown, Maryland 20874 (United States)

    1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPVs are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that---when fully developed---they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source`s mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system`s specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV`s current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g., RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 {degree}C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low-mass generators. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. Modeling of solar thermal selective surfaces and thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEnaney, Kenneth

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric generator is a solid-state device that converts a heat flux into electrical power via the Seebeck effect. When a thermoelectric generator is inserted between a solar-absorbing surface and a heat sink, a ...

  16. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    be 500 oC deer09schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of...

  17. Thermoelectric system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiners, Eric A. (Washington, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL); Fei, Dong (Peoria, IL); McGilvray, Andrew N. (East Peoria, IL)

    2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In one particular embodiment, an internal combustion engine is provided. The engine comprises a block, a head, a piston, a combustion chamber defined by the block, the piston, and the head, and at least one thermoelectric device positioned between the combustion chamber and the head. In this particular embodiment, the thermoelectric device is in direct contact with the combustion chamber. In another particular embodiment, a cylinder head configured to sit atop a cylinder bank of an internal combustion engine is provided. The cylinder head comprises a cooling channel configured to receive cooling fluid, valve seats configured for receiving intake and exhaust valves, and thermoelectric devices positioned around the valve seats.

  18. Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Testing and Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has completed an Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Test. Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site. Based on the analysis in the environmental assessment, the Department has determined that the proposed action, the relocation of the Department's heat source and radioisotope power system operations, does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  19. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bass, John C. (6121 La Pintra Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037)

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

  20. Thermoelectrics run hot and cold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tritt, T.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectricity, or the Seebeck effect, is the physical phenomenon used in thermocouples for temperature measurement. Over the past 2-3 years there has been renewed interest in the field for use in electronic refrigeration or power generation. This article summarizes information on new materials and new concepts for materials with some possibilities of higher performance than existing materials. Thermoelectric energy conversion utilizes the heat generated when an electric current is passed through a thermoelectric material to provide a temperature gradient. Advantages of thermoelectric solid state energy conversion are compactness, quietness, and localized heating or cooling. Possible automotive uses range from power generation to seat coolers. One group of materials receiving a lot of attention is the skutterudite materials. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program...

  2. An experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of thermoelectric power of two samples from 77 K to 500 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, T. S.; Bala, M.; Asokan, K. [Materials Science Division, IUAC, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on an experimental setup for the simultaneous measurement of the thermoelectric power (TEP) of two samples in the temperature range from 77 K to 500 K using optimum electronic instruments. The setup consists of two rectangular copper bars in a bridge arrangement for sample mounting, two surface mount (SM) chip resistors for creating alternate temperature gradient, and a type E thermocouple in differential geometry for gradient temperature (?T) measurement across the samples. In addition, a diode arrangement has been made for the alternate heating of SM resistors using only one DC current source. The measurement accuracy of ?T increases with the differential thermocouple arrangement. For the calibration of the setup, measurements of TEP on a high purity (99.99%) platinum wire and type K thermocouple wires Chromel and Alumel have been performed from 77 K to 500 K with respect to copper lead wires. Additionally, this setup can be utilized to calibrate an unknown sample against a sample of known absolute TEP.

  3. An air-breathing, portable thermoelectric power generator based on a microfabricated silicon combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marton, Christopher Henry

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The global consumer demand for portable electronic devices is increasing. The emphasis on reducing size and weight has put increased pressure on the power density of available power storage and generation options, which ...

  4. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  5. Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown disposal. Membrane treatment (nanofiltration or reverse osmosis) can be employed to reduce TDS and sulfate concentrations to acceptable levels for reuse of the blowdown in the cooling systems as makeup water.

  6. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondarytreated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  7. Critical Behavior of the Thermoelectric Transport Properties in Amorphous Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemnitz, Technische Universität

    Critical Behavior of the Thermoelectric Transport Properties in Amorphous Systems near the Metal., London SW7 2BZ, U.K. Abstract The scaling behavior of the thermoelectric trans- port properties;, the thermoelectric power S, the thermal conductivity K and the Lorenz number L0 obey scaling. The scaling description

  8. Photo-Thermoelectric Effect at a Graphene Interface Junction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEuen, Paul L.

    Photo-Thermoelectric Effect at a Graphene Interface Junction Xiaodong Xu, Nathaniel M. Gabor increase at the cryogenic temperature as compared to room temperature. Assuming the thermoelectric power predictions. KEYWORDS Graphene, photocurrent, photo-thermoelectric effect D evices that convert photons

  9. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 199:11 (6pp), 2012 March doi:10.1088/0067-0049/199/1/11 C 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neptune encounter. Due to declining power from the radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) which

  10. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Low-dimensional thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Steve

    be used in practical devices for cooling and for electrical power generation.1 This early work led as a thermoelectric material was discovered by H. J. Goldsmid and coworkers in the U.K.,2 and this material system- tivity in the field of thermoelectricity has been greatly re- duced, and only modest progress was made

  11. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  12. High temperature thermoelectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moczygemba, Joshua E.; Biershcenk, James L.; Sharp, Jeffrey W.

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with one embodiment of the present disclosure, a thermoelectric device includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements that each include a diffusion barrier. The diffusion barrier includes a refractory metal. The thermoelectric device also includes a plurality of conductors coupled to the plurality of thermoelectric elements. The plurality of conductors include aluminum. In addition, the thermoelectric device includes at least one plate coupled to the plurality of thermoelectric elements using a braze. The braze includes aluminum.

  13. NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership: High-Performance Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery NSFDOE Thermoelectric Partnership: High-Performance Thermoelectric...

  14. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maryland. merit08schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Efficiency Improvement in an...

  15. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2006deerschock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Development of Thermoelectric...

  16. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

  17. Heat Transfer in Thermoelectric Materials and Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Zhiting

    Solid-state thermoelectric devices are currently used in applications ranging from thermocouple sensors to power generators in space missions, to portable air-conditioners and refrigerators. With the ever-rising demand ...

  18. Modeling of concentrating solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng

    The conversion of solar power into electricity is dominated by non-concentrating photovoltaics and concentrating solar thermal systems. Recently, it has been shown that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are a viable ...

  19. Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

  20. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: Application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abadlia, L.; Mayoufi, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux Inorganiques, Université Badji-Mokhtar Annaba, BP12, 23000 Annaba (Algeria); Gasser, F.; Khalouk, K.; Gasser, J. G., E-mail: jean-georges.gasser@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique - Approche Multi-échelle des Milieux Complexes (LCP-A2MC) Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux, Université de Lorraine, 1 Boulevard Arago - 57078 Metz cedex 3 (France)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  1. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG) Design and Development, Part A-E. Original was presented at 1983 Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A.

    1983-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing 24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Detailed analysis indicates that the present generation of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There is a duplicate copy of this document. OSTI has a copy of this paper.

  2. A 5 MW TRIGA reactor design for radioisotope production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veca, Anthony R.; Whittemore, William L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production and preparation of commercial-scale quantities of radioisotopes has become an important activity as their medical and industrial applications continue to expand. There are currently various large multipurpose research reactors capable of producing ample quantities of radioisotopes. These facilities, however, have many competing demands placed upon them by a wide variety of researchers and scientific programs which severely limit their radioisotope production capability. A demonstrated need has developed for a simpler reactor facility dedicated to the production of radioisotopes on a commercial basis. This smaller, dedicated reactor could provide continuous fission and activation product radioisotopes to meet commercial requirements for the foreseeable future. The design of a 5 MW TRIGA reactor facility, upgradeable to 10 MW, dedicated to the production of industrial and medical radioisotopes is discussed. A TRIGA reactor designed specifically for this purpose with its demonstrated long core life and simplicity of operation would translate into increased radioisotope production. As an example, a single TRIGA could supply the entire US needs for Mo-99. The facility is based on the experience gained by General Atomics in the design, installation, and construction of over 60 other TRIGAs over the past 35 years. The unique uranium-zirconium hydride fuel makes TRIGA reactors inexpensive to build and operate, reliable in their simplicity, highly flexible due to unique passive safety, and environmentally friendly because of minimal power requirements and long-lived fuel. (author)

  3. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this MIT project, funded by SunShot, for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012.

  4. Thermoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems:

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    -DRAFT - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - DRAFT Thermoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems: 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Thermoelectric Generation ......

  5. Energy-Harvesting Thermoelectric Sensing for Unobtrusive Water and Appliance Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabal

    Energy-Harvesting Thermoelectric Sensing for Unobtrusive Water and Appliance Metering Bradford that meters using the same thermoelectric generator with which it powers itself. In short, the rate at which be harvested with a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to power a sensor node. TEGs utilize the Seebeck effect

  6. Scalable Routes to Efficient Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feser, Joseph Patrick

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermoelectric materials consisting of epitaxially-grownefficient thermoelectric materials," Nature, vol. 451, pp.superlattice thermoelectric materials and devices," Science,

  7. Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for...

  8. Review of Interests and Activities in Thermoelectric Materials and Devices at the Army Research Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Army interests in thermoelectrics include integrated TE-hand-held burners for battery-replacement, waste-heat recovery on vehicles, heat-powered mobile units, and for thermoelectric cooling of high-performance infrared systems for surveillance

  9. Thermo-electrically pumped semiconductor light emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Parthiban

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermo-electric heat exchange in semiconductor light emitting diodes (LEDs) allows these devices to emit optical power in excess of the electrical power used to drive them, with the remaining power drawn from ambient heat. ...

  10. Thermoelectric power of Bi and Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} alloy thin films and superlattices grown by MBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, S.; DiVenere, A.; Wong, G.K.; Ketterson, J.B.; Meyer, J.R.; Hoffman, C.A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have measured the thermoelectric power (TEP) of MBE-grown epitaxial Bi and Bi{sub 1{minus}x} alloy thin films and superlattices as a function of temperature in the range 20--300 K. They have observed that the TEP of a Bi thin film of 1 {micro}m thickness is in good agreement with the bulk single crystal value and that the TEPs for superlattices with 400 {angstrom} and 800 {angstrom} Bi well thicknesses are enhanced over the bulk values. For x = 0.072 and 0.088 in Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} thin films showing semiconducting behavior, TEP enhancement was observed by a factor of two. However as Bi or Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} well thickness decreases in superlattice geometry, the TEP decreases, which may be due to unintentional p-type doping.

  11. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator F7 Flight Unit Acceptance Buy Off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1997-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    These are viewgraphs from the subject presentation. The LMMS E-7 history is outlined; Qualification and use of the F-7 GPHS-RTG for the Cassini mission; and the F-7 acceptance test program and performance are described.

  12. Potential improvements in SiGe radioisotope thermoelectric generator performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mowery, A.L. [4 Myrtle Bank Lane, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, 29926-2650 (United States)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with NASA{close_quote}s slogan: {open_quotes}Better, Cheaper, Faster,{close_quotes} this paper will address potential improvements to SiGe RTG technology to make them Better. RTGs are doubtless cheaper than {open_quotes}paper designs{close_quotes} which are better and cheaper until development, performance and safety test costs are considered. RTGs have the advantage of being fully developed and tested in the rigors of space for over twenty years. Further, unless a new system can be accelerated tested, as were the RTGs, they cannot be deployed reliably unless a number of systems have succeeded for test periods exceeding the mission lifetime. Two potential developments are discussed that can improve the basic RTG performance by 10 to 40{sup +}{percent} depending on the mission profile. These improvements could be demonstrated in years. Accelerated testing could also be performed in this period to preserve existing RTG reliability. Data from a qualification tested RTG will be displayed, while not definitive, to support the conclusions. Finally, it is anticipated that other investigators will be encouraged to suggest further modifications to the basic RTG design to improve its performance. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Modular Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the MOD-RTG reference flight design, and Section 3.0 discusses the Ground Demonstration System design. Multicouple technology development is discussed in Section 4.0, and Section 5.0 lists all published technical papers prepared during the course of the contract.

  14. Thermal Energy Harvesting with Thermoelectrics for Self-powered Sensors: With Applications to Implantable Medical Devices, Body Sensor Networks and Aging in Place

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Alic

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market for MEMS and micro-scale thermoelectric heating andheating and cooling mattress called the YuMe Climate Control Bed, albeit for the luxury mattress market [

  15. NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development for commercialization of automotive thermoelectric generators from high-ZT TE materials with using low-cost, widely available materials, system design and modeling to maximize temperature differential across TE modules and maximize power output

  16. Thermoelectric Temperature Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    NOTE 201TM TECHNICAL Optimizing Thermoelectric Temperature Control Systems #12;2 May 1995 92-040000A © 1995 Wavelength Electronics, Inc. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs) are used in a variety understanding of thermal management techniques and carefully select the thermoelectric module, temperature

  17. Thermoelectric Rotating Torus for Fusion A. B. Hassam and Yi-Min Huang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassam, Adil

    Thermoelectric Rotating Torus for Fusion A. B. Hassam and Yi-Min Huang Institute for Plasma power maintains the rotation and also heats the plasma. The thermoelectric effect from the resultingRevLett.91.195002 PACS numbers: 52.58.­c, 52.30.­q, 52.55.­s In magnetized plasma, thermoelectric currents

  18. Thermoelectric figure of merit calculations for semiconducting nanowires Jane E. Cornett1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Thermoelectric figure of merit calculations for semiconducting nanowires Jane E. Cornett1 and Oded 2011 A model for the thermoelectric properties of nanowires was used to demonstrate the contrasting influences of quantization and degeneracy on the thermoelectric power factor. The prevailing notion

  19. Large thermoelectric figure of merit in Si1-xGex nanowires Lihong Shi,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baowen

    Large thermoelectric figure of merit in Si1-xGex nanowires Lihong Shi,1 Donglai Yao,1 Gang Zhang,2 transport equation, we investigate composition effects on the thermoelectric properties of silicon thermoelectric figure of merit ZT Refs. 1­4 due to both enhancement in the power factor through increasing

  20. www.ceramics.org | American Ceramic Society Bulletin, Vol. 91, No. 334 thermoelectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    www.ceramics.org | American Ceramic Society Bulletin, Vol. 91, No. 334 Modeling thermoelectric. Thermoelectric devices have the advantage of containing no moving parts, making them quiet, durable and reliable that thermoelectric devic- es can compete with traditional refrigeration and power generation technologies.1

  1. Thermoelectric and Magnetothermoelectric Transport Measurements of Graphene Yuri M. Zuev,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Philip

    Thermoelectric and Magnetothermoelectric Transport Measurements of Graphene Yuri M. Zuev,1 Willy, USA (Received 7 December 2008; published 6 March 2009) The conductance and thermoelectric power (TEP of thermal and thermoelectric prop- erties of this two-dimensional material [2­8], only an indirect

  2. Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Presentation given at the 16th...

  3. New nano structure approaches for bulk thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jeonghoon

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for efficient solid state cooling and power generation, has1,2]. Such solid- state refrigeration and power generationpower by using solar energy [2]. Thermoelectric devices can also serve as a solid

  4. Efficiency Improvement in an Over the Road Diesel Powered Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    deer08schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste...

  5. Thermoelectric Behavior of Flexible Organic Nanocomposites with Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyung Who

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    with ~100 S/m of electrical conductivity, resulting ~10,000 µW/m-K2 of power factor. The result of this study shows that organic thermoelectric materials would be a promising approach for thermoelectric applications with light-weight and non-toxic nature....

  6. The role of boron segregation in enhanced thermoelectric power factor of CoSi1-xBx alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Hui [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Morelli, Donald [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the in uence of boron segregation on the thermoelectric properties of CoSi. Contrary to previous suggestions, and in stark contrast to aluminum substitution, boron does not enter the lattice on the Si site, but rather segregates to the grain boundaries in these alloys. Through a combination of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and scanning Auger techniques, we present clear evidence of the formation of a CoB phase at the grain boundaries. Consistent with the failure of B to substitute for Si, we observe no changes in the electron concentration or the Seebeck coef cient under boron substitution. The electrical resistivity, on the other hand, displays a non-monotonic behavior with increasing boron concentration, rst decreasing for small amounts of boron, before increasing at higher levels of substitution. We attribute this behavior to a combination of an initial healing effect of boron on microcracks, followed by the eventual increase in electron scattering by the secondary CoB phase at higher concentrations.

  7. Thermoelectric materials having porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

  8. Thermal Energy Harvesting with Thermoelectrics for Self-powered Sensors: With Applications to Implantable Medical Devices, Body Sensor Networks and Aging in Place

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Alic

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13! 1.4.2.3. Design of Wearable TEG’thermoelectric materials for TEGs can be utilized for low-14], [15]. 5. While the TEG shown in this work demonstrates

  9. Thermoelectric cooling container for medical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aivazov, A.A.; Shtern, Y.I.; Budaguan, B.G.; Makhrachev, K.B.; Pastor, M.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work the thermoelectric cooling container for storing and transportation of the medicine, particularly for insulin, is discussed. In the working volume the temperature is supported on the level of +4 C. The container can work in two operating conditions: with the power supply and without the power supply. Two removable blocks are used for this purpose. One block (thermoelectric) is used for the work with the power supply and another (passive)-for the work without power supply. The thermoelectric block has a 12V power supply, which is used in the automobiles, yachts and other kinds of transport. The temperature in the working volume is supported by the use of the Peltier effect. An electronic device is used in this block and stabilizes temperature on the level of +4 C and indicates information about working conditions. The thermoelectric container has a power supply block for work at 220(110)V. The working temperature in the container can be maintained in the absence of the power supply. In this case the necessary temperature conditions are supported by melting of the crystallized salt. For this purpose the container has a hermetic volume containing this salt and contacting with the working volume.

  10. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  11. Rare earth thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is presented of the thermoelectric properties of rare earth compounds: A discussion is presented of the prospects for future improvements in the figure of merit.

  12. Vehicular Thermoelectric Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modules Available Energy in Engine Exhaust BMW Series 5 , Model Year 2011, 3.0 Liter Gasoline Engine w Thermoelectric Generator Funding Opportunity Announcement...

  13. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiencies of different types of solar thermoelectric generators were predicted using theoretical modeling and validated with measurements using constructed prototypes under different solar intensities

  14. Vehicular Applications of Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    gas. Thermoelectric Element at Toshiba Material Nov. 2007 Shuichi Hase Sango Co. Ltd. Heat-Recovery for ICE Automobiles and Thermal Electric Generation Komatsu Diesel Engine with...

  15. NASA Reference Publication 1036 ALSEP Termination Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ..................... Dust Detector ...................... Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator .......... EASEPPassive

  16. Method of operating a thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.

  17. Characterizing the thermal efficiency of thermoelectric modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Samuel S

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental setup was designed and utilized to measure the thermoelectric properties as functions of temperature of a commercially available, bismuth telluride thermoelectric module. Thermoelectric modules are solid ...

  18. Scalable Routes to Efficient Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feser, Joseph Patrick

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. D. Yang, "Enhanced thermoelectric performance of roughHigh efficiency thermoelectric materials consisting ofG. Chen, and Z. F. Ren, "High-thermoelectric performance of

  19. Holey Silicon as an Efficient Thermoelectric Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Jinyao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon as Efficient Thermoelectric Material Jinyao Tang 1,This work investigated the thermoelectric properties of thinat room temperature, the thermoelectric performance of HS is

  20. Determination of Thermoelectric Module Efficiency A Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; McCarty, Robin [Marlow Industries, Inc; Salvador, James R. [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Yamamoto, Atsushi [AIST, Japan; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of thermoelectrics (TE) for energy conversion is in the transition phase from laboratory research to device development. There is an increasing demand to accurately determine the module efficiency, especially for the power generation mode. For many thermoelectrics, the figure of merit, ZT, of the material sometimes cannot be fully realized at the device level. Reliable efficiency testing of thermoelectric modules is important to assess the device ZT and provide the end-users with realistic values on how much power can be generated under specific conditions. We conducted a general survey of efficiency testing devices and their performance. The results indicated the lack of industry standards and test procedures. This study included a commercial test system and several laboratory systems. Most systems are based on the heat flow meter method and some are based on the Harman method. They are usually reproducible in evaluating thermoelectric modules. However, cross-checking among different systems often showed large errors that are likely caused by unaccounted heat loss and thermal resistance. Efficiency testing is an important area for the thermoelectric community to focus on. A follow-up international standardization effort is planned.

  1. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

  2. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  3. Thermoelectric Properties of Scaled Silicon Nanowires Using the s*-SO Atomistic Tight-Binding Model and Boltzmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Thermoelectric Properties of Scaled Silicon Nanowires Using the sp3 d5 s*-SO Atomistic Tight|kosina}@iue.tuwien.ac.at Abstract As a result of suppressed phonon conduction, large improvements of the thermoelectric figure, the Seebeck coefficient, and the thermoelectric power factor. We examine n-type nanowires of diameters of 3nm

  4. Thermoelectric devices and applications for the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSteese, John G [Kennewick, WA; Olsen, Larry C [Richland, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance thin film thermoelectric couples and methods of making the same are disclosed. Such couples allow fabrication of at least microwatt to watt-level power supply devices operating at voltages greater than one volt even when activated by only small temperature differences.

  5. Trends in Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals with Designed Nanoarchitecture Trends in Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals with Designed...

  6. Ferecrystals: Thermoelectric Materials Poised Between the Crystalline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ferecrystals: Thermoelectric Materials Poised Between the Crystalline and Amorphous States Ferecrystals: Thermoelectric Materials Poised Between the Crystalline and Amorphous...

  7. Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications Design and optimization of TE exhaust generator,...

  8. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Skutterudite TE modules were...

  9. Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application...

  10. Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator and Its Applicability to an Illustrative Space Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A.; Mukunda, M.; Or, T.; Kumar, V.; Summers, G.

    1994-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator (RTPV), to complement similar studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and Stirling Generators (RSGs) previously published by the author. Instead of conducting a generic study, it was decided to focus the design effort by directing it at a specific illustrative space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by JPL, envisages a direct eight-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a post-encounter cruise lasting up to one year.

  11. The thermoelectric process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vining, C.B.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of thermoelectric technology today is limited by the properties of available thermoelectric materials and a wide variety of new approaches to developing better materials have recently been suggested. The key goal is to find a material with a large ZT, the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit. However, if an analogy is drawn between thermoelectric technology and gas-cycle engines then selecting different materials for the thermoelements is analogous to selecting a different working gas for the mechanical engine. And an attempt to improve ZT is analogous to an attempt to improve certain thermodynamic properties of the working-gas. An alternative approach is to focus on the thermoelectric process itself (rather than on ZT), which is analogous to considering alternate cycles such as Stirling vs. Brayton vs. Rankine etc., rather than merely considering alternative gases. Focusing on the process is a radically different approach compared to previous studies focusing on ZT. Aspects of the thermoelectric process and alternative approaches to efficient thermoelectric conversion are discussed.

  12. Proposed strontium radiosotope thermoelectric generator fuel encapsulation facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E. (Westinghouse Hanford Company, P.O. Box 1970, Mail Stop N1-42, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States))

    1993-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed Fuel Encapsulation Facility is a fully equipped facility for processing and encapsulating strontium Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) fuel from presently available Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) capsules. The facility location is on the second building level below ground of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), Cells 142, 143, and 145. Capsules containing strontium fluoride (SrF[sub 2]) would be received from the WESF in Cell 145 and transferred to the three adjacent cells for processing and encapsulation into the final RTG fuel configuration.

  13. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schenter, R.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  14. Improved Performance of an Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) Using SPX Wind Guide Technology at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project added a new airflow enhancement technology to an existing ACC cooling process at a selected coal power plant. Airflow parameters and efficiency improvement for the main plant cooling process using the applied technology were determined and compared with the capabilities of existing systems. The project required significant planning and pre-test execution in order to reach the required Air Cooled Condenser system configuration for evaluation. A host Power Plant ACC system had to be identified, agreement finalized, and addition of the SPX ACC Wind Guide Technology completed on that site. Design of the modification, along with procurement, fabrication, instrumentation, and installation of the new airflow enhancement technology were executed. Baseline and post-modification cooling system data was collected and evaluated. The improvement of ACC thermal performance after SPX wind guide installation was clear. Testing of the improvement indicates there is a 5% improvement in heat transfer coefficient in high wind conditions and 1% improvement at low wind speed. The benefit increased with increasing wind speed. This project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  15. Catalytic converter with thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique design of an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) and the inclusion of an ECO valve in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine will meet the strict new emission requirements, especially at vehicle cold start, adopted by several states in this country as well as in Europe and Japan. The catalytic converter (CC) has been a most useful tool in pollution abatement for the automobile. But the emission requirements are becoming more stringent and, along with other improvements, the CC must be improved to meet these new standards. Coupled with the ECO valve, the EHC can meet these new emission limits. In an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV), approximately 80% of the energy consumed leaves the vehicle as waste heat: out the tail pipe, through the radiator, or convected/radiated off the engine. Included with the waste heat out the tail pipe are the products of combustion which must meet strict emission requirements. The design of a new CC is presented here. This is an automobile CC that has the capability of producing electrical power and reducing the quantity of emissions at vehicle cold start, the Thermoelectric Catalytic Power Generator. The CC utilizes the energy of the exothermic reactions that take place in the catalysis substrate to produce electrical energy with a thermoelectric generator. On vehicle cold start, the thermoelectric generator is used as a heat pump to heat the catalyst substrate to reduce the time to catalyst light-off. Thus an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) will be used to augment the abatement of tail pipe emissions. Included with the EHC in the exhaust stream of the automobile is the ECO valve. This valve restricts the flow of pollutants out the tail pipe of the vehicle for a specified amount of time until the EHC comes up to operating temperature. Then the ECO valve opens and allows the full exhaust, now treated by the EHC, to leave the vehicle.

  16. Bipolar thermoelectric devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pipe, Kevin P. (Kevin Patrick), 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work presented here is a theoretical and experimental study of heat production and transport in bipolar electrical devices, with detailed treatment of thermoelectric effects. Both homojunction and heterojunction devices ...

  17. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SOLID-STATE SOLAR-THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION CENTER NanoEngineering Group Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Gang Chen, 1 Daniel Kraemer, 1 Bed Poudel, 2 Hsien-Ping Feng, 1 J....

  18. Solar Thermoelectrics Mercouri Kanatzidis,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    Solar Thermoelectrics Mercouri Kanatzidis, Materials Science Division December 15, 2009 #12;2 Heat #12;13 What is the dot made of? Cook, Kramer #12;14 Nanostructures reduce the lattice thermal

  19. Thermoelectric transport in superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinecke, T.L.; Broido, D.A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoelectric transport properties of superlattices have been studied using an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation. The role of heat transport along the barrier layers, of carrier tunneling through the barriers, of valley degeneracy and of the well width and energy dependences of the carrier-phonon scattering rates on the thermoelectric figure of merit are given. Calculations are given for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and for PbTe, and the results of recent experiments are discussed.

  20. ORNL's medical radioisotope project sees centennial campaign...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    actinium-225 processing, which provides radioisotopes for medical uses that include cancer treatment. Actinium-225 is a source for bismuth-213, a short-lived, alpha-emitting...

  1. Searching for new thermoelectrics in chemically and structurally complex bismuth chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, D.Y.; Hogan, T.; Schindler, J.; Iordanidis, L.; Brazis, P.; Kannewurf, C.R.; Chen, B.; Uher, C.; Kanatzidis, M.G.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state chemistry synthetic approach towards identifying new materials with potentially superior thermoelectric properties is presented. Materials with complex compositions and structures also have complex electronic structures which may give rise to high thermoelectric powers and at the same time possess low thermal conductivities. The structures and thermoelectric properties of several new promising compounds with K-Bi-Se, K-Bi-S, Ba-Bi-Te, Cs-Bi-Te, and Rb-bi-Te are reported.

  2. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  3. Calculation of Nonlinear Thermoelectric Coefficients of InAs1xSbx Using Monte Carlo Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and increase the cooling power density when a lightly doped thermoelectric material is under a large electricalAs. In this work we report simulation results on the nonlinear Peltier power of InAs1ÀxSbx at low doping levels, at room temper- ature and at low temperatures. The thermoelectric power factor in nonlinear operation

  4. Withdrawal from Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Withdrawal from Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope Germanium-68 Used for Calibration Sources Withdrawal from Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope...

  5. Engineering Nanomaterials towards Energy Harvesting and Virological Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weng, Ding

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as radioisotope thermoelectric generators, extremely longsuch as radioisotope thermoelectric generators which are

  6. Zintl Phases as Thermoelectric Materials: Tuned Transport Properties of the Compounds CaxYb1xZn2Sb2**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zintl Phases as Thermoelectric Materials: Tuned Transport Properties of the Compounds CaxYb1±xZn2Sb. Introduction Because of their ability to convert waste heat into electricity, thermoelectric materials have in efficiency, thermoelectric materials could pro- vide a substantial amount of electrical power from automotive

  7. The thermoelectric properties of Ge/SiGe modulation doped superlattices A. Samarelli, L. Ferre Llin, S. Cecchi, J. Frigerio, T. Etzelstorfer et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hague, Jim

    The thermoelectric properties of Ge/SiGe modulation doped superlattices A. Samarelli, L. Ferre Llin thermoelectric properties of Ge/SiGe modulation doped superlattices A. Samarelli,1 L. Ferre Llin,1 S. Cecchi,2 J in the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, and power factor at room temperature over bulk Ge, Si1ÀyGey, and Si/Ge

  8. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectricity is produced by applying a temperature differential to dissimilar electrically conducting or semiconducting materials, thereby producing a voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference. Thermoelectric generators use this effect to directly convert heat into electricity; however, presently-known generators have low efficiencies due to the production of high currents which in turn cause large resistive heating losses. Some thermoelectric generators operate at efficiencies between 4% and 7% in the 800{degrees} to 1200{degrees}C range. According to its major aspects and bradly stated, the present invention is an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. In particular, the invention is a thermoelectric generator that juxtaposes a superconducting material and a semiconducting material - so that the superconducting and the semiconducting materials touch - to convert heat energy into electrical energy without resistive losses in the temperature range below the critical temperature of the superconducting material. Preferably, an array of superconducting material is encased in one of several possible configurations within a second material having a high thermal conductivity, preferably a semiconductor, to form a thermoelectric generator.

  9. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

  10. Development and Use of the Galileo and Ulysses Power Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Gary L; Hemler, Richard J; Schock, Alfred

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper presented at the 45th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, October 1994. The Galileo mission to Jupiter and the Ulysses mission to explore the polar regions of the Sun required a new power source: the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generator (GPHS-RTG), the most powerful RTG yet flow. Four flight-qualified GPHS-RTGs were fabricated with one that is being used on Ulysses, two that are being used on Galileo and one that was a common spare (and is now available for the Cassini mission to Saturn). In addition, and Engineering Unit and a Qualification Unit were fabricated to qualify the design for space through rigorous ground tests. This paper summarizes the ground testing and performance predictions showing that the GPHS-RTGs have met and will continue to meet or exceed the performance requirements of the ongoing Galileo and Ulysses missions. There are two copies in the file.

  11. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  12. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  13. Green thermoelectrics: Observation and analysis of plant thermoelectric response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goupil, C; Khamsing, A; Apertet, Y; Bouteau, F; Mancuso, S; Patino, R; Lecoeur, Ph

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plants are sensitive to thermal and electrical effects; yet the coupling of both, known as thermoelectricity, and its quantitative measurement in vegetal systems never were reported. We recorded the thermoelectric response of bean sprouts under various thermal conditions and stress. The obtained experimental data unambiguously demonstrate that a temperature difference between the roots and the leaves of a bean sprout induces a thermoelectric voltage between these two points. Basing our analysis of the data on the force-flux formalism of linear response theory, we found that the strength of the vegetal equivalent to the thermoelectric coupling is one order of magnitude larger than that in the best thermoelectric materials. Experimental data also show the importance of the thermal stress variation rate in the plant's electrophysiological response. Therefore, thermoelectric effects are sufficiently important to partake in the complex and intertwined processes of energy and matter transport within plants.

  14. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986.

  15. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery PI - Chris Caylor, GMZ Director of Thermoelectric Systems GMZ Team: Bed Poudel, Giri Joshi, Jonathan D'Angelo,...

  16. Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High Performance Materials for Energy Conversion Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of...

  17. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Reviews work in engineered...

  18. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM...

  19. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Gregory P. Meisner General Motors Global Research & Development March 21, 2012 3rd Thermoelectric...

  20. Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Presentation from the U.S....

  1. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  2. Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide...

  3. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste...

  4. Investigations of Interfacial Structure in Thermoelectric Tellurides...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Materials by Design, Computational Theory and Structure Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials Strategies for...

  5. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamar, D.A.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms, including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: 1) isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; 2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; 3) isotopes purchased cross- referenced with customer numbers; 4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and 5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1987.

  6. Design, Analysis, and Optimization of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator, and its Applicability to an Illustrative Space Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Or, Chuen T; Kumar, Vasanth; Summers, G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper presented at the 45th Congress of the IAF in Jerusalem, Israel, October 1994. The paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator (RTPV), to complement similar studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and Stirling Generators (RSGs) previously published by the authors. To focus the design effort, it was decided to direct it at a specific illustrative space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by the JPL, envisages a direct eight to nine-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a six-week post-encounter cruise.

  7. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  8. Design and development of thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prem Kumar, D. S., E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Mahajan, Ishan Vardhan, E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Anbalagan, R., E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra, E-mail: rcmallik@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Thermoelectric Materials and Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss the fabrication, working and characteristics of a thermoelectric generator made up of p and n type semiconductor materials. The device consists of Fe{sub 0.2}Co{sub 3.8}Sb{sub 11.5}Te{sub 0.5} (zT = 1.04 at 818 K) as the n-type and Zn4Sb3 (zT=0.8 at 550 K) as the p-type material synthesized by vacuum hot press method. Carbon paste has been used to join the semiconductor legs to metal (Molybdenum) electrodes to reduce the contact resistance. The multi-couple (4 legs) generator results a maximum output power of 1.083 mW at a temperature difference of 240 K between the hot and cold sides. In this investigation, an I-V characteristic, maximum output power of the thermoelectric module is presented. The efficiency of thermoelectric module is obtained as ? = 0.273 %.

  9. Thermoelectric efficiency of three-terminal quantum thermal machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Mazza; Riccardo Bosisio; Giuliano Benenti; Vittorio Giovannetti; Rosario Fazio; Fabio Taddei

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of a thermal engine working in linear response regime in a multi-terminals configuration is discussed. For the generic three-terminal case, we provide a general definition of local and non-local transport coefficients: electrical and thermal conductances, and thermoelectric powers. Within the Onsager formalism, we derive analytical expressions for the efficiency at maximum power, which can be written in terms of generalized figures of merit. Also, using two examples, we investigate numerically how a third terminal could improve the performance of a quantum system, and under which conditions non-local thermoelectric effects can be observed.

  10. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

  11. Thermoelectric transport in the coupled valence-band model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramu, Ashok; Cassels, Laura; Hackman, Nathan; Lu, Hong; Zide, Joshua; Bowers, John E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    109, 033704 ?2011? Thermoelectric transport in the coupledapplied to the problem of thermoelectric transport in p-typeef?ciency p-type thermoelectric material, are calculated and

  12. Effect of Nanoparticles on Electron and Thermoelectric Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Electron and Thermoelectric Transport MONA ZEBARJADI, 1,5can enhance the thermoelectric performance by reducing thepredictions for the thermoelectric properties such as the

  13. NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics NSFDOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle...

  14. NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Purdue ? GM Partnership...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Purdue GM Partnership on Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery NSFDOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Purdue GM Partnership on Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste...

  15. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat is disclosed. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device. 4 figs.

  16. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, John D. (Eaton's Neck, NY); El-Genk, Mohamed S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  17. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of 14-1-11 Ytterbium Manganese Antimonide Derivatives for Thermoelectric Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Star, Kurt

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for remote impoverished communities. [1] For heat rejection,heat generated by a decaying radioisotope to electrical power, well suited for deep space exploration as well as use in remote

  19. Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High Performance Materials for Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rapid solidified precursor converted into crystalline bulks under pressure produced thermoelectric materials of nano-sized grains with strongly coupled grain boundaries, achieving reduced lattice thermal conductivity and increased power factor

  20. High performance thermoelectric nanocomposite device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Snyder, Dexter D. (Birmingham, MI)

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric device includes a nanocomposite material with nanowires of at least one thermoelectric material having a predetermined figure of merit, the nanowires being formed in a porous substrate having a low thermal conductivity and having an average pore diameter ranging from about 4 nm to about 300 nm.

  1. Thermoelectric probe for Rashba spin-orbit interaction strength in a two dimensional electron gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. K. Firoz Islam; Tarun Kanti Ghosh

    2012-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric coefficients of a two dimensional electron gas with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction are presented here. In absence of magnetic field, thermoelectric coefficients are enhanced due to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. In presence of magnetic field, the thermoelectric coefficients of spin-up and spin-down electrons oscillate with different frequency and produces beating patterns in the components of the total thermoelectric power and the total thermal conductivity. We also provide analytical expressions of the thermoelectric coefficients to explain the beating pattern formation. We obtain a simple relation which determines the Rashba SOI strength if the magnetic fields corresponding to any two successive beat nodes are known from the experiment.

  2. Thermoelectric probe for Rashba spin-orbit interaction strength in a two dimensional electron gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, S K Firoz

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric coefficients of a two dimensional electron gas with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction are presented here. In absence of magnetic field, thermoelectric coefficients are enhanced due to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. In presence of magnetic field, the thermoelectric coefficients of spin-up and spin-down electrons oscillate with different frequency and produces beating patterns in the components of the total thermoelectric power and the total thermal conductivity. We also provide analytical expressions of the thermoelectric coefficients to explain the beating pattern formation. We obtain a simple relation which determines the Rashba SOI strength if the magnetic fields corresponding to any two successive beat nodes are known from the experiment.

  3. Thermoelectric system for an engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mcgilvray, Andrew N.; Vachon, John T.; Moser, William E.

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion engine that includes a block, a cylinder head having an intake valve port and exhaust valve port formed therein, a piston, and a combustion chamber defined by the block, the piston, and the head. At least one thermoelectric device is positioned within either or both the intake valve port and the exhaust valve port. Each of the valves is configured to move within a respective intake and exhaust valve port thereby causing said valves to engage the thermoelectric devices resulting in heat transfer from the valves to the thermoelectric devices. The intake valve port and exhaust valve port are configured to fluidly direct intake air and exhaust gas, respectively, into the combustion chamber and the thermoelectric device is positioned within the intake valve port, and exhaust valve port, such that the thermoelectric device is in contact with the intake air and exhaust gas.

  4. The Fundamentals of Thermoelectrics A bachelor's laboratory practical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    to thermoelectrics 1 2 The thermocouple 4 3 The Peltier device 5 3.1 n- and p-type Peltier elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2 Commercial Peltier devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.3 Electrical power.2 Measurements with the Peltier device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.2.1 Warm-up procedure

  5. Tailoring the Thermoelectric Behavior of Electrically Conductive Polymer Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moriarty, Gregory P.

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    the promise of fully organic composites as thermoelectric materials. This combination of CNT and stabilizer produced metallic electrical conductivity (200,000 S m-1) and power factors (S2?) within an order of magnitude of commonly used semiconductors (~400 ?W...

  6. The role of boron segregation in enhanced thermoelectric power factor of CoSi{sub 1-x}B{sub x} alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Hui; Morelli, Donald T. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Kirkham, Melanie J.; Meyer, Harry M.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [High Temperature Materials Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the influence of boron segregation on the thermoelectric properties of CoSi. Contrary to previous suggestions, and in stark contrast to aluminum substitution, boron does not enter the lattice on the Si site, but rather segregates to the grain boundaries in these alloys. Through a combination of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and scanning Auger techniques, we present clear evidence of the formation of a CoB phase at the grain boundaries. Consistent with the failure of B to substitute for Si, we observe no changes in the electron concentration or the Seebeck coefficient under boron substitution. The electrical resistivity, on the other hand, displays a non-monotonic behavior with increasing boron concentration, first decreasing for small amounts of boron, before increasing at higher levels of substitution. We attribute this behavior to a combination of an initial healing effect of boron on microcracks, followed by the eventual increase in electron scattering by the secondary CoB phase at higher concentrations.

  7. Overview of industry interest in new thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, H.B. Jr.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology base for air conditioning, refrigeration, component cooling below ambient temperatures and power generation will be required to meet several new challenges. The main lines of these challenges will be presented in a way which relates them to the several new thermoelectric materials and materials engineering options being pursued by the research community. The potential benefits of thermoelectric devices are only partially met by enhancing the figure of merit ZT, the nature of the design challenge and the resulting systems approach are presented. The research and the industry are entering into a new era.

  8. Proposal for a phase-coherent thermoelectric transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giazotto, F., E-mail: giazotto@sns.it [NEST, Instituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Robinson, J. W. A., E-mail: jjr33@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Moodera, J. S. [Department of Physics and Francis Bitter Magnet Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bergeret, F. S., E-mail: sebastian-bergeret@ehu.es [Centro de Física de Materiales (CFM-MPC), Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Manuel de Lardizabal 4, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Manuel de Lardizabal 5, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Identifying materials and devices which offer efficient thermoelectric effects at low temperature is a major obstacle for the development of thermal management strategies for low-temperature electronic systems. Superconductors cannot offer a solution since their near perfect electron-hole symmetry leads to a negligible thermoelectric response; however, here we demonstrate theoretically a superconducting thermoelectric transistor which offers unparalleled figures of merit of up to ?45 and Seebeck coefficients as large as a few mV/K at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The device is also phase-tunable meaning its thermoelectric response for power generation can be precisely controlled with a small magnetic field. Our concept is based on a superconductor-normal metal-superconductor interferometer in which the normal metal weak-link is tunnel coupled to a ferromagnetic insulator and a Zeeman split superconductor. Upon application of an external magnetic flux, the interferometer enables phase-coherent manipulation of thermoelectric properties whilst offering efficiencies which approach the Carnot limit.

  9. PREPARED BY FUGHT CONTROL DIVISION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    .1.1 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator 4.1.2 Power Conditioning Udt 4.1.3 Power Distribution Unit COMMrum

  10. APOLLO LUNAR SURFACE EXPERIMENTS PACKAGE SYSTEMS HANDBOOK This document has been prepared by the Flight Control Division, Manned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    .1.1 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) 4.1.2 Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) 4.1.3 Power Distribution Unit

  11. Manufacture of thermoelectric generator structures by fiber drawing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Timothy J; Simpson, John T; West, David L

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of manufacturing a thermoelectric generator via fiber drawing and corresponding or associated thermoelectric generator devices are provided.

  12. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications...

  13. NSF/DOE Thermoelectics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery NSFDOE Thermoelectics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery 2011 DOE...

  14. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct...

  15. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

  16. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat...

  17. Thermoelectric materials -- New directions and approaches. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings, Volume 478

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tritt, T.M.; Kanatzidis, M.G.; Lyon, H.B. Jr.; Mahan, G.D. [eds.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric materials are utilized in a wide variety of applications related to solid-state refrigeration or small-scale power generation. Thermoelectric cooling is an environmentally friendly method of small-scale cooling in specific applications such as cooling computer chips and laser diodes. Thermoelectric materials are used in a wide range of applications from beverage coolers to power generation for deep-space probes such as the Voyager missions. Over the past thirty years, alloys based on the Bi-Te systems {l{underscore}brace}(Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2} (Te{sub 1{minus}x}Se{sub x}){sub 3}{r{underscore}brace} and Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} systems have been extensively studied and optimized for their use as thermoelectric materials to perform a variety of solid-state thermoelectric refrigeration and power generation tasks. Despite this extensive investigation of the traditional thermoelectric materials, there is still a substantial need and room for improvement, and thus, entirely new classes of compounds will have to be investigated. Over the past two-to-three years, research in the field of thermoelectric materials has been undergoing a rapid rebirth. The enhanced interest in better thermoelectric materials has been driven by the need for much higher performance and new temperature regimes for thermoelectric devices in many applications. The essence of a good thermoelectric is given by the determination of the material's dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = ({alpha}{sup 2}{sigma}/{lambda})T, where {alpha} is the Seebeck coefficient, {sigma} the electrical conductivity and {lambda} the total thermal conductivity. The best thermoelectric materials have a value of ZT = 1. This ZT = 1 has been an upper limit for more than 30 years, yet no theoretical or thermodynamic reason exits for why it can not be larger. The focus of the symposium is embodied in the title, Thermoelectric Materials: New Directions and Approaches. Many of the researchers in the field believe that future advances in thermoelectric applications will come through research in new materials. The authors have many new methods of materials synthesis and much more rapid characterization of these materials than were available 20--30 years ago. They have tried to focus the symposium on new directions and new materials such as skutterudites, quantum well and superlattice structures, new metal chalcogenides, rare earth systems, and quasicrystals. Other new materials are also presented in these proceedings. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers in this volume.

  18. Understanding of the contact of nanostructured thermoelectric n-type Bi[subscript 2]Te[subscript 2.7]Se[subscript 0.3] legs for power generation applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Weishu

    Traditional processes of making contacts (metallization layer) onto bulk crystalline Bi2Te3-based materials do not work for nanostructured thermoelectric materials either because of weak bonding strength or an unstable ...

  19. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  20. Emissivity Tuned Emitter for RTPV Power Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl M. Stoots; Robert C. O'Brien; Troy M. Howe

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Every mission launched by NASA to the outer planets has produced unexpected results. The Voyager I and II, Galileo, and Cassini missions produced images and collected scientific data that totally revolutionized our understanding of the solar system and the formation of the planetary systems. These missions were enabled by the use of nuclear power. Because of the distances from the Sun, electrical power was produced using the radioactive decay of a plutonium isotope. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in the past and currently used Multi-Mission RTGs (MMRTGs) provide power for space missions. Unfortunately, RTGs rely on thermocouples to convert heat to electricity and are inherently inefficient ({approx} 3-7% thermal to electric efficiency). A Radioisotope Thermal Photovoltaic (RTPV) power source has the potential to reduce the specific mass of the onboard power supply by increasing the efficiency of thermal to electric conversion. In an RTPV, a radioisotope heats an emitter, which emits light to a photovoltaic (PV) cell, which converts the light into electricity. Developing an emitter tuned to the desired wavelength of the photovoltaic is a key part in increasing overall performance. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have built a Thermal Photovoltaic (TPV) system, that utilizes a simulated General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) from a MMRTG to heat a tantalum emitter. The GPHS is a block of graphite roughly 10 cm by 10 cm by 5 cm. A fully loaded GPHS produces 250 w of thermal power and weighs 1.6 kgs. The GRC system relies on the GPHS unit radiating at 1200 K to a tantalum emitter that, in turn, radiates light to a GaInAs photo-voltaic cell. The GRC claims system efficiency of conversion of 15%. The specific mass is around 167 kg/kWe. A RTPV power source that utilized a ceramic or ceramic-metal (cermet) matrix would allow for the combination of the heat source, canister, and emitter into one compact unit, and allow variation in size and shape to optimize temperature and emission spectra.

  1. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burlison, J.S. (comp.)

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980.

  2. Thermoelectric device characterization and solar thermoelectric system modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muto, Andrew (Andrew Jerome)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent years have witnessed a trend of rising electricity costs and an emphasis on energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) devices can be used either as heat pumps for localized environmental control or heat engines to ...

  3. New Horizons Mission Powered by Space Radioisotope Power Systems |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilverNephelineNeuralNew

  4. Thermoelectric properties of nanoporous Ge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joo-Hyoung

    We computed thermoelectric properties of nanoporous Ge (np-Ge) with aligned pores along the [001] direction through a combined classical molecular dynamics and first-principles electronic structure approach. A significant ...

  5. A continuum theory of thermoelectric bodies and effective properties of thermoelectric composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Liping

    A continuum theory of thermoelectric bodies and effective properties of thermoelectric composites Science, 2012. Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 A continuum model for thermoelectric bodies 4 2.1 Experimental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 A constitutive model for thermoelectric materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2

  6. Effect of Heat Exchanger Material and Fouling on Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Norman [University of Texas, El Paso; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is conducted in an effort to better understand and improve the performance of thermoelectric heat recovery systems for automotive use. For this purpose an experimental investigation of thermoelectrics in contact with clean and fouled heat exchangers of different materials is performed. The thermoelectric devices are tested on a bench-scale thermoelectric heat recovery apparatus that simulates automotive exhaust. The thermoelectric apparatus consists of a series of thermoelectric generators contacting a hot-side and a cold-side heat exchanger. The thermoelectric devices are tested with two different hot-side heat exchanger materials, stainless steel and aluminum, and at a range of simulated exhaust gas flowrates (40 to 150 slpm), exhaust gas temperatures (240 C and 280 C), and coolant-side temperatures (40 C and 80 C). It is observed that for higher exhaust gas flowrates, thermoelectric power output increases while overall system efficiency decreases. Degradation of the effectiveness of the EGR-type heat exchangers over a period of driving is also simulated by exposing the heat exchangers to diesel engine exhaust under thermophoretic conditions to form a deposit layer. For the fouled EGR-type heat exchangers, power output and system efficiency is observed to be significantly lower for all conditions tested. The study found, however, that heat exchanger material is the dominant factor in the ability of the system to convert heat to electricity with thermoelectric generators. This finding is thought to be unique to the heat exchangers used for this study, and not a universal trend for all system configurations.

  7. The safety review and approval process for space nuclear power sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, G.L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 30 yr. the U.S. Government has evolved a process for the safety review and launch approval of nuclear power sources (NPSs) proposed for launch into space. This process, which involves a number of governmental agencies, ensures that the various postulated accident scenarios are considered, that the responses of the NPSs to the accident environments are assessed, and that appropriate elements of the Federal Government are involved in the launch approval. This process has worked very well in the successful launches of 37 radioisotope thermoelectric generators and 1 reactor by the United States since 1961. Particular attention will be focused on the recent launch of the Galileo spacecraft. 19 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conversion Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lawrence Berkeley...

  9. Recent Theoretical Results for Advanced Thermoelectric Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Recent Theoretical Results for Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Transport theory and first principles calculations applied to oxides, chalcogenides and skutterudite...

  10. Optimal working conditions for thermoelectric generators with realistic thermal coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apertet, Y; Glavatskaya, O; Goupil, C; Lecoeur, P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study how maximum output power can be obtained from a thermoelectric generator(TEG) with nonideal heat exchangers. We demonstrate with an analytic approach based on a force-flux formalism that the sole improvement of the intrinsic characteristics of thermoelectric modules including the enhancement of the figure of merit is of limited interest: the constraints imposed by the working conditions of the TEG must be considered on the same footing. Introducing an effective thermal conductance we derive the conditions which permit maximization of both efficiency and power production of the TEG dissipatively coupled to heat reservoirs. Thermal impedance matching must be accounted for as well as electrical impedance matching in order to maximize the output power. Our calculations also show that the thermal impedance does not only depend on the thermal conductivity at zero electrical current: it also depends on the TEG figure of merit. Our analysis thus yields both electrical and thermal conditions permitting optima...

  11. Medical Radioisotope | Nuclear Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneoTechnologyCHPRC

  12. Projet TESEER Thermoelectric micro Energy Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudoin, Geneviève

    Projet TESEER Thermoelectric micro Energy Source Enhanced by Electromagnetic Radiation Participants of silicon to be used as a hot-spot for a thermoelectric element. Applications also exists for PV cells) Thermoelectric micro Energy Source Enhanced by Electromagnetic Radiation Objectifs Le projet TESEER consiste

  13. AbstractAbstract Improving efficiency of thermoelectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    AbstractAbstract · Improving efficiency of thermoelectric energy conversion devices is a major-classical transport models used to predict ZT can effectively predict thermoelectric performance of bulk materials method proposed to couple quantum and scattering effects to predict thermoelectric performance. · NEGF

  14. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    LETTERS Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires Allon I. Hochbaum1 *, Renkun, such that roughly 15 terawatts of heat is lost to the environment. Thermoelectric modules could potentially convert part of this low-grade waste heat to electricity. Their efficiency depends on the thermoelectric figure

  15. NEW DIRECTIONS IN RADIOISOTOPE SPECTRUM IDENTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies have found the performance of commercial handheld detectors with automatic RIID software to be less than acceptable. Previously, we have explored approaches rooted in speech processing such as cepstral features and information-theoretic measures. Scientific advances are often made when researchers identify mathematical or physical commonalities between different fields and are able to apply mature techniques or algorithms developed in one field to another field which shares some of the same challenges. The authors of this paper have identified similarities between the unsolved problems faced in gamma-spectroscopy for automated radioisotope identification and the challenges of the much larger body of research in speech processing. Our research has led to a probabilistic framework for describing and solving radioisotope identification problems. Many heuristic approaches to classification in current use, including for radioisotope classification, make implicit probabilistic assumptions which are not clear to the users and, if stated explicitly, might not be considered desirable. Our framework leads to a classification approach with demonstrable improvements using standard feature sets on proof-of-concept simulated and field-collected data.

  16. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system safety analysis report for packaging. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1996-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This SARP describes the RTG Transportation System Package, a Type B(U) packaging system that is used to transport an RTG or similar payload. The payload, which is included in this SARP, is a generic, enveloping payload that specifically encompasses the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG payload. The package consists of two independent containment systems mounted on a shock isolation transport skid and transported within an exclusive-use trailer.

  17. '"''"'' SUBJECT: OPTIONAL FOIIM NO, 10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    POWER SUBSYSTEM 4-1 4.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 4-1 4.1.1 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) 4-1 4

  18. Curiosity rover zaps Mars for life signs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    trio is an essential component of the heat-producing Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator unit. It powers the rover and keeps the instruments from freezing solid...

  19. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

  20. Thermoelectric effect in molecular electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Paulsson; S. Datta

    2003-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a theoretical estimate of the thermoelectric current and voltage over a Phenyldithiol molecule. We also show that the thermoelectric voltage is (1) easy to analyze, (2) insensitive to the detailed coupling to the contacts, (3) large enough to be measured and (4) give valuable information, which is not readily accessible through other experiments, on the location of the Fermi energy relative to the molecular levels. The location of the Fermi-energy is poorly understood and controversial even though it is a central factor in determining the nature of conduction (n- or p-type). We also note that the thermoelectric voltage measured over Guanine molecules with an STM by Poler et al., indicate conduction through the HOMO level, i.e., p-type conduction.

  1. Radioisotopes for Medical Diagnostics and Cancer Therapy at BNL...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Excess pulses (90%) are diverted to BLIP for medical radioisotope research and production. Major current projects include large scale distribution of Sr-82 for heart scans,...

  2. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  3. TECHNOMETRICS@, VOL. 20, NO. 2, MAY 1978 A Bayesian Model for Determiningthe Optimal Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterman, Michael S.

    the case of a fuel container of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) system, which is the power supply for a space satel- lite, The radioisotope fuel container is designed to withstand a certain impact

  4. Semiconducting glasses: A new class of thermoelectric materials?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncalves, A.P., E-mail: apg@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa/CFMC-UL, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Lopes, E.B. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa/CFMC-UL, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)] [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa/CFMC-UL, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Delaizir, G. [SPCTS, UMR CNRS 7315, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France)] [SPCTS, UMR CNRS 7315, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France); Vaney, J.B.; Lenoir, B. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Nancy Universite-UPVM, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy (France)] [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Nancy Universite-UPVM, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy (France); Piarristeguy, A.; Pradel, A. [Institut Charles Gerhardt (ICG), UMR 5253 CNRS, Universite de Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France)] [Institut Charles Gerhardt (ICG), UMR 5253 CNRS, Universite de Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France); Monnier, J.; Ochin, P.; Godart, C. [CNRS, ICMPE, CMTR, 2/8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)] [CNRS, ICMPE, CMTR, 2/8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The deeper understanding of the factors that affect the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, and the use of new synthetic methods has recently led to the development of novel systems with improved thermoelectric performances. Albeit up to now with ZT values lower than the conventional bulk materials, semiconducting glasses have also emerged as a new family of potential thermoelectric materials. This paper reviews the latest advances on semiconducting glasses for thermoelectric applications. Key examples of tellurium-based glasses, with high Seebeck coefficients, very low thermal conductivities and tunable electrical conductivities, are presented. ZT values as high as 0.2 were obtained at room temperature for several tellurium-based glasses with high copper concentrations, confirming chalcogenide semiconducting glasses as good candidates for high-performance thermoelectric materials. However, the temperature stability and electrical conductivity of the reported glasses are still not good enough for practical applications and further studies are still needed to enhance them. - Graphical abstract: Power factor as a function of the temperature for the Cu{sub 27.5}Ge{sub 2.5}Te{sub 70} and Cu{sub 30}As{sub 15}Te{sub 55} seniconducting glasses. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A review of semiconducting glasses for thermoelectrics applications is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The studied semiconducting glasses present very low thermal conductivities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition can tune electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZT=0.2 is obtained at 300 K for different semiconducting glasses.

  5. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  6. Improvements to solar thermoelectric generators through device design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Lee A. (Lee Adragon)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) is a device which converts sunlight into electricity through the thermoelectric effect. A STEG is nominally formed when a thermoelectric generator (TEG), a type of solid state heat ...

  7. Thermoelectric Transport in a ZrN/ScN Superlattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at Springerlink.com Thermoelectric Transport in a ZrN/ScNthe potential for a high thermoelectric ?gure of merit. Theexperimental studies of the thermoelectric transport in ZrN/

  8. New nano structure approaches for bulk thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jeonghoon

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    developments in bulk thermoelectric materials", M. Mater.and M. D. Drsselhaus, "Thermoelectric figure of merit of aO'Quinn, " Thin-film thermoelectric devices with high room-

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RTG refers to radioisotope thermoelectric generator with aRTG refers to radioisotope thermoelectric generator with a

  10. Actinium radioisotope products of enhanced purity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David Herbert; Todd, Terry Allen; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A product includes actinium-225 (.sup.225Ac) and less than about 1 microgram (.mu.g) of iron (Fe) per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225. The product may have a radioisotopic purity of greater than about 99.99 atomic percent (at %) actinium-225 and daughter isotopes of actinium-225, and may be formed by a method that includes providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one of uranium-233 (.sup.233U) and thorium-229 (.sup.229Th), extracting the at least one of uranium-233 and thorium-229 into an organic phase, substantially continuously contacting the organic phase with an aqueous phase, substantially continuously extracting actinium-225 into the aqueous phase, and purifying the actinium-225 from the aqueous phase. In some embodiments, the product may include less than about 1 nanogram (ng) of iron per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225, and may include less than about 1 microgram (.mu.g) each of magnesium (Mg), Chromium (Cr), and manganese (Mn) per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225.

  11. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  12. Overview of Research on Thermoelectric Materials and Devices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research on Thermoelectric Materials and Devices in China Overview of Research on Thermoelectric Materials and Devices in China An overview presentation of R&D projects on...

  13. Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  14. Modeling study of thermoelectric SiGe nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnich, Austin Jerome

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric materials have attracted much attention recently due to experimental demonstrations of improved thermoelectric properties over those of the corresponding bulk material. In order to better ...

  15. Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with Closed-Loop Exhaust By-Pass System Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with...

  16. New nano structure approaches for bulk thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jeonghoon

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in bulk thermoelectric materials", M. Mater. Res. Soc.Thermoelectricity", Materials Reserach Society Symposium,Johnson, D. C. , Eds. Materials Research Society: Boston,

  17. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel ThermoelectricMaterials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking &...

  18. Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced Thermoelectric Solutions - 4 - Advanced Thermoelectric Solutions - 5 - High and medium temperature TE engines are shown in the photo-right The engines incorporate...

  19. An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe An overview presentation of R&D...

  20. High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of high-performance thermoelectric devices for vehicle waste heat recovery will include fundamental research to use abundant promising low-cost thermoelectric...

  1. Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Discusses progress...

  2. A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for...

  3. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for...

  4. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery...

  5. Overview of Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery and Climate Control Overview of Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery and Climate Control Overview of progress...

  6. Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery applications Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery applications Model...

  7. Feasibility of OnBoard Thermoelectric Generation for Improved...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OnBoard Thermoelectric Generation for Improved Vehicle Fuel Economy Feasibility of OnBoard Thermoelectric Generation for Improved Vehicle Fuel Economy Poster presentation at the...

  8. Development of a Thermoelectric Device for an Automotive Zonal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Development of a Thermoelectric Device for an Automotive Zonal HVAC System Development of a Thermoelectric Device for an Automotive Zonal HVAC System Presents development of a...

  9. Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications...

  10. System level modeling of thermoelectric generators for automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    level modeling of thermoelectric generators for automotive applications System level modeling of thermoelectric generators for automotive applications Uses a model to predict and...

  11. Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC...

  12. Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat...

  13. The potential impact of ZT=4 thermoelectric materials on solar thermal energy conversion technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, M.; Gruen, D. M.; Materials Science Division; Michigan Technological Univ.

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art methodologies for the conversion of solar thermal power to electricity are based on conventional electromagnetic induction techniques. If appropriate ZT = 4 thermoelectric materials were available, it is likely that conversion efficiencies of 30-40% could be achieved. The availability of all solid state electricity generation would be a long awaited development in part because of the elimination of moving parts. This paper presents a preliminary examination of the potential performance of ZT = 4 power generators in comparison with Stirling engines taking into account specific mass, volume and cost as well as system reliability. High-performance thermoelectrics appear to have distinct advantages over magnetic induction technologies.

  14. An Approach to Autonomous Control for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under Project Prometheus, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated deep space missions that would utilize space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. The initial study involved the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), which was proposed to conduct in-depth studies of three Jovian moons. Current radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and solar power systems cannot meet expected mission power demands, which include propulsion, scientific instrument packages, and communications. Historically, RTGs have provided long-lived, highly reliable, low-power-level systems. Solar power systems can provide much greater levels of power, but power density levels decrease dramatically at {approx} 1.5 astronomical units (AU) and beyond. Alternatively, an SNPS can supply high-sustained power for space applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of an SNPS must be able to provide continuous operatio for the mission duration with limited immediate human interaction and no opportunity for hardware maintenance or sensor calibration. In effect, the SNPS control system must be able to independently operate the power plant while maintaining power production even when subject to off-normal events and component failure. This capability is critical because it will not be possible to rely upon continuous, immediate human interaction for control due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion. In addition, uncertainties, rare events, and component degradation combine with the aforementioned inaccessibility and unattended operation to pose unique challenges that an SNPS control system must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design.

  15. Power factor enhancement by inhomogeneous distribution of dopants in two-phase nanocrystalline systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that allows for high thermoelectric power factors in two-phase materials that are heavily doped been established as the most promising approach in improving thermoelectric efficiency. The thermoelectric performance of a material is quantified by the dimensionless figure of merit 2 /ZT S T , where

  16. Thermoelectric Activities of European Community within Framework...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of European Community within Framework Programme 7 and additional activities in Germany Thermoelectric Activities of European Community within Framework Programme 7 and...

  17. Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) Fuel Displacement Potential using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (TEG) Fuel Displacement Potential using Engine-in-the-Loop and Simulation Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) Fuel Displacement Potential using Engine-in-the-Loop and Simulation...

  18. Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Mechanically...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Mechanically Robust PbTe-Si Eutectic Composites Home Author: J. R. Sootsman, J. He, V. P. Dravid, S. Ballikaya, D. Vermeulen, C....

  19. Thermoelectric Materials by Design: Computational Theory and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Design: Computational Theory and Structure Thermoelectric Materials by Design: Computational Theory and Structure Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies...

  20. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  1. Thermoelectric Materials By Design: Mechanical Reliability (Agreement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    By Design: Mechanical Reliability (Agreement 14957) Thermoelectric Materials By Design: Mechanical Reliability (Agreement 14957) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  2. Thermoelectric Materials by Design, Computational Theory and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Design, Computational Theory and Structure Thermoelectric Materials by Design, Computational Theory and Structure 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  3. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Describes technique of explosively...

  4. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  5. Scientists Connect Thermoelectric Materials and Topological Insulators...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that does not occur in normal semiconductors. Thermoelectric materials enable scalable direct conversion of heat to electricity in solid state devices, and have potential for...

  6. Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and...

  7. Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview and status of project to develop thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery and achieve at least 10% fuel economy improvement. deer08gundlach.pdf More...

  8. Vehicular Thermoelectric Applications Session DEER 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermoelectric Applications Session DEER 2009 John W Fairbanks Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Washington, D.C. August 5, 2009 Dearborn, Michigan Courtesy of DARPA 1903...

  9. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Materials Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Research for Automotive Applications Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Materials Research for Automotive Applications Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  10. Misfit layer compounds and ferecrystals: Model systems for thermoelectric nanocomposites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merrill, Devin R. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Moore, Daniel B. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Bauers, Sage R. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Falmbigl, Matthias [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Johnson, David C. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A basic summary of thermoelectric principles is presented in a historical context, following the evolution of the field from initial discovery to modern day high-zT materials. A specific focus is placed on nanocomposite materials as a means to solve the challenges presented by the contradictory material requirements necessary for efficient thermal energy harvest. Misfit layer compounds are highlighted as an example of a highly ordered anisotropic nanocomposite system. Their layered structure provides the opportunity to use multiple constituents for improved thermoelectric performance, through both enhanced phonon scattering at interfaces and through electronic interactions between the constituents. Recently, a class of metastable, turbostratically-disordered misfit layer compounds has been synthesized using a kinetically controlled approach with low reaction temperatures. The kinetically stabilized structures can be prepared with a variety of constituent ratios and layering schemes, providing an avenue to systematically understand structure-function relationships not possible in the thermodynamic compounds. We summarize the work that has been done to date on these materials. The observed turbostratic disorder has been shown to result in extremely low cross plane thermal conductivity and in plane thermal conductivities that are also very small, suggesting the structural motif could be attractive as thermoelectric materials if the power factor could be improved. The first 10 compounds in the [(PbSe)1+?]m(TiSe?)n family (m, n ? 3) are reported as a case study. As n increases, the magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient is significantly increased without a simultaneous decrease in the in-plane electrical conductivity, resulting in an improved thermoelectric power factor.

  11. Misfit layer compounds and ferecrystals: Model systems for thermoelectric nanocomposites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merrill, Devin R.; Moore, Daniel B.; Bauers, Sage R.; Falmbigl, Matthias; Johnson, David C.

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A basic summary of thermoelectric principles is presented in a historical context, following the evolution of the field from initial discovery to modern day high-zT materials. A specific focus is placed on nanocomposite materials as a means to solve the challenges presented by the contradictory material requirements necessary for efficient thermal energy harvest. Misfit layer compounds are highlighted as an example of a highly ordered anisotropic nanocomposite system. Their layered structure provides the opportunity to use multiple constituents for improved thermoelectric performance, through both enhanced phonon scattering at interfaces and through electronic interactions between the constituents. Recently, a class ofmore »metastable, turbostratically-disordered misfit layer compounds has been synthesized using a kinetically controlled approach with low reaction temperatures. The kinetically stabilized structures can be prepared with a variety of constituent ratios and layering schemes, providing an avenue to systematically understand structure-function relationships not possible in the thermodynamic compounds. We summarize the work that has been done to date on these materials. The observed turbostratic disorder has been shown to result in extremely low cross plane thermal conductivity and in plane thermal conductivities that are also very small, suggesting the structural motif could be attractive as thermoelectric materials if the power factor could be improved. The first 10 compounds in the [(PbSe)1+?]m(TiSe?)n family (m, n ? 3) are reported as a case study. As n increases, the magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient is significantly increased without a simultaneous decrease in the in-plane electrical conductivity, resulting in an improved thermoelectric power factor.« less

  12. Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, Jeff [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research and development of high temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential of converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as an important area for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is Part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main focuses in Part I are on two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

  13. Thermoelectric and electrical characterization of Si nanowires and GaNAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pichanusakorn, Paothep

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Introduction to Thermoelectric phenomena and theory . . .1.1 Thermoelectric139 5.1.1 Thermoelectric application for highly-mismatch

  14. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of III–V Semiconductor Thin Films by Oxide Bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of III–Vfor high-temperature thermoelectric charac- terization ofdiffusion barrier. A thermoelectric material, thin-?lm ErAs:

  15. Thermoelectric behavior of conducting polymers: On the possibility of off-diagonal thermoelectricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mateeva, N.; Niculescu, H.; Schlenoff, J.; Testardi, L.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-cubic materials, when structurally aligned, possess sufficient anisotropy to exhibit thermoelectric effects where the electrical and thermal currents are orthogonal (off-diagonal thermoelectricity). The authors discuss the benefits of this form of thermoelectricity for devices and describe a search for suitable properties in the air-stable conducting polymers polyaniline and polypyrrole. They find the simple and general correlation that the logarithm of the electrical conductivity scales linearly with the Seebeck coefficient on doping but with proportionality in excess of the conventional prediction for thermoelectricity. The correlation is unexpected in its universality and unfavorable for thermoelectric applications. A simple model suggests that mobile charges of both signs exist in these polymers, and this leads to reduced thermoelectric efficiency. They also briefly discuss non air-stable polyacetylene, where ambipolar transport does not appear to occur, and where properties seem more favorable for thermoelectricity.

  16. Non-nuclear power sources for deep space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, E.B.; Tang, C.; Santarius, J.F.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric propulsion and non-nuclear power can be used in tandem as a replacement for the current chemical booster and radioisotope thermoelectric generators now in use for deep space applications (i.e., to the asteroid belt and beyond). In current generation systems, electric propulsion is usually considered to be impractical because of the lack of high power for deep space, and non-nuclear power is thought to be impractical partly due to its high mass. However, when taken in combination, a solar powered electric upper stage can provide ample power and propulsion capability for use in deep space. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems have generally been selected for missions only when other systems are absolutely unavailable. The disadvantages of radioisotopes include the need for nuclear safety as another dimension of concern in payload integration; the lack of assured availability of plutonium in the post-cold-war world; the enormous cost of plutonium-238; and the system complexity introduced by the need to continuously cool the system during the pre-launch phase. A conservative estimate for the total power for the solar array at beginning of life (BOL) may be in the range of 25 kW in order to provide 500 W continuous power at Jupiter. The availability of {approximately} 25 kW(e) in earth orbit raises the interesting possibility of coupling electric propulsion units to this free electric power. If electric propulsion is used to raise the probe from low-earth-orbit to an earth-escape trajectory, the system could actually save on low-earth orbit mass. Electric propulsion could be used by itself in a spiral trajectory orbit raising maneuver to earth escape velocity, or it could be used in conjunction with a chemical upper stage (either solid rocket or liquid), which would boost the payload to an elliptical orbit. The concept is to begin the Earth-Jupiter trip with a swing-by near the Sun close to the orbit of Venus and perhaps even closer if thermal loads can be tolerated. During the solar swing-by, much more power will be produced by the solar panels, allowing the spacecraft's velocity to be increased significantly. The outbound leg of the journey can, therefore, be made much more quickly than with the classical trajectory. For the purposes of a Jupiter mission, it is assumed that 20 km/sec total delta-v would be required. For a payload envelope of 17,304 kg, a 1,900 sec Isp capability means that 11,386 kg of propellant would have to be consumed, leaving 5,917 kg for the mass of the probe plus dry mass of the upper stage. The thruster subsystem would require 765 kg of thruster subsystem mass, and probably less. Assuming tanks, regulators and valves amount to 10% of the propellant mass (very likely a pessimistic assumption), it is possible to assign a mass of 1,150 kg for the tankage subsystem. This results in a mass allowance of at least 4,000 kg for the probe. This compares favorably with the dry mass of 1,637 kg for Galileo, for example, and suggests that more than adequate margin exists. If the payload margin is used for battery storage, flyby missions to the outer planets may be possible.

  17. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in years. The solid lines in Figure 3-5 are plotted using Equation (1), and R 2 from a linear regression analysis is found to be 0.98, showing excellent agreement between Equation...

  18. The Industrialization of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic| DepartmentDepartmentTheEnergyDepartment of Energy The

  19. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in theTheoretical StudyInnovationIndustrial

  20. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in theTheoretical StudyInnovationIndustrialStudy of the

  1. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued Glass-CeramicInnovationSolar

  2. Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

  3. Photo-controllable thermoelectric properties with reversibility and photo-thermoelectric effects of tungsten trioxide accompanied by its photochromic phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azuma, Chiori [Faculty of Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Kawano, Takuto [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi, E-mail: hirie@yamanashi.ac.jp [Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan)

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of photo-controllable properties to tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) is of interest for developing practical applications of WO{sub 3} as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a sputtered crystalline WO{sub 3} thin film generated thermoelectric power due to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced band-gap excitation and was accompanied by a photochromic reaction resulting from generating W{sup 5+} ions. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity (?) and Seebeck coefficient (S)) and coloration of WO{sub 3} could be reversibly switched by alternating the external stimulus between UV light irradiation and dark storage. After irradiating the film with UV light, ? increased, whereas the absolute value of S decreased, and the photochromic (coloration) reaction was detected. Notably, the opposite behavior was exhibited by WO{sub 3} after dark storage, and this reversible cycle could be repeated at least three times. Moreover, photo-thermoelectric effects (photo-conductive effect (photo-conductivity, ?{sub photo}) and photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, S{sub photo})) were also detected in response to visible-light irradiation of the colored WO{sub 3} thin films. Under visible-light irradiation, ?{sub photo} and the absolute value of S{sub photo} increased and decreased, respectively. These effects are likely attributable to the excitation of electrons from the mid-gap visible light absorption band (W{sup 5+} state) to the conduction band of WO{sub 3}. Our findings demonstrate that the simultaneous, reversible switching of multiple properties of WO{sub 3} thin film is achieved by the application of an external stimulus and that this material exhibits photo-thermoelectric effects when irradiated with visible-light.

  4. Studying Thermoelectric Oxides using High-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Figure 4: a) Atomic resolution Z-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    the environmental impact, and deliver energy continuously, such as thermo-electric power generation, have often been as distinct peaks. The environmental impact of global climate change due to the combustion of fossil fuels is focused on either carbon-based fuels or wind and solar energy, approaches that are portable, minimize

  5. Electrical properties and figures of merit for new chalcogenide-based thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, J.L.; Hogan, T.P.; Brazis, P.W.; Kannewurf, C.R.; Chung, D.Y.; Kanatzidis, M.G.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New Bi-based chalcogenide compounds have been prepared using the polychalcogenide flux technique for crystal growth. These materials exhibit characteristics of good thermoelectric materials. Single crystals of the compound CsBi{sub 4}Te{sub 6} have shown conductivity as high as 2440 S/cm with a p-type thermoelectric power of {approx}+110 {micro}V/K at room temperature. A second compound, {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} shows lower conductivity {approx}240 S/cm, but a larger n-type thermopower {approx}{minus}200 {micro}V/K. Thermal transport measurements have been performed on hot-pressed pellets of these materials and the results show comparable or lower thermal conductivities than Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. This improvement may reflect the reduced lattice symmetry of the new chalcogenide thermoelectrics. The thermoelectric figure of merit for CsBi{sub 4}Te{sub 6} reaches ZT {approx} 0.32 at 260 K and for {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} ZT {approx} 0.32 at room temperature, indicating that these compounds are viable candidates for thermoelectric refrigeration applications.

  6. Materials Technology Support for Radioisotope Power Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel P. Kramer; Chadwick D. Barklay

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the period of this sponsored research, UDRI performed a number of materials related tasks that helped to facilitate increased understanding of the properties and applications of a number of candidate program related materials including; effects of neutron irradiation on tantalum alloys using a 500kW reactor, thermodynamic based modeling of the chemical species in weld pools, and the application of candidate coatings for increased oxidation resistance of FWPF (Fine Weave Pierced Fabric) modules.

  7. Audit of Funding for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems, IG-0413

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments from TarasaName4Services Requirements Discussed In

  8. Thermoelectric materials development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic search for advanced thermoelectric materials was initiated at JPL several years ago to evaluate candidate materials which includes consideration of the following property attributes: (1) semiconducting properties; (2) large Seebeck coefficient; (3) high carrier mobility and high electrical conductivity; (4) low lattice thermal conductivity; and (5) chemical stability and low vapor pressure. Through this candidate screening process, JPL identified several families of materials as promising candidates for improved thermoelectric materials including the skutterudite family. There are several programs supporting various phases of the effort on these materials. As part of an ongoing effort to develop skutterudite materials with lower thermal conductivity values, several solid solutions and filled skutterudite materials were investigated under the effort sponsored by DOE. The efforts have primarily focused on: (1) study of existence and properties of solid solutions between the binary compounds CoSb{sub 3} and IrSb{sub 3}, and RuSb{sub 2}Te, and (2) CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Sb{sub 12} based filled compositions. For the solid solutions, the lattice thermal conductivity reduction was expected to be reduced by the introduction of the Te and Ru atoms while in the case of CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} based filled compositions. For the solid solutions, the lattice thermal conductivity reduction was expected to be reduced by the introduction of the Te and Ru atoms while in the case of CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} filled compositions, the reduction would be caused by the rattling of Ce atoms located in the empty voids of the skutterudite structure and the substitution of Fe for Ru. The details of the sample preparation and characterization of their thermoelectric properties are reported in this report.

  9. Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

  10. Silicon-Based Thermoelectrics: Harvesting Low Quality Heat Using Economically Printed Flexible Nanostructured Stacked Thermoelectric Junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UIUC is experimenting with silicon-based materials to develop flexible thermoelectric devices—which convert heat into energy—that can be mass-produced at low cost. A thermoelectric device, which resembles a computer chip, creates electricity when a different temperature is applied to each of its sides. Existing commercial thermoelectric devices contain the element tellurium, which limits production levels because tellurium has become increasingly rare. UIUC is replacing this material with microscopic silicon wires that are considerably cheaper and could be equally effective. Improvements in thermoelectric device production could return enough wasted heat to add up to 23% to our current annual electricity production.

  11. Increasing thermoelectric efficiency towards the Carnot limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giulio Casati; Carlos Mejia-Monasterio; Tomaz Prosen

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of thermoelectricity and propose a simple microscopic mechanism for the increase of thermoelectric efficiency. We consider the cross transport of particles and energy in open classical ergodic billiards. We show that, in the linear response regime, where we find exact expressions for all transport coefficients, the thermoelectric efficiency of ideal ergodic gases can approach Carnot efficiency for sufficiently complex charge carrier molecules. Our results are clearly demonstrated with a simple numerical simulation of a Lorentz gas of particles with internal rotational degrees of freedom.

  12. Bulk dimensional nanocomposites for thermoelectric applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolas, George S

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric elements may be used for heat sensors, heat pumps, and thermoelectric generators. A quantum-dot or nano-scale grain size polycrystalline material the effects of size-quantization are present inside the nanocrystals. A thermoelectric element composed of densified Groups IV-VI material, such as calcogenide-based materials are doped with metal or chalcogenide to form interference barriers form along grains. The dopant used is either silver or sodium. These chalcogenide materials form nanoparticles of highly crystal grains, and may specifically be between 1- and 100 nm. The compound is densified by spark plasma sintering.

  13. Improved maximum cooling by optimizing the geometry of thermoelectric leg elements Yan Zhang, Zhixi Bian and Ali Shakouri*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , power factor; , thermal conductivity. Bi2Te3 has been the most popular thermoelectric material at room that in an idealized TEC model, the cooling power density is inversely proportional to the TE leg length. [4,5,6] We of single and multi stage TE devices. Nomenclature Seebeck coefficient electrical conductivity thermal

  14. In-line thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pento, Robert (Algonquin, IL); Marks, James E. (Glenville, NY); Staffanson, Clifford D. (S. Glens Falls, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

  15. Thermoelectric transport through strongly correlated quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. A. Costi; V. Zlatic

    2010-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoelectric properties of strongly correlated quantum dots, described by a single level Anderson model coupled to conduction electron leads, is investigated using Wilson's numerical renormalization group method. We calculate the electronic contribution, $K_{\\rm e}$, to the thermal conductance, the thermopower, $S$, and the electrical conductance, $G$, of a quantum dot as a function of both temperature, $T$, and gate voltage, ${\\rm v}_g$, for strong, intermediate and weak Coulomb correlations, $U$, on the dot. For strong correlations and in the Kondo regime, we find that the thermopower exhibits two sign changes, at temperatures $T_{1}({\\rm v}_g)$ and $T_{2}({\\rm v}_g)$ with $T_{1}< T_{2}$. Such sign changes in $S(T)$ are particularly sensitive signatures of strong correlations and Kondo physics. The relevance of this to recent thermopower measurements of Kondo correlated quantum dots is discussed. We discuss the figure of merit, power factor and the degree of violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law in quantum dots. The extent of temperature scaling in the thermopower and thermal conductance of quantum dots in the Kondo regime is also assessed.

  16. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a .DELTA.T=100.degree. C. characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5.times.10.sup.-4 Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1.times.10.sup.-7 to 3.times.10.sup.-9 Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2.times.10.sup.-7 Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5.degree., and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof.

  17. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keville, R.F.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump is described for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a {Delta}T=100 C characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 3{times}10{sup {minus}9} Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2{times}10{sup {minus}7} Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5{degree}, and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof. 2 figs.

  18. Photoacoustic measurement of bandgaps of thermoelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, George (George Wei)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric materials are a promising class of direct energy conversion materials, usually consisting of highly doped semiconductors. The key to maximizing their thermal to electrical energy conversion lies in optimizing ...

  19. Device testing and characterization of thermoelectric nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muto, Andrew (Andrew Jerome)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has become evident in recent years that developing clean, sustainable energy technologies will be one of the world's greatest challenges in the 21st century. Thermoelectric materials can potentially make a contribution ...

  20. Theoretical efficiency of solar thermoelectric energy generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Gang

    This paper investigates the theoretical efficiency of solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). A model is established including thermal concentration in addition to optical concentration. Based on the model, the maximum ...

  1. Generalized drift-diffusion for microscopic thermoelectricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Parthiban

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although thermoelectric elements increasingly incorporate nano-scale features in similar material systems as other micro-electronic devices, the former are described in the language of irreversible thermodynamics while ...

  2. Probing thermoelectric transport with cold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles Grenier; Corinna Kollath; Antoine Georges

    2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose experimental protocols to reveal thermoelectric and thermal effects in the transport properties of ultracold fermionic atoms, using the two-terminal setup recently realized at ETH. We show in particular that, for two reservoirs having equal particle numbers but different temperatures initially, the observation of a transient particle number imbalance during equilibration is a direct evidence of thermoelectric (off-diagonal) transport coefficients. This is a time-dependent analogue of the Seebeck effect, and a corresponding analogue of the Peltier effect can be proposed. We reveal that in addition to the thermoelectric coupling of the constriction a thermoelectric coupling also arises due to the finite dilatation coefficient of the reservoirs. We present a theoretical analysis of the protocols, and assess their feasibility by estimating the corresponding temperature and particle number imbalances in realistic current experimental conditions.

  3. Thermoelectrics : material advancements and market applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monreal, Jorge

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric properties have been known since the initial discovery in 1821 by Thomas Seebeck, who found that a current flowed at the junction of two dissimilar metals when placed under a temperature differential. This ...

  4. The New Horizons Spacecraft Glen H. Fountain a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, S. Alan

    /1000 of the level near the Earth) require a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to supply electrical power thermoelectric generator (RTG), which uses the thermal energy created by the decay of plutonium 238 to produce, the spacecraft must carry its own energy source. The only currently available technology is the radioisotope

  5. Next Generation Radioisotope Generators | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    methods as new information becomes available. Complete the upgrade of an environmental control system for power system assembly glovebox at INL. Continue to support development...

  6. Operations of a Radioisotope-based Propulsion System Enabling CubeSat Exploration of the Outer Planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Steven Howe; Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploration to the outer planets is an ongoing endeavor but in the current economical environment, cost reduction is the forefront of all concern. The success of small satellites such as CubeSats launched to Near-Earth Orbit has lead to examine their potential use to achieve cheaper science for deep space applications. However, to achieve lower cost missions; hardware, launch and operations costs must be minimized. Additionally, as we push towards smaller exploration beds with relative limited power sources, allowing for adequate communication back to Earth is imperative. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research are developing the potential of utilizing an advanced, radioisotope-based system. This system will be capable of providing both the propulsion power needed to reach the destination and the additional requirements needed to maintain communication while at location. Presented here are a basic trajectory analysis, communication link budget and concept of operations of a dual-mode (thermal and electric) radioisotope-based propulsion system, for a proposed mission to Enceladus (Saturnian icy moon) using a 6U CubeSat payload. The radioisotope system being proposed will be the integration of three sub-systems working together to achieve the overall mission. At the core of the system, stored thermal energy from radioisotope decay is transferred to a passing propellant to achieve high thrust – useful for quick orbital maneuvering. An auxiliary closed-loop Brayton cycle can be operated in parallel to the thrusting mode to provide short bursts of high power for high data-rate communications back to Earth. Additionally, a thermal photovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system will use radiation heat losses from the core. This in turn can provide the electrical energy needed to utilize the efficiency of ion propulsion to achieve quick interplanetary transit times. The intelligent operation to handle all functions of this system under optimized conditions adds to the complexity of the mission architecture.

  7. New Opportunities for Outer Solar System Science using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, Robert J.; /SLAC; Amini, Rashied; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; /Caltech, JPL; Bennett, Gary L.; /Metaspace Enterprises; Brophy, John R.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Ervin, Joan; /Caltech, JPL; Fernandez, Yan R.; /Central Florida U.; Grundy, Will; /Lowell Observ.; Khan, Mohammed Omair; /Caltech, JPL; King, David Q.; /Aerojet; Lang, Jared; /Caltech, JPL; Meech, Karen J.; /Hawaii U.; Newhouse, Alan; Oleson, Steven R.; Schmidt, George R.; /GRC; Spilker, Thomas; West, John L.; /Caltech, JPL; ,

    2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, our questions and hypotheses about the Solar System's origin have surpassed our ability to deliver scientific instruments to deep space. The moons of the outer planets, the Trojan and Centaur minor planets, the trans-Neptunian objects (TNO), and distant Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) hold a wealth of information about the primordial conditions that led to the formation of our Solar System. Robotic missions to these objects are needed to make the discoveries, but the lack of deep-space propulsion is impeding this science. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) will revolutionize the way we do deep-space planetary science with robotic vehicles, giving them unprecedented mobility. Radioisotope electric generators and lightweight ion thrusters are being developed today which will make possible REP systems with specific power in the range of 5 to 10 W/kg. Studies have shown that this specific power range is sufficient to perform fast rendezvous missions from Earth to the outer Solar System and fast sample return missions. This whitepaper discusses how mobility provided by REP opens up entirely new science opportunities for robotic missions to distant primitive bodies. We also give an overview of REP technology developments and the required next steps to realize REP.

  8. Proposal for a phase-coherent thermoelectric transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giazotto, F.; Robinson, J. W. A.; Moodera, J. S.; Bergeret, F. S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution since their near perfect electron-hole symmetry leads to a negligible thermoelectric response; however, here we demonstrate theoretically a superconducting thermoelectric transistor which offers unparalleled figures of merit of up to ~ 45...

  9. Thermoelectric Behavior of Flexible Organic Nanocomposites with Carbon Nanotubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyung Who

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been significant researches about thermoelectric behaviors by applying carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer nanocomposites. Due to its thermally disconnected but electrically connected junctions between CNTs, the thermoelectric properties were...

  10. Synthesis and physical characterization of thermoelectric single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porras Pérez Guerrero, Juan Pablo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is much current interest in thermoelectric devices for sustainable energy. This thesis describes a research project on the synthesis and physical characterization of thermoelectric single crystals. 1In?Se?-[delta] ...

  11. Segregated Network Polymer-Carbon Nanotubes Composites For Thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Dasaroyong

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    nanocomposites were measured for carbon nanotubes and the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, was calculated at room temperature. The influence on thermoelectric properties from filler concentration, stabilizer materials and drying condition are also discussed....

  12. advanced thermoelectric materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    advanced thermoelectric materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Thermoelectrics :...

  13. Thermoelectric Research Takes Spotlight Improvements in Efficiency Help Fuel Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric Research Takes Spotlight Improvements in Efficiency Help Fuel Results m i c h i g of alternative energy sources, thermoelectrics may not immediately come to mind, but MSU and the College interest in alternative energy sources certainly has helped to bring thermoelectrics into the limelight

  14. Engineering Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties in Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties in Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons Hossein Karamitaheri1@iue.tuwien.ac.at (Dated: March 7, 2012) Abstract We theoretically investigate the thermoelectric properties of zigzag nanoribbon structure that exhibits very poor thermoelectric performance, we demonstrate how after a series

  15. Thermoelectric Properties of Superlattice Materials with Variably Spaced Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    Thermoelectric Properties of Superlattice Materials with Variably Spaced Layers T.D. Musho of electronic level alignment. We have investigated the thermoelectric proper- ties of VSSL structures using leads to enhancement of thermoelectric properties. This presumption is based on electrical studies

  16. Project: Driver and controller for a thermoelectric cooler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Project: Driver and controller for a thermoelectric cooler Supervisor: Prof. Sam Ben-Yaakov Year solutions. Based on one of the three thermoelectric phenomena ­ the Peltier effect ­ bi-directional control is achieved. The TEC (which is a Thermoelectric Cooler) uses this effect. The direction of the current through

  17. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials: From Superlattices to Nanocomposites Ronggui Yang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Gang

    Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials: From Superlattices to Nanocomposites Ronggui Yang1 conductivity led to a large increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit in several superlattice systems. Materials with a large thermoelectric figure of merit can be used to develop efficient solid-state devices

  18. A Solid Core Heatpipe Reactor with Cylindrical Thermoelectric Converter Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayre, Edwin D. [218 Brooke Acres Drive, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (United States); Vaidyanathan, Sam [6663 Pomander Place, San Jose, CA 95120 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear space power system that consists of a solid metal nuclear reactor core with heat pipes carrying energy to a cylindrical thermoelectric converter surrounding each of the heat pipes with a heat pipe radiator surrounding the thermoelectric converter is the most simple and reliable space power system. This means no single point of failure since each heat pipe and cylindrical converter is a separate power system and if one fails it will not affect the others. The heat pipe array in the solid core is designed so that if an isolated heat pipe or even two adjacent heat pipes fail, the remaining heat pipes will still transport the core heat without undue overheating of the uranium nitride fuel. The primary emphasis in this paper is on simplicity, reliability and fabricability of such a space nuclear power source. The core and heat pipes are made of Niobium 1% Zirconium alloy (Nb1Zr), with rhenium lined fuel tubes, bonded together by hot isostatic pressure (HIPing) and with sodium as the heat pipe working fluid, can be operated up to 1250K. The cylindrical thermoelectric converter is made by depositing the constituents of the converter around a Nb1%Zr tube and encasing it in a Nb 1% Zr alloy tube and HIPing the structure to get final bonding and to produce residual compressive stresses in all brittle materials in the converter. A radiator heat pipe filled with potassium that operates at 850K is bonded to the outside of the cylindrical converter for cooling. The solid core heat pipe and cylindrical converter are mated by welding during the final assembly. A solid core reactor with 150 heat pipes with a 0.650-inch (1.65 cm) ID and a 30-inch (76.2 cm) length with an output of 8 Watts per square inch as demonstrated by the SP100 PD2 cell tests will produce about 80 KW of electrical power. An advanced solid core reactor made with molybdenum 47% rhenium alloy, with lithium heat pipes and the PD2 theoretical output of 11 watts per square inch or advanced higher temperature converter to operate at 1350K could produce a greater output of approximately 100KW.

  19. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neilly, Brian; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representatives from the Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) to prepare a report. The group had a first meeting on 10 April 2013 followed by a working group meeting with presentations on 9th September 2013 where the scope of the work required to produce a report was agreed. The objectives of the report are: to describe the status of the use of medical radioisotopes in the UK; to anticipate the potential impact of shortages for the UK; to assess potential alternative avenues of medical radioisotope production for the UK m...

  20. MoS2 Nanoribbons Thermoelectric Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arab, Abbas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we have designed and simulated new thermoelectric generator based on monolayer and few-layer MoS2 nanoribbons. The proposed thermoelectric generator is composed of thermocouples made of both n-type and p-type MoS2 nanoribbon legs. Density Functional Tight-Binding Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (DFTB-NEGF) method has been used to calculate the transmission spectrum of MoS2 armchair and zigzag nanoribbons. Phonon transmission spectrum are calculated based on parameterization of Stillinger-Weber potential. Thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, is calculated using these electronic and phonon transmission spectrum. Monolayer and bilayer MoS2 armchair nanoribbons are found to have the highest ZT value for p-type and n-type legs, repectively. Moreover, we have compared the thermoelectric current of doped monolayer MoS2 armchair nanoribbons and SZi thin films. Results indicate that thermoelectric current of MoS2 monolayer nanoribbons is several orders of magnitude higher than that of Si thin films.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermoelectric nanostructured n-type silicon-germanium alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bathula, Sivaiah [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Gahtori, Bhasker; Tripathy, S. K.; Tyagi, Kriti; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay, E-mail: adhar@nplindia.org [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Jayasimhadri, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to their high thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit, nanostructured Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys are evolving as a potential replacement for their bulk counterparts in designing efficient radio-isotope TE generators. However, as the mechanical properties of these alloys are equally important in order to avoid in-service catastrophic failure of their TE modules, we report the strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance of nanostructured n-type Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering of mechanically alloyed nanopowders of its constituent elements. These mechanical properties show a significant enhancement, which has been correlated with the microstructural features at nano-scale, delineated by transmission electron microscopy.

  2. Measurement and characterization techniques for thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tritt, T.M.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterization of thermoelectric materials can pose many problems. A temperature difference can be established across these materials as an electrical current is passed due to the Peltier effect. The thermopower of these materials is quite large and thus large thermal voltages can contribute to many of the measurements necessary to investigate these materials. This paper will discuss the chracterization techniques necessary to investigate these materials and provide an overview of some of the potential systematic errors which can arise. It will also discuss some of the corrections one needs to consider. This should provide an introduction to the characterization and measurement of thermoelectric materials and provide references for a more in depth discussion of the concepts. It should also serve as an indication of the care that must be taken while working with thermoelectric materials.

  3. Measurement of the thermoelectric properties of quasicrystalline AlPdRe and AlCuFe alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, M.L.; LeGault, S.; Stroud, R.M.; Tritt, T.M.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report the measurement of the thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and thermoelectric power on two quasicrystalline compounds, Al{sub 70}Pd{sub 20}Re{sub 10} and Al{sub 62.5}Cu{sub 25}Fe{sub 12.5}. These materials are found to possess a thermal conductivity of order 1 W/m{center{underscore}dot}K, while retaining their semimetallic conductivity. These features coupled with moderately large thermopowers, up to 55 {micro}V/K, imply that the general class of quasicrystalline compounds warrants careful investigation for their potential as new thermoelectric materials.

  4. Isotopic power supplies for space and terrestrial systems: quality assurance by Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannigan, R.L.; Harnar, R.R.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sandia National Laboratories participation in Quality Assurance (QA) programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space and terrestrial systems over the past 15 years is summarized. Basic elements of the program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are also presented. In addition, the outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  5. Transport in Charged Colloids Driven by Thermoelectricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alois Würger

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermal diffusion coefficient DT of a charged colloid in a temperature gradient, and find that it is to a large extent determined by the thermoelectric response of the electrolyte solution. The thermally induced salinity gradient leads in general to a strong increase with temperature. The difference of the heat of transport of coions and counterions gives rise to a thermoelectric field that drives the colloid to the cold or to the warm, depending on the sign of its charge. Our results provide an explanation for recent experimental findings on thermophoresis in colloidal suspensions.

  6. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  7. Holey Silicon as an Efficient Thermoelectric Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Jinyao; Wang, Hung-Ta; Hyun Lee, Dong; Fardy, Melissa; Huo, Ziyang; Russell, Thomas P.; Yang, Peidong

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work investigated the thermoelectric properties of thin silicon membranes that have been decorated with high density of nanoscopic holes. These ?holey silicon? (HS) structures were fabricated by either nanosphere or block-copolymer lithography, both of which are scalable for practical device application. By reducing the pitch of the hexagonal holey pattern down to 55 nm with 35percent porosity, the thermal conductivity of HS is consistently reduced by 2 orders of magnitude and approaches the amorphous limit. With a ZT value of 0.4 at room temperature, the thermoelectric performance of HS is comparable with the best value recorded in silicon nanowire system.

  8. Test plan/procedure for the shock limiting device of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator package mounting subsystem 145. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoh, J.A.

    1995-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This document defines the procedure to be used in the 18 inch drop test to be used for design verification of the RTG Transportation System Package Mounting.

  9. Next Generation Radioisotope Generators | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire Solar541,9337,2April 2013 ESH&SNext Big IdeaPower

  10. Thermoelectric Properties of Some Cobalt Phosphide-Arsenide Compounds Anucha Watcharapasorn*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric Properties of Some Cobalt Phosphide-Arsenide Compounds Anucha Watcharapasorn been synthesized and their thermoelectric properties measured. All three samples show semiconductingAsx system have also been synthesized and their thermoelectric properties are currently being investigated

  11. On the role of material property gradients in noncontacting thermoelectric NDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    On the role of material property gradients in noncontacting thermoelectric NDE Hector Carreon that sense the thermoelectric currents produced by directional heating and cooling of the specimen and tangential magnetic fields produced by the resulting thermoelectric currents. Experimental results from

  12. Highly Ordered Vertical Silicon Nanowire Array Composite Thin Films for Thermoelectric Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    Highly Ordered Vertical Silicon Nanowire Array Composite Thin Films for Thermoelectric Devices for thermoelectric devices are presented. Inter- ference lithography was used to pattern square lattice photoresist device. Key words: Silicon nanowires, thermoelectrics, cross-plane measurements, nanowire composite

  13. Thermoelectric transport perpendicular to thin-film heterostructures calculated using the Monte Carlo technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric transport perpendicular to thin-film heterostructures calculated using the Monte The Monte Carlo technique is used to calculate electrical as well as thermoelectric transport properties ballistic thermionic transport and fully diffusive thermoelectric transport is also described. DOI: 10

  14. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details: Thermoelectric generators, waste heat recovery, automotive exhaust, skutterudites INTRODUCTION In part I

  15. 2014 NASA Planetary Science Summer School Applications Open NASA is accepting applications from science and engineering post-docs,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Thermoelectric Generators (MMRTG). The session in August will have a targeted focus on spacecraft power systems power system trade-offs, including the use of solar electric vs. Multi-mission Radioisotope

  16. Plastic Gamma Sensors: An Application in Detection of Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Mukhopadhyay

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief survey of plastic scintillators for various radiation measurement applications is presented here. The utility of plastic scintillators for practical applications such as gamma radiation monitoring, real-time radioisotope detection and screening is evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. This study also reports results of Monte Carlo-type predictive responses of common plastic scintillators in gamma and neutron radiation fields. Small-size plastic detectors are evaluated for static and dynamic gamma-ray detection sensitivity of selected radiation sources.

  17. Titanium nitride electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI); Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film of titanium nitride as an electrode deposited onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  18. Molybdenum oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film comprising molybdenum oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  19. Design concepts for improved thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slack, G.A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some new guidelines are given that should be useful in the search for thermoelectric materials that are better than those currently available. In particular, clathrate and cryptoclathrate compounds with filler atoms in their cages offer the ability to substantially lower the lattice thermal conductivity.

  20. Measurements and Standards for Thermoelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the development of these materials for applications involving waste heat recovery and solid-state cooling. Our for vehicular waste heat recovery would lead to a 10% improvement in fuel efficiency, translating to a fuel heat recovery and solid-state cooling applications. · The widespread use of thermoelectric converters