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Sample records for radioisotope thermoelectric generator

  1. OSTIblog Articles in the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Topic |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

  2. Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators January 29, 2008 - 7:06pm Addthis Mars Science Laboratory, aka Curiosity, is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term program of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. It's powered by the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Photo courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech. Mars Science Laboratory, aka

  3. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transport trailer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ard, K.E.; King, D.A.; Leigh, H.; Satoh, J.A.

    1995-01-20

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System (System 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the U.S. Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  4. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator reliability and safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, R.; Klein, J.

    1989-01-01

    There are numerous occasions when a planetary mission requires energy in remote areas of the solar system. Anytime power is required much beyond Mars or the Asteroid Belts, solar power is not an option. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) was developed for such a mission requirement. It is a relatively small and lightweight power source that can produce power under adverse conditions. Just this type of source has become the backbone of the power system for far outer plant exploration. Voyagers I and II are utilizing RTGs, which will soon power the Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter and the Ulysses spacecraft to study the solar poles. The paper discusses RTG operation including thermoelectric design, converter design, general-purpose heat source; RTG reliability including design, testing, experience, and launch approval; and RTG safety issues and methods of ensuring safety.

  5. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E.

    1990-10-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable US Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The US Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, D.A.

    1994-11-10

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan.

  7. A facility to remotely assemble radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engstrom, J.W.; Goldmann, L.H.; Truitt, R.W.

    1992-07-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are electrical power sources that use heat from decaying radioisotopes to directly generate electrical power. The RTG assembly process is performed in an inert atmosphere inside a large glovebox, which is surrounded by radiation shielding to reduce exposure to neutron and gamma radiation from the radioisotope heat source. In the past, allowable dose rate limits have allowed direct, manual assembly methods; however, current dose rate limits require a thicker radiation shielding that makes direct, manual assembly infeasible. To minimize RTG assembly process modifications, telerobotic systems are being investigated to perform remote assembly tasks. Telerobotic systems duplicate human arm motion and incorporate force feedback sensitivity to handle objects and tools in a human-like manner. A telerobotic system with two arms and a three-dimensional (3-D) vision system can be used to perform remote RTG assembly tasks inside gloveboxes and cells using unmodified, normal hand tools.

  8. A facility to remotely assemble radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engstrom, J.W.; Goldmann, L.H.; Truitt, R.W. )

    1993-01-15

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are electrical power sources that use heat from decaying radioisotopes to directly generate electrical power. The RTG assembly process is performed in an inert atmosphere inside a large glovebox, which is surrounded by radiation shielding to reduce exposure to neutron and gamma radiation from the radioisotope heat source. In the past, allowable dose rate limits have allowed direct, manual assembly methods; however, current dose rate limits require a thicker radiation shielding that makes direct, manual assembly infeasible. To minimize RTG assembly process modifications, telerobotic systems are being investigated to perform remote assembly tasks. Telerobotic systems duplicate human arm motion and incorporate force feedback sensitivity to handle objects and tools in a human-like manner. A telerobotic system with two arms and a three-dimensional (3-D) vision system can be used to perform remote RTG assembly tasks inside gloveboxes and cells using unmodified, normal hand tools.

  9. Real-time monitoring during transportation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) using the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that will be used to support the Cassini mission will be transported in the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS). To ensure that the RTGs will not be affected during transportation, all parameters that could adversely affect RTG{close_quote}s performance must be monitored. The Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS) for the RTGTS displays, monitors, and records all critical packaging and trailer system parameters. The IDAS also monitors the package temperature control system, RTG package shock and vibration data, and diesel fuel levels for the diesel fuel tanks. The IDAS alarms if any of these parameters reach an out-of-limit condition. This paper discusses the real-time monitoring during transportation of the Cassini RTGs using the RTGTS IDAS. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Real-time monitoring during transportation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) using the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, Barry K.

    1997-01-10

    The Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that will be used to support the Cassini mission will be transported in the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS). To ensure that the RTGs will not be affected during transportation, all parameters that could adversely affect RTG's performance must be monitored. The Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS) for the RTGTS displays, monitors, and records all critical packaging and trailer system parameters. The IDAS also monitors the package temperature control system, RTG package shock and vibration data, and diesel fuel levels for the diesel fuel tanks. The IDAS alarms if any of these parameters reach an out-of-limit condition. This paper discusses the real-time monitoring during transportation of the Cassini RTGs using the RTGTS IDAS.

  11. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  12. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  14. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

    1998-01-15

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  16. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The US Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent ma or changes in the US Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined.

  17. Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deaton, R.L.; Goebel, C.J.; Amos, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al. (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Analytical thermal model validation for Cassini radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, E.I.

    1997-12-31

    The Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft is designed to rely, without precedent, on the waste heat from its three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to warm the propulsion module subsystem, and the RTG end dome temperature is a key determining factor of the amount of waste heat delivered. A previously validated SINDA thermal model of the RTG was the sole guide to understanding its complex thermal behavior, but displayed large discrepancies against some initial thermal development test data. A careful revalidation effort led to significant modifications and adjustments of the model, which result in a doubling of the radiative heat transfer from the heat source support assemblies to the end domes and bring up the end dome and flange temperature predictions to within 2 C of the pertinent test data. The increased inboard end dome temperature has a considerable impact on thermal control of the spacecraft central body. The validation process offers an example of physically-driven analytical model calibration with test data from not only an electrical simulator but also a nuclear-fueled flight unit, and has established the end dome temperatures of a flight RTG where no in-flight or ground-test data existed before.

  19. EIS-0302: Transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Assembly and Test Operations From the Mound Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposed transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) operations at the Mound Site near Miamisburg, Ohio, to an alternative DOE site.

  20. Specification for strontium-90 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, T.; Himes, J.; Lieberman, A.; McGrew, J.; Owings, D.; Schumann, F.

    1983-04-01

    A conceptual design for a demonstration 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator has been created for the Department of Energy. The design effort was divided into two tasks, viz., create a design specification for a capsule strength member that utilizes a standard Strontium-90 fluoride-filled WESF inner liner, and create a conceptual design for a 500-watt(e) RTG. Both tasks have been accomplished. The strength-member specification was designed to survive an external pressure of 24,500 psi and meet the requirements of special-form radioisotope heat sources. Therefore the capsule can, if desired, be licensed for domestic and international transport. The design for the RTG features a radioisotopic heat source, an array of nine capsules in a tungsten biological shield, four current-technology series-connected thermoelectric-conversion modules, low-conductivity thermal insulation, and a passive finned-housing radiator for waste-heat dissipation. The preliminary RTG specification formulated previous to contract award has been met or exceeded. The power source will generate the required power for the required service period at 28 volts dc with a conversion efficiency of 8%, provided the existing in-pool capsules at WESF meet the assumed thermal-inventory requirements.

  1. Work plan for the fabrication of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system package mounting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoh, J.A.

    1994-11-09

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) has available a dedicated system for the transportation of RTG payloads. The RTG Transportation System (System 100) is comprised of four systems; the Package (System 120), the Semi-trailer (System 140), the Gas Management (System 160), and the Facility Transport (System 180). This document provides guidelines on the fabrication, technical requirements, and quality assurance of the Package Mounting (Subsystem 145), part of System 140. The description follows the Development Control Requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, EP 2.4, Rev. 3.

  2. Environmental assessment of decommissioning radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in northwest Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosseini, A.; Standring, W.J.F.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Amundsen, I.B.

    2007-07-01

    This article presents some results from assessment work conducted as part of a joint Norwegian-Russian project to decommission radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in Northwest Russia. Potential worst case accident scenarios, based on the decommissioning procedures for RTGs, were assessed to study possible radiation effects to the environment. Close contact with exposed RTG sources will result in detrimental health effects. However, doses to marine biota from ingestion of radioactivity under the worst-case marine scenario studied were lower than threshold limits given in IAEA literature. (authors)

  3. Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D.; Bohne, W. A.

    1995-03-16

    The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.

  4. Certification testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping counter is a Type B packaging currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this packaging design. This report documents the testing portion of the design verification. Six tests were conducted on a prototype package: a water spray test, a 4-foot normal conditions drop test, a 30-foot drop test, a 40-inch puncture test, a 30-minute thermal test, and an 8-hour immersion test.

  5. A compendium of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system and recent programmatic changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.; McCoy, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    Because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, usually plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with 10 CFR 71 (1994). To meet these regulatory requirements, US DOE commissioned Westinghouse Hanford Co. in 1988 to develop a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) that would fully comply while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal transport conditions (eg, mainly shock and heat). RTGTS is scheduled for completion Dec. 1996 and will be available to support NASA`s Cassini mission to Saturn in Oct. 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS project, discusses the hardware being produced, and summarizes various programmatic and management innovations required by recent changes at DOE.

  6. System and method to improve the power output and longetivity of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Jr., Alfred L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the helium generated by the alpha emissions of a thermoelectric generator during space travel for cooling, the thermal degradation of the thermoelectric generator can be slowed. Slowing degradation allows missions to be longer with little additional expense or payload.

  7. Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG`S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG`S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria.

  8. Radiation Environments and Exposure Considerations for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, William M.; Low, Nora M.; Zillmer, Andrew; Johnson, Gregory A.; Normand, Eugene

    2006-01-20

    The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) is the next generation (RTG) being developed by DOE to provide reliable, long-life electric power for NASA's planetary exploration programs. The MMRTG is being developed by Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and Teledyne Energy Systems Incorporated (TESI) for use on currently planned and projected flyby, orbital and planet landing missions. This is a significant departure from the design philosophy of the past which was to match specific mission requirements to RTG design capabilities. Undefined mission requirements provide a challenge to system designers by forcing them to put a design envelope around 'all possible missions'. These multi-mission requirements include internal and external radiation sources. Internal sources include the particles ejected by decaying Pu-238 and its daughters plus particles resulting from the interaction of these particles with other MMRTG materials. External sources include the full spectrum of charged particle radiation surrounding planets with magnetic fields and the surfaces of extraterrestrial objects not shielded by magnetic fields. The paper presents the results of investigations into the environments outlined above and the impact of radiation exposure on potential materials to be used on MMRTG and ground support personnel. Mission requirements were also reviewed to evaluate total integrated dose and to project potential shielding requirements for materials. Much of the information on mission shielding requirements was provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The primary result is an ionizing radiation design curve which indicates the limits to which a particular mission can take the MMRTG in terms of ionizing radiation exposure. Estimates of personnel radiation exposure during ground handling are also provided.

  9. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  10. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests: RTG-1 and RTG-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.; George, T.G.

    1996-07-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  11. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  12. Mass Properties Testing and Evaluation for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felicione, Frank S.

    2009-12-01

    Mass properties (MP) measurements were performed for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), serial number (S/N) 0X730401, the power system designated for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Measurements were made using new mounting fixtures at the mass properties testing station in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Space and Security Power Systems Facility (SSPSF). The objective of making mass properties measurements was to determine the generator’s flight configured mass and center of mass or center of gravity (CG). Using an extremely accurate platform scale, the mass of the as-tested generator was determined to be 100.117 ± 0.007 lb. Weight accuracy was determined by checking the platform scale with calibrated weights immediately prior to weighing the MMRTG.a CG measurement accuracy was assessed by surrogate testing using an inert mass standard for which the CG could be readily determined analytically. Repeated testing using the mass standard enabled the basic measurement precision of the system to be quantified in terms of a physical confidence interval about the measured CG position. However, repetitious testing with the MMRTG itself was not performed in deference to the gamma and neutron radiation dose to operators and the damage potential to the flight unit from extra handling operations. Since the mass standard had been specially designed to have a total weight and CG location that closely matched the MMRTG, the uncertainties determined from its testing were assigned to the MMRTG as well. On this basis, and at the 99% confidence level, a statistical analysis found the direct, as-measured MMRTG-MSL CG to be located at 10.816 ± 0.0011 in. measured perpendicular from the plane of the lower surface of the generator’s mounting lugs (Z direction), and offset from the generator’s long axis centerline in the X and Y directions by 0.0968 ± 0.0040 in. and 0.0276 ± 0.0026 in., respectively. These uncertainties are based simply on the

  13. Disposition of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators Currently Located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory - 12232

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, J.; Patterson, J.; DeRoos, K.; Patterson, J.E.; Mitchell, K.G.

    2012-07-01

    Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded SEC Federal Services Corporation (SEC) a 34-building demolition and disposal (D and D) project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that included the disposition of six Strontium (Sr-90) powered Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) stored outside of ORNL Building 3517. Disposition of the RTGs is very complex both in terms of complying with disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements for packaging and transportation in commerce. Two of the RTGs contain elemental mercury which requires them to be Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) compliant prior to disposal. In addition, all of the RTGs exceed the Class C waste concentration limits under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Waste Classification Guidelines. In order to meet the LDR requirements and Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) WAC, a site specific treatability variance for mercury was submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to allow macro-encapsulation to be an acceptable treatment standard for elemental mercury. By identifying and confirming the design configuration of the mercury containing RTGs, the SEC team proved that the current configuration met the macro-encapsulation standard of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 268.45. The SEC Team also worked with NNSS to demonstrate that all radioisotope considerations are compliant with the NNSS low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility performance assessment and WAC. Lastly, the SEC team determined that the GE2000 Type B cask met the necessary size, weight, and thermal loading requirements for five of the six RTGs. The sixth RTG (BUP-500) required a one-time DOT shipment exemption request due to the RTG's large size. The DOT exemption justification for the BUP-500 relies on the inherent robust construction and material make-up of the BUP- 500 RTG. DOE-ORO, SEC, and

  14. Vibration Testing of the Pluto/New Horizons Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles D. Griffin

    2006-06-01

    The Radioisotopic Thermal Generator (RTG) for the Pluto/New Horizons spacecraft was subjected to a flight dynamic acceptance test to demonstrate that it would perform successfully following launch. Seven RTGs of this type had been assembled and tested at Mound, Ohio from 1984 to 1997. This paper chronicles major events in establishing a new vibration test laboratory at the Idaho National Laboratory and the nineteen days of dynamic testing.

  15. GPHS-RTG system explosion test direct course experiment 5000. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) has been designed and is being built to provide electrical power for spacecrafts to be launched on the Space Shuttle. The objective of the RTG System Explosion Test was to expose a mock-up of the GPHS-RTG with a simulated heat source to the overpressure and impulse representative of a potential upper magnitude explosion of the Space Shuttle. The test was designed so that the heat source module would experience an overpressure at which the survival of the fuel element cladding would be expected to be marginal. Thus, the mock-up was placed where the predicted incident overpressure would be 1300 psi. The mock-up was mounted in an orientation representative of the launch configuration on the spacecraft to be used on the NASA Galileo Mission. The incident overpressure measured was in the range of 1400 to 2100 psi. The mock-up and simulated heat source were destroyed and only very small fragments were recovered. This damage is believed to have resulted from a combination of the overpressure and impact by very high velocity fragments from the ANFO sphere. Post-test analysis indicated that extreme working of the iridium clad material occurred, indicative of intensive impulsive loading on the metal.

  16. Thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pryslak, N.E.

    1974-02-26

    A thermoelectric generator having a rigid coupling or stack'' between the heat source and the hot strap joining the thermoelements is described. The stack includes a member of an insulating material, such as ceramic, for electrically isolating the thermoelements from the heat source, and a pair of members of a ductile material, such as gold, one each on each side of the insulating member, to absorb thermal differential expansion stresses in the stack. (Official Gazette)

  17. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test activities that were performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of {ital Title} 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, {open_quote}{open_quote}Part 71{close_quote}{close_quote} (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy{close_quote}s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, {ital Transit} {ital Drop} {ital Procedure} (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G{close_quote}s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G{close_quote}s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

  19. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-03

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing ~24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Details analysis indicates that the design offers a substantial improvement in specific power over the present generator of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There are three copies in the file.

  20. Component for thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Purdy, David L.

    1977-01-01

    In a thermoelectric generator, a component comprises a ceramic insulator, having over limited areas thereof, each area corresponding to a terminal end of thermoelectric wires, a coating of a first metal which adheres to the insulator, and an electrical thermoelectric junction including a second metal which wets said first metal and adheres to said terminal ends but does not wet said insulator, and a cloth composed of electrically insulating threads interlaced with thermoelectric wires.

  1. Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for ...

  2. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-01-01

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design.

  3. Solar thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toberer, Eric S.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-05-03

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from concentrated sunlight. A novel detailed balance model for STEGs is provided and applied to both state-of-the-art and idealized materials. STEGs can produce electricity by using sunlight to heat one side of a thermoelectric generator. While concentrated sunlight can be used to achieve extremely high temperatures (and thus improved generator efficiency), the solar absorber also emits a significant amount of black body radiation. This emitted light is the dominant loss mechanism in these generators. In this invention, we propose a solution to this problem that eliminates virtually all of the emitted black body radiation. This enables solar thermoelectric generators to operate at higher efficiency and achieve said efficient with lower levels of optical concentration. The solution is suitable for both single and dual axis solar thermoelectric generators.

  4. Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides overview of DOE-supported projects in automotive thermoelectric generators and heaters/air conditioners

  5. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Thermoelectricity is produced by applying a temperature differential to dissimilar electrically conducting or semiconducting materials, thereby producing a voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference. Thermoelectric generators use this effect to directly convert heat into electricity; however, presently-known generators have low efficiencies due to the production of high currents which in turn cause large resistive heating losses. Some thermoelectric generators operate at efficiencies between 4% and 7% in the 800{degrees} to 1200{degrees}C range. According to its major aspects and bradly stated, the present invention is an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. In particular, the invention is a thermoelectric generator that juxtaposes a superconducting material and a semiconducting material - so that the superconducting and the semiconducting materials touch - to convert heat energy into electrical energy without resistive losses in the temperature range below the critical temperature of the superconducting material. Preferably, an array of superconducting material is encased in one of several possible configurations within a second material having a high thermal conductivity, preferably a semiconductor, to form a thermoelectric generator.

  6. Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator ... More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat ...

  7. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  8. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1998-05-05

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat is disclosed. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device. 4 figs.

  9. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, John D.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  10. Automotive Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) Controls

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Addresses functions to be controlled that make the difference between a barely functional and an efficient, cost-effective thermoelectric generator(TEG)

  11. Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency ... More Documents & Publications Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation ...

  12. Thermoelectric Alloys and Devices for Radioisotope Space Power Systems: State of the Art and Current Developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, W.; Dick, P.; Beaudry, B.; Gorsuch, P.; Skrabek, E.

    1989-01-01

    Lead telluride and silicon germanium type alloys have served over the past several decades as the preferred thermoelectric conversion materials for U. S. radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power systems for planetary deep space exploration missions. The Pioneer missions to Jupiter and Jupiter/Saturn and the Viking Mars Lander missions employed TAGS-2N (lead and germanium telluride derivatives) power conversion devices. Since 1976, silicon germanium (SiGe) alloys, incorporated into the unicouple device, have evolved as the thermoelectric materials of choice for U. S. RTG powered space missions. These include the U. S. Air Force Lincoln Experimental Satellites 8 & 9 for communications, in 1976, followed in 1977 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Voyager 1 and 2 planetary missions. In 1989, advanced SiGe RTGs were used to power the Galileo exploration of Jupiter and, in 1990, will be used to power the Ulysses investigation of the Sun. In addition, SiGe technology has been chosen to provide RTG power for the 1995 Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby mission and the 1996 Cassini Saturn orbiter mission. Summaries of the flight performance data for these systems are presented.; Current U. S. Department of Energy thermoelectric development activities include (1) the development of conversion devices based on hi-density, close packed couple arrays and (2) the development of improved performance silicon germanium type thermoelectric materials. The silicon germanium type "multicouple", being developed in conjunction with the Modular RTG program, is discussed in a companion paper. A lead telluride type close-packed module, discussed herein, offers the promise of withstanding high velocity impacts and, thus, is a candidate for a Mars Penetrator application.; Recent projects sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, including the Improved Thermoelectric Materials and Modular Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator programs, have shown that improvements

  13. The Industrialization of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Devices An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

  14. Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Generator...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presents progress in cost-effective thermoelectric generator fabrication by thermal spraying of thermoelectric materials and other functional layers directly onto automotive ...

  15. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bass, John C.

    1997-04-29

    A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

  16. Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Test results for low and high temperature thermoelectric ...

  17. Manufacture of thermoelectric generator structures by fiber drawing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Timothy J; Simpson, John T; West, David L

    2014-11-18

    Methods of manufacturing a thermoelectric generator via fiber drawing and corresponding or associated thermoelectric generator devices are provided.

  18. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  19. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 5 copies in the file.

  20. Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power ...

  1. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful ...

  2. Feasibility of OnBoard Thermoelectric Generation for Improved...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OnBoard Thermoelectric Generation for Improved Vehicle Fuel Economy Feasibility of OnBoard Thermoelectric Generation for Improved Vehicle Fuel Economy Poster presentation at the ...

  3. Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator A low temperature TEG has been built and tested providing ...

  4. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System ...

  5. Overview of Progress in Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Japanese Activities in ...

  6. A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System for Light-Duty Vehicles Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

  7. Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric...

  8. Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) Fuel Displacement Potential using...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Assessment of fuel savings with thermoelectric generators (TEGs) using detailed model of GM-developed TEG as part of the engine connected to a dynamometer that emulates the rest of ...

  9. Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Discusses thermoelectric power generation technologies as applied to waste heat recovery, renewable thermal energy sources, and energy harvesting kajikawa.pdf (4.47 MB) More Documents & Publications Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Progress in Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Japanese Activities in Thermoelectrics

  10. Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) Fuel Displacement Potential using

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_fairbanks.pdf (7.06 MB) More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Engine-in-the-Loop and Simulation | Department of Energy

    Assessment of

  11. Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

    2012-10-16

    An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

  12. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  13. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bel,; Lon E.; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2009-10-27

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  14. Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator and Its Applicability to an Illustrative Space Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A.; Mukunda, M.; Or, T.; Kumar, V.; Summers, G.

    1994-02-14

    The paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator (RTPV), to complement similar studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and Stirling Generators (RSGs) previously published by the author. Instead of conducting a generic study, it was decided to focus the design effort by directing it at a specific illustrative space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by JPL, envisages a direct eight-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a post-encounter cruise lasting up to one year.

  15. Method of operating a thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-11-05

    A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.

  16. Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator and Its Application to the Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Or, Chuen T; Kumar, Vasanth; Summers, G.

    1994-01-16

    This paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator. Instead of conducting a generic study, it was decided to focus the design by directing it at a specific space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by JPL, envisages a direct eight-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a one-year post-encounter cruise. Because of Pluto's long distance from the sun (30-50 A.U.) and the mission's large energy demand, JPL has baselined the use of a radioisotope power system for the PFF spacecraft. The chief advantage of Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power systems over current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) is their much higher conversion efficiency, which greatly reduces the mass and cost of the required radioisotope heat source. Those attributes are particularly important for the PFF mission, which - like all NASA missions under current consideration - is severely mass- and cost-limited. The paper describes the design of the radioisotope heat source, the thermophotovoltaic converter, and the heat rejection system; and presents the results of the thermal, electrical, and structural analysis and the design optimization of the integrated RTPV system. It briefly summarizes the RTPV system's current technology status, and lists a number of factors that my greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. Our analytical results show very substantial performance improvements over an RTG designed for the same mission, and suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the PFF mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low

  17. Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses thermoelectric power generation technologies as applied to waste heat recovery, renewable thermal energy sources, and energy harvesting

  18. Thermoelectric generator having a resiliently mounted removable thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Purdy, David L.; Shapiro, Zalman M.; Hursen, Thomas F.; Maurer, Gerould W.

    1976-11-02

    An electrical generator having an Isotopic Heat Capsule including radioactive fuel rod 21 as a primary heat source and Thermoelectric Modules 41 and 43 as converters. The Biological Shield for the Capsule is suspended from Spiders at each end each consisting of pretensioned rods 237 and 239 defining planes at right angles to each other. The Modules are mounted in cups 171 of transition members 173 of a heat rejection Fin Assembly whose fins 195 and 197 extend from both sides of the transition member 173 for effective cooling.

  19. PACCAR/Hi-Z Thermoelectric Generator Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PACCAR/Hi-Z Thermoelectric Generator Project PACCAR/Hi-Z Thermoelectric Generator Project 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Hi-Z Technology, Inc. 2002_deer_bergstrand.pdf (5.53 MB) More Documents & Publications Self-powered Hydrogen + Oxygen Injection System The Effects of an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator of a GM Sierra Pickup Truck Recent Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics

  20. Titanium nitride electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, Robert F.; Schmatz, Duane J.; Hunt, Thomas K.

    1987-12-22

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film of titanium nitride as an electrode deposited onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  1. Molybdenum oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmatz, Duane J.

    1989-01-01

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film comprising molybdenum oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  2. Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Generator Using Thermal Spray

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presents progress in cost-effective thermoelectric generator fabrication by thermal spraying of thermoelectric materials and other functional layers directly onto automotive exhaust pipes with enhanced performance, durability, and heat transfer

  3. Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with Closed-Loop ... Solid State Vehicular Generators and HVAC Development An Innovative Pressure Sensor ...

  4. Design and development of thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prem Kumar, D. S. Mahajan, Ishan Vardhan Anbalagan, R. Mallik, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-04-24

    In this paper we discuss the fabrication, working and characteristics of a thermoelectric generator made up of p and n type semiconductor materials. The device consists of Fe{sub 0.2}Co{sub 3.8}Sb{sub 11.5}Te{sub 0.5} (zT = 1.04 at 818 K) as the n-type and Zn4Sb3 (zT=0.8 at 550 K) as the p-type material synthesized by vacuum hot press method. Carbon paste has been used to join the semiconductor legs to metal (Molybdenum) electrodes to reduce the contact resistance. The multi-couple (4 legs) generator results a maximum output power of 1.083 mW at a temperature difference of 240 K between the hot and cold sides. In this investigation, an I-V characteristic, maximum output power of the thermoelectric module is presented. The efficiency of thermoelectric module is obtained as ? = 0.273 %.

  5. Thermoelectric Generator Development at Renault Trucks-Volvo...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    systems PDF icon aixala.pdf More Documents & Publications RENOTER Project RENOTER Project Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Generator Using Thermal Spray

  6. Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Model developed provides effective guidelines to designing thermoelectric generation systems for automotive waste heat recovery applications deer12zhang2.pdf (2.06 MB) More ...

  7. A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reliable power for decades. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives: continuous, autonomous, reliable power for ...

  8. Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Discusses progress of thermoelectric generator development at BSST and assessment of potential to enter commercial operation in vehicles crane.pdf (2.32 MB) More Documents & ...

  9. Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Discusses thermoelectric power generation technologies as applied to waste heat recovery, renewable thermal energy sources, and energy harvesting kajikawa.pdf (4.47 MB) More ...

  10. Thermoelectric Generator Performance for Passenger Vehicles | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. deer10_meisner.pdf (2.38 MB) More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM Energy

  11. Microscreen radiation shield for thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Thomas K.; Novak, Robert F.; McBride, James R.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention provides a microscreen radiation shield which reduces radiative heat losses in thermoelectric generators such as sodium heat engines without reducing the efficiency of operation of such devices. The radiation shield is adapted to be interposed between a reaction zone and a means for condensing an alkali metal vapor in a thermoelectric generator for converting heat energy directly to electrical energy. The radiation shield acts to reflect infrared radiation emanating from the reaction zone back toward the reaction zone while permitting the passage of the alkali metal vapor to the condensing means. The radiation shield includes a woven wire mesh screen or a metal foil having a plurality of orifices formed therein. The orifices in the foil and the spacing between the wires in the mesh is such that radiant heat is reflected back toward the reaction zone in the interior of the generator, while the much smaller diameter alkali metal atoms such as sodium pass directly through the orifices or along the metal surfaces of the shield and through the orifices with little or no impedance.

  12. The Effects of an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator of a GM Sierra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator of a GM Sierra Pickup Truck The Effects of an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator of a GM Sierra Pickup Truck 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions ...

  13. Method and system for radioisotope generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toth, James J.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; O'Hara, Matthew J.

    2014-07-15

    A system and a process for producing selected isotopic daughter products from parent materials characterized by the steps of loading the parent material upon a sorbent having a functional group configured to selectively bind the parent material under designated conditions, generating the selected isotopic daughter products, and eluting said selected isotopic daughter products from the sorbent. In one embodiment, the process also includes the step of passing an eluent formed by the elution step through a second sorbent material that is configured to remove a preselected material from said eluent. In some applications a passage of the material through a third sorbent material after passage through the second sorbent material is also performed.

  14. Thermoelectric Generator Development at Renault Trucks-Volvo Group |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Reviews project to study the potential of thermoelectricity for diesel engines of trucks and passenger cars, where relatively low exhaust temperature is challenging for waste heat recovery systems aixala.pdf (2.28 MB) More Documents & Publications RENOTER Project RENOTER Project Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Generator Using Thermal Spray

  15. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lal, Amit; Li, Hui; Blanchard, James P.; Henderson, Douglass L.

    2002-01-01

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  16. Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Model developed provides effective guidelines to designing thermoelectric generation systems for automotive waste heat recovery applications

  17. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator F7 Flight Unit Acceptance Buy Off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-20

    These are viewgraphs from the subject presentation. The LMMS E-7 history is outlined; Qualification and use of the F-7 GPHS-RTG for the Cassini mission; and the F-7 acceptance test program and performance are described.

  18. Potential improvements in SiGe radioisotope thermoelectric generator performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mowery, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with NASA{close_quote}s slogan: {open_quotes}Better, Cheaper, Faster,{close_quotes} this paper will address potential improvements to SiGe RTG technology to make them Better. RTGs are doubtless cheaper than {open_quotes}paper designs{close_quotes} which are better and cheaper until development, performance and safety test costs are considered. RTGs have the advantage of being fully developed and tested in the rigors of space for over twenty years. Further, unless a new system can be accelerated tested, as were the RTGs, they cannot be deployed reliably unless a number of systems have succeeded for test periods exceeding the mission lifetime. Two potential developments are discussed that can improve the basic RTG performance by 10 to 40{sup +}{percent} depending on the mission profile. These improvements could be demonstrated in years. Accelerated testing could also be performed in this period to preserve existing RTG reliability. Data from a qualification tested RTG will be displayed, while not definitive, to support the conclusions. Finally, it is anticipated that other investigators will be encouraged to suggest further modifications to the basic RTG design to improve its performance. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Modular Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Section 2.0 of this report summarizes the MOD-RTG reference flight design, and Section 3.0 discusses the Ground Demonstration System design. Multicouple technology development is discussed in Section 4.0, and Section 5.0 lists all published technical papers prepared during the course of the contract.

  20. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communication, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of material resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  1. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, M.M.

    1995-04-18

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications. 2 figs.

  2. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Mark M.

    1995-01-01

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  3. System level modeling of thermoelectric generators for automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uses a model to predict and analyze the system-level performance of a thermoelectric generator in terms of the power output and the power density at the element, module and ...

  4. Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Test results for low and high temperature thermoelectric generators (TEG) those for a 530-watt BiTe TEG; design and construction of a 100-watt high temperature TEG currently in fabrication.

  5. Thermoelectric generator and method for the fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1984-08-01

    A thermoelectric generator using semiconductor elements for responding to a temperature gradient to produce electrical energy with all of the semiconductor elements being of the same type is disclosed. A continuous process for forming substrates on which the semiconductor elements and superstrates are deposited and a process for forming the semiconductor elements on the substrates are also disclosed. The substrates with the semiconductor elements thereon are combined with superstrates to form modules for use as thermoelectric generators.

  6. Thermoelectric generator and method for the fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1987-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator using semiconductor elements for responding to a temperature gradient to produce electrical energy with all of the semiconductor elements being of the same type is disclosed. A continuous process for forming substrates on which the semiconductor elements and superstrates are deposited and a process for forming the semiconductor elements on the substrates are also disclosed. The substrates with the semiconductor elements thereon are combined with superstrates to form modules for use thermoelectric generators.

  7. .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb Radioisotope generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grant, Patrick M.; Erdal, Bruce R.; O'Brien, Harold A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be > 10.sup.7. Approximately 80 percent of the .sup.82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH.sub.4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be > 10.sup.5, and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three .sup.82 Sr half lives.

  8. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  9. High-Temperature High-Efficiency Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranowski, LL; Warren, EL; Toberer, ES

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by recent high-efficiency thermoelectric modules, we consider thermoelectrics for terrestrial applications in concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). The STEG is modeled as two subsystems: a TEG, and a solar absorber that efficiently captures the concentrated sunlight and limits radiative losses from the system. The TEG subsystem is modeled using thermoelectric compatibility theory; this model does not constrain the material properties to be constant with temperature. Considering a three-stage TEG based on current record modules, this model suggests that 18% efficiency could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000A degrees C to 100A degrees C. Achieving 15% overall STEG efficiency thus requires an absorber efficiency above 85%, and we consider two methods to achieve this: solar-selective absorbers and thermally insulating cavities. When the TEG and absorber subsystem models are combined, we expect that the STEG modeled here could achieve 15% efficiency with optical concentration between 250 and 300 suns.

  10. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Developing a low and high temperature dual thermoelectric generation waste heat recovery system for light-duty vehicles.

  11. New Horizons Mission Powered by Space Radioisotope Power Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Horizons Mission Powered by Space Radioisotope Power Systems New Horizons Mission Powered by Space Radioisotope Power Systems January 30, 2008 - 6:47pm Addthis Artist's concept of the New Horizons spacecraft during its planned encounter with Pluto and its moon, Charon. The craft's miniature cameras, radio science experiment, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers and space plasma experiments are run by the Department of Energy's Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

  12. Thermoelectric generator with hinged assembly for fins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Purdy, David L.; Shapiro, Zalman M.; Hursen, Thomas F.; Maurer, Gerould W.

    1976-11-02

    A cylindrical casing has a central shielded capsule of radioisotope fuel. A plurality of thermonuclear modules are axially arranged with their hot junctions resiliently pressed toward the shield and with their cold junctions adjacent a transition member having fins radiating heat to the environment. For each module, the assembly of transition member and fins is hinged to the casing for swinging to permit access to and removal of such module. A ceramic plate having gold layers on opposite faces prevents diffusion bonding of the hot junction to the shield.

  13. Molybdenum-platinum-oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmatz, Duane J.

    1990-01-01

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a solid electrolyte carrying a thin film comprising molybdenum-platinum-oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  14. Thermoelectric Materials Development for Low Temperature Geothermal Power Generation

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tim Hansen

    2016-01-29

    Data includes characterization results for novel thermoelectric materials developed specifically for power generation from low temperature geothermal brines. Materials characterization data includes material density, thickness, resistance, Seebeck coefficient. This research was carried out by Novus Energy Partners in Cooperation with Southern Research Institute for a Department of Energy Sponsored Project.

  15. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Waste Heat at GM | Department of Energy Overview of design, fabrication, integration, and test of working prototype TEG for engine waste heat recovery on Suburban test vehicle, and continuing investigation of skutterudite materials systems meisner.pdf (1.94 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal

  16. An Affordable Advanced Biomass Cookstove with Thermoelectric Generator (TEG)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office 2015 Peer Review Biomass Cookstove Technology Review March 26, 2015 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory An Affordable Advanced Biomass Cookstove with Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Ashok Gadgil eere.energy.gov 1 Goal Statement Develop an affordable tier-4 cookstove desirable for purchase Design novel air injection configurations for flame manipulation powered

  17. Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery System for Military Vehicles | Department of Energy an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for Military Vehicles Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for Military Vehicles 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Hi-Z Technology, Inc. 2004_deer_bass.pdf (484.67 KB) More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation

  18. High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Key technologies and system approaches to excellent record of thermoelectric power sources in deep space missions and development of higher performance TE materials for the next generation systems

  19. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  20. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elsner, N. B.; Bass, J. C.; Ghamaty, S.; Krommenhoek, D.; Kushch, A.; Snowden, D.; Marchetti, S.

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  1. High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Key technologies and system approaches to excellent record of thermoelectric power sources in deep space missions and development of higher performance TE materials for the next ...

  2. Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Critical aspects of technology commercialization of preproduction high performance thermoelectric materials available for device developers, data analysis, and future plans are discussed

  3. Exploring packaging strategies of nano-embedded thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singha, Aniket; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran; Mahanti, Subhendra D.

    2015-10-15

    Embedding nanostructures within a bulk matrix is an important practical approach towards the electronic engineering of high performance thermoelectric systems. For power generation applications, it ideally combines the efficiency benefit offered by low dimensional systems along with the high power output advantage offered by bulk systems. In this work, we uncover a few crucial details about how to embed nanowires and nanoflakes in a bulk matrix so that an overall advantage over pure bulk may be achieved. First and foremost, we point out that a performance degradation with respect to bulk is inevitable as the nanostructure transitions to a multi moded one. It is then shown that a nano embedded system of suitable cross-section offers a power density advantage over a wide range of efficiencies at higher packing fractions, and this range gradually narrows down to the high efficiency regime, as the packing fraction is reduced. Finally, we introduce a metric - the advantage factor, to elucidate quantitatively, the enhancement in the power density offered via nano-embedding at a given efficiency. In the end, we explore the maximum effective width of nano-embedding which serves as a reference in designing generators in the efficiency range of interest.

  4. Modular Isotopic Thermoelectric Generator (MITG) Design and Development, Part A-E. Original was presented at 1983 Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, A.

    1983-04-29

    Advanced RTG concepts utilizing improved thermoelectric materials and converter concepts are under study at Fairchild for DOE. The design described here is based on DOE's newly developed radioisotope heat source, and on an improved silicon-germanium material and a multicouple converter module under development at Syncal. Fairchild's assignment was to combine the above into an attractive power system for use in space, and to assess the specific power and other attributes of that design. The resultant design is highly modular, consisting of standard RTG slices, each producing 24 watts at the desired output voltage of 28 volt. Thus, the design could be adapted to various space missions over a wide range of power levels, with little or no redesign. Each RTG slice consists of a 250-watt heat source module, eight multicouple thermoelectric modules, and standard sections of insulator, housing, radiator fins, and electrical circuit. The design makes it possible to check each thermoelectric module for electrical performance, thermal contact, leaktightness, and performance stability, after the generator is fully assembled; and to replace any deficient modules without disassembling the generator or perturbing the others. The RTG end sections provide the spring-loaded supports required to hold the free-standing heat source stack together during launch vibration. Detailed analysis indicates that the present generation of RTGs, using the same heat source modules. There is a duplicate copy of this document. OSTI has a copy of this paper.

  5. Thermoelectric generators incorporating phase-change materials for waste heat recovery from engine exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meisner, Gregory P; Yang, Jihui

    2014-02-11

    Thermoelectric devices, intended for placement in the exhaust of a hydrocarbon fuelled combustion device and particularly suited for use in the exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine propelling a vehicle, are described. Exhaust gas passing through the device is in thermal communication with one side of a thermoelectric module while the other side of the thermoelectric module is in thermal communication with a lower temperature environment. The heat extracted from the exhaust gasses is converted to electrical energy by the thermoelectric module. The performance of the generator is enhanced by thermally coupling the hot and cold junctions of the thermoelectric modules to phase-change materials which transform at a temperature compatible with the preferred operating temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. In a second embodiment, a plurality of thermoelectric modules, each with a preferred operating temperature and each with a uniquely-matched phase-change material may be used to compensate for the progressive lowering of the exhaust gas temperature as it traverses the length of the exhaust pipe.

  6. Nanostructured Bulk Thermoelectric Generator for Efficient Power Harvesting for Self-powered Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yanliang; Butt, Darryl; Agarwal, Vivek

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology research project is to develop high-efficiency and reliable thermoelectric generators for self-powered wireless sensors nodes utilizing thermal energy from nuclear plant or fuel cycle. The power harvesting technology has crosscutting significance to address critical technology gaps in monitoring nuclear plants and fuel cycle. The outcomes of the project will lead to significant advancement in sensors and instrumentation technology, reducing cost, improving monitoring reliability and therefore enhancing safety. The self-powered wireless sensor networks could support the long-term safe and economical operation of all the reactor designs and fuel cycle concepts, as well as spent fuel storage and many other nuclear science and engineering applications. The research is based on recent breakthroughs in high-performance nanostructured bulk (nanobulk) thermoelectric materials that enable high-efficiency direct heat-to-electricity conversion over a wide temperature range. The nanobulk thermoelectric materials that the research team at Boise State University and University of Houston has developed yield up to a 50% increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, compared with state-of-the-art bulk counterparts. This report focuses on the selection of optimal thermoelectric materials for this project. The team has performed extensive study on two thermoelectric materials systems, i.e. the half-Heusler materials, and the Bismuth-Telluride materials. The report contains our recent research results on the fabrication, characterization and thermoelectric property measurements of these two materials.

  7. Analytical Modeling and Simulation of Thermoelectric Devices...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Technologies Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

  8. Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Critical aspects of technology ...

  9. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  10. Proof-of-principle test for thermoelectric generator for diesel engines; Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-07-26

    In September of 1987, the principals of what is now Hi-Z TECHNOLOGY, INC. applied to the National Bureau of Standards (now National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST) under the Energy Related Inventions Program. The invention was entitled ``Thermoelectric Generator for Diesel Engines.`` The National Institute of Standards and Technology evaluated the invention and on January 12, 1989 forwarded Recommendation Number 455 to the Department of Energy (DOE). This recommendation informed the DOE that the invention had been selected for recommendation by the NIST for possible funding by the DOE. Following the recommendation of the NIST, the DOE contacted Hi-Z to work out a development program for the generator. A contract for a grant to design, fabricate, and test a Proof-of-Principle exhaust powered thermoelectric generator for Diesel engines was signed October 19, 1989. Hi-Z provided the thermoelectric modules used in the generator as their contribution to the project. The purpose of this Grant Program was to design, build, and test a small-scale, Proof-of-Principle thermoelectric generator for a Diesel engine. 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Thermoelectrics: The New Green Automotive Technology | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (5.35 MB) More Documents & Publications Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC Vehicular Thermoelectrics: A New Green Technology Thermoelectrics: The New Green Automotive

  12. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system safety analysis report for packaging. Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1996-04-18

    This SARP describes the RTG Transportation System Package, a Type B(U) packaging system that is used to transport an RTG or similar payload. The payload, which is included in this SARP, is a generic, enveloping payload that specifically encompasses the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG payload. The package consists of two independent containment systems mounted on a shock isolation transport skid and transported within an exclusive-use trailer.

  13. In situ nanostructure generation and evolution within a bulk thermoelectric material to reduce lattice thermal conductivity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girard, S. N.; He, J.; Li, C.; Moses, S.; Wang, G.; Uher, C.; Dravid, V. P.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2010-07-26

    We show experimentally the direct reduction in lattice thermal conductivity as a result of in situ nanostructure generation within a thermoelectric material. Solid solution alloys of the high-performance thermoelectric PbTe-PbS 8% can be synthesized through rapid cooling and subsequent high-temperature activation that induces a spontaneous nucleation and growth of PbS nanocrystals. The emergence of coherent PbS nanostructures reduces the lattice thermal conductivity from {approx}1 to {approx}0.4 W/mK between 400 and 500 K.

  14. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power ...

  15. THERMOELECTRIC GENERATION OF CHARGE IMBALANCE AT A SUPERCONDUCTOR-NORMAL METAL INTERFACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Harlingen, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    The thermoelectric voltage produced across a superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) sandwich by an applied heat current has been measured in Pb-Cu-PbBi and In-Al-Sn as a function of temperature. The observed divergence of the thermoelectric voltage near T{sub c} is attributed to a charge imbalance region decaying into the superconductor from the NS interface over the quasiparticle diffusion length {lambda}{sub Q*}. The charge imbalance is generated by thermoelectrically driven quasiparticle currents in the superconductor. It contributes a voltage per unit heat power given by V{sub s}/P = {lambda}{sub Q*}S/{kappa}A, where A is the sample cross-sectional area, and S and {kappa} are the thermopower and the thermal conductivity of quasiparticles in the superconductor. For Pb and In, we find the measured thermopower in the superconducting state to be slowly-varying with temperature near T{sub c} and consistent in magnitude with normal state values. This result is in agreement with theoretical predictions of thermoelectric effects in superconductors but contrary to previous experimental results obtained by other methods.

  16. Progress in Thermoelectrical Energy Recovery from a Light Truck...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator of a GM Sierra Pickup Truck Thermoelectrical Energy Recovery From the Exhaust of a Light Truck Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

  17. Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Arunava; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Yu, Choongho; Scullin, Matthew L.; Huijben, Mark

    2012-07-17

    The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  18. Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Feldman; Amanda Slough; Gary Garrett

    2008-06-01

    There is a myriad of uses to which our country's freshwater supply is currently committed. Together with increasing quantities of consumption, there are growing constraints on water availability. In our future there will be two elements of consumption at the forefront of concern: availability and efficiency. Availability of freshwater is the most important of these and is the subject of this report. To use water efficiently, we must first have it. Efficiency is key to ensuring availability for future needs. As population grows and economic and technology demands increase - especially for thermoelectric power - needs for freshwater will also increase. Thus, using our limited supplies of freshwater must be done as efficiently as possible. Thermoelectric generating industry is the largest user of our nation's water resources, including fresh, surface, ground, and saline water. Saline water use accounts for approximately 30% of thermoelectric use, while the remaining 70% is from freshwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates that thermoelectric generation accounts for roughly 136,000 million gallons per day (MGD), or 39% of freshwater withdrawals. This ranks slightly behind agricultural irrigation as the top source of freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. in 2000. For Americans to preserve their standard of living and maintain a thriving economy it is essential that greater attention be paid to freshwater availability in efforts to meet energy demands - particularly for electric power. According to projections by the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO 2006) anticipated growth of thermoelectric generating capacity will be 22% between 2005 and 2030. In the 2007 Report, EIA estimates that capacity to grow from approximately 709 GW in 2005 to 862 GW in 20303. These large increases in generating capacity will result in increased water demands by thermoelectric power plants and greater competition over water between the

  19. Progress towards an Optimization Methodology for Combustion-Driven Portable Thermoelectric Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Karri, Naveen K.; Gogna, Pawan K.; Chase, Jordan R.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Hendricks, Terry J.

    2012-03-13

    Enormous military and commercial interests exist in developing quiet, lightweight, and compact thermoelectric (TE) power generation systems. This paper investigates design integration and analysis of an advanced TE power generation system implementing JP-8 fueled combustion and thermal recuperation. Design and development of a portable TE power system using a JP-8 combustor as a high temperature heat source and optimal process flows depend on efficient heat generation, transfer, and recovery within the system are explored. Design optimization of the system required considering the combustion system efficiency and TE conversion efficiency simultaneously. The combustor performance and TE sub-system performance were coupled directly through exhaust temperatures, fuel and air mass flow rates, heat exchanger performance, subsequent hot-side temperatures, and cold-side cooling techniques and temperatures. Systematic investigation of this system relied on accurate thermodynamic modeling of complex, high-temperature combustion processes concomitantly with detailed thermoelectric converter thermal/mechanical modeling. To this end, this work reports on design integration of systemlevel process flow simulations using commercial software CHEMCADTM with in-house thermoelectric converter and module optimization, and heat exchanger analyses using COMSOLTM software. High-performance, high-temperature TE materials and segmented TE element designs are incorporated in coupled design analyses to achieve predicted TE subsystem level conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%. These TE advances are integrated with a high performance microtechnology combustion reactor based on recent advances at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Predictions from this coupled simulation established a basis for optimal selection of fuel and air flow rates, thermoelectric module design and operating conditions, and microtechnology heat-exchanger design criteria. This paper will discuss this

  20. Nonequilibrium Thermoelectrics: Low-Cost, High-Performance Materials for Cooling and Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.

    2011-05-18

    Thermoelectric materials can be made into coolers (TECs) that use electricity to develop a temperature difference, cooling something, or generators (TEGs) that convert heat directly to electricity. One application of TEGs is to place them in a waste heat stream to recuperate some of the power being lost and putting it to use more profitably. To be effective thermoelectrics, however, materials must have both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity, a combination rarely found in nature. Materials selection and processing has led to the development of several systems with a figure of merit, ZT, of nearly unity. By using non-equilibrium techniques, we have fabricated higher efficiency thermoelectric materials. The process involves creating an amorphous material through melt spinning and then sintering it with either spark plasma or a hot press for as little as two minutes. This results in a 100% dense material with an extremely fine grain structure. The grain boundaries appear to retard phonons resulting in a reduced thermal conductivity while the electrons move through the material relatively unchecked. The techniques used are low-cost and scaleable to support industrial manufacturing.

  1. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ... Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. ...

  2. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces

  3. Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation Recent Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics High Temperature Thermoelectric ...

  4. Engineering Scoping Study of Thermoelectric Generator Systems for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry; Choate, William T.

    2006-11-01

    This report evaluates thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems with the intent to: 1) examine industrial processes in order to identify and quantify industrial waste heat sources that could potentially use TEGs; 2) describe the operating environment that a TEG would encounter in selected industrial processes and quantify the anticipated TEG system performance; 3) identify cost, design and/or engineering performance requirements that will be needed for TEGs to operate in the selected industrial processes; and 4) identify the research, development and deployment needed to overcome the limitations that discourage the development and use of TEGs for recovery of industrial waste heat.

  5. Device for use in a furnace exhaust stream for thermoelectric generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2013-06-11

    A device for generating voltage or electrical current includes an inner elongated member mounted in an outer elongated member, and a plurality of thermoelectric modules mounted in the space between the inner and the outer members. The outer and/or inner elongated members each include a plurality of passages to move a temperature altering medium through the members so that the device can be used in high temperature environments, e.g. the exhaust system of an oxygen fired glass melting furnace. The modules are designed to include a biasing member and/or other arrangements to compensate for differences in thermal expansion between the first and the second members. In this manner, the modules remain in contact with the first and second members. The voltage generated by the modules can be used to power electrical loads.

  6. Infrared and thermoelectric power generation in thin atomic layer deposited Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Harkirat S.; Lang, Brian N.; Schwab, Yosyp; Scarel, Giovanna; NiemelÀ, Janne-Petteri; Karppinen, Maarit

    2015-01-15

    Infrared radiation is used to radiatively transfer heat to a nanometric power generator (NPG) device with a thermoelectric Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as the active element, onto a borosilicate glass substrate. The linear rise of the produced voltage with respect to the temperature difference between the “hot” and “cold” junctions, typical of the Seebeck effect, is missing. The discovery of the violation of the Seebeck effect in NPG devices combined with the ability of ALD to tune thermoelectric thin film properties could be exploited to increase the efficiency of these devices for energy harvesting purposes.

  7. In-situ nanostructure generation and evolution within a bulk thermoelectric material to reduce lattice thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girard, Steven; He, Jiaqing; Li, Chang-Peng; Moses, Steven; Wang, Guoyu Y.; Uher, Ctirad; Dravid, Vinayak; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2010-07-26

    We show experimentally the direct reduction in lattice thermal conductivity as a result of in situ nanostructure generation within a thermoelectric material. Solid solution alloys of the high-performance thermoelectric PbTe-PbS 8% can be synthesized through rapid cooling and subsequent high-temperature activation that induces a spontaneous nucleation and growth of PbS nanocrystals. The emergence of coherent PbS nanostructures reduces the lattice thermal conductivity from ~1 to ~0.4 W/mK between 400 and 500 K.

  8. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

    2013-08-13

    Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

  9. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Thermoelectric Couple Demonstration of (In, Ce)-based Skutterudite ...

  10. Vehicular Applications of Thermoelectrics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overivew of DOE projects developing thermoelectric generators for engine waste heat utilization and vehiclular thermoelectric heatingcooling. deer08fairbanks.pdf (5.58 MB) More ...

  11. Vehicular Thermoelectrics: A New Green Technology | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (8.06 MB) More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics: The New Green Automotive Technology Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC Solid-State Energy Conversion Overview

  12. Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-05-21

    A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

  13. Spin-on-doping for output power improvement of silicon nanowire array based thermoelectric power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, B. Fobelets, K.

    2014-06-07

    The output power of a silicon nanowire array (NWA)-bulk thermoelectric power generator (TEG) with Cu contacts is improved by spin-on-doping (SOD). The Si NWAs used in this work are fabricated via metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) of 0.01–0.02 ? cm resistivity n- and p-type bulk, converting ~4% of the bulk thickness into NWs. The MACE process is adapted to ensure crystalline NWs. Current-voltage and Seebeck voltage-temperature measurements show that while SOD mainly influences the contact resistance in bulk, it influences both contact resistance and power factor in NWA-bulk based TEGs. According to our experiments, using Si NWAs in combination with SOD increases the output power by an order of 3 under the same heating power due to an increased power factor, decreased thermal conductivity of the NWA and reduced Si-Cu contact resistance.

  14. Variable cooling circuit for thermoelectric generator and engine and method of control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prior, Gregory P

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus is provided that includes an engine, an exhaust system, and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) operatively connected to the exhaust system and configured to allow exhaust gas flow therethrough. A first radiator is operatively connected to the engine. An openable and closable engine valve is configured to open to permit coolant to circulate through the engine and the first radiator when coolant temperature is greater than a predetermined minimum coolant temperature. A first and a second valve are controllable to route cooling fluid from the TEG to the engine through coolant passages under a first set of operating conditions to establish a first cooling circuit, and from the TEG to a second radiator through at least some other coolant passages under a second set of operating conditions to establish a second cooling circuit. A method of controlling a cooling circuit is also provided.

  15. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project discusses preliminary experimental results to find how thermoelectrics can be applied ot future hybrid vehicles and the optimum design of such equipment using heat pipes

  17. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented

  18. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Efficiencies of different types of solar thermoelectric generators were predicted using theoretical modeling and validated with measurements using constructed prototypes under different solar intensities

  19. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive ...

  20. Overview of Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview of Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery and Climate Control Thermoelectric HVAC for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Automotive Thermoelectric Generators ...

  1. Magnesium and Manganese Silicides For Efficient And Low Cost Thermo-Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Kutcher, Susan W.; Rosemeier, Cory A.; Mayers, David; Singh, Jogender

    2013-12-02

    Thermoelectric Power Generation (TEPG) is the most efficient and commercially deployable power generation technology for harvesting wasted heat from such things as automobile exhausts, industrial furnaces, and incinerators, and converting it into usable electrical power. We investigated the materials magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and manganese silicide (MnSi) for TEG. MgSi2 and MnSi are environmentally friendly, have constituent elements that are abundant in the earth's crust, non-toxic, lighter and cheaper. In Phase I, we successfully produced Mg2Si and MnSi material with good TE properties. We developed a novel technique to synthesize Mg2Si with good crystalline quality, which is normally very difficult due to high Mg vapor pressure and its corrosive nature. We produced n-type Mg2Si and p-type MnSi nanocomposite pellets using FAST. Measurements of resistivity and voltage under a temperature gradient indicated a Seebeck coefficient of roughly 120 V/K on average per leg, which is quite respectable. Results indicated however, that issues related to bonding resulted in high resistivity contacts. Determining a bonding process and bonding material that can provide ohmic contact from room temperature to the operating temperature is an essential part of successful device fabrication. Work continues in the development of a process for reproducibly obtaining low resistance electrical contacts.

  2. Engineering development testing of the GPHS-RTG converter. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cockfield, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The GPHS-RTG will provide electrical power for the Galileo orbiter and for the two spacecraft of the International Solar Polar Mission. The GPHS-RTG consists of two primary assemblies: the General Purpose Heat Source, and the converter. This paper deals only with the converter, and highlights engineering tests that provide support for its design development.

  3. Test plan/procedure for the shock limiting device of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator package mounting subsystem 145. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoh, J.A.

    1995-05-25

    This document defines the procedure to be used in the 18 inch drop test to be used for design verification of the RTG Transportation System Package Mounting.

  4. Potential health risks from postulated accidents involving the Pu-238 RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator) on the Ulysses solar exploration mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, M. ); Nelson, R.C. ); Bollinger, L. ); Hoover, M.D. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Templeton, W. ); Anspaugh, L. (Lawren

    1990-11-02

    Potential radiation impacts from launch of the Ulysses solar exploration experiment were evaluated using eight postulated accident scenarios. Lifetime individual dose estimates rarely exceeded 1 mrem. Most of the potential health effects would come from inhalation exposures immediately after an accident, rather than from ingestion of contaminated food or water, or from inhalation of resuspended plutonium from contaminated ground. For local Florida accidents (that is, during the first minute after launch), an average source term accident was estimated to cause a total added cancer risk of up to 0.2 deaths. For accidents at later times after launch, a worldwide cancer risk of up to three cases was calculated (with a four in a million probability). Upper bound estimates were calculated to be about 10 times higher. 83 refs.

  5. Thermoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL -DRAFT - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - DRAFT Thermoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems: 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Thermoelectric Generation ................................................................................................................... 2 4 2. Technology Assessment and Potential ................................................................................................. 3 5 2.1 Performance Advances

  6. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  7. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  8. Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Embedded Nanoparticles Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles 2011 DOE ...

  9. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors.

  10. Thermoelectric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, C.K.

    1974-02-26

    This invention relates in general to thermoelectric units and more particularly to a tubular thermoelectric unit which includes an array of tandemly arranged radially tapered annular thermoelectric pellets having insulation material of a lower density than the thermoelectric pellets positioned between each pellet. (Official Gazette)

  11. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas ... More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste ...

  12. Thermoelectrical Energy Recovery From the Exhaust of a Light...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications The Effects of an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator of a GM Sierra Pickup Truck Progress in Thermoelectrical Energy Recovery from a Light Truck Exhaust ...

  13. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Development of Cost-Competitive ...

  14. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power Generation Modules Home ... electrical conductivity and thermopower and, simultaneously, low thermal conductivity. ...

  15. Thermoelectric Applications to Truck Essential Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Bass; Norbert B. Elsner

    2001-12-12

    The subjects covered in this report are: thermoelectrics, 1-kW generator for diesel engine; self-powered heater; power for wireless data transmission; and quantum-well thermoelectrics.

  16. Benefits of Thermoelectric Technology for the Automobile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses improved fuel efficiency and other benefits of automotive application of thermoelectric (power generation and heating/cooling) and the need for production quantities of high-efficiency thermoelectric modules

  17. Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DRAFT - PRE-DECISIONAL -DRAFT - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - DRAFT Thermoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems: 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Thermoelectric Generation ................................................................................................................... 2 4 2. Technology Assessment and Potential ................................................................................................. 3 5 2.1 Performance Advances

  18. NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Purdue … GM Partnership on Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews results in developing commercially viable thermoelectric generators for efficient conversion of automotive exhaust waste heat to electricity

  19. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous

  20. Thermoelectric Opportunities for Light-Duty Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    thermoelectrics for automotive applications and role of automakers in setting guidelines and technology attributes needed for the global product, regulatory, and market environment maranville.pdf (3 MB) More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Activities of European Community within Framework Programme 7 and additional activities in Germany Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

  1. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  2. Methods of synthesizing thermoelectric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei-Shu; Wang, Hengzhi; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-05

    Methods for synthesis of thermoelectric materials are disclosed. In some embodiments, a method of fabricating a thermoelectric material includes generating a plurality of nanoparticles from a starting material comprising one or more chalcogens and one or more transition metals; and consolidating the nanoparticles under elevated pressure and temperature, wherein the nanoparticles are heated and cooled at a controlled rate.

  3. Thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kortier, William E.; Mueller, John J.; Eggers, Philip E.

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  4. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  5. Close-packed-array (CPA) thermoelectric module development status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brittain, W.M. )

    1991-01-05

    Prior effort on the U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored Special Applications Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Technology Program and Two-Watt RTG Program has focused on terrestrial applications where the RTG will be exposed to relatively low temperature thermal environments (subsea). Thus, effort has been oriented towards design optimization at cold junction temperatures in the 10 to 93 {degree}C (50 to 200 {degree}F) range. However, for other more severe design environments (such as space applications where a high heat rejection radiator temperature in the 177 to 204 {degree}C (350 to 400 {degree}F) range is required to minimize RTG size and weight, and high g shock/vibration capability is necessary) a modified thermoelectric module design is dictated. In order to minimize the RTG system size and weight, and to increase the mechanical strength of the thermoelectric module to withstand increased dynamic loads, a close-packed-array (CPA) module configuration is desirable. The monolithic nature of such a module generally results in greater shear and compression load capability than free-standing individual couples. A CPA module is especially attractive for terrestrial and space applications where severe structural loads will be imposed such as airborne deployment or planetary landers and penetrators.

  6. High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for Military Vehicles Recent Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics ...

  7. Thermoelectric Activities of European Community within Framework...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bulk Materials and Device Development Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

  8. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New p-type and n-type multiple-rattler skutterudite thermoelectric materials design, synthesis, fabrication, and characterization for power generation using vehicle exhaust waste ...

  9. Development of Marine Thermoelectric Heat Recovery Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thermoelectric generator prototypes are evaluated in a dedicated hybrid vessel test platform fabricated from an encapsulated lifeboat to optimize performance and reliability for marine industry applications

  10. Novel Nanostructured Thermoelectrics | Center for Energy Efficient...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    materials with improved thermoelectric power generation capabilities, the path to that goal ... electrical conductivity, and reduce the electronic and lattice thermal conductivities. ...

  11. Efficient and Dynamic ? The BMW Group Roadmap for the Application of Thermoelectric Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The diesel engine EGR system is a logical application of TE generators because the necessary system components are already available; transfer of module concepts is possible to other applications in the exhaust system with higher waste heat recovery potential

  12. Efficient and Dynamic … The BMW Group Roadmap for the Application of Thermoelectric Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The diesel engine EGR system is a logical application of TE generators because the necessary system components are already available; transfer of module concepts is possible to other applications in the exhaust system with higher waste heat recovery potential

  13. NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces

  14. Thermoelectric system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reiners, Eric A.; Taher, Mahmoud A.; Fei, Dong; McGilvray, Andrew N.

    2007-10-30

    In one particular embodiment, an internal combustion engine is provided. The engine comprises a block, a head, a piston, a combustion chamber defined by the block, the piston, and the head, and at least one thermoelectric device positioned between the combustion chamber and the head. In this particular embodiment, the thermoelectric device is in direct contact with the combustion chamber. In another particular embodiment, a cylinder head configured to sit atop a cylinder bank of an internal combustion engine is provided. The cylinder head comprises a cooling channel configured to receive cooling fluid, valve seats configured for receiving intake and exhaust valves, and thermoelectric devices positioned around the valve seats.

  15. Effect of Inert Cover Gas on Performance of Radioisotope Stirling Space Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Robert; Kumar, V; Ore, C; Schock, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an updated Orbital design of a radioisotope Stirling power system and its predicted performance at the beginning and end of a six-year mission to the Jovian moon Europa. The design is based on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules identical to those previously developed and safety-qualified by the Department of Energy (DOE) which were successfully launched to Jupiter and Saturn by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In each generator, the heat produced by the decay of the Pu-238 isotope is converted to electric power by two free-piston Stirling engines and linear alternators developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC), and their rejected waste heat is transported to radiators by heat pipes. The principal difference between the proposed system design and previous Orbital designs (Or et al. 2000) is the thermal insulation between the heat source and the generator's housing. Previous designs had employed multifoil insulation, whereas the design described here employs Min-K-1800 thermal insulation. Such insulation had been successfully used by Teledyne and GE in earlier RTGs (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators). Although Min-K is a much poorer insulator than multifoil in vacuum and requires a substantially greater thickness for equivalent performance, it offers compensating advantages. Specifically it makes it possible to adjust the generator's BOM temperatures by filling its interior volume with inert cover gas. This makes it possible to meet the generator's BOM and EOM performance goals without exceeding its allowable temperature at the beginning of the mission.

  16. Semimetal/Semiconductor Nanocomposites for Thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hong; Burke, Peter G.; Gossard, Arthur C.; Zeng, Gehong; Ramu, Ashok T.; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Bowers, John E.

    2011-04-15

    In this work, we present research on semimetal-semiconductor nanocomposites grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for thermoelectric applications. We study several different III-V semiconductors embedded with semimetallic rare earth-group V (RE-V) compounds, but focus is given here to ErSb:InxGa1-xSb as a promising p-type thermoelectric material. Nano­structures of RE-V compounds are formed and embedded within the III-V semiconductor matrix. By codoping the nanocomposites with the appropriate dopants, both n-type and p-type materials have been made for thermoelectric applications. The thermoelectric properties have been engineered for enhanced thermoelectric device performance. Segmented thermoelectric power generator modules using 50 ?m thick Er-containing nanocomposites have been fabricated and measured. Research on different rare earth elements for thermoelectrics is discussed.

  17. Analysis, Optimization, and Assessment of Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic System Design for an Illustrative Space Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Summers, G.

    1994-06-28

    A companion paper presented at this conference described the design of a Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator for an illustrative space mission (Pluto Fast Flyby). It presented a detailed design of an integrated system consisting of a radioisotope heat source, a thermophotovoltaic converter, and an optimized heat rejection system. The present paper describes the thermal, electrical, and structural analyses which led to that optimized design, and compares the computed RTPV performance to that of a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) designed for the same mission. RTPV's are of course much less mature than RTGs, but our results indicate that - when fully developed - they could result in a 60% reduction of the heat source's mass, cost, and fuel loading, a 50% reduction of generator mass, a tripling of the power system's specific power, and a quadrupling of its efficiency. The paper concludes by briefly summarizing the RTPV's current technology status and assessing its potential applicability for the PFF mission. For other power systems (e.g. RTGs), demonstrating their flight readiness for a long mission is a very time-consuming process to determine the long-term effect of temperature-induced degradation mechanisms. But for the case of the described RTPV design, the paper lists a number of factors, primarily its cold (0 to 10 degrees C) converter temperature, that may greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. In any event, our analytical results suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the Pluto mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low mass generators. Another copy is in the Energy Systems files.

  18. space exploration radioisotope power systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    space exploration radioisotope power systems - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers space exploration radioisotope power ...

  19. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  20. Thermoelectric power generator module of 16x16 Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 0.6%ErAs:(InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} segmented elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng Gehong; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Bowers, John E.; Lu Hong; Gossard, Arthur C.; Singer, Suzanne L.; Majumdar, Arun; Bian, Zhixi; Zebarjadi, Mona; Shakouri, Ali

    2009-08-24

    We report the fabrication and characterization of thermoelectric power generator modules of 16x16 segmented elements consisting of 0.8 mm thick Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 50 {mu}m thick ErAs:(InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} with 0.6% ErAs by volume. An output power up to 6.3 W was measured when the heat source temperature was at 610 K. The thermoelectric properties of (InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} were characterized from 300 up to 830 K. The finite element modeling shows that the performance of the generator modules can further be enhanced by improving the thermoelectric properties of the element materials, and reducing the electrical and thermal parasitic losses.

  1. Overview of Research on Thermoelectric Materials and Devices in China |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy An overview presentation of R&D projects on thermoelectric power generation technology in China. zhang.pdf (3.85 MB) More Documents & Publications Recent Progress in the Development of N-type Skutterudites Vehicular Thermoelectric Applications Session DEER 2009 The Bottom-Up Approach forThermoelectric Nanocomposites, plusƒ

  2. High temperature thermoelectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moczygemba, Joshua E.; Biershcenk, James L.; Sharp, Jeffrey W.

    2014-09-23

    In accordance with one embodiment of the present disclosure, a thermoelectric device includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements that each include a diffusion barrier. The diffusion barrier includes a refractory metal. The thermoelectric device also includes a plurality of conductors coupled to the plurality of thermoelectric elements. The plurality of conductors include aluminum. In addition, the thermoelectric device includes at least one plate coupled to the plurality of thermoelectric elements using a braze. The braze includes aluminum.

  3. Recent Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics Recent Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics 2003_deer_bass.pdf (992.67 KB) More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery Scale Up of Si/Si0.8GE0.2 and B4C/B9C Superlattices for Harvesting of Waste Heat in Diesel Engines

  4. Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Overview and status of project to develop thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery and achieve at least 10% fuel economy improvement. deer08_gundlach.pdf (1 MB) More Documents & Publications Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry Develop Thermoelectric

  5. Composite Thermoelectric Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Composite thermoelectric devices incorporating common conductors laminated between P- and N-type thermoelectric plates demonstrate internal ohmic loss reduction and enhanced performance

  6. Energy Department Nuclear Systems Are Powering Mars Rover | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    It's powered by the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Photo courtesy of NASAJPL-Caltech. Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric ...

  7. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I.; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2015-12-22

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  8. Thermoelectric Development at Hi-Z Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushch, Aleksandr S.; Bass, John C.; Ghamaty, Saeid; Elsner, Norbert B.; Bergstrand, Richard A.; Furrow, David; Melvin, Mike

    2002-08-25

    An improved Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) for the Heavy Duty Class Eight Diesel Trucks is under development at Hi-Z Technology. The current TEG is equipped with the improved HZ-14 Thermoelectric module, which features better mechanical properties as well as higher electric power output. Also, the modules are held in place more securely.

  9. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  10. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury

  11. 2009 Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2009 Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop September 29 - October 1, 2009 San Diego, CA Tuesday, September 29, 2009 Opening Plenary Session Wednesday, September 30, 2009 Overview of Worldwide Activities in Thermoelectrics Thermoelectric Applications I Thermoelectric Materials I Thermoelectric Manufacturing Thursday, October 1, 2009 Thermoelectric Materials II Thermoelectric Applications II Thermoelectric Materials III Thermoelectric Applications III Tuesday,

  12. Efficiency Improvement in an Over the Road Diesel Powered Engine System by the Application of Advanced Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hybridization of heavy-duty truck propulsion with thermoelectric generator and potential efficiency enhancement

  13. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2010 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, James F

    2012-05-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. These components were also produced for the Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Lab missions launched in January 2006 and November 2011respectively. The ORNL has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for nearly four decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2011. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS. Work has also been initiated to establish fabrication capabilities for the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units.

  14. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2005 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, James F

    2007-04-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  15. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technical Program Tasks for October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-04-02

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  16. Benefits of Thermoelectric Technology for the Automobile | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Discusses improved fuel efficiency and other benefits of automotive application of thermoelectric (power generation and heatingcooling) and the need for production quantities of ...

  17. 2nd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2011 | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Micro- and Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation and Cooling Systems Terry Hendricks PNNL, Corvallis, OR Proactive Design of n-Type ...

  18. Effective thermal conductivity in thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranowski, LL; Snyder, GJ; Toberer, ES

    2013-05-28

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from a temperature gradient. Optimizing these devices for maximum power production can be difficult due to the many heat transport mechanisms occurring simultaneously within the TEG. In this paper, we develop a model for heat transport in thermoelectric materials in which an "effective thermal conductivity" (kappa(eff)) encompasses both the one dimensional steady-state Fourier conduction and the heat generation/consumption due to secondary thermoelectric effects. This model is especially powerful in that the value of kappa(eff) does not depend upon the operating conditions of the TEG but rather on the transport properties of the TE materials themselves. We analyze a variety of thermoelectric materials and generator designs using this concept and demonstrate that kappa(eff) predicts the heat fluxes within these devices to 5% of the exact value. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  19. Thermoelectric Nanocarbon Ensembles | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2_gruen.pdf (1.55 MB) More Documents & Publications Diamond Based TE Materials DOE Vehicle Technologies Program 2009 Merit Review Report - Propulsion Materials Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Generator Using Thermal Spray

  20. Concentrated Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrated solar hydroelectric power project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by MIT, is working to demonstrate concentrating solar thermoelectric generators with >10% solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency while limiting optical concentration to less than a factor of 10 and potentially less than 4. When combined with thermal storage, CSTEGs have the potential to provide electricity day and night using no moving parts at both the utility and distributed scale.

  1. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles | Department of Energy This project discusses preliminary experimental results to find how thermoelectrics can be applied ot future hybrid vehicles and the optimum design of such equipment using heat pipes deer09_kim.pdf (628.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat

  2. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2002 Through September 30, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J.F.

    2004-05-18

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2003. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  3. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for April 1, 2002 Through September 20, 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.P.

    2002-12-03

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2002. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  4. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace067_goodson_2012_o.pdf (5.6 MB) More Documents & Publications Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces

  5. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace067_goodson_2011_o.pdf (1.89 MB) More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application

  6. Closed-Form Solution for the Effect of Fuel Decay and Thermoelectric Degradation on Output of SiGe RTGs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1991-08-01

    Presented at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA August 4-9, 1991. The paper derives a closed-form solution for the long-term effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the performance of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators employing silicon-germanium converter elements. RTGs of this type were used to power the recent Galileo and Ulysses space exploration missions, and are slated for use on the upcoming CRAF and Cassini missions. The method described applies not only to uniform-temperature RTGs, but also to RTGs with significant axial and circumferential variations in the couples' cold-junction temperatures and voltages (due to unsymmetrically obstructed heat rejection paths). This is important for the mutually blocking RTGs on the CRAF and Cassini spacecraft, and even more so for the reflector-blocked Solar Probe RTGs. The method for predicting RTG degradation that is dervied in this paper is based on both analytical and experimental data. It accounts for the effect of diminishing hot-junction temperatures on thermoelectric degradation rates. The method leads to an integral equation, for which the author was able to derive a closed-form solution. The solution was successfully validated by comparison with long-term test data. It enables the RTG designer to predict the power output profile throughout the mission, to ensure that it satisfies the mission's power demand profile. There are four copies in the file.

  7. Bulk dimensional nanocomposites for thermoelectric applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolas, George S

    2014-06-24

    Thermoelectric elements may be used for heat sensors, heat pumps, and thermoelectric generators. A quantum-dot or nano-scale grain size polycrystalline material the effects of size-quantization are present inside the nanocrystals. A thermoelectric element composed of densified Groups IV-VI material, such as calcogenide-based materials are doped with metal or chalcogenide to form interference barriers form along grains. The dopant used is either silver or sodium. These chalcogenide materials form nanoparticles of highly crystal grains, and may specifically be between 1- and 100 nm. The compound is densified by spark plasma sintering.

  8. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficient, scalable, and low cost vehicular thermoelectric generators development will include rapid synthesis of thermoelectric materials, different device geometries, heat sink designs, and durability and long-term performance tests

  9. Radioisotopes: Energy for Space Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Bob; Green, James; Bechtel, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Through a strong partnership between the Energy Department's office of Nuclear Energy and NASA, Radioisotope Power Systems have been providing the energy for deep space exploration.

  10. Radioisotopes: Energy for Space Exploration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Carpenter, Bob; Green, James; Bechtel, Ryan

    2013-05-29

    Through a strong partnership between the Energy Department's office of Nuclear Energy and NASA, Radioisotope Power Systems have been providing the energy for deep space exploration.

  11. NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Development for commercialization of automotive thermoelectric generators from high-ZT TE materials with using low-cost, widely available materials, system design and modeling to maximize temperature differential across TE modules and maximize power output

  12. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  13. Molecular and Hybrid Solution Processable Thermoelectrics | MIT-Harvard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Excitonics and Hybrid Solution Processable Thermoelectrics February 15, 2011 at 3pm/36-428 Rachel Segalman University of California, Berkeley segalman_001 abstract: Thermoelectric materials for energy generation have several advantages over conventional power cycles including lack of moving parts, silent operation, miniaturizability, and CO2 free conversion of heat to electricity. Excellent thermoelectric efficiency requires a combination of high thermopower (S, V/K), high

  14. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Presents successful incorporation of one of the most promising classes of the new materials, the skutterudites, into a working automotive TEG prototype and test results on its performance deer11_meisner.pdf (1.17 MB) More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Develop Thermoelectric

  15. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Recovery Applications | Department of Energy Progress in reliable high temperature segmented thermoelectric devices and potential for producing electricity from waste heat from energy intensive industrial processes and transportation vehicles exhaust are discussed fluerial.pdf (3.11 MB) More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials and

  16. Project Profile: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power Project Profile: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power MIT logo -- This project is inactive -- The Rohsenow-Kendall Heat Transfer Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT), under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is developing concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (CSTEGs) for CSP systems. This innovative distributed solution contains no moving parts and converts heat directly into electricity.

  17. POTENTIAL THERMOELECTRIC APPLICATIONS IN DIESEL VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crane, D

    2003-08-24

    Novel thermodynamic cycles developed by BSST provide improvements by factors of approximately 2 in cooling, heating and power generation efficiency of solid-state thermoelectric systems. The currently available BSST technology is being evaluated in automotive development programs for important new applications. Thermoelectric materials are likely to become available that further increase performance by a comparable factor. These major advancements should allow the use of thermoelectric systems in new applications that have the prospect of contributing to emissions reduction, fuel economy, and improved user comfort. Potential applications of thermoelectrics in diesel vehicles are identified and discussed. As a case in point, the history and status of the Climate Controlled Seat (CCS) system from Amerigon, the parent of BSST, is presented. CCS is the most successful and highest production volume thermoelectric system in vehicles today. As a second example, the results of recent analyses on electric power generation from vehicle waste heat are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to the practicality of waste power generation systems that incorporate BSST's thermodynamic cycle and advanced thermoelectric materials.

  18. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production Photonuclear ...

  19. Progress in Thermoelectrical Energy Recovery from a Light Truck Exhaust |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy in Thermoelectrical Energy Recovery from a Light Truck Exhaust Progress in Thermoelectrical Energy Recovery from a Light Truck Exhaust Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_thacher.pdf (780.57 KB) More Documents & Publications The Effects of an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator of a GM Sierra Pickup Truck Thermoelectrical Energy

  20. Thermoelectric materials having porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

    2014-08-05

    A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

  1. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Generation | Department of Energy New p-type and n-type multiple-rattler skutterudite thermoelectric materials design, synthesis, fabrication, and characterization for power generation using vehicle exhaust waste heat. subramanian.pdf (1.79

  2. Nanostructured Thermoelectrics. The New Paradigm

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Highlights advances and future strategies for enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit of bulk nanostructured thermoelectric and materials using low cost earth abundant elements

  3. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J.; Taher, Mahmoud A.

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  4. High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation | Department of Energy High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_krommenhoek.pdf (761.33 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for Military Vehicles Recent Progress in the Development of High

  5. Annual Technical Progress Report of the Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, James F

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. ORNL has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2009. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS.

  6. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2007 Through September 30,2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, James F

    2009-04-01

    The Office of Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides RPS for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2008. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS.

  7. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  8. Vehicular Thermoelectric Applications Session DEER 2009 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Applications Session DEER 2009 Vehicular Thermoelectric Applications Session DEER 2009 This presentation is an overview of the DOE thermoelectric program. ...

  9. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Materials Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Materials Research for Automotive ... The Bottom-Up Approach forThermoelectric Nanocomposites, plus NSFDOE Thermoelectric ...

  10. Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0_wereszczak.pdf (1.52 MB) More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability Thermoelectrics Theory and Structure